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Sample records for american paleontological convention

  1. Paleontology investigations aided by medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansu, M.J.; Carpenter, K.; Albano, J.; Meals, R.; Brady, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Medical radiology instruments provide useful tools for nondestructive investigations in other scientific fields. To date, 15 paleontology specimens have been studied using conventional diagnostic units, therapy simulators, and CT scanners. Most specimens, individual marine animals or large dinosaur heads, needed a combination of studies to complete the investigation. Among the results shown are the inner ear of a Plesiosaurus, which is 76 million years old, and a pearl attached to an extinct clam species, which is 1 million years old. The results confirm the usefulness of radiology as a tool in the field of paleontology

  2. Paleontological museums and geoethics

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Manni

    2012-01-01

    Paleontological museums should adopt a code of ethics in order to carry out restorations and to set-up exhibits without any falsification. Indeed, alterations can often be voluntary because an exhibit needs to be ‘beautiful’, ‘realistic’ or ‘charming’ for the public. Therefore, the reconstructed parts are painted and then ‘soiled’ artfully to look more realistic. An incomplete skeleton might be completed by reconstructing the missing bones, or by adding casts of other bones. Sometimes skeleto...

  3. Paleontological museums and geoethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Manni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Paleontological museums should adopt a code of ethics in order to carry out restorations and to set-up exhibits without any falsification. Indeed, alterations can often be voluntary because an exhibit needs to be ‘beautiful’, ‘realistic’ or ‘charming’ for the public. Therefore, the reconstructed parts are painted and then ‘soiled’ artfully to look more realistic. An incomplete skeleton might be completed by reconstructing the missing bones, or by adding casts of other bones. Sometimes skeletons are ‘created’, by assembling together bones from several specimens of the same species. Therefore, the museum staff should also inform visitors if a specimen has undergone such tampering, because otherwise each visitor is convinced that they have seen a ‘true’ fossil. So all museum staff should be trained not only in the techniques of museums, but also in the ethics of restoration and installation.

  4. Stasis Theory and Paleontology Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcut, Kathryn M.

    2007-01-01

    Stasis theory is a powerful tool for rhetorical analysis, recently under fresh consideration by rhetorical theorists (e.g. Gross) and scholars who identify its utility in the writing classroom (e.g. Carroll). In this study, the author applies stasis theory to a paleontological argument involving a controversial fossil, "Protoavis texensis."…

  5. Forensic paleontology: a tool for "intelligence" and investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Eva; Nicosia, Umberto

    2013-05-01

    Paleontology and facies analysis proved to be useful tools in activities of intelligence and investigation on some criminal cases, as well as in in-court activities, thus defining the "forensic paleontology" area of study. The definition was given by analyzing its possible specific applications and excluding some marginal activities. The reliability of forensic paleontology was then assessed in light of the results achieved in some actual cases and in an ad hoc simulation. The investigated cases concerned intelligence and ordinary law enforcement activities. Special attention was paid to crimes against the cultural heritage. Ex post re-examination of the cases substantiated the value of this scientific branch in investigations, while stressing the possible difficulties in explaining its results to lay persons. Therefore, careful preparation of technical and linguistic preliminary notes for judges, prosecutors, and lawyers as well as a special training for consultants are recommended before presenting results as exhibits in in-court cross-examinations. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Laser-stimulated fluorescence in paleontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Kaye

    Full Text Available Fluorescence using ultraviolet (UV light has seen increased use as a tool in paleontology over the last decade. Laser-stimulated fluorescence (LSF is a next generation technique that is emerging as a way to fluoresce paleontological specimens that remain dark under typical UV. A laser's ability to concentrate very high flux rates both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels results in specimens fluorescing in ways a standard UV bulb cannot induce. Presented here are five paleontological case histories that illustrate the technique across a broad range of specimens and scales. Novel uses such as back-lighting opaque specimens to reveal detail and detection of specimens completely obscured by matrix are highlighted in these examples. The recent cost reductions in medium-power short wavelength lasers and use of standard photographic filters has now made this technique widely accessible to researchers. This technology has the potential to automate multiple aspects of paleontology, including preparation and sorting of microfossils. This represents a highly cost-effective way to address paleontology's preparatory bottleneck.

  7. From Churches to Pavements: Urban Geology and Paleontology in Algarve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Urban environments were and are tremendous consumers of geologic resources, offering excellent places for Geosciences outreach activities. Since 2011, three distinct science outreach activities were planned, produced and performed in three Algarve cities - Faro (GeoStories of Faro's Downtown), Lagos (Geology at the Corner) and Tavira (From the Museum to the Convent). Urban structures - churches, monuments, buildings and urban equipments were the starting point of the geological and paleontological stories that constitute the core of these informal education visits which also combine Art History and Heritage aspects. The urban buildings were the narrative tool to these Geosciences stories being the characters the rocks and/or the fossils as well as the city itself. Beyond the natural science element, the analyzed objects have relevant esthetical, historical or symbolic dimensions, conferring this way two levels of interpretation to the stories: the geosciences level; the other, the Historical and Architectural Heritage. The nineteen visits had 350 participants - Tavira (6; 100), Faro (4; 70) e Lagos (9; 180). Promoting and contribute to the Geosciences (Geology and Paleontology) outreach was the main objective of these walks, as well as: - modify the way that the general population looks at urban buildings; - contribute to the informal education of a general public especially among the public which is interested in Architecture, History and Heritage; - integrate different areas of human knowledge - Geosciences and Architecture, History and Heritage. The visits were tested and implemented and presently constitute one of the science outreach activities of the Ciência Viva Centers in the Algarve. As a result of these visits three bilingual books (Portuguese and English) of the Geosciences walks were edited. The guides, with 120 pages each, focus on the geological and paleontological characteristics of the visited places as well as the art history framework of the

  8. Joseph Leidy between two paradigms of Paleontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Faria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the acceptance of the methods and research program developed by Georges Cuvier for the study of fossils, Paleontology had its first Kuhnian paradigm installed. Joseph Leidy began his works under this theoretical and methodological advice and practiced, within the scope of Paleontology, what Thomas Kuhn called normal science. However, with the accumulation of data from his taxonomic works, Leidy identified some issues that could not be answered in light of the cuvierian paradigm. Only the new paradigm, the evolutionism, could answer them, and thus Leidy joined the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin. This transition process of a naturalist trained under one guidance, and that starts working under a new, is analyzed in this paper, taking into account the peculiarities of application of the framework provided by Kuhn, in a discipline such as Paleontology. Unlike the epistemological rupture predicted by Kuhn, in the paradigm shift in Paleontology many paleontologists have continued to work guided by the old paradigm, but producing usable data by evolutionists. Leidy was one of them, but his transition went further. From 1859, gradually, he began to use relationships of ancestry and natural selection as explanations for the morphological similarities between species that have taken place along the history of life.

  9. 78 FR 30810 - Paleontological Resources Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the general mining laws, the mineral or geothermal leasing laws, laws providing for minerals materials... gas, and other economic minerals which are subject to the existing mining and mineral laws, are not... response to and restoration and repair of the resource and the paleontological site involved; and other...

  10. An assessment of innovation in web marketing: Investigating American convention and visitor bureaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Xiang, Zheng; Fesenmaier, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Innovation has become an increasingly important issue for tourism businesses. The goal of this study was to evaluate innovation in Web marketing by American convention and visitors bureaus and the contribution of website features to the overall success of their Web marketing programs. The results...... indicate that innovation in Web marketing has been limited in that the majority of the American CVBs focus on basic content provision and website promotional activities. The findings also indicate that there is a perceived gap between the investment in innovative website features and their contribution...

  11. Innovation in the web marketing programs of American convention and visitor bureaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike; Xiang, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that innovation is an important source for competitive advantage among tourism destinations. The goal of this study was to identify and assess the nature of innovation by American convention and visitors bureaus. In particular, this study examined the extent, timeliness......, and continuity of innovation in Web marketing efforts and the perceived contribution of this investment to the overall success of the bureau's Web marketing program. The findings indicate that American convention and visitor bureaus have invested substantially in their websites and continue redesigning them...... as new technology and Web marketing trends emerge. However, it appears that there is a substantial gap between bureau investments in innovative website features and related activities and their perceived contribution to overall Web marketing success....

  12. Extending the paleontology-biogeography reciprocity with SDMs: Exploring models and data in reducing fossil taxonomic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Anderson Aires; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Gouveia, Sidney Feitosa; Santos, Franciely da Silva; Aragão, Wilcilene Santos de; Morales-Barbero, Jennifer; Kerber, Leonardo; Liparini, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Historically, studies aimed at prospecting and analyzing paleontological and neontological data to investigate species distribution have developed separately. Research at the interface between paleontology and biogeography has shown a unidirectional bias, mostly focusing on how paleontological information can aid biogeography to understand species distribution through time. However, the modern suit of techniques of ecological biogeography, particularly species distribution models (SDM), can be instrumental for paleontologists as well, improving the biogeography-paleontology interchange. In this study, we explore how to use paleoclimatic data and SDMs to support paleontological investigation regarding reduction of taxonomic uncertainty. Employing current data from two neotropical species (Lagostomus maximus and Myocastor coipus), we implemented SDMs and performed model validation comparing hindcasts with dated fossil occurrences (~14k and ~20k years back present, respectively). Finally, we employed the hindcasting process for two South American fossil records of a misidentified species of caiman (Caiman sp.) to show that C. latirostris is the most likely species identity of these fossils (among four candidate species: C. latirostris, C. yacare, C. crocodilus, and Melanosuchus niger). Possible limitations of the approach are discussed. With this strategy, we have shown that current developments in biogeography research can favour paleontology, extending the (biased) current interchange between these two scientific disciplines.

  13. The Path to Deep Nuclear Reductions. Dealing with American Conventional Superiority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormley, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    essential for abolition to happen - might ever wish to proceed toward such a post-nuclear world that would be dominated militarily by American conventional military capabilities and what might be needed to allay legitimate concerns in this regard. At the very least, it will become increasingly important to separate fact from fiction in regard to the state of various conventional offensive and defensive counter-proliferation capabilities and begin the challenge of addressing what kind of concrete steps are needed to alleviate Russian or Chinese concerns. It is precisely that objective to which this paper is addressed. The paper is organized along the following lines. It first addresses the origins of U.S. interests and improvements in conventional strike capabilities, and then explores the emergence of counter-proliferation as a chief mission for conventional offensive and defensive forces. It next examines the extent to which new conventional capabilities can perform three key missions previously the exclusive domain of nuclear weapons. Armed with this background, the paper then examines Russian perceptions of U.S. advances in conventional war-fighting and evaluates the extent to which these perceptions are real or exaggerated. Finally, in light of Russia's concerns, the paper closes with a set of policy options designed to help allay these concerns on the path toward deep reductions in nuclear arsenals. (author)

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from recovery of various North American conventional crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Canter, Christina; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from crude recovery contribute significantly to the life cycle GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of transportation fuels. Recovery emissions come from drilling and land use change, crude extraction, crude oil processing, venting, flaring, and fugitives. In this study an attempt has been made to provide a transparent quantification of GHG emissions from oil well drilling and land use change, crude recovery and associated gas and water treatment, and venting and flaring for five North American conventional crudes through the development of data-intensive engineering models. Estimates of emissions from crude extraction were made from recovery efficiency, the amount of energy used, and process fuel shares in extraction techniques. Extraction emissions vary from 1.24 g-CO 2eq /MJ for Bow River heavy oil to 23 g-CO 2eq /MJ for California's Kern County heavy oil. The amount of gas vented and flared per m 3 of crude extracted was determined to quantify venting and flaring emissions. The amount of energy required for crude oil processing was quantified based on the properties of crude oil and different techniques applied in the oil fields. Of the five crudes we studied, California's Kern County heavy oil and Mars crude oil emit the highest and lowest emissions: 23.85 g-CO 2eq /MJ and 3.94 g-CO 2eq /MJ, respectively. - Highlights: • Quantification of emissions associated with recovery of five North American conventional crudes. • Development of spreadsheet-based models for estimation of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • GHG emissions from the extraction of California's Kern County heavy oil is the highest among the crude oils considered. • Use of different sensitivity parameters to check the impact on total emissions

  15. Conventionality Control: guidelines for its application in the case law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana María Ibáñez Rivas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The “conventionality control” established in 2006 in the case law of the Inter- American Court of Human Rights has undergone some important clarifications. In its rulings from the end of 2010 and the beginning of 2011, the Court has defined the state actors that are obligated to apply it, has established the need for it when dealing with majoritarian decisions in democratic contexts and has established the role of the Court in verifying the conventionality control that States claim to have exercised domestically. This article covers the origin, evolution and application of  the so-called “conventionality control” as a measure designed to assure compliance with the state obligations to respect, ensure and conform domestic legislation to international law, which are all found in the American Convention on Human Rights.

  16. Recasting the American Dream and American Politics: Barack Obama's Keynote Address to the 2004 Democratic National Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Robert C.; Jones, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This essay draws upon the work of Northrop Frye to show that stories enacting the American Dream contain elements associated with romance, and briefly traces how Ronald Reagan and conservatives utilized the romance of the American Dream to the point that many Americans associated it exclusively with conservatism. The essay then details how Barack…

  17. 108th Convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC, August 4-8, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Washington, DC--the nation's capital--celebrates a history rich in diversity and character. One of the most popular cities for sightseeing, Washington contains countless points of interest for its visitors. The world's largest museum complex, the Smithsonian Institution, invites you to explore exhibits that highlight the scientific, cultural, political, and technological developments of the United States and its people. Visit the home to original pieces of the American heritage, such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, that have helped to shape the way we live today. The art lovers among you will delight in the seven major art galleries. See the modern art and sculpture of the Hirshhorn Museum and the newly opened Sculpture Garden; the Sackler Gallery's collection of Asian art; and the only museum devoted to the art and culture of Africa, the National Museum of African Art. In Washington, there is music in the air, from the Kennedy Center's many stages and the clubs of Georgetown and Adams Morgan to the military bands that give concerts on the Mall. Whatever your culinary desire, be it authentic Texas chili or the finest Asian cuisine, you'll find it at one of the city's internationally famous eateries. What a perfect place for APA to convene its first annual convention of the new millennium!

  18. Double taxation conventions, structure and evolution of the american tax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a retrospective survey of the comprehensiveness of the tax system, in the broad sense, and the US tax system, in a stricter sense, in terms of structuring model and application of tax levies, as well as the taxation applied to each public financial income category. The topic chosen is based on the idea that the US tax system is different from the European system, while also considering that the USA is the world leader in business, trade and investment, and seen as a true “streamliner” of the world. The US economy is strongly influenced by sectors that prevail at the federal level: industry, education, trade, telecommunications, and transportation. The research methodology used in this article consists of a comprehensive analysis of key concepts regarding tax levying activities, providing an explanation of the tax policy, a critical analysis of the US system in terms of tax legislation, and a history of international double taxation conventions concluded by the US with other countries, given that the USA may be an archetype (best practice in terms of the double taxation agreements network, regarding both the number of countries with which they have been concluded, and the types of agreements on income and capital. In our opinion, the results of this study indicate the optimal technical framework used by the American system to identify and implement the most sustainable methods, techniques and procedures in order to reduce the scope of international double taxation on income and capital worldwide.

  19. Paleontological Studies Integrated into a New Evolutionary Zoology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Fukatsu, Takema

    2017-02-01

    Zoological Letters, an open access online journal launched in 2015 is entering its third year of publication, and now seeks to drive new insights in evolutionary and comparative zoology by the inclusion of paleontological studies into its scope.

  20. The origin of turtles: a paleontological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    The origin of turtles and their unusual body plan has fascinated scientists for the last two centuries. Over the course of the last decades, a broad sample of molecular analyses have favored a sister group relationship of turtles with archosaurs, but recent studies reveal that this signal may be the result of systematic biases affecting molecular approaches, in particular sampling, non-randomly distributed rate heterogeneity among taxa, and the use of concatenated data sets. Morphological studies, by contrast, disfavor archosaurian relationships for turtles, but the proposed alternative topologies are poorly supported as well. The recently revived paleontological hypothesis that the Middle Permian Eunotosaurus africanus is an intermediate stem turtle is now robustly supported by numerous characters that were previously thought to be unique to turtles and that are now shown to have originated over the course of tens of millions of years unrelated to the origin of the turtle shell. Although E. africanus does not solve the placement of turtles within Amniota, it successfully extends the stem lineage of turtles to the Permian and helps resolve some questions associated with the origin of turtles, in particular the non-composite origin of the shell, the slow origin of the shell, and the terrestrial setting for the origin of turtles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Paleontology at the "high table"? Popularization and disciplinary status in recent paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, David

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the way in which paleontologists used "popular books" to call for a broader "expanded synthesis" of evolutionary biology. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of influential paleontologists, including Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge, David Raup, Steven Stanley, and others, aggressively promoted a new theoretical, evolutionary approach to the fossil record as an important revision of the existing synthetic view of Darwinism. This work had a transformative effect within the discipline of paleontology. However, by the 1980s, paleontologists began making their case to a wider audience, both within evolutionary biology, and to the general public. Many of their books-for example, Eldredge's provocatively-titled Unfinished Synthesis-explicitly argued that the received synthetic view of Darwinian evolution was incomplete, and that paleontological contributions such as punctuated equilibria, the hierarchical model of macroevolution, and the study of mass extinction dynamics offered a substantial corrective to evolutionary theory. This paper argues that books-far from being "mere popularizations" of scientific ideas-played an important role in disciplinary debates surrounding evolutionary theory during the 1980s, and in particular that paleontologists like Gould and Eldredge self-consciously adopted the book format because of the importance of that genre in the history of evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapp...

  3. Tradition, convention, and modernity: the prefaces to the first Spanish-American novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignac Fock

    2017-12-01

    Through a narratological study, the author points out that the prefaces themselves reflect how El Periquillo manages to evade the pre-existing traditions – of the picaresque genre as well as that of the preface as a narrative convention, especially throughout the Spanish Golden Age – either by changing their narrative structures or by reusing and somehow manipulating the conventional topoi, well known from the classical prologues. This formal, but also aesthetic, development of the preface is an indubitable sign of modern narrative technique and, given Lizardi’s clear educational purpose, an additional means of establishing a firmer pact with the astute and sensitive reader in order to make him more susceptible to the system of values and ideas exposed in the novel.

  4. Effectiveness of the Geneva Convention Relative to American POW’s (Prisoner of War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    without ransom, thus ending the era of widespread enslavement of prisoners of war. In 1748 Montesquieu , the French philosopher, stated that "the only... Montesquieu and Rousseau were very influential on the treatment of prisoners of war. Montesquieu maintained that, "War gives no other right over prisoner than...Geneva Conventions. The World owes a great deal of gratitude to men like Montesquieu , Jean Jacques Rousseau, Professor Lieber, and Henry Dunant for

  5. Naturopathic Practice at North American Academic Institutions: Description of 300,483 Visits and Comparison to Conventional Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Chamberlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study collected patient visit data to explore similarities and differences between conventional and naturopathic primary care (PC. Administrative data from practice management software systems from the main teaching clinics of four of the eight accredited North American naturopathic academic institutions were abstracted into an integrated database containing five years (2006–2010 of visit, patient, laboratory, and prescribing data. Descriptive analyses of healthcare services were compared to the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS. Over the five-year period, 300,483 patient visits to naturopathic doctors occurred at clinics, excluding visits at clinics operated by the schools in community settings. Patients were 69% female; mean age was 39 (SE 0.09. Older adults (>65 comprised 9% of the population and children (<16 comprised 8%. Comparing academic naturopathic clinics to national conventional PC (NAMCS, we found more patients paid out of pocket at naturopathic clinics (50 vs. 4% and naturopathic clinics more frequently offered discounted care (26 vs. 0.3%. There was a 44% overlap in the most frequent 25 diagnoses for PC at conventional community clinics. Overall, these data suggest substantial similarities in care offered by academic naturopathic clinics, at which most Naturopathic Doctor (ND students are trained, and by conventional PC practices.

  6. Preliminary results of the first paleontologic investigations in Uruguayan Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, D.; Masquelin, E.; Verde, M.; Querequiz, R.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary results of the first Uruguayan paleontollogic and biostratigraphical investigations in Antartica are presented. The field work was performed in fildes Peninsula, King George Island, near Uruguayan station Base Cientifica Antarctica Artigas.Some fossiliferous outcrops were geologic and paleontologically analyzed, among them Fossil Hills, situated in the center part of the peninsula, in front of Ardley Island, between the chinese and chilean stations.This hill is composed of fossil bearing piroclastic and epiclastic rocks, assigned to the fossil Hill Fm. Vegetal remains(petrified wood and leaf impronts) were observed and collected in this unit and it is remarkable the presence of Nothofagus sp. and invertebrate trace fossils, Cochlichmus isp and Helminthopsis isp.The depositional environment deduced from the fossil association in lacustrine, under a warm and humid climate.In the same deposits, other investigators have collected aquatic and ratite bird trace fossils. Paleontologic evidence is not contradictory with the Eocene age previously proposed for the studied deposits. (author)

  7. Petrifying the nation: paleontology collections in Brazil, 1836-1844.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The formation and study of natural history and paleontology collections was part of the installation of political order under the Empire of Brazil, as well as the establishment of a scientific program. The symbiosis between science and the nation was actively promoted by Peter W. Lund, pioneer of paleontology studies in the country. The collections and writings produced by the naturalist lent support to the visualization of the past and the writing of history in Brazilian and European scientific and cultural institutions and museums. The disputes over the political order under the Regencies and the Majority were closely accompanied by the study and explanation of the forms of life and the planet found in the past.

  8. Clinical presentation and disease phases of chronic hepatitis B using conventional versus modified ALT criteria in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Nan; Pan, Calvin Q; Abbasi, Ali; Xia, Victor; Bansal, Raghav; Hu, Ke-Qin

    2014-04-01

    The modified normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value (i.e., males ALT criteria could be better associated with disease phases in a cohort of Asian Americans (AsAm) with CHB. This two-center retrospective study evaluated 198 non-treated AsAm with CHB and a mean follow-up of 21 months. Both conventional and modified ALT criteria were used to determine the differences and clinical value using modified ALT criteria in classifying CHB phases. Among HBeAg (+) patients (29.3 %), HBV pre-core (PC) and basal core promoter (BCP) mutations were detected in 24.4 % and 31.3 %, respectively. Using baseline conventional ALT criteria, 97/153 (63.4 %) patients could be categorized into CHB phases 1 to 4, whereas 56/153 (36.6 %) were indeterminate. Using the modified ALT criteria, 43 (28.1 %) patients had phase changes of which 31/43 (72.1 %) were moved from phase 1 and indeterminate to phases 2 and 4, more active CHB phases. In 13/31 of these patients with liver biopsy, 6 (19.4 %) reported stage 2-4 fibrosis and 10 (32.3 %) reported grade 1-2 inflammation. Using modified ALT criteria to evaluate 48/153 patients with full data at baseline and the end of 1-year follow-up, we observed that 19/48 (39.6 %) changed their CHB phases; 5/48 (10.4 %) moved from phases 1 and 3 to phases 2 and 4; 2/48 (4.2 %) remained in the active phases; 10/48 (20.8 %) became indeterminate. HBV PC and BCP mutations were detectable in 24.4 % and 31.3 % of HBeAg (+) AsAm patients, respectively. Compared with conventional ALT criteria, modified ALT criteria is more sensitive in identifying CHB patients in active phases.

  9. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  10. Art in Paleontology: The Example of Manfred Reichel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leria, M.; Ferràndez-Cañadell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific illustration is a fundamental tool to communicate information through a form of nonverbal language with its own grammar and syntax. Contrary to the idea of scientific illustration as a simple scientific analytic tool, without a personal identity, we present an example where rigor is intrinsically linked to a high sensibility, and a deep knowledge of drawing that brings as a result a beautiful piece of art. In 1918 Manfred Reichel left his studies in Fine Arts (École des Beaux-Arts in Geneva, Switzerland) and began his career as a scientist, obtaining a degree in biological sciences from University of Neuchâtel. Humble by nature, he assumed he would not become a great artist, as he would tell his students. His point of view in micropaleontology, focused in foraminifera, protozoa with a complex shell, had an impact on his students and other specialists. His background in art benefited him in the research of the more complex foraminiferal structures, which he clarified by means of rich illustrations, with a high degree of beauty, inspired by the French naturalists. His research on the study of the shell of some foraminiferal groups, such as alveolinids, orbitolinids and fusulinids, produced some superb illustrations, which display their complex structure in such a comprehensible way that they could not be improved by modern techniques and are still used today. Reichel started teaching micropaleontology in 1935 at the Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut of the University of Basel. As a professor of paleontology, he trained his students in drawing to enhance the level of description of their illustrations. When the interpretation turned out to be too difficult, he would encourage them to reconstruct the architecture of foraminifera, creating a 3D model, in order to visualize how the drawing should be. Due to his interest on ornithology and the mechanics of flight, he also created pictorial illustrations of birds, published in magazines and books. He used

  11. VERTEBRATES OF THE MARÍLIA FORMATION (LATE MAASTRICHTIAN FROM THE PEIRÓPOLIS PALEONTOLOGICAL SITE: TOWARD A BETTER UNDERSTANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Candeiro Carlos Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peirópolis paleontological site (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian in Minas Gerais State, Brazil yielded an important assemblage of fossil vertebrates. The typical occurrence of South American widespread taxa in Peirópolis is important for correlation between the Brazilian Bauru Basin and Argentinean Late Cretaceous basins. The fishes, turtles, anuran, crocodilians and dinosaurs known from Peirópolis (Marília Formation resemble the Patagonian latest Late Cretaceous vertebrate faunas but lacks ornithischian dinosaurs.

  12. A Diversified Approach to Funding a Paleontology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Routine field collection of fossils and other geologic specimens and maintenance of the resulting collections do not typically receive frequent infusions of large amounts of grant money, in spite of the relatively low costs of these activities and the baseline of data they provide. This type of work is often carried out by chronically-underfunded museums that that must use innovative methods of fundraising to carry out their missions. The Virginia Museum of Natural History (VMNH) is an independent state agency that is not affiliated with a university or any other institution. The VMNH paleontology department carries out frequent excavations of vertebrate fossils at three different localities in Virginia and Wyoming, maintains a collection of several hundred thousand specimens, and conducts original research and participates in professional meetings. Yet the annual operations (non-salary) appropriation for the paleontology department is only $500/year. Since 2007, state appropriations have accounted for only 3% of the department's non-salary funding, while grants (excluding salary-specific funding) have accounted for 27% and cash donations provided 1%. The remaining 69% has come from a diverse suite of alternate fundraising methods. Ecotourism and educational programming fees (37%) include fees paid by students and members of the public to participate in VMNH excavations, as well as fee-based field trips and programs involving fossils or casts. Merchandise sales (15%) are based on casts of specimens held in either the VMNH collections or at smaller museums that have contracted with VMNH to provide paleontology services. Contract work (13%) has included paleo-themed exhibit design, specimen evaluation, and repair of fossil specimens for smaller museums and visitor centers that lack a paleontology staff. A crowdfunding campaign designed to support a specific fossil excavation was responsible for 4% of the department's funds. This diverse range of funding sources has

  13. Well-to-wheel life cycle assessment of transportation fuels derived from different North American conventional crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Canter, Christina; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of data-intensive bottom-up life cycle assessment model. • Quantification of well-to-wheel GHG emissions for five North American crudes. • Allocation of emissions to transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). • California’s Kern County heavy oil is the most GHG intensive of the crudes. - Abstract: A life cycle assessment (LCA) is an extremely useful tool to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with all the stages of a crude oil’s life from well-to-wheel (WTW). All of the WTW life cycle stages of crude oil consume energy and produce significant amounts of GHG emissions. The present study attempts to quantify the WTW life cycle GHG emissions for transportation fuels derived from five North American conventional crudes through the development of an LCA model called FUNNEL-GHG-CCO (FUNdamental Engineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in Conventional Crude Oils). This model estimates GHG emissions from all the life cycle stages from recovery of crude to the combustion of transportation fuels in vehicle engines. The contribution of recovery emissions in the total WTW GHG emissions ranges from 3.12% for Mars crude to 24.25% for California’s Kern County heavy oil. The transportation of crude oil and refined fuel contributes only 0.44–1.73% of the total WTW life cycle GHG emissions, depending on the transportation methods and total distance transported. The GHG emissions for refining were calculated from the amount of energy use in the refining of crude oil to produce transportation fuels. All the upstream GHG emissions were allocated to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Refining GHG emissions vary from 13.66–18.70 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-gasoline, 9.71–15.33 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-diesel, and 6.38–9.92 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-jet fuel derived from Alaska North Slope and California’s Kern County heavy oil, respectively. The total WTW life cycle GHG emissions range from 97.55 g-CO 2 eq

  14. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  15. Problems of Journalism; Proceedings of the 1975 Annual Convention of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (Washington, D.C., April 16-18, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Newspaper Editors, Easton, PA.

    This document reports the 1975 proceedings of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE) convention held in Washington, D.C., April 16-18. The contents include a list of officers and directors, past presidents of the society, and a copy of the ASNE Code of Ethics. Also contained in the document are reports on such individual sessions as…

  16. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  17. Preliminar results of paleontological salvage at Belo Monte Powerplant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HZ. Tomassi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper some preliminary fossil specimens are presented. They represent a collection sampled by Belo Monte’s Programa de Salvamento do Patrimônio Paleontológico (PSPP, which includes unprecedented invertebrate fauna and fossil vertebrates from Pitinga, Jatapu, Manacapuru, Maecuru e Alter do Chão formations from Amazonas basin, Brazil. The Belo Monte paleontological salvage was able to recover 495 microfossil samples and 1744 macrofossil samples on 30 months of sampling activities, and it is still ongoing. The macrofossils identified are possible plant remains, ichnofossils, graptolites, brachiopods, molluscs, athropods, Agnatha, palynomorphs (miosphores, acritarchs, algae cysts, fungi spores and unidentified types and unidentified fossils. However, deep scientific research is not part of the scope of the program, and this collection must be further studied by researchers who visit Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, where the fossils will be housed. More material will be collected until the end of the program. The collection sampled allows a mosaic composition with the necessary elements to assign, in later papers, taxonomic features which may lead to accurate species identification and palaeoenvironmental interpretations.

  18. The "Continental Intercalaire" of southern Tunisia: Stratigraphy, paleontology, and paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Contessi, Michela; Franchi, Fulvio

    2012-09-01

    The "Continental Intercalaire" deposits of southern Tunisia preserve one of the most diverse Early Cretaceous vertebrate fauna from Africa, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs. Vertebrate remains representative of both marine and fluvial environments have been historically referred to a specific bonebed within the Chenini Member, which crops out extensively in the Tataouine region. A stratigraphic revision of the mainly siliciclastic deposits of the Douiret and the Aïn El Guettar formations in the area based on new sedimentological and paleontological data is presented. Data collected indicate the presence of multiple fossil-bearing strata encompassing the stratigraphic interval from the Berriasian to the Albian and document faunal variation through time as well as major environmental and climatic changes. Detailed sedimentological analysis combined with biostratigraphic correlation performed at a basin scale indicate lateral facies variability within each formation as a result of tectonically and climatically driven zonations within the Tataouine Basin in the Early Cretaceous. Furthermore, proposed stratigraphic correlations indicate that vertebrate remains previously referred to the fluvial Chenini Member (and in particular theropod and sauropod dinosaurs) are instead representative of a transgressive deposit which mark the base of the overlying Oum ed Diab Member.

  19. A machine reading system for assembling synthetic paleontological databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanan E Peters

    Full Text Available Many aspects of macroevolutionary theory and our understanding of biotic responses to global environmental change derive from literature-based compilations of paleontological data. Existing manually assembled databases are, however, incomplete and difficult to assess and enhance with new data types. Here, we develop and validate the quality of a machine reading system, PaleoDeepDive, that automatically locates and extracts data from heterogeneous text, tables, and figures in publications. PaleoDeepDive performs comparably to humans in several complex data extraction and inference tasks and generates congruent synthetic results that describe the geological history of taxonomic diversity and genus-level rates of origination and extinction. Unlike traditional databases, PaleoDeepDive produces a probabilistic database that systematically improves as information is added. We show that the system can readily accommodate sophisticated data types, such as morphological data in biological illustrations and associated textual descriptions. Our machine reading approach to scientific data integration and synthesis brings within reach many questions that are currently underdetermined and does so in ways that may stimulate entirely new modes of inquiry.

  20. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work.

  1. Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Community Cultural Wealth and the College Knowledge of African American Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2017-01-01

    African American youth are generally as likely as their peers from other racial and ethnic groups to aspire to earn a college degree; yet, in spite of their aspirations these students remain under-represented in college enrollment and graduation. Part of the disparity between these students' aspirations and the realization of their goals may lie…

  2. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  3. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Soichiro; Matsuda, Seiji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI) was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  4. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The Convention of Belém do Pará a report of its application in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court, 16 years after its entry into force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Bustamante Arango

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is presented as a result of an investigation that had the object to know the cases which the Inter-American Court of human Rights applied “The Inter-American Convention on the prevention, punishment and eradication of violence against women “Convention of Belém” in its contentious function, when in the cases found factual situations violence against women.

  6. Evaluation of a New Dental Implant Cervical Design in Comparison with a Conventional Design in an Experimental American Foxhound Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ángeles Pérez-Albacete Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0.31 ± 0.24 mm on the buccal side, 0.35 ± 0.14 mm on the lingual in the test group, and 0.71 ± 0.28 mm buccal loss, and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm lingual in the control group; with statistically significant differences on the buccal aspect (p = 0.0019. Mean tissue thickness in the test group was 1.98 ± 0.17 mm on the buccal aspect, and 2.43 ± 0.93 mm in the lingual; in the control group it was 2.48 ± 0.61 mm buccal thickness, and 2.88 ± 0.14 mm lingual, with significant differences on both aspects (p = 0.0043; p = 0.0029. The results suggest that greater thickness of peri-implant tissue can be expected when the triangular cervical implant design is used rather than the standard cervical design.

  7. Evaluation of a New Dental Implant Cervical Design in Comparison with a Conventional Design in an Experimental American Foxhound Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Maria Ángeles; Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Carlos; Maté Sánchez De Val, José Eduardo; Ramos Oltra, María Luisa; Fernández Domínguez, Manuel; Calvo Guirado, Jose Luis

    2018-03-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0.31 ± 0.24 mm on the buccal side, 0.35 ± 0.14 mm on the lingual in the test group, and 0.71 ± 0.28 mm buccal loss, and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm lingual in the control group; with statistically significant differences on the buccal aspect ( p = 0.0019). Mean tissue thickness in the test group was 1.98 ± 0.17 mm on the buccal aspect, and 2.43 ± 0.93 mm in the lingual; in the control group it was 2.48 ± 0.61 mm buccal thickness, and 2.88 ± 0.14 mm lingual, with significant differences on both aspects ( p = 0.0043; p = 0.0029). The results suggest that greater thickness of peri-implant tissue can be expected when the triangular cervical implant design is used rather than the standard cervical design.

  8. Pinnipedia belonging to collection of Department of Paleontology of the Science Faculty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.

    1998-01-01

    Pinnipedia belonging to collection of Department of Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias, are shown. They are an astragalus and partial humerus, found the former in the coast of Departamento of San Jose and the latter in Rocha Department. The astragalus is assigned to Arctocephalus (southern fur seal) and humerus to Phocidae. (author)

  9. Using Problem-Based Learning to Deliver a More Authentic Experience in Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Homer; Donaldson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This study is a research project focused on the implementation of problem-based learning in an honors, paleontology-oriented, Earth Science course. The course, the Age of Dinosaurs, is taught at the University of Texas at Dallas to undergraduates from a range of majors who seek core-curriculum science credit. All class work is centered on fossils…

  10. Oligocene terrestrial strata of northwestern Ethiopia : a preliminary report on paleoenvironments and paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie F. Jacobs; Neil Tabor; Mulugeta Feseha; Aaron Pan; John Kappelman; Tab Rasmussen; William Sanders; Michael Wiemann; Jeff Crabaugh; Juan Leandro Garcia Massini

    2005-01-01

    The Paleogene record of Afro-Arabia is represented by few fossil localities, most of which are coastal. Here we report sedimentological and paleontological data from continental Oligocene strata in northwestern Ethiopia. These have produced abundant plant fossils and unique assemblages of vertebrates, thus filling a gap in what is known of Paleogene interior Afro-...

  11. Analysis of the Approach of Paleontology in Geography Textbooks in Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    The textbook is currently one of the driving instruments of teaching and learning. In the analysis of the contents of paleontology in geography textbooks, these books are important because they reveal problems embedded in these works and allow a more informed choice of books for the approach. In this work we performed an analysis of the approach…

  12. Paleomagnetic, paleontologic and radiometric study of the Uquia Formation (Plio-Pleistocene) in Esquina Blanca (Jujuy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Ana M.; Orgeira, Maria J.; Vilas, Juan F.A.; Kelley, Shari; Jordan, Teresa

    1998-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Uquia Formation has been performed. The results of the paleontologic, paleomagnetic, radiometric and stratigraphic analyses suggest that the superior levels of the formation are equivalent to the 'Marplatense Superior', while the basic ones should be considered older. Radiometric ages have been determined by fission tracks in zircons

  13. Micro paleontology of Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations in San Jose department in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    Camacho, Raigon and Libertad formations of Miocene to Pleistocene age, are rich in microfossils as showed by recent studies of samples coming from cliffs at San Jose department, at Rio de la Plata shore and from Borehole N 1394/4 (DINAMIGE) which was made near to Kiyu resort. The microfossils are integrated by foraminiferids, diatoms, ostracods, silicophitoliths and uniaxial sponge spicles. By means of paleontologic analysis we can reach to a much clear definition of the geological evolution of the area

  14. Recent progress in paleontological methods for dating the Tree of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLaurin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dating the Tree of Life (abbreviated TOL below has become a major goal of biological research. Beyond the intrinsic interest of reconstructing the history of taxonomic diversification, time-calibrated trees (timetrees for short, as used throughout below are required in many types of comparative analyses, where branch lengths are used to assess the conservation importance of lineages, correlation between characters, or to assess phylogenetic niche conservatism, among other uses. Improvements in dating the TOL would thus benefit large segments of the biological community, ranging from conservation biology and ecology through functional biology and paleontology. Recently, progress has been made on several fronts: in compiling databases and supertrees incorporating paleontological data, in computing confidence intervals on the true stratigraphic range of taxa, and in using birth and death processes to assess the probability distribution of the time of origin of specified taxa. Combined paleontological and molecular dating has also progressed through the insertion of extinct taxa into data matrices, which allows incorporation of their phylogenetic uncertainty into the dating analysis.

  15. Phylogeny, paleontology, and primates: do incomplete fossils bias the tree of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, David J; Thompson, Richard S; Piotrowski, Aleks K; Asher, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    Paleontological systematics relies heavily on morphological data that have undergone decay and fossilization. Here, we apply a heuristic means to assess how a fossil's incompleteness detracts from inferring its phylogenetic relationships. We compiled a phylogenetic matrix for primates and simulated the extinction of living species by deleting an extant taxon's molecular data and keeping only those morphological characters present in actual fossils. The choice of characters present in a given living taxon (the subject) was defined by those present in a given fossil (the template). By measuring congruence between a well-corroborated phylogeny to those incorporating artificial fossils, and by comparing real vs. random character distributions and states, we tested the information content of paleontological datasets and determined if extinction of a living species leads to bias in phylogeny reconstruction. We found a positive correlation between fossil completeness and topological congruence. Real fossil templates sampled for 36 or more of the 360 available morphological characters (including dental) performed significantly better than similarly complete templates with random states. Templates dominated by only one partition performed worse than templates with randomly sampled characters across partitions. The template based on the Eocene primate Darwinius masillae performs better than most other templates with a similar number of sampled characters, likely due to preservation of data across multiple partitions. Our results support the interpretation that Darwinius is strepsirhine, not haplorhine, and suggest that paleontological datasets are reliable in primate phylogeny reconstruction. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Galactic Paleontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small

  17. A method for rapid 3D scanning and replication of large paleontological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman J; Murmann, Denise C; Cohrn, Kenneth; Raskar, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a fast and cost-effective technique to perform three dimensional (3D) scanning and replication of large paleontological specimens, in this case the entire skull of a Tyrannosaurus rex (T.rex) with a volume in the range of 2 m3. The technique involves time-of-flight (TOF) depth sensing using the Kinect scanning module commonly used in gesture recognition in gaming. Raw data from the Kinect sensor was captured using open source software and the reconstruction was done rapidly making this a viable method that can be adopted by museums and researchers in paleontology. The current method has the advantage of being low-cost as compared to industrial scanners and photogrammetric methods but also of accurately scanning a substantial volume range which is well suited for large specimens. The depth resolution from the Kinect sensor was measured to be around 0.6 mm which is ideal for scanning large specimens with reasonable structural detail. We demonstrate the efficacy of this method on the skull of FMNH PR 2081, also known as SUE, a near complete T.rex at the Field Museum of Natural History.

  18. A method for rapid 3D scanning and replication of large paleontological specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman J Das

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a fast and cost-effective technique to perform three dimensional (3D scanning and replication of large paleontological specimens, in this case the entire skull of a Tyrannosaurus rex (T.rex with a volume in the range of 2 m3. The technique involves time-of-flight (TOF depth sensing using the Kinect scanning module commonly used in gesture recognition in gaming. Raw data from the Kinect sensor was captured using open source software and the reconstruction was done rapidly making this a viable method that can be adopted by museums and researchers in paleontology. The current method has the advantage of being low-cost as compared to industrial scanners and photogrammetric methods but also of accurately scanning a substantial volume range which is well suited for large specimens. The depth resolution from the Kinect sensor was measured to be around 0.6 mm which is ideal for scanning large specimens with reasonable structural detail. We demonstrate the efficacy of this method on the skull of FMNH PR 2081, also known as SUE, a near complete T.rex at the Field Museum of Natural History.

  19. Supplement analysis for paleontological excavation at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On December 15, 1997, contractor workers supporting the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction uncovered bones suspected to be of paleontological importance. The NIF workers were excavating a utility trench near the southwest corner of the NIF footprint area, located at the northeast corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore Site, and were excavating at a depth of approximately 30 feet. Upon the discovery of bone fragments, the excavation in the immediate vicinity was halted and the LLNL archaeologist was notified. The archaeologist determined that there was no indication of cultural resources. Mark Goodwin, Senior Curator for the University of California Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley, was then contacted. Mr. Goodwin visited the site on December 16th and confirmed that the bones consisted of a section of the skull, a portion of the mandible, several teeth, upper palate, and possibly the vertebrae of a mammoth, genus Mammuthus columbi. This supplement analysis evaluates the potential for adverse impacts of excavating skeletal remains, an activity that was only generally assessed by the NIF Project-Specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic Environmental impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and its Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. This supplement analysis has been prepared pursuant to the DOE regulations implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (10 CFR 1021.314)

  20. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century.

  1. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  2. Testing the molecular clock: molecular and paleontological estimates of divergence times in the Echinoidea (Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew B; Pisani, Davide; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline A; Stockley, Bruce; Webster, Bonnie L; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2006-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 46 echinoids, with representatives from 13 of the 14 ordinal-level clades and about 70% of extant families commonly recognized, have been established from 3 genes (3,226 alignable bases) and 119 morphological characters. Morphological and molecular estimates are similar enough to be considered suboptimal estimates of one another, and the combined data provide a tree that, when calibrated against the fossil record, provides paleontological estimates of divergence times and completeness of their fossil record. The order of branching on the cladogram largely agrees with the stratigraphic order of first occurrences and implies that their fossil record is more than 85% complete at family level and at a resolution of 5-Myr time intervals. Molecular estimates of divergence times derived from applying both molecular clock and relaxed molecular clock models are concordant with estimates based on the fossil record in up to 70% of cases, with most concordant results obtained using Sanderson's semiparametric penalized likelihood method and a logarithmic-penalty function. There are 3 regions of the tree where molecular and fossil estimates of divergence time consistently disagree. Comparison with results obtained when molecular divergence dates are estimated from the combined (morphology + gene) tree suggests that errors in phylogenetic reconstruction explain only one of these. In another region the error most likely lies with the paleontological estimates because taxa in this region are demonstrated to have a very poor fossil record. In the third case, morphological and paleontological evidence is much stronger, and the topology for this part of the molecular tree differs from that derived from the combined data. Here the cause of the mismatch is unclear but could be methodological, arising from marked inequality of molecular rates. Overall, the level of agreement reached between these different data and methodological approaches leads us to

  3. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop…

  4. Stratigraphy and paleontology of fossil hill Peninsula Fildes, Rey Jorge island, Antarctica: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, D.; Masquelin, H.; Verde, M.; Guerequiz, R.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the first Uruguayan paleontologic and biostratigraphical investigations in Antarctica are presented.The field work was performed in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, near the Uruguayan station Base Cientifica Antartida Artigas. Some fossiliferous outcrops were geologic and pale ontologically analyzed, among them the Fossil Hill, placed in the middle part of the peninsula, in front of Ardley Island between the Chinese and Chilean stations. This hill is composed of fossil bearing piroclastic and epiclastic rocks, assigned to the Fossil Hill Fm.Vegetal remains (petrified wood and leaf impronts)were observed and collected in this unit and it is remarkable the presence of Nothofagus sp. and invertebrate trace fossils Cochlichnus isp and Helminthopsis isp.

  5. MIA-Clustering: a novel method for segmentation of paleontological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, Christopher J; Wollny, Gert; Skinner, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    Paleontological research increasingly uses high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) to study the inner architecture of modern and fossil bone material to answer important questions regarding vertebrate evolution. This non-destructive method allows for the measurement of otherwise inaccessible morphology. Digital measurement is predicated on the accurate segmentation of modern or fossilized bone from other structures imaged in μCT scans, as errors in segmentation can result in inaccurate calculations of structural parameters. Several approaches to image segmentation have been proposed with varying degrees of automation, ranging from completely manual segmentation, to the selection of input parameters required for computational algorithms. Many of these segmentation algorithms provide speed and reproducibility at the cost of flexibility that manual segmentation provides. In particular, the segmentation of modern and fossil bone in the presence of materials such as desiccated soft tissue, soil matrix or precipitated crystalline material can be difficult. Here we present a free open-source segmentation algorithm application capable of segmenting modern and fossil bone, which also reduces subjective user decisions to a minimum. We compare the effectiveness of this algorithm with another leading method by using both to measure the parameters of a known dimension reference object, as well as to segment an example problematic fossil scan. The results demonstrate that the medical image analysis-clustering method produces accurate segmentations and offers more flexibility than those of equivalent precision. Its free availability, flexibility to deal with non-bone inclusions and limited need for user input give it broad applicability in anthropological, anatomical, and paleontological contexts.

  6. MIA-Clustering: a novel method for segmentation of paleontological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Dunmore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleontological research increasingly uses high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT to study the inner architecture of modern and fossil bone material to answer important questions regarding vertebrate evolution. This non-destructive method allows for the measurement of otherwise inaccessible morphology. Digital measurement is predicated on the accurate segmentation of modern or fossilized bone from other structures imaged in μCT scans, as errors in segmentation can result in inaccurate calculations of structural parameters. Several approaches to image segmentation have been proposed with varying degrees of automation, ranging from completely manual segmentation, to the selection of input parameters required for computational algorithms. Many of these segmentation algorithms provide speed and reproducibility at the cost of flexibility that manual segmentation provides. In particular, the segmentation of modern and fossil bone in the presence of materials such as desiccated soft tissue, soil matrix or precipitated crystalline material can be difficult. Here we present a free open-source segmentation algorithm application capable of segmenting modern and fossil bone, which also reduces subjective user decisions to a minimum. We compare the effectiveness of this algorithm with another leading method by using both to measure the parameters of a known dimension reference object, as well as to segment an example problematic fossil scan. The results demonstrate that the medical image analysis-clustering method produces accurate segmentations and offers more flexibility than those of equivalent precision. Its free availability, flexibility to deal with non-bone inclusions and limited need for user input give it broad applicability in anthropological, anatomical, and paleontological contexts.

  7. Real-time and conventional PCR detection of Liberty Link rice varieties and transgenic soy in rice sampled in the Mexican and American retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirasco, Maricarmen; Schoel, Bernd; Chhalliyil, Pradheep; Fagan, John; Gálvez, Amanda

    2008-10-01

    Samples of rice from Mexican and USA retail stores were analyzed for the presence of transgenic (GM) events using real-time PCR. In screening for the CaMV35S promoter sequence (35SP), positive results were found in 49 and 35% of the Mexican and American samples, respectively. In further investigations in Mexican samples, 43% were positive for P35S::bar, with two above the quantifiable limit; these were 0.07% and 0.05% GMO. Fourteen out of the sixteen positive samples were labeled as imported from the USA. In testing samples bought in American retail shops, 24% showed positive results, all below the quantifiable range. It could be deduced that P35S::bar positive samples were Liberty Link(R) (LL) rice. In distinguishing between LL601 and LL62, end-point PCR was used, corroborating the P35S::bar amplicon length difference of these events. LL62 was found in one rice sample purchased in Mexico and two in the USA samples. Its presence was verified with the 35S terminator sequence. All other LL positive samples contained LL601. None of the samples analyzed showed the presence of Bt63 rice. The LL rice varieties found have been identified as not being commercially cultivated, and so their presence requires further investigation. 35SP was also present in samples which did not have any LL rice. Maize sequences could not be detected in any of the samples; however, soybean DNA was found in Mexican and USA rice samples. The Roundup Ready(R) trait was detected in trace amounts in 16 and 6% of the rice samples bought in Mexico and the USA, respectively. Real-time PCR was shown to be the method of choice for the sensitive and rapid screening of commodities and retail samples for the detection of GM and other contamination.

  8. The impact of conventional dietary intake data coding methods on foods typically consumed by low-income African-American and White urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marc A; Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2015-08-01

    Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized. Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods. Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177). Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls. Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet-health relationships.

  9. Earth-Base: testing the temporal congruency of paleontological collections and geologic maps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, N. A.; Kishor, P.; McClennen, M.; Peters, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Free and open source software and data facilitate novel research by allowing geoscientists to quickly and easily bring together disparate data that have been independently collected for many different purposes. The Earth-Base project brings together several datasets using a common space-time framework that is managed and analyzed using open source software. Earth-Base currently draws on stratigraphic, paleontologic, tectonic, geodynamic, seismic, botanical, hydrologic and cartographic data. Furthermore, Earth-Base is powered by RESTful data services operating on top of PostgreSQL and MySQL databases and the R programming environment, making much of the functionality accessible to third-parties even though the detailed data schemas are unknown to them. We demonstrate the scientific potential of Earth-Base and other FOSS by comparing the stated age of fossil collections to the age of the bedrock upon which they are geolocated. This analysis makes use of web services for the Paleobiology Database (PaleoDB), Macrostrat, the 2005 Geologic Map of North America (Garrity et al. 2009) and geologic maps of the conterminous United States. This analysis is a way to quickly assess the accuracy of temporal and spatial congruence of the paleontologic and geologic map datasets. We find that 56.1% of the 52,593 PaleoDB collections have temporally consistent ages with the bedrock upon which they are located based on the Geologic Map of North America. Surprisingly, fossil collections within the conterminous United States are more consistently located on bedrock with congruent geological ages, even though the USA maps are spatially and temporally more precise. Approximately 57% of the 37,344 PaleoDB collections in the USA are located on similarly aged geologic map units. Increased accuracy is attributed to the lumping of Pliocene and Quaternary geologic map units along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in the Geologic Map of North America. The abundant Pliocene fossil collections

  10. Paleontology and stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay-Cape Kekurnoi-Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5 quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the paleontological character and stratigraphy of the Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay–Cape Kekurnoi–Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5...

  11. Chemical Mapping of Paleontological and Archeological Artifacts with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Manning, Phillip L.; Wogelius, Roy A.

    2012-07-01

    The application of the recently developed synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) technique to the mapping of large objects is the focus of this review. We discuss the advantages of SRS-XRF over traditional systems and the use of other synchrotron radiation (SR) techniques to provide corroborating spectroscopic and diffraction analyses during the same analytical session. After reviewing routine techniques used to analyze precious specimens, we present several case studies that show how SR-based methods have been successfully applied in archeology and paleontology. For example, SRS-XRF imaging of a seventh-century Qur'ān palimpsest and an overpainted original opera score from Luigi Cherubini is described. We also review the recent discovery of soft-tissue residue in fossils of Archaeopteryx and an ancient reptile, as well as work that has successfully resolved the remnants of pigment in Confuciusornis sanctus, a 120-million-year-old fossil of the oldest documented bird with a fully derived avian beak.

  12. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Yravedra, José; Baquedano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution.

  13. Precambrian paleontology and acrochrons of the biosphere evolution: On the theory of the expanding biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, B. S.

    2012-04-01

    What is pre-life? We have no idea, since it is hidden in chemical molecules that conceal its future genetic potential. From the biological standpoint, a prokaryotic cyanobacteria cell represents a culmination of biochemical evolution. Its appearance on the Earth marked the starting point of the formation of the first biogeocoenosis on the planet, i.e., the onset of its biosphere. After having started, approximately 4.0-3.7 Ga ago, biosphere evolution has continued uninterrupted on the Earth. Its whole course is reflected in the geochronological record of the stratisphere, the stratified shell of the Earth. In the stratigraphic sense, this record comprises the Archean, Proterozoic (i.e., Karelian and Riphean), and Phanerozoic (i.e., Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic). They correspond to acrochrons, i.e., the main stages in biosphere evolution. According to the Precambrian paleontology, the first three acrochrons represent a pre-Vendian stage in the evolution of unicellular prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that terminated in the Riphean with the appearance of their colonial communities. The true metacellular structure of tissue Metaphyta and Metazoa started forming only in the Late Neoproterozoic (Late Riphean). The Vendian Period was marked by a radiation of macrotaxonomic diversity with the appearance of the main multicellular types of the Phanerozoic organization level. Therefore, the last acrochron (lasting from approximately 650 Ma ago) should be considered as corresponding to the Vendian-Phanerozoic period. The Cambrian explosion corresponds to the mass expansion of skeletal Metazoa.

  14. Plant evolution at the interface of paleontology and developmental biology: An organism-centered paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Gar W; Wyatt, Sarah E; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2014-06-01

    Paleontology yields essential evidence for inferring not only the pattern of evolution, but also the genetic basis of evolution within an ontogenetic framework. Plant fossils provide evidence for the pattern of plant evolution in the form of transformational series of structure through time. Developmentally diagnostic structural features that serve as "fingerprints" of regulatory genetic pathways also are preserved by plant fossils, and here we provide examples of how those fingerprints can be used to infer the mechanisms by which plant form and development have evolved. When coupled with an understanding of variations and systematic distributions of specific regulatory genetic pathways, this approach provides an avenue for testing evolutionary hypotheses at the organismal level that is analogous to employing bioinformatics to explore genetics at the genomic level. The positions where specific genes, gene families, and developmental regulatory mechanisms first appear in phylogenies are correlated with the positions where fossils with the corresponding structures occur on the tree, thereby yielding testable hypotheses that extend our understanding of the role of developmental changes in the evolution of the body plans of vascular plant sporophytes. As a result, we now have new and powerful methodologies for characterizing major evolutionary changes in morphology, anatomy, and physiology that have resulted from combinations of genetic regulatory changes and that have produced the synapomorphies by which we recognize major clades of plants. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Bibliography of the paleontology and paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1980-06-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence is one of the most prominent and well-known stratigraphic horizons in the Paleozoic of the United States, yet the paleontology and its paleoecologic and paleoenvironmental implications are poorly known. This is in larger part related to the scarcity of fossils preserved in the shale - in terms of both diversity and abundance. Nonetheless, that biota which is preserved is well-known and much described, but there is little synthesis of this data. The first step in such a synthesis is the compilation of an inclusive bibliography such as this one. This bibliography contains 1193 entries covering all the major works dealing with Devonian-Mississippian black-shale paleontology and paleoecology in North America. Articles dealing with areas of peripheral interest, such as paleogeography, paleoclimatology, ocean circulation and chemistry, and modern analogues, are also cited. In the index, the various genera, taxonomic groups, and other general topics are cross-referenced to the cited articles. It is hoped that this compilation will aid in the synthesis of paleontologic and paleoecologic data toward a better understanding of these unique rocks and their role as a source of energy.

  16. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

  17. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  18. El Laboratorio de Preparación de Material del Departamento Paleontología de Invertebrados

    OpenAIRE

    Melemenis, Víctor

    1997-01-01

    El Departamento Paleontología Invertebrados cuenta con un laboratorio de preparación, en el cual se desarrollan diferentes tipos de tareas con el fin de preparar, mantener y obtener réplicas de invertebrados fósiles. Los procedimientos, técnicas e instrumental utilizados son de diversa índole y puede resultar de utilidad dar a conocer los más importantes, no solamente a título informativo sino para que también pueda ser tenido en cuenta por eventuales usuarios del mismo. Fundación Museo La...

  19. Remarks [to the] American Vocational Association Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltz, Larry

    The current trend toward expanded use of automation and computers in manufacturing has increased the need for a working partnership between industry and vocational education. One such partnership involves the members of the personnel development staff at Nissan Motors in Smyrna, Tennessee and local secondary and postsecondary vocational education…

  20. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  1. Uplift history of the Villány Hills (SW Hungary) based on paleontological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebe, Krisztina; Pazonyi, Piroska; Gasparik, Mihály; Lajos Szujó, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Villány Hills are the southernmost basement outcrop in Hungary, along the northern margin of the Drava Basin. They comprise part of a Cretaceous nappe in the Tisza structural unit. Data on their young tectonic evolution are scarce, mostly due to the almost complete lack of Cenozoic sediments. Though somewhat debated, indirect data suggest that most of the area was covered by Upper Miocene (Lake Pannon) clastic sediments. Uplift and exhumation of the basement was driven by Late Miocene to post-Miocene basin inversion. A unique opportunity to study the uplift history is offered by paleontological data, by small but numerous terrestrial vertebrate sites, which cover a long time span in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Faunas accumulated in fissure fillings of karstified limestone and thus provide a minimum age for the subaerial exposure (exhumation) of the bedrock at the given site. For some sites it has been proposed that water-linked species in the fauna refer to the existence of an alluvial plain on the clastic cover, in immediate proximity to the bedrock. If true, this would give an exact elevation of the surrounding terrain at the time indicated by the fauna. If exhumation of the basement happened during the time interval covered by the vertebrate faunas, then a relationship is expected to exist between the age and elevation of the the fossil sites, with the youngest faunas lying at lowest elevation. This relationship is expected to be strictly valid primarily in the case of water-linket faunas, but as a trend also for all fossil sites. We collected the age data and ecological requirements of the reliably datable vertebrate faunas and their locations with the possible precision. Then the relationship between the elevation and age was studied and compared to the available geomorphological, sedimentological and tectonic data. The age-elevation distribution of vertebrate faunas did not show the expected relationship. Based on the results, exhumation of the Vill

  2. Paleontology--Dinosaurs and Other Fossils: Digging into the Past. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joey

    This book consists of two complete units on paleontology, dinosaurs, and fossils. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary…

  3. Sedimentologic and paleontologic study of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina: A late Pleistocene Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramayo, S. A.; Téllez, B. Gutiérrez; Schillizzi, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is made mainly on the basis of paleontological and paleoichnological studies, supported by sedimentological analyses and radiocarbon dating. Continental late Pleistocene and continental, transitional, and marine Holocene stratigraphic units are identified. The former comprises fossil mammals and ichnites of 16000-12,000 BP. The continental early Holocene time, ca. 8100 BP, is represented by an interdune paleoenvironment in which shallow brackish ponds were colonized by diatoms, fish, rodents, and birds. A transitional paleoenvironment in the middle Holocene—6930-6570 BP—is recorded by deposits formed by estuarine crabs. During the late Holocene, between 5000 and 4800 BP, a marine transgression was recorded by a rich mollusc fauna.

  4. [50 years of the Revista de Biologia Tropical: its contribution to the development of the Geo-Paleontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Teresita

    2002-06-01

    The geosciences contribution along the 50 years of the Revista de Biología Tropical had been scarcity and episodic. Until now there are 2374 papers but only 21 (0.88%) have some relation with geological sciences. It's possible to recognize two periods with geological contributions, one between 1963 and 1978. It's appropriate to underline the importance of the biologist L. D. Gómez with his contributions about Costa Rican Paleobotanic in this period. The other period includes from 1988 to the present, and it's typified by an increase of biologist and geologist participation in different topics regarding with geosciences. Foreign and national researches are in the same ratio and belong from several countries like Costa Rica, México and Dominican Republic. The subjects are concerning mainly about fossil taxonomy (Paleontology: 81%), only 19% are related with geological topics. Such distribution could be explained because the affinity between the fossil studies and the biological sciences.

  5. Museo de Paleontología (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba): 140 años de historia

    OpenAIRE

    Tauber, Adán; Mazzoni, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    La historia del Museo de Paleontología dependiente de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, es un tema aún pendiente que merece ser investigado y publicado con criterios actuales sobre museología, museografía, epistemología, contexto político, social y pedagógico, etc. Esto es así sobre todo si se tiene en cuenta el valor histórico y científico de las colecciones que esta institución alberga, algunas de las cuales datan del período 1870...

  6. Research on the bio-stratigraphy. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cretaceous sedimentary strata in the Youngdong basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Ja; Kim, Yoo Bong; Kim, Bok Chul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The Youngdong Basin developed at the eastern margin of the Okcheon Orogenic Belt is in contact with the Yongnam Massif by the Youngdong Fault. This study deals with tectonic setting, sedimentological, pale-ontological study of the Youngdong Basin. Concerned with the formation of the basin, left lateral movement of the Ogdong and Youngdong faults gave a major role for the development of the Youngdong Basin. The Youngdong Basin is tectonically subdivided into three parts (north, center, and south) on the basis of bedding form line and fracture patterns. Sedimentological study is concentrated in the southern part of the basin in order to establish stratigraphy in this area. The Mangyeri Formation is characterized by the deposit of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow deposits developed at the steep gradient fan-delta slope and on alluvial fan along the southern basin margin. On the other hand, the formation in northern part of the basin is deposited in alluvial fan and braided rivers. The Gadongri Formation is mostly deposited by the process of turbidity current and density under current in lacustrine environment, and the Dongjongri Formation comprises alluvial fan and braided river sediments which mostly deposited by debris flow, hyper-concentrated flood flow, sheet flood and stream flow. For paleontology, ostracodes and charophytes are yielded from the Gadongri, Dongjongri and Sonyoudong formations. On the basis of fossils, the Dongjongri formation is correlated with the Iljig Formation of the Euisung basin, the Sonyoudong formation is correlated with the Songnaedong and Geonchunri formations of the Milyang basin. Consequently, the Mangyeri and Gadongri formations are correlated with the Sindong Group, the Dongjongri and Sonyoudong formations are correlated with the Hayang Group. (author). 47 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. The "bear" essentials: actualistic research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, Maite; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2014-01-01

    Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass's trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all) from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus]) and non-durophagus (modelled here by brown bears and

  8. Punctuated Sediment Discharge during Early Pliocene Birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from Regional Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; McDougall, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.

    2018-01-01

    discharge are assessed by comparing the depositional chronology to the record of global sea-level change. The lower Colorado River Valley and Salton Trough experienced marine transgression during a gradual fall in global sea level between 6.3 and 5.5 Ma, implicating tectonic subsidence as the main driver of latest Miocene relative sea-level rise. A major fall of global sea level at 5.3 Ma outpaced subsidence and drove regional delta progradation, earliest flushing of Colorado River sand into the northern Gulf of California, and erosion of Bouse basal carbonate and siliciclastic members. The lower Colorado River valley was re-flooded by shallow marine waters during smaller changes in global sea level 5.1-4.8 Ma, after the river first ran through it, which requires a mechanism to stop delivery of sand to the lower river valley. We propose that tectonically controlled subsidence along the lower Colorado River, upstream of the southern Bouse study area, temporarily trapped sediment and stopped delivery of sand to the lower river valley and northern Gulf of California for 200-300 kyr. Massive progradation of the fluvial-deltaic system back down the river valley into the Salton Trough starting 4.8-4.5 Ma apparently was driven by a huge increase in sediment discharge that overwhelmed the sediment-storage capacity of sub-basins along the lower river corridor and established the fully integrated river channel network. Accompanies Dorsey et al. "Punctuated sediment discharge during early Pliocene birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology". Accompanies Dorsey et al. "Punctuated sediment discharge during early Pliocene birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology". Accompanies Dorsey et al. "Punctuated sediment discharge during early Pliocene birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology".

  9. La contribución del Nuevo Mundo al nacimiento de las ciencias paleontológicas (The contribution of the New World to the birth of the paleontological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel León Garrido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo presenta una aproximación a la contribución del Nuevo Mundo al nacimiento y consolidación de las ciencias paleontológicas, haciendo especial énfasis en la relación científica entre España y las colonias americanas. Los hallazgos de fósiles americanos influyeron poderosamente en los cambios de paradigma que tuvieron lugar en las ciencias naturales entre la Edad Moderna y los inicios de la Edad Contemporánea. Los estudiosos americanos no se limitaron al descubrimiento y envío de muestras a las instituciones europeas para su estudio, sino que formularon sus propias teorías interpretativas y llevaron a cabo aportaciones novedosas y pioneras en el campo de la geología americana. El diálogo científico entre la España y sus colonias se vio interrumpido tras las Guerras de Emancipación.Abstract: This paper presents an approach to the contribution of the New World to the birth and consolidation of paleontological sciences, with special emphasis on the scientific relationship between Spain and its American colonies. American fossil findings powerfully influenced the paradigm changes that took place in the natural sciences among the Modern Age and the beginnings of the Contemporary Age. American Scientifics were not only dedicated to the discovery and sending of samples to the European institutions for their study, but also made their own interpretative theories and carried out innovative and pioneering contributions in the knowledge about the Geology of America.The scientific dialogue between Spain and its colonies was interrupted after the Wars of Emancipation.

  10. Vertebrate paleontological exploration of the Upper Cretaceous succession in the Dakhla and Kharga Oases, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Hesham M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Kora, Mahmoud; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Faris, Mahmoud; Ouda, Khaled; El-Dawoudi, Iman; Saber, Sara; El-Sayed, Sanaa

    2016-05-01

    The Campanian and Maastrichtian stages are very poorly documented time intervals in Africa's record of terrestrial vertebrate evolution. Upper Cretaceous deposits exposed in southern Egypt, near the Dakhla and Kharga Oases in the Western Desert, preserve abundant vertebrate fossils in nearshore marine environments, but have not yet been the focus of intensive collection and description. Our recent paleontological work in these areas has resulted in the discovery of numerous new vertebrate fossil-bearing localities within the middle Campanian Qusier Formation and the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation. Fossil remains recovered from the Campanian-aged Quseir Formation include sharks, rays, actinopterygian and sarcopterygian fishes, turtles, and rare terrestrial archosaurians, including some of the only dinosaurs known from this interval on continental Africa. The upper Campanian/lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation preserves sharks, sawfish, actinopterygians, and marine reptiles (mosasaurs and plesiosaurs). Notably absent from these collections are representatives of Mammalia and Avialae, both of which remain effectively undocumented in the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Africa and Arabia. New age constraints on the examined rock units is provided by 23 nannofossil taxa, some of which are reported from the Duwi Formation for the first time. Fossil discoveries from rock units of this age are essential for characterizing the degree of endemism that may have developed as the continent became increasingly tectonically isolated from the rest of Gondwana, not to mention for fully evaluating origin and diversification hypotheses of major modern groups of vertebrates (e.g., crown birds, placental mammals).

  11. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  12. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  13. Apocryphal Angels in Nun Convents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ávila Vivar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The preponderance of studies about viceregal angelic series, and the widespread belief that the representation of apocryphal angels is a specific peculiarity of viceregal angelology, have created such a close relation between it and the apocryphal angels, that they are even considered as synonymous. However, both the texts and the presence of this angels in the spanish convents of the XVII century, evidence that the apocryphal angels appeared and they were represented in Spain long before that in its american viceregal. Therefore, it is here where their origins and their meaning should be sought.

  14. American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) Annual Research Meeting in Conjunction with the Annual Convention of the Association for Career and Technical Education. Proceedings (Orlando, Florida, December 11-13, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, William G., Ed.

    This document contains 14 research papers presented at the American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) annual meeting. The following papers are included: "Factors that Influence Students to Attend 4-Year Automotive Programs" (Gregory G. Belcher, Robert L. Frisbee); "The Training Needs of Vocational Teachers for…

  15. Técnicas extractivas y preparativas en Paleontología: Aspectos ambientales y de seguridad laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Melendi

    2009-06-01

    y daño que afectan la salud así como de factores de riesgo y de probables conductas disfuncionales que los propician. Este trabajo, además de un breve análisis de los aspectos técnicos del trabajo paleontológico, presenta información de contexto, introduce en la problemática de los riesgos, expone los marcos normativos y desarrolla una interpretación de las posibles causas que explicarían el incumplimiento de lo establecido en materia de seguridad laboral. Propone también posibles estrategias destinadas a mitigar, corregir y revertir este problema.Extractive and preparation techniques in Paleontology. Environmental aspects and labor safety. The objective of this paper is to analyze the working conditions in which the paleontologic work is developed, especially in Paleopalynology and Paleovertebrat ology. This analysis is also valid for other academic and scientific activities. During fieldwork and in the paleontologic research a wide range of processes are applied, which proceed from the fields of physics and chemistry. They are characterized by different degrees of complexity and present different types of risks for the people who apply them, for other people, for physical objects and for the environment. For the applications of all these technical activities, some aspects must be taken into account that are not perceived as scientific matter and consequently do not receive attention: the safety of working conditions. This situation determines a state of precarious conditions of the labor environment and certain degree of stress, which potentiates the generation of accidents and damages and is hurting the legislation and the codes of professional ethics. The violation and absence of application of these rules are occurring frequently. The origin of this behavior may be due to the lack of knowledge and interest, and a certain degree of collective anomie that characterizes our society. In our labor environment -even without existing statistics- the cases

  16. Paleoambiente y paleontología de la Formación Andapaico (Paleozoico superior, Precordillera Central, Argentina Paleoenvironment and paleontology of the Andapaico Formation (upper Paleozoic, central Precordillera, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Correa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sedimentológico, paleontológico y paleoambiental de la Formación Andapaico (sector austral de la Cuenca Paganzo, San Juan. Esta unidad se apoya en discordancia angular sobre la Formación Punta Negra, posee un espesor de 430 m de sedimentitas silicoclásticas, que incluye depósitos originados en ambientes predominantemente costeros. Se identificaron depósitos de frente de playa inferior (asociaciones de facies I, ríos anastomosados con planicie (II, ríos de alta sinuosidad (III, playa (IV, sistema eólico (V, isla barrera (VI y laguna de llanura costera (VII. Las asociaciones de facies I (sector inferior de la unidad y VII (sector superior brindaron microfloras, que permiten referirlas al Cisuraliano temprano (I y al Cisuraliano tardío-Guadalupiano temprano (VII, Biozona Lueckisporites-Weylandites. De la facies I, además, se obtuvo una asociación de plantas fósiles referida a la Superzona de Ferugliocladus del Pérmico temprano de la Cuenca Tepuel-Genoa, lo que reforzaría la hipótesis de esta edad para la sección inferior de la Formación Andapaico.A sedimentological, paleontological and paleoenvironmental study of the Andapaico Formation is presented (southern sector of the Paganzo Basin, San Juan. This unit overlies with an angular unconformity the Punta Negra Formation, and has a thickness of 430 m of siliciclastic sediments, that include deposits formed predominantly in nearshore environments. Lower shoreface (facies association I, anastomosed rivers and floodplain (II, high sinuosity rivers (III, beach (IV, eolian system (V, barrier island (VI and lagoon (VII deposits were identified. Facies association I (lower part of the unit and VII (upper part and their associated palynoflora assign them to the early Cisuralian (I and late Cisuralian-early Guadalupian (VII, Lueckisporites-Weylandites Biozone. From the facies I association a fossil plant assemblage was obtained that allows it to be referred to the

  17. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  18. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2011-07-08

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  19. Owl Pellet Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Lisa K.

    2013-01-01

    In this activity for the beginning of a high school Biology 1 evolution unit, students are challenged to reconstruct organisms found in an owl pellet as a model for fossil reconstruction. They work in groups to develop hypotheses about what animal they have found, what environment it inhabited, and what niche it filled. At the end of the activity,…

  20. New Mexico Convention Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of convention centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data...

  1. United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crisis. Learn More Containing drug costs in the United States The FDA is currently exploring a variety of ... Notices Privacy Policy Terms of Use Sitemap © The United States Pharmacopeial Convention ×

  2. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  3. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. Aragonite crystals grown on bones by reaction of CO2 with nanostructured Ca(OH)2 in the presence of collagen. Implications in archaeology and paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Irene; Tempesti, Paolo; Carretti, Emiliano; Potenza, Mariangela; Sansoni, Stefania; Baglioni, Piero; Dei, Luigi

    2014-01-21

    The loss of mechanical properties affecting archeological or paleontological bones is often caused by demineralization processes that are similar to those driving the mechanisms leading to osteoporosis. One simple way to harden and to strengthen demineralized bone remains could be the in situ growth of CaCO3 crystals in the aragonite polymorph - metastable at atmospheric pressure -which is known to have very strong mechanical strength in comparison with the stable calcite. In the present study the controlled growth of aragonite crystals was achieved by reaction between atmospheric CO2 and calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in the presence of collagen within the deteriorated bones. In a few days the carbonation of Ca(OH)2 particles led to a mixture of calcite and aragonite, increasing the strength of the mineral network of the bone. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry showed that aragonite crystallization was achieved. The effect of the aragonite crystal formation on the mechanical properties of the deteriorated bones was investigated by means of X-rays microtomography, helium porosimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Vickers microhardness techniques. All these data enabled to conclude that the strength of the bones increased of a factor of 50-70% with respect to the untreated bone. These results could have immediate impact for preserving archeological and paleontological bone remains.

  5. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  6. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  7. Convents as homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Enrique Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present article discusses convents as homes. Resulting from the study of a Gregorian source presently housed at DePaul University's Richardson library, this article probes the complexities and restrictions of convent life in 17th century Spain. The Sanctoral de Visperas (1653) functions as a backdrop for a consideration of how singing chant and attendant rituals enriched the lives of nuns. Also included are references to nuns from this period who were outstanding musicians and poets and whose works have recently received enthusiastic attention.

  8. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  9. Air pollution: UNCED convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, M.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to United Nations papers delineating the Organization's convention on climate change and strategies concerning the protection of the earth's atmosphere, this booklet presents four papers expressing the views of Italian and American strategists. The central theme is the establishment of current global air pollution trends, the determination of suitable air pollution limits, and the preparation of feasible socio-economic strategies to allow industrialized and developing countries to work together effectively to achieve the proposed global air quality goals

  10. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  11. Estudio bibliométrico de género en la paleontología de vertebrados. El caso de la revista argentina Ameghiniana (1957-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Sandra; Hidalgo, Mónica; Stubbs, Edgardo; Posadas, Paula; Ortiz Jaureguizar, Edgardo

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la existencia de diferencias de género en la distribución de las firmas de los trabajos de paleontología de vertebrados, analizando el caso de la revista argentina Ameghiniana, desde 1957 hasta 2011. Mediante el método bibliométrico se estudia la distribución y evolución por género de las firmas de los autores, su productividad, procedencia geográfica, composición de las firmas (autorías y coautorías), orden de mención de autores, taxón estudiado y ni...

  12. PLANETARY PERMO-СARBONIFEROUS ICE AGE – BANK OF PALEONTOLOGICAL AND GEOLOGICAL FACTS FOR DISPROVING THE GLACIAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Chuvardinsky

    2017-09-01

    s multi-year research has proved that “exaration” types of relief of the Quaternary time (fjords, skerries, lake basins in bedrock, drumlins were formed due to the disjunctive dislocations of different rank and sequence. They occupy their normal place in the ensemble of paragenetic structures that accompany faulting. A detailed study of fault systems, especially shifts and zones of their dynamic influence, showed a paragenetic connection of the most striking “exaration” types of relief (roche moutonnée (sheepbacks, fleecy rock, rocks polishing, striations and furrows with structures such as near-surface thrusts, upcast faults, downcast faults and shifts. Mass development of the above-mentioned relief forms is observed at the ends of the large shifts and they are made of fault planes and slickensides of the listed near-surface disjunctive structures upthrow sides of which are mostly destroyed into a blocky-boulder component. There is rich paleontological material concerning the period of vast Permo-Carboniferous glaciation that covered virtually the entire globe, this material allows reconstructing actual landscapes and climates of that epoch. Extremely favorable conditions for the development of terrestrial vegetation were created in the Carboniferous period. Warm, humid climate dominated in vast territories of the globe. A sultry, heavy atmosphere reigned in the Carboniferous forests. The deposits of coal amounting to nearly 30 % of the world’s reserves of this fuel were formed. And climate of the Permian period was generally the warmest of the formerly dominated Paleozoic. Tillites. Considering that the remnants of the Paleozoic vegetation are often found in the cut layers of the tillites, and the tillites are interbedded with the lenses and layers of coal, it is high time to recall that the tillites are a tectonic breccia, tectonic melange, and boulders with scars and striations are the most reliable indicator of their tectono-dynamic processing. As for the

  13. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  14. Conventional magnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of conventional, steel-cored, direct-current magnets are discussed. Laplace's equation and the associated cylindrical harmonic solutions in two dimensions are established. The equations are used to define the ideal pole shapes and required excitation for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Standard magnet geometries are then considered and criteria determining the coil design are presented. The use of codes for predicting flux density distributions and the iterative techniques used for pole face design are then discussed. This includes a description of the use of two-dimensional codes to generate suitable magnet end geometries. Finally, standard constructional techniques for cores and coils are described. (orig.)

  15. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  16. Convention Attendance: A Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELLE CANDICE RAMIREZ

    2017-01-01

    The number of people attending conventions is growing worldwide, yet there are gaps in our knowledge of convention attendee behaviour. Drawing upon social role theory, the purpose of this study was to identify the role that gender might have in the convention attendance decision. The findings revealed that although location was important for both males and females, money, timing and family/work responsibilities were more important on the decision to attend a convention for men. The results co...

  17. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  18. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  19. Paleogeography of the Eosahabi River in Libya: New insights into the mineralogy, geochemistry and paleontology of Member U1 of the Sahabi Formation, northeastern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftah, A. M.; Pavlakis, P.; Godelitsas, A.; Gamaletsos, P.; Boaz, N.

    2013-02-01

    A large paleo-river of Miocene age traversing Libya from south to north has been previously demonstrated by seismic, stratigraphic, paleontological, and remote sensing data. The depositional environment of As Sahabi Formation in north central Libya is this large and now extinct Eosahabi River. However, the source of this major African river has remained controversial. Dark-colored sedimentary material with magnetic properties suggested a source from the basaltic Haruj as Aswad massif in south central Libya. To test this hypothesis, mineralogical and geochemical study of clayey sediments from three localities, P25, P28 and P96c, from fossiliferous Member U1 of the As Sahabi Formation, were carried out. Results strongly indicate very mature and re-processed sediments of continental origin, and felsic sources with no basaltic contribution. Thus the origin can be traced to an upland area of outcrop of rocks of Precambrian continental origin in northeastern Chad. An alternative scenario is that the Sahabi sediments originated from Precambrian outcrops in Ethiopia through an east-west river connection with the Nile. We consider this hypothesis unlikely, since it is based only on remote sensing data, and lacks any time control or geological supporting evidence. The abundant vertebrate fauna from the Sahabi Formation shows strong similarities with penecontemporaneous fossil faunas in Chad and is supportive of an origin of the Eosahabi River in Neogene mega-Lake Chad.

  20. Redescription of Calyptosuchus (Stagonolepis wellesi (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia: Aetosauria from the Late Triassic of the Southwestern United States with a discussion of genera in vertebrate paleontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Parker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calyptosuchus wellesi is a medium-sized desmatosuchian aetosaur common in Adamanian (early to middle Norian age rocks from the Chinle Formation and Dockum Group of the Western United States. Known chiefly from osteoderms, this taxon has never been fully described and non-osteoderm material assigned to Calyptosuchus has been done so based on questionable criteria. Mapping of aetosaurian elements from the Placerias Quarry allows for the recognition of associated material providing support for referrals of non-osteoderm material. Furthermore, another previously undescribed specimen from the Chinle Formation of Arizona provides more details about this taxon. Presently Calyptosuchus lacks discrete autapomorphies, but can be distinguished from other aetosaurs based on a unique combination of characters supported by a phylogenetic analysis. Calyptosuchus is one of the most common aetosaurians in the Western United States and an index taxon of the early Adamanian biozone. The name Calyptosuchus is retained and encouraged as the applicable genus name for the species wellesi rather than the often used Stagonolepis because assignments of taxa to multi-species genus names are problematic and in this case provides a proposed taxonomic relationship that cannot be unambiguously supported, even by phylogenetic analyses. Because of the inherent limitations of the fossil record, referral of specimens and species to species and genera respectively is an epistemological problem in vertebrate paleontology.

  1. Redescription of Calyptosuchus (Stagonolepis) wellesi (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia: Aetosauria) from the Late Triassic of the Southwestern United States with a discussion of genera in vertebrate paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, William G

    2018-01-01

    Calyptosuchus wellesi is a medium-sized desmatosuchian aetosaur common in Adamanian (early to middle Norian) age rocks from the Chinle Formation and Dockum Group of the Western United States. Known chiefly from osteoderms, this taxon has never been fully described and non-osteoderm material assigned to Calyptosuchus has been done so based on questionable criteria. Mapping of aetosaurian elements from the Placerias Quarry allows for the recognition of associated material providing support for referrals of non-osteoderm material. Furthermore, another previously undescribed specimen from the Chinle Formation of Arizona provides more details about this taxon. Presently Calyptosuchus lacks discrete autapomorphies, but can be distinguished from other aetosaurs based on a unique combination of characters supported by a phylogenetic analysis. Calyptosuchus is one of the most common aetosaurians in the Western United States and an index taxon of the early Adamanian biozone. The name Calyptosuchus is retained and encouraged as the applicable genus name for the species wellesi rather than the often used Stagonolepis because assignments of taxa to multi-species genus names are problematic and in this case provides a proposed taxonomic relationship that cannot be unambiguously supported, even by phylogenetic analyses. Because of the inherent limitations of the fossil record, referral of specimens and species to species and genera respectively is an epistemological problem in vertebrate paleontology.

  2. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  3. Convention and Competence: Disability Rights in Sports and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Anita; Wasserman, David

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act has been complicated by uncertainty about the fundamental nature of various activities, goods, or services and about what constitutes competence or qualification in people who are excluded from them. Discusses how the courts can ascertain the fundamental nature of conventional activities when…

  4. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  5. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE UPPER MIOCENE PISCO FORMATION ALONG THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE LOWER ICA VALLEY (ICA DESERT, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO DI CELMA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The sequence stratigraphic framework and a summary of the fossil fauna of the upper Miocene portion of the Pisco Formation exposed along the western side of the Ica River (southern Peru is presented through a new geological map encompassing an area of about 200 km2 and detailed chronostratigraphic analyses. Extensive field mapping and sedimentological study of outcrop sections have shown that the Pisco Formation is a cyclical sediment unit composed of at least three fining-upward, unconformity-bounded depositional sequences, designated P0, P1, and P2 from oldest to youngest. In the study area, these sequences progressively onlap a composite basal unconformity from southwest to northeast. Integration of biostratigraphic and tephrochronologic age determinations constrains the ages of the three Pisco sequences within the study area. Based on the age of surrounding sediments, a conservative estimate of the age of P0 suggests deposition of these strata between 17.99 ± 0.10 Ma and 9.00 ± 0.02 Ma, whereas diatom biostratigraphy and calculated 40Ar/39Ar ages converge to indicate that strata of the P1 sequence were deposited sometime between 9.5 Ma and 8.9 Ma and that those of the P2 sequence are younger than 8.5 Ma and older than 6.71 ± 0.02 Ma. Our survey for both vertebrate and macro-invertebrate remains in the three sequences confirms the outstanding paleontological value of the Pisco Formation and contributes to depict regional faunal shifts in the fossil assemblage.

  6. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  7. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  8. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... which any theory of convention must revolve. In response, the so-called evolutionary turn has developed. While retaining the broad framework, in which games are described in terms of strategies and payoffs, this marks a transition from the classical assumptions of perfect rationality and common...

  9. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A philosophical Study (Lewis 1969). Besides exciting the logical community by providing the seminal analysis work on common knowledge, it also laid the foundations for the formal approach to the study of social conventions by means of game...... theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...

  10. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  11. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  12. Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on final body weight (FBW), total weight gain (TWG), feed intake (FI), Mortality and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for performance indicators while dressing percentage, major cuts, organs and offals were determined for carcass yield. Broiler chickens reared using conventional system recorded highest ...

  13. Novel versus conventional antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R C

    1996-01-01

    Novel antipsychotic agents differ from conventional ones in several key characteristics, including effectiveness, adverse reactions, and receptor-binding profile. Most of the newer agents have an affinity for the serotonin 5HT2 receptor that is at least 10 times greater than that for the dopamine D2 receptor. This increased affinity for the serotonin receptor may be responsible for another distinguishing characteristic of novel antipsychotic agents--decreased frequency of extrapyramidal side effects. These side effects, which include pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonias, and akathisia, frequently are the reason for noncompliance with conventional drug therapy. The newer drugs are often effective in patients resistant to treatment with conventional agents. They also appear to reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in many patients.

  14. Intentionalism versus The New Conventionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Are the properties of communicative acts grounded in the intentions with which they are performed, or in the conventions that govern them? The latest round in this debate has been sparked by Ernie Lepore and Matthew Stone (2015), who argue that much more of communication is conventional than we thought, and that the rest isn’t really communication after all, but merely the initiation of open-ended imaginative thought. I argue that although Lepore and Stone may be right about many of the speci...

  15. The European Convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1993-03-01

    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  16. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  17. Evaluación de las políticas contra el tabaquismo en países latinoamericanos en la era del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis Thrasher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT pretende coordinar las políticas mundiales que reducen el consumo de tabaco. Con toda probabilidad, estas medidas tendrán efectos en países de ingresos medianos y bajos; no obstante, se requieren estudios de evaluación para determinar sus consecuencias y las posibles sinergias entre las directrices. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El Proyecto Internacional de Evaluación de Políticas para el Control del Tabaco (ITC es una colaboración internacional para evaluar el efecto psicosocial y conductual que causan las políticas promovidas por el CMCT en adultos fumadores de nueve países. El marco de evaluación ITC utiliza diversos controles de país, con un diseño longitudinal y un modelo conceptual basado en teorías para probar las hipótesis sobre los efectos anticipados de determinadas políticas. RESULTADOS: Los resultados del análisis de datos confirman por lo general los hallazgos anteriores de investigaciones basadas en las recomendaciones del CMCT, y se refieren a las siguientes políticas: promover etiquetas de advertencia con imágenes gráficas, prohibir el uso de las descripciones "ligero" y "suave", establecer ambientes libres de humo de tabaco, incrementar los impuestos, prohibir la publicidad del cigarro e implementar nuevos métodos para evaluar los componentes del cigarro. CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos iniciales sugieren que los países latinoamericanos podrían aplicar métodos similares para vigilar y evaluar sus propias directrices, así como fortalecer el cuerpo de conocimiento sobre políticas en otros países.OBJECTIVE: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC aims to coordinate tobacco control policies around the world that reduce tobacco consumption. The FCTC's recommended policies are likely to be effective in low- and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, policy evaluation studies are needed to determine policy impact and potential synergies across policies

  18. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  19. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common...... conventions supporting cooperation and learning in this industry. The case draws attention to how issues of institutional context can frustrate collaboration and limit the scope of learning; simultaneously, it illustrates interventions that permitted the negotiation between situated and context......-specific understandings on the one hand and the development of shared understandings and common conventions for action within the industry on the other. In sum, the article sheds light on the institutional work required to mobilize situated forms of knowledge and the important bridging functions that institutional...

  20. Global Constitutionalism, Control of Conventionality and the Right to Strike in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available n the Inter-American context, the control of conventionality promoted by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights is linked to the process of construction of an ius commune in human rights. Human rights are identified as norm of constitutional character. The universality of human rights allows its consideration as an aspect of global constitutionalism. This paper aims at determining whether the control of conventionality can be considered an expression of global constitutionalism within the Inter-American region. We hold that the control of conventionality in the Inter-American system has propelled the application of a minimum standard of human rights and has stimulated the emergence of an ius commune in human rights.

  1. NESTA Revolutionizing Teacher's Experiences at NSTA Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F.

    2002-05-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conventions are traditionally composed of short workshops, half or full day workshops, and lectures on science teaching or education research. Occasional science lectures such as the AGU lecture offer science content information. The National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) will join the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT), American Geophysical Union (AGU), and the American Geological Institute (AGI) to bring teachers a suite of exciting and informative events at the (NSTA) 2002 convention. Events begin with a guided learning field trip to Mission Trails Regional Park and Torrey Pines State Reserve where Earth and space science teachers experience a model of constructivist leaning techniques. Most field trips are a "show and tell" experience, designed to transmit knowledge from the field trip leader to the field trip participants. In the "guided learning" environment, the leader serves as a facilitator, asking questions, guiding participants to discover concepts for themselves. Participants examine selected processes and features that constitute a constructivist experience in which knowledge acquired at any given location builds on knowledge brought to the site. Employing this strategy involves covering less breadth but greater depth, modeling the concept of "less is more." On Thursday NESTA will host two Share-a-thons. These are not what a person would think of as a traditional workshop where presenter makes a presentation then the participants work on an activity. They could be called the flea market of teaching ideas. Tables are set around the perimeter of a room where the presenters are stationed. Teachers move from table to table picking up information and watching short demonstrations. The Earth and Space Science Resource Day on Friday will focus on teachers needs. Starting with breakfast, teachers will hear from Soames Summerhays, Naturalist and President of Summerhays Films, about how he

  2. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  3. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  4. Diverticular Disease: Reconsidering Conventional Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10–25% commonly quoted, and may be as low as 1% over 11 years. Nuts and seeds do not increase the risk of diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding. It is unclear whether diverticulosis, absent diverticulitis or overt colitis, is responsible for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or worse quality of life. The role of antibiotics in acute diverticulitis has been challenged by a large randomized trial that showed no benefit in selected patients. The decision to perform elective surgery should be made on a case-by-case basis and not routinely after a second episode of diverticulitis, when there has been a complication, or in young people. A colonoscopy should be performed to exclude colon cancer after an attack of acute diverticulitis but may not alter outcomes among individuals who have had a colonoscopy prior to the attack. Given these surprising findings, it is time to reconsider conventional wisdom about diverticular disease. PMID:23669306

  5. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  6. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  7. Russian-American venture designs new reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Russian and American nuclear energy experts have completed a joint design study of a small, low-cost and demonstrably accident-proof reactor that they say could revolutionize the way conventional reactors are designed, marketed and operated. The joint design is helium-cooled and graphite-moderated and has a power density of 3 MWt/cubic meter, which is significantly less than the standard American reactor. A prototype of this design should be operating in Chelyabinsk by June 1996

  8. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  9. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom...... compartment layout, in an attempt to determine the probability of exceeding the design requirements. Distributions for the extent of damage, such as damage length, height and width, are determined. Furthermore, attempts are made at identifying the governing grounding scenarios and deriving a formula...

  10. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  11. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  12. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  13. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  14. Why mixed equilibria may not be conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    on dropping Lewis' eccentric ‘coordination' requirement as well as that of common knowledge, they are confused on whether conventions should be regarded as proper thereby precluding mixed equilibria. In this paper I argue that mixed equilibria may not be conventions, but also suggest that the reason...... for this reveals that though common knowledge is not necessary for a convention to operate, it may be utilized as to identify the conventional aspect of a given practice....

  15. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  16. Upholding Indigenous Freedoms of Religion and Medicine: Peyotists at the 1906-1908 Oklahoma Constitutional Convention and First Legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In the five hundred years of European and American globalization of the world, seldom have Indigenous peoples been invited to a constitutional convention and first legislature to express their perspectives and concerns. Rarely in the five-hundred-year history of the European and American colonization of the world were the rights of the Indigenous…

  17. U.S. Perspectives on the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.; Federline, M.; Camper, L.; Abu-Eid, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Gorn, J.; Bubar, P.; Tonkay, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) is an international convention, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It is a companion to a suite of international conventions on nuclear safety and physical security, which serve to promote a global culture for the safe use of radioactive materials. Although the U.S. was the first nation to sign the Joint Convention on September 29, 1997, the ratification process was a challenging experience for the U.S., in the face of legislative priorities dominated by concerns for national security and threats from terrorism after September 11, 2001. Notwithstanding these prevailing circumstances, the U.S. ratified the Joint Convention in 2003, just prior to the First Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties, and participated fully therein. For the United States, participation as a Contracting Party provides many benefits. These range from working with other Parties to harmonize international approaches to achieve strong and effective nuclear safety programs on a global scale, to stimulating initiatives to improve safety systems within our own domestic programs, to learning about technical innovations by other Parties that can be useful to U.S. licensees, utilities, and industry in managing safety and its associated costs in our waste management activities. The Joint Convention process also provides opportunities to identify future areas of bilateral and multilateral technical and regulatory cooperation with other Parties, as well as an opportunity for U.S. vendors and suppliers to broaden their market to include foreign clients for safety improvement equipment and services. The Joint Convention is consistent with U.S. foreign policy considerations to support, as a priority, the strengthening of the worldwide safety culture in the use of nuclear energy. Because of its many benefits, we believe it is important to take

  18. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  19. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  20. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  1. Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter techniques on shear force, drip and cooking loss of beef. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... force values for meat samples from cattle slaughtered by the Kosher method compared to those from cattle slaughtered by the conventional slaughter method.

  2. Organic and conventional production systems, microbial fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A common belief among consumers is the superior quality of organically grown tomato fruits over their conventionally grown counterparts. The present study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics of tomatoes grown using organic and conventional production systems and to determine the effects of microbial ...

  3. numerical assessment of conventional regulation effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benkoussas B, Djedjig R, and Vauquelin O

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... The effectiveness of an underground smoke control system mainly depends on fire safety engineering that is ... In the same context, this work aims firstly, at investigating the effectiveness of conventional regulation applied to .... 5a). Fig.4. Station smoke behavior for conventional ventilation regulation. Fig.5a.

  4. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  5. Digital vs. conventional implant impressions: efficiency outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J; Gallucci, German O

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficiency, difficulty and operator's preference of a digital impression compared with a conventional impression for single implant restorations. Thirty HSDM second year dental students performed conventional and digital implant impressions on a customized model presenting a single implant. The outcome of the impressions was evaluated under an acceptance criteria and the need for retake/rescan was decided. The efficiency of both impression techniques was evaluated by measuring the preparation, working, and retake/scan time (m/s) and the number of retakes/rescans. Participants' perception on the level of difficulty for the both impressions was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire. Multiple questionnaires were obtained to assess the participants' perception on preference, effectiveness and proficiency. Mean total treatment time was of 24:42 m/s for conventional and 12:29 m/s for digital impressions (P impressions (P impression (P impression technique and 30.63 (±17.57) for digital impression technique (P = 0.006). Sixty percent of the participants preferred the digital impression, 7% the conventional impression technique and 33% preferred either technique. Digital impressions resulted in a more efficient technique than conventional impressions. Longer preparation, working, and retake time were consumed to complete an acceptable conventional impression. Difficulty was lower for the digital impression compared with the conventional ones when performed by inexperienced second year dental students. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  7. ILO Convention 189 concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers: background and effects on migrant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliveira do Prado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the adoption of ILO Convention 189 on domestic workers adopted in 2011, focusing on the way in which this new framework can affect the lives of migrant women who are domestic workers. The article first overviews  domestic work, particularly the situation of female Latin American domestic workers. Thereafter follows an examination of the international law prior to Convention 189 –both in the field of international labor law and in the field of international human rights law– that allowed for the protection of these workers but that did not take into account the specifics of domestic work. Finally, the article examines some of  Convention 189’s norms that allow for the targeted protection of this vulnerable group. The article concludes that this Convention moves forward in the protection of the rights of migrant women domestic workers and thus demonstrates the need for States to ratify this new international treaty.

  8. Reflexive convention: civil partnership, marriage and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Brian

    2017-09-14

    Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  9. Self-harm and conventional gender roles in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2013-04-01

    A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that those with lower scores on Instrumentality and Unmitigated Agency (positive and negative masculinity) and higher scores on Insecurity (negative femininity) had greater odds of self-harming. Relationships were weaker after accounting for generalized self-efficacy. Results are discussed in relation to previous findings and suggestions for prevention are made. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. American Macular Degeneration Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Disclaimer Contact Us Donate Store The American Macular Degeneration Foundation The American Macular Degeneration Foundation (AMDF) is ... Ed Asner Video Clip An Inspiring Her-story Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting ...

  11. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  12. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  13. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  14. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging of blends of conventional and waxy hard wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Delwiche

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent development of hard winter waxy (amylose-free wheat adapted to the North American climate has prompted the quest to find a rapid method that will determine mixture levels of conventional wheat in lots of identity preserved waxy wheat. Previous work documented the use of conventional near infrared (NIR reflectance spectroscopy to determine the mixture level of conventional wheat in waxy wheat, with an examined range, through binary sample mixture preparation, of 0–100% (weight conventional / weight total. The current study examines the ability of NIR hyperspectral imaging of intact kernels to determine mixture levels. Twenty-nine mixtures (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, …, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100% were formed from known genotypes of waxy and conventional wheat. Two-class partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA and statistical pattern recognition classifier models were developed for identifying each kernel in the images as conventional or waxy. Along with these approaches, conventional PLS1 regression modelling was performed on means of kernel spectra within each mixture test sample. Results indicated close agreement between all three approaches, with standard errors of prediction for the better preprocess transformations (PLSDA models or better classifiers (pattern recognition models of approximately 9 percentage units. Although such error rates were slightly greater than ones previously published using non-imaging NIR analysis of bulk whole kernel wheat and wheat meal, the HSI technique offers an advantage of its potential use in sorting operations.

  15. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  16. File: non conventional hydrocarbons - Between concerns and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflandre, Jean-Pierre; Heidmann, Jean-Claude; Vially, Roland; Duflot, Sylvie; Lions, Renaud; Speirs, Julie; Bauquis, Pierre-Rene; Brunelle, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of gas and oil resources with respect to their geological context. The authors address the origins of hydrocarbons, their underground migration and possible trapping, thus scanning the whole spectrum of conventional and non conventional resources. A second article, signed by representatives of companies working on shale gas in Europe as well as in the USA, examines whether the development of shale gases, if it ever emerges in Europe, will be the same as it is in the USA. They notably outline differences regarding several legal aspects on land property and on the environment. Based on a study on shale supply chain which identified costs, needed skills, existing capabilities, and recommendations for closing identified gaps, the third article discusses the perspective and opportunity of a possible development of shale gas in the UK. The fourth article discusses the impacts of the exploitation of source rock oils and gases on the American and World economies, and the fifth one discusses the perspectives for the petrochemicals and refining industries in a context of development of shale gases and oils in the USA, of an over-capacity situation for the refining industry, of decline of the European oil product market, and of competition with new polymer production capacities (notably in the Middle East where ethane extracted from natural gas is available in large quantities and at very low prices)

  17. Conventions and workflows for using Situs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wriggers, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments of the Situs software suite for multi-scale modeling are reviewed. Typical workflows and conventions encountered during processing of biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering are described. Situs is a modular program package for the multi-scale modeling of atomic resolution structures and low-resolution biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering. This article provides an overview of recent developments in the Situs package, with an emphasis on workflows and conventions that are important for practical applications. The modular design of the programs facilitates scripting in the bash shell that allows specific programs to be combined in creative ways that go beyond the original intent of the developers. Several scripting-enabled functionalities, such as flexible transformations of data type, the use of symmetry constraints or the creation of two-dimensional projection images, are described. The processing of low-resolution biophysical maps in such workflows follows not only first principles but often relies on implicit conventions. Situs conventions related to map formats, resolution, correlation functions and feature detection are reviewed and summarized. The compatibility of the Situs workflow with CCP4 conventions and programs is discussed

  18. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    1998-01-01

    In the first stage of the revision process, the only goal was to amend certain provisions of the Vienna Convention. Later, in what might be called the second stage, the question was seriously raised of establishing a new supplementary convention by which additional funds were to be provided by the international community of States. Most experts felt that the nuclear liability regime of the Vienna Convention, as amended, would really serve the interests of potential victims of nuclear incidents only if it were supported by an international supplementary fund providing additional compensation for nuclear damage to that provided by the operator. Thus, the Standing Committee started to consider the establishment, under the Vienna Convention, of a mechanism for mobilizing additional funds for compensation of nuclear damage. During the negotiations it was deemed necessary to establish a separate treaty for such a supplementary fund, and indeed, efforts were undertaken to draw up such an instrument concurrently with the revision of the Vienna Convention. (K.A.)

  19. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  20. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela. According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectiveness of the administrative justice systems may be explained as follows: as former Iberian colonies, the aforementioned countries have a Continental European legal culture originating in civil law but nevertheless have improperly integrated certain aspects of the unified judicial system (generalized courts typical of administrative law in common-law countries. This situation, according to the author, could be rectified through strengthening the public administrative authorities with respect to their dispute-resolution and purely executive functions by endowing them with prerogatives to act independently and impartially, oriented by the principle of legality understood in the sense of supremacy of fundamental rights, in light of the doctrine of diffuse conventionality control adopted by the InterAmerican Court of Human Rights.

  1. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the deceptive nature of The American Dream and its place in American culture in the first six decades of the 20th century, namely in the three quintessential novels The Great Gatsby, The Grapes of Wrath and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. With the aid of Jim Cullen's The American Dream – A short history of an idea that shaped a nation and Lawrence Samuel's The American Dream – A cultural history the different types of American Dreams are investigated, as well as how the...

  2. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  3. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  4. Convention on nuclear safety. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Diplomatic Conference, which was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994, adopted the Convention on Nuclear Safety reproduced in document INFCIRC/449 and the Final Act of the Conference. The text of the Final Act of the Conference, including an annexed document entitled ''Some clarification with respect to procedural and financial arrangements, national reports, and the conduct of review meetings, envisaged in the Convention on Nuclear Safety'', is reproduced in the Attachment hereto for the information of all Member States

  5. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  6. Archaeology and the World Heritage Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cleere

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available International efforts to designate outstanding examples of the world's cultural and natural heritage began after the Second World War. The World Heritage Convention was signed at the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972 and the first cultural sites were selected in 1978. Now over 600 have been inscribed on the World Heritage List. The author, who is an honorary visiting professor at the Institute, acted as an advisor to the World Heritage Committee from 1992 to 2002 and here describes how the Convention came into being and discusses the representation of archaeological sites on the List.

  7. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  8. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek BARCIK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  9. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  10. DEMAND FOR ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FROZEN VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Lewrene K.; Thompson, Gary D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine retail sales of organic and conventional frozen vegetables (broccoli, green beans, green peas, and sweet corn) using supermarket scanner data. Descriptive analysis includes comparisons of sales volume, prices, and market shares. Price and expenditure elasticities are estimated using the almost ideal demands system (AIDS).

  11. Game Theory-Conventions and Knowledge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 8. Game Theory - Conventions and Knowledge. P G Babu. General Article Volume 3 Issue 8 August 1998 pp 46-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/08/0046-0055 ...

  12. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of human imprinting and foster parenting by adult ostriches on the survival and growth performance of ostrich chicks were compared to conventional chick-rearing practices in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, the growth rate and survival of chicks imprinted onto humans were compared with those ...

  13. Comparative study of extralevator vs. conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient demographics, tumour characteristics, intra-operative tumour perforation, involvement of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), surgical complications and mortality are reported. Results: Fifty-six patients were treated with APE of which 29 were male. Median age was 56. Thirty underwent conventional APE (16 ...

  14. Determinants of conventional health service utilization among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the determinants of conventional health care utilization among pastoralist communities in northeast Ethiopia. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional household survey conducted using structured questionnaires administered among 276 mobile and 262 settled subjects within the pastoral area.

  15. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the. Member States of the World Health Organization. (WHO) have agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The text of the WHO Framework. Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention ...

  16. Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agbe

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... slaughtered by the Kosher method compared to those from cattle slaughtered by the conventional slaughter method. Cooking loss ... methods on beef tenderness and water holding capacity in terms of drip and cooking losses. The work was ... the holes to suspend the meat without touching the container.

  17. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the conventional approaches (Non-CMP) in the case of Ethiopia. The data collection methods include a household survey (n=1806), community representative interviews (n=49), focus group discussions with district water experts (n=48) and ...

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Conventional Rote Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of Mnemonics technique (MNIT) and conventional rote learning technique (CRL) on the teaching-learning of physical features (Geography). A pre-test and post-test control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of ninety SS I students was randomly selected out of ...

  19. The role of regional pollution conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last 12 years a number of regional pollution conventions and action plans have been negotiated to protect the world's seas from pollution. This paper traces the development of this activity and points out the specific role of regional, as opposed to global, pollution conventions. Chief among the functions of regional conventions is the specific legal framework they provide for a particular geographical region. They also provide a forum for neighboring states to develop a coherent policy for a particular regional sea, as well as being the means of establishing regional control over potentially polluting activities. Regional agreements also constitute a suitable framework for monitoring the input of pollutants to the marine environment and assessing their effects. In addition, they provide a forum for the exchange of scientific and technical information and for developing cooperation between states. The paper concludes by summarizing the most important functions of a regional convention and suggesting that, with increasing industrialization and pollution stress, there will continue to be a need for action to be taken at the regional level

  20. Epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk ...

  1. Some Comparisons of Conventional and Counterculture Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Robert N.

    1972-01-01

    Conventional and counterculture families are discussed as ideal types in eight activity areas ranging from childrearing and economics to religious and leisure time use. Counterculture forms show either promise or hypothetical superiority in meeting needs in five of the areas. (Author)

  2. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  3. Comparison of membrane bioreactor technology and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to review the use of membrane bioreactor technology as an alternative for treating the discharged effluent from a bleached kraft mill by comparing and contrasting membrane bioreactors with conventional activated sludge systems for wastewater treatment. There are many water shortage ...

  4. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). 742.18 Section 742.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION...

  5. Conventions for sign and speech transcription of child bimodal bilingual corpora in ELAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Pichler, Deborah; Hochgesang, Julie A; Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2010-01-01

    This article extends current methodologies for the linguistic analysis of sign language acquisition to cases of bimodal bilingual acquisition. Using ELAN, we are transcribing longitudinal spontaneous production data from hearing children of Deaf parents who are learning either American Sign Language (ASL) and American English (AE), or Brazilian Sign Language (Libras, also referred to as Língua de Sinais Brasileira/LSB in some texts) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP). Our goal is to construct corpora that can be mined for a wide range of investigations on various topics in acquisition. Thus, it is important that we maintain consistency in transcription for both signed and spoken languages. This article documents our transcription conventions, including the principles behind our approach. Using this document, other researchers can chose to follow similar conventions or develop new ones using our suggestions as a starting point.

  6. Pasture feeding conventional cows removes differences between organic and conventionally produced milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendel, Brigitte H; Wester, Timothy J; Morel, Patrick C H; Fong, Bertram; Tavendale, Michael H; Deadman, Craig; Shadbolt, Nicola M; Otter, Don E

    2017-08-15

    Perceptions of production methods for organic and conventional milk are changing, with consumers prepared to pay premium prices for milk from either certified organic or conventional grass-fed cows. Our study investigated whether chemical composition differed between milk produced by these two farming systems. Sampling was conducted on two farms sets, each comprised of one organic and one conventional farm. All farms applied year-round pasture grazing. Milk samples were collected throughout the milking season and analysed for free oligosaccharides, fatty acids, major casein and whey proteins, and milk fat volatiles. Fatty acids were influenced by breed and fertilizer application. Oligosaccharides differed between farming systems, with causes presently unknown, while farm set was the dominant influence factor on protein composition. Factors identified in this study influencing milk composition are not exclusive to either farming system, and pasture feeding conventional cows will remove differences previously reported for organic and conventionally produced milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Double taxation conventions, structure and evolution of the american tax system

    OpenAIRE

    Dumiter Florin; Berlingher Daniel; Opret Anca; Todor Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended as a retrospective survey of the comprehensiveness of the tax system, in the broad sense, and the US tax system, in a stricter sense, in terms of structuring model and application of tax levies, as well as the taxation applied to each public financial income category. The topic chosen is based on the idea that the US tax system is different from the European system, while also considering that the USA is the world leader in business, trade and investment, and seen as ...

  8. supplementing conventional site investigation techniques of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Pavel Bláha, RNDr. D.Sc. and Roman. Duras, “Methods of a Geophysical Survey for Road Design”, Czech Republic. [2]. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Offices (AASHTO),. “Standard. Specifications for. Transportation Materials and Methods of. Sampling and Testing”, Twenty-Ninth. Edition, 2009.

  9. George Andrew Olah: Across Conventional Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/022/12/1111-1153. Keywords. Electron-deficient intermediates, Friedel–Crafts chemistry, carbocations, carbanions, methanol economy, anthropogenic chemical carbon cycle. Abstract. Hungarian born American chemist, George Andrew Olah wasa prolific researcher.

  10. Bacterial Paleontology and Studies of Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Zhegallo, E. A.; Zhmur, S. I.

    1999-01-01

    The study of the fossilization processes of modern cyanobacteria provides insights needed to recognize bacterial microfossils. The fossilization of cyanobacteria is discussed and images of recent and fossil bacteria and cyanobacteria from the Early Proterozoic to Neogene carbonaceous rocks (kerites, shungites, and black shales) and phosphorites are provided. These are compared with biomorphic microstructures and possible microfossils encountered in-situ in carbonaceous meteorites.

  11. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    common perception, the early 20th century was a period of significant intellectual development in American military theory. Organizational changes in...Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists A Monograph by MAJ Russell McKelvey United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  12. The protection of children refugees in brazil by the control of conventionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria D´Ávila Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to show the importance of AO No. 21/2014 of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, via control of conventionality, as a way to ensure the protection of the refugee children's rights in Brazil. To this end, a bibliographical and documentary research on international and national doctrine, legislation and jurisprudence was made. It was found that only after the Second World War, the rights of refugees began to receive international attention. So, too, it was found that the right to asylum is a fundamental right, whose interpretation should be performed via control of conventionality, in the light of international human rights, such as the Convention Relating of the status of Refugees, adopted in 1951, and the OC nº 21/2014  of the Inter-American Court of Human rights. It was concluded, from the analysis of a Brazilian court decision, it is still needed greater knowledge about the control of conventionality by the Brazilian authorities in order to better protect the rights of children refugees.

  13. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    . But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses...... changes too during the career of the metaphor. Whereas the standard scientific article is central in experimentally researching and explaining the metaphor, a mixture of more popular scientific genres dominate in the innovative conceptual development of the metaphor....

  14. The unappreciated slowness of conventional tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Larsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most tourists are not consciously engaging in ‘slow travel’, but a number of travel behaviours displayed by conventional tourists can be interpreted as slow travel behaviour. Based on Danish tourists’ engagement with the distances they travel across to reach their holiday destination, this paper explores unintended slow travel behaviours displayed by these tourists. None of the tourists participating in this research were consciously doing ‘slow travel’, and yet some of their most valued holiday memories are linked to slow travel behaviours. Based on the analysis of these unintended slow travel behaviours, this paper will discuss the potential this insight might hold for promotion of slow travel. If unappreciated and unintentional slow travel behaviours could be utilised in the deliberate effort of encouraging more people to travel slow, ‘slow travel’ will be in a better position to become integrated into conventional travel behaviour.

  15. The Aarhus Convention: A new regional convention on citizens' environmental rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wates, J.

    2000-01-01

    The UN ECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters had been adopted at Arhus, Denmark, at the Fourth Ministerial Conference in the 'Environment for Europe' process, and signed by thirty-five countries and the European Community. This paper summarises the main features of the Convention and briefly discusses its relevance to radioactive waste management issues. It then describes some of the activities currently being undertaken under the auspices of the Convention. (author)

  16. Non-conventional mesons at PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Non-conventional mesons, such as glueballs and tetraquarks, will be in the focus of the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. In this lecture we recall the basic properties of QCD and describe some features of unconventional states. We focus on the search of the not-yet discovered glueballs and the use of the extended Linear Sigma Model for this purpose, and on the already discovered but not-yet understood X, Y, Z states.

  17. Immunity to rotavirus in conventional neonatal calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Vonderfecht, S L; Osburn, B I

    1982-01-01

    The local and systemic humoral immune responses to rotavirus were studied in six conventional neonatal calves. Attenuated bovine rotavirus was administered either orally or directly into an isolated intestinal loop. The parameters monitored were neutralizing rotavirus antibody in serum, immunofluorescent and neutralizing rotavirus antibody in intestinal loop washings, and rotavirus antibody-producing cells in intestinal mucosa. An antibody response was observed in the serum and intestinal sec...

  18. Seawater desalination. Conventional and renewable energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipollina, Andrea; Micale, Giorgio; Rizzuti, Lucio (eds.) [Univ. degli Studi, Palermo (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali

    2009-07-01

    A growing proportion of the world's population is dependent on Seawater Desalination as a source of fresh water for both potable and civil use. One of the main drawbacks of conventional desalination technologies is the substantial energy requirement, which is facing cost increases in the global energy market. ''Seawater Desalination'' presents an overview of conventional and non-conventional technologies, with a particular focus on the coupling of renewable energies with desalination processes. The first section of this book presents, in a technical but reader-friendly way, an overview of currently-used desalination processes, from thermal to membrane processes, highlighting the relevant technical features, advantages and disadvantages, and development potential. It also gives a rapid insight into the economic aspects of fresh water production from seawater. The second section of the book presents novel processes which use Renewable Energies for fresh water production. From the first solar still evaporators, which artificially reproduced the natural cycle of water, technology has progressed to develop complex systems to harness energy from the sun, wind, tides, waves, etc. and then to use this energy to power conventional or novel desalination processes. Most of these processes are still at a preliminary stage of development, but some are already being cited as examples in remote areas, where they are proving to be valuable in solving the problems of water scarcity. A rapid growth in these technologies is foreseen in the coming years. This book provides a unique foundation, within the context of present and future sustainability, for professionals, technicians, managers, and private and public institutions operating in the area of fresh water supply. (orig.)

  19. A complementary conventional analysis for channelized reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Freddy Humberto; Montealegre M, Matilde

    2007-01-01

    Many well pressure data coming from long and narrow reservoirs which result from either fluvial deposition of faulting connote be completely interpreted by conventional analysis since some flow regimes are not conventionally recognized yet in the oil literature. This narrow geometry allows for the simultaneous development of two linear flow regimes coming from each one of the lateral sides of the system towards the well. This has been called dual linear flow regime. If the well is off-centered with regards to the two lateral boundaries, then, and of the linear flow regimes vanishes and, than, two possibilities con be presented. Firstly, if the closer lateral boundary is close to flow the unique linear flow persists along the longer lateral boundary. It has been called single linear flow. Following this, either steady or pseudo-steady states will develop. Secondly, if a constant - pressure closer lateral boundary is dealt with, then parabolic flow develops along the longer lateral boundary. Steady state has to be developed once the disturbance reaches the farther boundary. This study presents new equations for conventional analysis for the dual linear, linear and parabolic flow regimes recently introduced to the oil literature. The equations were validated by applying them to field and simulated examples

  20. Fuzzy logic control to be conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eker, Ilyas; Torun, Yunis

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands for flexibility and fast reactions in modern process operation and production methods result in nonlinear system behaviour of partly unknown systems, and this necessitates application of alternative control methods to meet the demands. Fuzzy logic (FL) control can play an important role because knowledge based design rules can easily be implemented in systems with unknown structure, and it is going to be a conventional control method since the control design strategy is simple and practical and is based on linguistic information. Computational complexity is not a limitation any more because the computing power of computers has been significantly improved even for high speed industrial applications. This makes FL control an important alternative method to the conventional PID control method for use in nonlinear industrial systems. This paper presents a practical implementation of the FL control to an electrical drive system. Such drive systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behaviour. For a multi-mass drive system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the operation of the systems. The proposed FL control configuration is based on speed error and change of speed error. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control method are experimentally demonstrated. The results obtained from conventional FL control, fuzzy PID and adaptive FL control are compared with traditional PID control for the dynamic responses of the closed loop drive system

  1. Effectiveness of the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) has been established after the Chernobyl accident with the primary objective of achieving and maintaining a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through the enhancement of national measures and international cooperation. The CNS is an incentive convention. It defines the basic safety standard which shall be met by the Contracting Parties. The verification of compliance is based on a self-assessment by the Countries and a Peer Review by the other Contracting Parties. As of July 2015, there are 78 Contracting Parties. Among the Contracting Parties of the Convention are all countries operating nuclear power plants except the Islamic Republic of Iran and Taiwan, all countries constructing nuclear power plants, all countries having nuclear power plants in long term shutdown and all countries having signed contracts for the construction of nuclear power plants. The National Reports under the CNS therefore cover almost all nuclear power plants of the world. The peer review of reports, questions and answers that are exchanged in connection with the Review Meetings provided a unique overview of nuclear safety provisions and issues in countries planning or operating nuclear power plants. This is especially important for neighbouring countries to those operating nuclear power plants.

  2. PUBLIC POLICY VIOLATION UNDER NEW YORK CONVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ayu Chinta Kristy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of the use of arbitration in Asia has highlighted the significant influence of the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards. The New York Convention currently becomes the most widely accepted convention to which the courts would refer when recognizing and enforcing foreign arbitral awards. This article would firstly provide a comparative study of the court’s interpretation towards public policy as mentioned under Article V (2 b of the New York Convention between non-arbitration-friendly-law Indonesia and arbitration-friendly-law China. Subsequently, it will discuss whether uniformity in interpreting and reserving public policy is required or not. Peningkatan jumlah penggunaan lembaga arbitrasi di Asia mendorong peningkatan signifikansi pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Konvensi New York saat ini menjadi konvensi yang diterima secara luas dimana dijadikan referensi oleh pengadilan dalam hal pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Artikel ini akan pertama-tama membahas studi perbandingan atas interpretasi pengadilan mengenai penggunaan kebijakan publik sebagaimana tertera pada Pasal V (2 b Konvensi New York antara Indonesia yang hukumnya tidak mendukung dan China dengan hukum yang mendukung pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Apakah keseragaman antar negara dalam menginterpretasi dan menggunakan kebijakan publik diperlukan atau tidak dibahas pada diskusi selanjutnya.

  3. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  4. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  5. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  6. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  7. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  8. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  9. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-01-01

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  10. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  11. Joint Protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 21 May 1963, and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960 (as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 26 November 1982) adopted by the Conference on the Relationships between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, jointly convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development at the Headquarters on the IAEA in Vienna, on 21 September 1988, is reproduced. It entered into force on 27 April 1992

  12. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  13. Bridging the Information Gap: American Youth Perceptions on Torture and Civilian Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Emily

    2011-01-01

    A recent survey commissioned by the American Red Cross about the attitudes of the post-9/11 generation toward the Geneva Conventions reveals that 59% of youth, compared with 51% of adults, believe that torturing the enemy is always or sometimes acceptable. The Geneva Conventions are at the core of international humanitarian law (IHL) and protect…

  14. The sustainability transition. Beyond conventional development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, P.; Chadwick, M.; Jackson, T.; Leach, G.

    1996-10-01

    This paper synthesizes findings of the first phase in SEI`s PoleStar Project - a project aimed at developing long-term strategies and policies for sustainable development. Taking a global and long-range perspective, the paper aims to describe a theoretical framework for addressing sustainability, to identify emerging issues and outline directions for future action. The paper begins by setting today`s development and environmental challenges in historical context, and describing the scenario method for envisioning and evaluating alternative futures, and identifying propitious areas for policy and action. It next summarizes a detailed scenario based on conventional development assumptions, and discusses the implications of this scenario for demographic and economic patterns, energy and water resources, land resources and agriculture, and pollution loads and the environment to the year 2050. The conventional scenario relies in part on the sectorally-oriented work discussed in Papers 3 through 6 of the PoleStar Project report series, and makes use of the PoleStar System, software designed for integrated resource, environment and socio-economic accounting and scenario analysis (described in Paper 2). The paper then examines the critical risks to social, resource and environmental systems lying ahead on the conventional development path. Finally, the paper surveys the requirements for sustainability across a number of policy dimensions, and raises key questions for the future. The PoleStar Project is proceeding to examine a range of alternative development scenarios, in the context of the work of the regionally-diverse Global Scenario Group, convened by SEI. The hope remains to offer wise counsel for a transition to an equitable, humane and sustainable future for the global community. 144 refs, 30 figs, 9 tabs

  15. The sustainability transition. Beyond conventional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, P.; Chadwick, M.; Jackson, T.; Leach, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper synthesizes findings of the first phase in SEI's PoleStar Project - a project aimed at developing long-term strategies and policies for sustainable development. Taking a global and long-range perspective, the paper aims to describe a theoretical framework for addressing sustainability, to identify emerging issues and outline directions for future action. The paper begins by setting today's development and environmental challenges in historical context, and describing the scenario method for envisioning and evaluating alternative futures, and identifying propitious areas for policy and action. It next summarizes a detailed scenario based on conventional development assumptions, and discusses the implications of this scenario for demographic and economic patterns, energy and water resources, land resources and agriculture, and pollution loads and the environment to the year 2050. The conventional scenario relies in part on the sectorally-oriented work discussed in Papers 3 through 6 of the PoleStar Project report series, and makes use of the PoleStar System, software designed for integrated resource, environment and socio-economic accounting and scenario analysis (described in Paper 2). The paper then examines the critical risks to social, resource and environmental systems lying ahead on the conventional development path. Finally, the paper surveys the requirements for sustainability across a number of policy dimensions, and raises key questions for the future. The PoleStar Project is proceeding to examine a range of alternative development scenarios, in the context of the work of the regionally-diverse Global Scenario Group, convened by SEI. The hope remains to offer wise counsel for a transition to an equitable, humane and sustainable future for the global community. 144 refs, 30 figs, 9 tabs

  16. Unconventional applications of conventional intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.; Matter, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A number of conventional intrusion detection sensors exists for the detection of persons entering buildings, moving within a given volume, and crossing a perimeter isolation zone. Unconventional applications of some of these sensors have recently been investigated. Some of the applications which are discussed include detection on the edges and tops of buildings, detection in storm sewers, detection on steam and other types of large pipes, and detection of unauthorized movement within secure enclosures. The enclosures can be used around complicated control valves, electrical control panels, emergency generators, etc

  17. CONVENTIONAL INTERSECTION OF GEOMETRIC SOLIDS IN AUTOCAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELEA Gheorghe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional intersection presented to the students at the Descriptive Geometry lecture, consists in the determination of the intersection points between lines and planes. The lines are the edges or the generatrixes of a solid and the planes are the faces of the other solid. For solving the problem there are used auxiliary planes that contain edges of solids. In the paper it is presented a working method for determining the intersection by using the same method as the one used at AutoCAD computer code.

  18. 9th Structural Engineering Convention 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents research papers presented by academicians, researchers, and practicing structural engineers from India and abroad in the recently held Structural Engineering Convention (SEC) 2014 at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi during 22 – 24 December 2014. The book is divided into three volumes and encompasses multidisciplinary areas within structural engineering, such as earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, structural mechanics, finite element methods, structural vibration control, advanced cementitious and composite materials, bridge engineering, and soil-structure interaction. Advances in Structural Engineering is a useful reference material for structural engineering fraternity including undergraduate and postgraduate students, academicians, researchers and practicing engineers.

  19. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  20. The convention of Dukagjini of 1602

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Tetaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In November 1601, in Dukagjin village, the Assembly of Dukagjin was gathered until 15-th of February. 2656 delegates, secular and religious, from 14 Albanian regions (Highland of Shkodra, Zadrima, Dukagjini, Kosova, Lezha, Kurbini, Mat, Dibra, Petrela, Durres, Elbasan, Shpat and Myzeqe took part. The assembly was run by Nikolle Bardhi, Gjin Gjergji and Nikolle Mekjashi. It was decided to start fighting for liberation from Ottoman invaders. Decisions taken by Assembly were signed by 56 leaders, 4 delegates for each region. Main objective of this manuscript is the historical analysis of Dukagjini Convention of 1602.

  1. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  2. The counter-conventional mindsets of entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, J

    2017-01-01

    These days, it seems, nearly everyone aspires to be an entrepreneur. But many entrepreneurs think and act differently than the ways in which most other businesspeople do and the ways much of today’s business education encourages them to think and act. My in-depth examination of dozens of entrepreneurs I’ve come to know well over the past two decades tells me that their unconventional – or, dare I say, counter-conventional – mindsets and behaviors are marked by six common patterns:\\ud “Yes, we...

  3. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  4. Arthritis: Conventional and Advanced Radiological Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adviye Ergun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritides are acute or chronic inflammation of one or more joints. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, but there are more than 100 different forms. Right and early diagnosis is extremely important for the prevention of eventual structural and functional disability of the affected joint. Imaging findings, especially those of advanced level imaging, play a major role in diagnosis and monitor the progression of arthritis or its response to therapy. The objective of the review is to discuss the findings of conventional and advanced radiological imaging of most common arthritides and to present a simplified approach for their radiological evaluation.

  5. Conventional high pressure techniques fro neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuki, Jun-ichiro; Endoh, Yasuo

    1981-01-01

    Conventional high pressure techniques using a clamped type pressure cell have been adapted for studies by neutron diffraction. Careful calibration of the pressure sensing apparatus and an appropriate choice of pressure transmitting medium enable accurate neutron diffraction measurements to be made at reduced temperature as low as 4 K. In the present studies we have demonstrated that using the clamped type microbomb neutron diffraction measurements can be easily made under the pressure up to 5 kbar within the temperature range 4 K - 350 K. (author)

  6. Conventional myelography - evaluation of risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.

    1989-01-01

    While the benefit and methodic risk of conventional myelography (KMG) are known, a radiation risk of 0.04 to 0.9 annual radiation-induced cancers can be estimated for all inhabitants of the GDR, dependent on the investigated region and the technique used. An optimized technique can reduce the radiation burden to 50 or 25%. With comparable values of benefit and radiation risk spinal CT and KMG are not contradictory but complementary investigations. Alternative methods (MRT, US) must not be discussed from the standpoint of radiation burden, but according to their availability and their methodic limitations. (author)

  7. Trauma: Conventional radiologic study in spine injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book includes a discussion of the anatomy of the spinal cord and descriptions of methods for tailored radiologic investigation of spine trauma. Most of the text is devoted to the analysis and classification of spinal injury by radiologic signs and mode of injury. The author addresses injury to the entire spine but emphasizes the cervical spine. Plain radiography and conventional tomography are the only imaging methods discussed. The author stresses the active role of the attending radiologist in directing every phase of the x-ray study. Many subtle variations in patient positioning plus beam direction and angulation are described

  8. Examining the global health arena: strengths and weaknesses of a convention approach to global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just Balstad; Siem, Harald; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2010-01-01

    The article comprises a conceptual framework to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a global health convention. The analyses are inspired by Lawrence Gostin's suggested Framework Convention on Global Health. The analytical model takes a starting-point in events tentatively following a logic sequence: Input (global health funding), Processes (coordination, cooperation, accountability, allocation of aid), Output (definition of basic survival needs), Outcome (access to health services), and Impact (health for all). It then examines to what degree binding international regulations can create order in such a sequence of events. We conclude that a global health convention could be an appropriate instrument to deal with some of the problems of global health. We also show that some of the tasks preceding a convention approach might be to muster international support for supra-national health regulations, negotiate compromises between existing stakeholders in the global health arena, and to utilize WHO as a platform for further discussions on a global health convention. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention.

  10. American Elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2006-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus americana) is a valuable and sentimental tree species that was decimated by Dutch elm disease in the mid-20th century. Therefore, any methods for modifying American elm or enhancing disease resistance are significant. This protocol describes transformation and tissue culture techniques used on American elm. Leaf pieces containing the midvein and petiole are used for explants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is used for transformation, with the binary vector pSE39, containing CaMV35S/nptII as a selectable marker, ACS2/ESF39A as a putative resistance enhancing gene, and CaMV35S/GUS as a reporter.

  11. Lolita - the American nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  12. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  13. Compulsory Licensing of Journalists: Protection or Restraint? A Discussion on the Inter-American Court of Human Rights' Advisory Opinion on the Costa Rica Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Patricia

    In 1985 the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that a Costa Rican statute requiring journalists to be licensed violates the American Convention on Human Rights and, by extension, all human rights conventions. Though press freedom advocates hailed it as a major triumph for freedom of expression, the court's ruling was only advisory and has…

  14. Alternative conventional defense postures in the European theater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.D.; Kennedy, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is about change: in the Soviet Union, in Eastern Europe, and how we in the West should respond. Few observers of the international scene, even in their wildest dreams, could have imagined the course of events that have taken place in Europe since early 1989. The communist system came to a dead end. Old social, economic, political, and psychological recipes no longer were acceptable, either in the Soviet Union or in Eastern Europe. Soviet leadership had only two choices: repress change in Eastern Europe and demand continued sacrifices from its own people, or press forward on the road of economic reform and political restructuring at home and the pursuit of new relationships abroad. The three volumes on Alternative Conventional Defense Postures in the European Theater contributed significantly to the current debate in Europe and in the United States on the future of European security. As an outgrowth of a German-American workshop at the Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the two editors have succeeded in bringing together statesmen, soldiers, and civilian defense specialist from the Federal Republic, the United States, and the Soviet Union, who represent a variety of schools of political and strategic thinking

  15. The Asian Psychological Association founding convention, Bali, Indonesia, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The First Convention of the Asian Psychological Association (APsyA) was held in Bali from 18-20th August 2006. This historic event marked the founding of the APsyA which is the first association in the Asian region with an individual membership spanning the whole field of psychology. The Conference was organized under the presidency of Sarlito Sarwono and was supported institutionally by the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Indonesia, Tarumanagara University, the Catholic University of Indonesia, the Indonesian Police Force, the International Council of Psychologists, Division 52 (International Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and the International Association of Applied Psychology. The Conference attracted over 120 participants from 17 countries; its Scientific Program covered matters such as indigenous Asian psychology, the contributions of psychology towards national development, and special issues in Asia. The principal symposium of the Conference dealt with terrorism and covered research into the psychology of terrorists, the process by which people become terrorists, and the rehabilitation of terrorists.

  16. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing

  17. Implementation of the Aarhus convention - A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Malis Sazdovska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legislation on global and regional level in the field of environmental protection is characterized by the adoption of international conventions and agreements that attempt to regulate this matter legally. As an extremely important area, which exceeds the boundaries of nation-state and as a global environmental problem, the issues of environmental protection are a major concern to international organizations. It is directly linked to reducing the jurisdiction of the States and transfer of competences to international organizations and institutions in order to solve the problems in a global experience. In order to overcome the problems regarding the implementation of international documents, the creation of certain policies by international organizations and institutions is required to promote the idea of environmental protection as a basic mo$ o of the global world. Taking into account the recommendations of Brundtland Commission, humanity has a moral obligation to preserve natural resources for future generations. Main objective of this article is the presentation of research on the implementation of the Aarhus Convention and the proposal of measures for the creation of ideas and policies on improving access to information in the field. The research is done with the students from the faculty of Security which accessed the information in environmental matters.

  18. China, India and a global convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, Toufiq

    1992-01-01

    There is anticipation that a global climate convention will be forthcoming at the UNCED Conference, to be held in Brazil in June 1992. A major focus in discussions will be on the reduction of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) from the use of fossil fuels. The countries of Asia, with the exception of Japan, were relatively small users of fossil fuels until the 1970s. This situation has changed dramatically in the past two decades. With the major contribution of the Asian countries to CO 2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, it is clear that they will have to be active participants in the drafting and implementation of an international convention to limit such emissions. This would have substantial implications for energy policies throughout the region, as well as on energy trade worldwide, since energy sources represent the largest commodity in global trade. Since the energy situation in these countries varies greatly, the policy options have to be examined on a country-specific basis. China and India, the two most populous countries in the world, are among the top seven emitters of CO 2 from energy use and are the largest emitters in the developing world. Their participation would be crucial to the success of any global agreement. (author)

  19. Microlaparoscopy versus conventional laparoscopy in transperitoneal pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Aaron D; Juliano, Trisha M; Viprakasit, Davis P; Herrell, S Duke

    2014-12-01

    Laparoscopic pyeloplasty has emerged as the gold standard for repair of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Microlaparoscopic (MLP, MLP, using a 5-mm camera in a hidden umbilical incision, and 1.9 or 3 mm working instruments and compared with patients undergoing conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty (CLP). The data for MLP and CLP were compared using the Student t test, Pearson chi-square test, and Fisher exact test, where appropriate. Between January 2009 and May 2013, there were 19 MLP and 27 CLP procedures performed. The MLP group mean age was younger than the CLP group (34 vs 50 years; P=0.0003). Body mass index, previous treatment rates, operative time, length of stay, ureteral stent duration, and complication rates were not statistically different between the MLP and CLP groups. Strict success rates (indicated by follow-up renal scan T½MLP and CLP groups (89.5% vs 88.9%; P=0.95). No MLP procedures were converted to CLP or open approaches. From technical, perioperative, and outcome perspectives, transperitoneal pyeloplasty with microlaparoscopy is both safe and feasible in our hands compared with conventional laparoscopy, and results in subjectively superior cosmesis. This is the largest MLP series to date and contains, to our knowledge, the only cases described using prototype 1.9 mm instruments.

  20. Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Implant Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gianneschi, Grace E.; Gallucci, German O.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of digital impressions greatly influences the clinical viability in implant restorations. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of gypsum models acquired from the conventional implant impression to digitally milled models created from direct digitalization by three-dimensional analysis. Thirty gypsum and 30 digitally milled models impressed directly from a reference model were prepared. The models were scanned by a laboratory scanner and 30 STL datasets from each group were imported to an inspection software. The datasets were aligned to the reference dataset by a repeated best fit algorithm and 10 specified contact locations of interest were measured in mean volumetric deviations. The areas were pooled by cusps, fossae, interproximal contacts, horizontal and vertical axes of implant position and angulation. The pooled areas were statistically analysed by comparing each group to the reference model to investigate the mean volumetric deviations accounting for accuracy and standard deviations for precision. Milled models from digital impressions had comparable accuracy to gypsum models from conventional impressions. However, differences in fossae and vertical displacement of the implant position from the gypsum and digitally milled models compared to the reference model, exhibited statistical significance (p<0.001, p=0.020 respectively). PMID:24720423

  1. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Costs Associated With Single-Use and Conventional Sets for Distal Radius Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugarino, Bryce; Fox, Mary Patricia; Terhoeve, Cristina; Pappas, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Volar plating of distal radius fractures is an increasingly common procedure. Presterilized, single-use volar plate fixation sets have been purported to increase operating room efficiency and decrease cost. The purpose of this study was to compare the actual cost of using a conventional set compared with the projected cost of using its single-use counterpart. We retrospectively analyzed 30 consecutive cases of volar plate fixation in which conventional instrument sets were used. Hardware and processing costs were calculated for the conventional sets and compared with the projected cost of using single-use sets. The mean total cost of hardware and processing for the conventional sets was $2,728, whereas the projected cost for the single-use sets was slightly higher at $2,868. Twenty-three of the 30 cases would have required additional screws not available in the single-use set. The cost of the additional screws needed to supplement the single-use set would have added an average of $282/case. Overall, the combined hardware and processing cost was lower for conventional sets in 25 of the 30 cases. Although the price of the single-use set is less than the mean charge for use of a conventional set, additional screws not available in the single-use set were required in 77% of cases and consequently rendered the conventional set cheaper in 83% of cases. Stocking the single-use sets with additional screws to reflect the most commonly used screw lengths could make these sets more cost effective in the future. Economic and decision analysis IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  4. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  5. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  6. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  7. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Sickle Cell Priorities Lymphoma Roadmap Moonshot Initiative ...

  8. American Society of Anesthesiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trauma ASA and CAE Healthcare’s virtual O.R. Popular Courses Member Exclusive Difficult Airway Algorithm Member login ... You Industry Supporters Whose contributions allow the American Society of Anesthesiologists ® to create world-class education and ...

  9. American Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMA Wire For healthy individual market, keep tax rules that spur coverage Senate tax plan would scrap ... Foundation AMA Insurance Copyright 1995 - 2017 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Terms of Use Privacy Policy ...

  10. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  11. Singing American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  12. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  13. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans live with heart disease, stroke or a cardiovascular condition. Your donation will help us save and improve their lives with research, education and emergency care. Warning Signs If you or someone else is ...

  14. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  15. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vietnamese, 46 percent of Chinese, 23 percent of Filipinos and 21 percent of Asian Indians are not fluent in English. In 2015, 75.5 percent of Asian American spoke a language other than English at home. Educational Attainment: According ...

  16. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    NATO: Revisiting American Commitment by Captain Thomas F Hurley II United States Navy United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO: Revisiting American Commitment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the 21st century. The strategic benefit to the United States may no longer be worth the commitment to the alliance. The U.S. should reevaluate its

  17. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  18. African Anglo American

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    1993-11-01

    The South-African based Anglo-American Corp. dominates the mining industries of South Africa and Botswana and is very important in Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Most recently it has started prospecting in Tanzania once again. This article discusses the corporation's interests in Africa, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, nickel and coal, and its interest in South American copper and various African metal industries. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. [Equal rights for women and the United Nations convention in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, M I

    1991-12-01

    Although Latin American institutions have, directly or indirectly, established the juridical equality of the sexes, institutional power continues to be concentrated in the hands of men. It is necessary that Latin American governments seek ways to eliminate the legal, cultural, economic, political and social discrimination that persists against women in these patriarchal societies if men and women are to enjoy equality of rights. Today, instruments such as the Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women approved by the UN in 1979 and ratified by all Latin American countries, have succeeded in establishing the concept of improvement of the status of women as a legislative right supported by international juridical principles. International recognition of human rights has meant that all restrictions against women in the public and private realms are to be regarded as discrimination. Previously, family law was based on traditional customs which accepted that the roles and obligations of men and women were different. Although most Latin American countries now have laws recognizing the equality of rights and obligations of men and women, women continue to be in a secondary position. Poverty, scarcity of resources, and the economic crisis not only impede improvement in the status of women but have led to increases in female unemployment. Another obstacle is the lack of a true political will to improve the status of women. The UN convention on elimination of discrimination obliges each ratifying nation to strive not just for equality or rights but for equality of enjoyment of these rights. Each government should adopt measures to overcome discrimination. Among measures adopted by governments to achieve equality have been incorporation of the principle of equality into the national constitution and creation of offices or ministries for women that are distinct from those for the family or youth. The Committee for Elimination of Discrimination

  20. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    conventionally produced milk and provide product verification. Lack of research on interactions between several influential factors and differences in trial complexity and consistency between studies (e.g., sampling period, sample size, reporting of experimental conditions) complicate data interpretation and prevent us from making unequivocal conclusions. The first part of this review provides a detailed summary of individual factors known to influence milk composition. The second part presents an overview of studies that have compared organic and conventional milk and discusses their findings within the framework of the various factors presented in part one. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  2. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  3. Conventional radiology: fixed installations in medical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the different procedures, the different types of specific hazards, the analysis of risks, their assessment and the preventive methods with regard to radioprotection in the case of fixed conventional radiology equipment in medical environment. It indicates and describes the concerned personnel, the course of procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels (definition of regulated areas, personnel categories), the strategy aimed at controlling the risk (risk reduction, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention, incident), the different measures of medical monitoring, the assessment of risk control, and other risks. An appendix proposes an example of workstation assessment

  4. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and conventional surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to present the efficacy and indications for application of conventional surgical treatment of retinal detachment by using external implants, that is,application of encircling band and buckle. This study comprised patients from the University Eye Clinic in Skopje. A total of 33 patients were diagnosed and surgically treated in the period between May 2010 and August 2011. Conventional surgery was applied in smaller number of patients whose changes of the vitreous body were manifested by detachment of posterior hyaloid membrane, syneresis, with appearance of a small number of pigment cells in the vitreous body and synchysis, and the very retina was with fresh detachment without folds or epiretinal changes (that is, PVR A grade). There were a larger number of patients with more distinct proliferative changes of the vitreous body and of the retina, grades PVR B to C1-C2, and who also underwent the same surgical approach. Routine ophthalmologic examinations were performed, including: determination of visual acuity by Snellen's optotypes, determination of eye pressure with Schiotz's tonometer, examination of anterior segment on biomicroscopy, indirect biomicroscopy of posterior eye segment (vitreous body and retina) and examination on biomicroscopy with Goldmann prism, B scan echography of the eyes before and after surgical treatment. Conventional treatment was used by external application of buckle or application of buckle and encircling band. In case of one break, radial buckle was applied and in case of multiple breaks in one quadrant limbus parallel buckle was applied. Besides buckle, encircling band was applied in patients with total or subtotal retinal detachment with already present distinct changes in the vitreous body (PVR B or C1-C2) and degenerative changes in the vitreous body. Breaks were closed with cryopexy. The results obtained have shown that male gender was predominant and that the disease was manifested in younger male adults

  5. DPL performance analysis strategy with conventional workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Nobuhito; Inazuki, Yuichi; Sutou, Takanori; Nagai, Takaharu; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Miyazaki, Junji; Chen, Alek; Samarakone, Nandasiri

    2007-10-01

    DPL (Double Patterning Lithography) has been in public as one of candidates for 45nm or 32nm HP since ITRS2006update disclosed. A lot of report of the performances and issues regarding to DPL were published. The current main concerns are evaluation of the infrastructures such as decomposition software, advanced photomasks, higher-NA exposure tool and leading-edge hard-mask process. If there is simpler procedure to evaluate DPL using a conventional environment without hard-mask process, the development of DPL will be accelerated. Here, the simple evaluation procedure for DPL using actual photomasks combining double exposure technique was proposed. The pseudo DPL result in terms of mask CD uniformity, image placement and overlay were demonstrated. In this evaluation procedure, decomposition restriction, mask latitude and fabrication load were also discussed

  6. Suggested notation conventions for rotational seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    We note substantial inconsistency among authors discussing rotational motions observed with inertial seismic sensors (and much more so in the broader topic of rotational phenomena). Working from physics and other precedents, we propose standard terminology and a preferred reference frame for inertial sensors (Fig. 1) that may be consistently used in discussions of both finite and infinitesimal observed rotational and translational motions in seismology and earthquake engineering. The scope of this article is limited to observations because there are significant differences in the analysis of finite and infinitesimal rotations, though such discussions should remain compatible with those presented here where possible. We recommend the general use of the notation conventions presented in this tutorial, and we recommend that any deviations or alternatives be explicitly defined.

  7. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  8. Feldenkrais versus conventional exercises for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, G M; Herbert, C P; Brown, S R

    1977-09-01

    Tenants in retirement housing given a 6-week program of Feldenkrais exercises were compared with a group given conventional exercises and with control groups given no exercises. Analysis of covariance of preliminary and subsequent measurements failed to yield any significant differences between groups. Measurements included height, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, balance, flexibility, morale, self-perceived health status and level of performance of activities of daily living, also the number of body parts difficult to move or giving rise to pain. Several possible reasons are given for the results. Attention is drawn to the necessity of medically screening and monitoring elderly registrants for exercise programs since it is apparent that some sign up who should not.

  9. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...

  10. Phytochemicals as Adjunctive with Conventional Anticancer Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is defined as the abnormal proliferations of cells which could occur in any tissue and can cause life-threatening malignancies with high financial costs for both patients and health care system. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are shown to have positive role in various diseases and conditions. The aim of the present study is to summarize clinical evidences on the benefits of phytochemicals as adjuvant therapy along with conventional anticancer therapies. Electronic databases including Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library were searched with the keywords "chemotherapeutic", "anticancer", "antineoplastic" or "radiotherapy" with "plant", "extract", "herb", or "phytochemical", until July 2015. Only clinical studies were included in this review. The findings showed that positive effects of phytochemicals are due to their direct anticarcinogenic activity, induction of relief in cancer complications, as well as their protective role against side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Results obtained from current review demonstrated that numerous phytochemical agents from different chemical categories including alkaloid, benzopyran, coumarin, carotenoid, diarylheptanoid, flavonoid, indole, polysaccharide, protein, stilbene, terpene, and xanthonoid possess therapeutic effect in patients with different types of cancer. Polyphenols are the most studied components. Curcumin, ginsenosides, lycopene, homoharringtonine, aviscumine, and resveratrol are amongst the major components with remarkable volumes of clinical evidence indicating their direct anticancer activities in different types of cancer including hepatocarcinoma, prostate cancer, leukemia and lymphoma, breast and ovarian cancer, and gastrointestinal cancers. Cannabinoids, cumarin, curcumin, ginsenosides, epigallocatechin gallate, vitexin, and salidroside are phytochemicals with significant alleviative effect on synthetic chemotherapy- induced toxicities. There is lack of evidence from clinical

  11. Innovation and the Development Convention in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stefano Erber

    2004-01-01

    means to achieving fast and stable economic growth. Nonetheless, the degree of endogenous technical innovation in Brazil remains very low. This paper explores the conjecture that the latter result is a consequence of the hegemonic view of development. The first section presents some quantitative and qualitative data to support our assertion about the innovativeness of the Brazilian economy. The second section argues that the “view of development” may be profitably treated as a “convention”, a set of beliefs shared by decision-makers and used to identify the main issues which a development strategy has to tackle and the appropriate means to address such issues. A development convention contains also a “negative” agenda — issues and solutions which should be avoided. The same section then analyses the development convention which was hegemonic from the nineties to the date of the paper (2002 and the implications of its positive and negative agendas for technological development, assuming such convention had worked as its supporters supposed it would. It argues that the theoretical results are consistent with the facts described in the first section. The last section comments the actual working of the development convention, arguing that it stressed the main technological features present in the “pure form” of the convention and concludes with a brief discussion of the role of innovation in a new development convention which seemed to be arising at that time.

  12. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, Beta

    2008-01-01

    The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discove...

  13. HLA typing: Conventional techniques v.next-generation sequencing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generation sequencing (NGS) has numerous advantages compared with conventional typing techniques. ..... SSP = sequence-specific primers; bold font highlights the differences observed between conventional techniques and MR and HR.

  14. Uncertainty, Conventions and Co-ordination in the Business Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The paper presents the basic propositions of convention theory with special consideration to the analysis of uncertainty, the role of institutions and conventions, and the implications this perspective has for the analysis of the business enterprise...

  15. Scoring biosecurity in European conventional broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Limbergen, T; Dewulf, J; Klinkenberg, M; Ducatelle, R; Gelaude, P; Méndez, J; Heinola, K; Papasolomontos, S; Szeleszczuk, P; Maes, D

    2018-01-01

    Good biosecurity procedures are crucial for healthy animal production. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of biosecurity on conventional broiler farms in Europe, following a standardized procedure, thereby trying to identify factors that are amenable to improvement. The current study used a risk-based weighted scoring system (biocheck.ugent ®) to assess the level of biosecurity on 399 conventional broiler farms in 5 EU member states. The scoring system consisted of 2 main categories, namely external and internal biosecurity, which had 8 and 3 subcategories, respectively. Biosecurity was quantified by converting the answers to 97 questions into a score from 0 to 100. The minimum score, "0," represents total absence of any biosecurity measure on the broiler farm, whereas the maximum score, "100," means full application of all investigated biosecurity measures. A possible correlation between biosecurity and farm characteristics was investigated by multivariate linear regression analysis. The participating broiler farms scored better for internal biosecurity (mean score of 76.6) than for external biosecurity (mean 68.4). There was variation between the mean biosecurity scores for the different member states, ranging from 59.8 to 78.0 for external biosecurity and from 63.0 to 85.6 for internal biosecurity. Within the category of external biosecurity, the subcategory related to "infrastructure and vectors" had the highest mean score (82.4), while the subcategory with the lowest score related to biosecurity procedures for "visitors and staff" (mean 51.5). Within the category of internal biosecurity, the subcategory "disease management" had the highest mean score (65.8). In the multivariate regression model a significant negative correlation was found between internal biosecurity and the number of employees and farm size. These findings indicate that there is a lot of variation for external and internal biosecurity on the participating broiler farms

  16. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  17. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention [fr

  18. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  19. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention [es

  20. A Novel Approach to Digitizing a Conventional Cephalometric Film

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Varghese Thomas; Shino Mathew; Sujith Sivarajan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cephalometry is an essential tool in clinical and research orthodontics. We present a novel technique to digitize a conventional radiograph using a conventional scanner. Materials and methods: A LED light panel view was used to illuminate the radiograph during the scanning process of a conventional flatbed scanner. Result: A dimensionally accurate digital image of a conventional radiograph was obtained with good contrast, density and resolution. Conclusion: This n...

  1. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends, Fashions, Patterns, Norms, Conventions...and Hypertext Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Einat

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the theory behind the formation of language conventions, then reveals conventions evolving in the community of people writing hypertext on the Web. Demonstrates how these conventions can be used to augment and shift the meaning of already published hypertexts. Describes the system called InCommonSense, which reuses particular hypertext…

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  4. 30 CFR 75.206 - Conventional roof support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.206 Conventional roof support. (a) Except in anthracite mines using non-mechanized mining systems, when conventional roof support... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional roof support. 75.206 Section 75...

  5. Paleontología y ambientes sedimentarios del Triásico medio, Muschelkalk, de la Cordillera Ibérica 1: Cuencas y Valencia. España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gómez, J.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The Muscbelkalk Facies of tbe SE. Iberian Ranges is formed by tbe Landete Dolomites (d.L., Mas Sandstones, Marls and Gypsum (a.m.y.M and Cañete Dolomites and Limestone (d.c.C. Formations. This paper deals on tbe paleontology and sedimentary environments of the two carbonatic Formations (d.L. and d.c.C.. Ten sections all over the area have been studied in detail and nine facies associations, each one formed by sequences less than 2m. thick, have been differenciated. Possibly, due to the dolomitization, fossil register is in general considered to be scaree and badly preserved. The analysis of the sequences reveals three different subenvironments (shoal, lagoon and sabkha. Two episodes can be differenciated for each carbonatic formation during the development of the depositional system: first, a short-lived transgression fol1owed by a longer regresive period. By far, the most abundant fossils are Molluscs of Bivalvia Class, forming a benthonic association dominated by suspensivores. The bivalves are found in both carbonated units, although in the upper one the faunistic richness and specific diversity are higher.The taphonomic analysis reveals some autochtonous associations in both formations. The bivalve association found at the last beds of the upper Muschelkalk Facies of the lberian Ranges is known as tbe «Teruel Fauna», well represented in the Villora and Henarejos sections. The association consists on endo and epibisate Bivalves and some cemented ones, and represents different shallow carbonatic marine subenvironments. A Section Type has been cboosen and divided into 4 and 5 main levels or parts (for d.L. and d.c.C. respectively. Each of these parts is dominated by the abundance of one of the facies associations.Las unidades dolomías de Landete (d. L., areniscas, margas y yesos del Mas (a.m.y.M. y dolomías y calizas de Cañete (d.c.C. (Anisiense-parte inferior del Camiense, Triásico mediosuperior de base a techo respectivamente

  6. Non-conventional fuel tax credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeoet, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Coal-seam methane, along with certain other non-conventional fuels, is eligible for a tax credit. This production tax credit allowed coal-seam methane producers to receive $0.7526 per million Btu of gas sold during 1986. In 1987, this credit rose to $0.78 per million Btu. The tax credit is a very significant element of the economic analysis of current coal-seam methane projects. In today's spot market, gas prices are around $1.50 per million Btu. Allowing for costs of production, the gas producer will net more income from the tax credit than from the sale of the gas. The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 is the source of this tax credit. There were some minor changes made by subsequent legislation, but most of the tax credit has remained intact. Wells must be drilled by 1990 to qualify for the tax credit but the production from such wells is eligible for the tax credit until 2001. Projections have been made, showing that the tax credit should increase to $0.91 per million Btu for production in 1990 and $1.34 per million Btu in 2000. Variables which may decrease the tax credit from these projections are dramatically lower oil prices or general economic price deflation

  7. Conventional - Frontier and east coast supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of frontier basins in Canada with proven potential for petroleum resources was provided. A prediction of which frontier basin will become a major supplier of conventional light oil was made by examining where companies are investing in frontier exploration today. Frontier land values for five active frontier areas were discussed. These included the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia Offshore, Western Newfoundland, the southern Northwest Territories and the Central Mackenzie Valley. The focus of this presentation was on three of these regions which are actually producing: Newfoundland's Grand Banks, offshore Nova Scotia and the Mackenzie Valley. Activities in each of these areas were reviewed. The Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board has listed Hibernia's reserves at 666 million barrels. The Sable Offshore Energy Project on the continental shelf offshore Nova Scotia proposes to develop 5.4 tcf of gas plus 75 million barrels of NGLs over a project life of 14 years. In the Mackenzie Valley there are at least three petroleum systems, including the 235 million barrel pool at Norman Wells. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  8. Immunity to rotavirus in conventional neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderfecht, S L; Osburn, B I

    1982-11-01

    The local and systemic humoral immune responses to rotavirus were studied in six conventional neonatal calves. Attenuated bovine rotavirus was administered either orally or directly into an isolated intestinal loop. The parameters monitored were neutralizing rotavirus antibody in serum, immunofluorescent and neutralizing rotavirus antibody in intestinal loop washings, and rotavirus antibody-producing cells in intestinal mucosa. An antibody response was observed in the serum and intestinal secretions from one calf only. Viral replication was not detected in the isolated intestinal loop. Rotavirus antibody-producing cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of five calves. Double staining revealed that most of these cells produced antibody of the immunoglobulin A class. The conclusions were: (i) a previously described system to detect rotavirus antibody-producing cells can be used to study immune responses in neonatal calves, (ii) the class or subclass of antibody in rotavirus antibody-producing cells can be determined by double immunofluorescent staining, (iii) neonatal calves respond to rotavirus inoculation with a local immunoglobulin A response, and (iv) most of the rotavirus antibody-producing cells are located in the mucosa of the proximal small intestine.

  9. Challenging convention: symbolic interactionism and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.

  10. Minamata Convention on Mercury. Reporting obligations of the Parties to the Convention and the sources of data existing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecka-Jastrząb, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    After that, when more than 60 years ago in the Japanese city of Minamata there was caused a mass poisoning of residents by seafood contaminated with mercury, Minamata Convention on Mercury came into force on August 16, 2017. To date, the Convention has been signed by 128 States, the signatories of the Convention and ratified by 83 States - Parties to the Convention. The Convention imposes a number of obligations on the Parties to the Convention, including the reporting obligation. The paper analyses the reporting obligations of the Parties to the Convention, which are in force after the entry into force of the Convention, pursuant to the provisions contained therein. In addition, the existing sources of quantitative data on mercury in Poland are characterized.

  11. Comparison of BacT/Alert FAN and FAN Plus Bottles with Conventional Medium for Culturing Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, In Young; Chun, Sejong; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-11-01

    We compared the BacT/Alert system FAN and FAN Plus media to conventional media for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 2,545 samples. FAN/FAN Plus bottles showed better performance for isolating microorganisms in CSF than conventional media (positive rate, 7.2% [182/2,545] versus 3.1% [80/2,545]). The incremental recovery rate of Cryptococcus neoformans from FAN Plus bottles was higher than that from FAN bottles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Expanding the Secondary Literature Curriculum: Annotated Bibliographies of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Ogle B.; Tongchinsub, Helen J.

    1990-01-01

    Aids teachers looking for literature selections of established literary worth which reflect the diversity of American culture. Discusses briefly the history and development of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American literature. Offers annotated bibliographies of selections appropriate for use in secondary schools. (SR)

  13. Selected alternatives to conventional chlorination. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garey, J.F.

    1980-10-01

    This study was jointly funded by EPRI and five electric utility companies in New England (New England Power, Northeast Utilities, United Illuminating, Vermont Yankee Nuclear, and Public Service of New Hampshire). Previous investigations had identified three major areas for further study: continuous low-level chlorination, dechlorination, and condenser biofouling control. Continuous low-level chlorination, studied at two locations, one on open coastal water and the other in an industrialized estuarine area, showed that 0.1 ppM total residual oxidant (TRO) prevented attachment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to concrete surfaces. Chronic bioassays showed that 0.075 ppM TRO reduced biofouling by indigenous organisms; 0.1 ppM TRO slightly increased mortalities of the Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) but had no effect on the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Dechlorination investigations showed that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia), larval bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and the copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to water chlorinated to 0.5 ppM TRO for 10, 100, and 1000 seconds, followed by dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate, all suffered significant toxic effects. Condenser tube biofouling studies showed that there was a strong correlation between condenser performance and condenser tube biofouling; biofilm induction varied inversely with ambient water temperature, but orientation of the tubes had no effect on biofilm formation; and all chemicals tested (mono-, di-, and trisodium phosphate; Polident; and TRO at 0.1 ppM) reduced but did not remove biofilms.

  14. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...... glasses will at elevated temperatures behave like a highly viscous liquid, which can easily form even complicated geometries in 1 step. The strengths and limitations of forming the 2 materials are analyzed for a micro 3D component in a silver alloy and an Mg-Cu-Y BMG. ©2007 American Institute of Physics...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Biodegradability of Biodiesel obtained by Conventional and Non-Conventional Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja Y. P; Chandrashekhar Biradar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel made from renewable resources. No engine modifications are required to use biodiesel in place of crude oil-based diesel. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Biodiesel also increased catalytic converter efficiency in reducing particulate emissions. Chemical characterization also revealed lower levels of some toxic and reactive hydrocarbo...

  16. A Novel Approach to Digitizing a Conventional Cephalometric Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Varghese Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cephalometry is an essential tool in clinical and research orthodontics. We present a novel technique to digitize a conventional radiograph using a conventional scanner. Materials and methods: A LED light panel view was used to illuminate the radiograph during the scanning process of a conventional flatbed scanner. Result: A dimensionally accurate digital image of a conventional radiograph was obtained with good contrast, density and resolution. Conclusion: This novel technique provides an alternative to expensive equipment for digitizing a conventional radiograph.

  17. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  18. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  19. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Relations Toolkit and Hotline to Get Your Practice and Profession into the Media Audiology News 16 Nov A Movement Was Born: ... Academy of Audiology Publications and Resources Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology ... About Us Academy Information ...

  20. Teaching Asian American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian…

  1. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  2. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  3. Civic Innovation & American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis

    1997-01-01

    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  4. Arab American Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  5. The Native American Speaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Walter; And Others

    This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching…

  6. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  7. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  8. Conventional treatment planning optimization using simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrill, S.M.; Langer, M.; Lane, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Simulated annealing (SA) allows for the implementation of realistic biological and clinical cost functions into treatment plan optimization. However, a drawback to the clinical implementation of SA optimization is that large numbers of beams appear in the final solution, some with insignificant weights, preventing the delivery of these optimized plans using conventional (limited to a few coplanar beams) radiation therapy. A preliminary study suggested two promising algorithms for restricting the number of beam weights. The purpose of this investigation was to compare these two algorithms using our current SA algorithm with the aim of producing a algorithm to allow clinically useful radiation therapy treatment planning optimization. Method: Our current SA algorithm, Variable Stepsize Generalized Simulated Annealing (VSGSA) was modified with two algorithms to restrict the number of beam weights in the final solution. The first algorithm selected combinations of a fixed number of beams from the complete solution space at each iterative step of the optimization process. The second reduced the allowed number of beams by a factor of two at periodic steps during the optimization process until only the specified number of beams remained. Results of optimization of beam weights and angles using these algorithms were compared using a standard cadre of abdominal cases. The solution space was defined as a set of 36 custom-shaped open and wedged-filtered fields at 10 deg. increments with a target constant target volume margin of 1.2 cm. For each case a clinically-accepted cost function, minimum tumor dose was maximized subject to a set of normal tissue binary dose-volume constraints. For this study, the optimized plan was restricted to four (4) fields suitable for delivery with conventional therapy equipment. Results: The table gives the mean value of the minimum target dose obtained for each algorithm averaged over 5 different runs and the comparable manual treatment

  9. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  10. Conventions for reporting and displaying overflight observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, B.; Murphy, J.; Simecek-Beatty, D.

    1993-01-01

    During the critical initial phases of an oil spill response, as observations and reports come in from different agencies and companies, descriptions and representations can vary widely. These apparently conflicting reports can cause unnecessary confusion, wasting valuable time and resources. As the number of open-quotes expertsclose quotes and the amount of open-quotes necessaryclose quotes information multiply, the potential for information overload also increases. Important information that needs to be presented can be lost in the flood of information that is available. For many years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in support of the US Coast Guard, has coordinated scientific input concerning the tracking and prediction of the transport of oil spilled in the marine environment. This role frequently involves recording visual or remote sensing observations from multiple platforms and observers, and displaying the information in a clear format, which needs to be rapidly available and unambiguous. Simple graphic products help identify conflicting views of information and allow responders to quickly build a open-quotes graphic consensusclose quotes of the situation. To this end the authors have developed in-house guidelines for presentation of crucial response information. Because correctly designed graphics can clearly and rapidly transmit large amounts of information, these guidelines focus on the graphic presentation of information. Some of these same conventions and criteria are being applied in evaluating and developing information acquisition and display tools. This poster presentation includes examples of the hardware and software used by Genwest and NOAA for the rapid display of response information

  11. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  12. Joint implementation in the climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkus, H.; Heintz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Climate Change Convention offers developed countries the possibility to realize a part of their obligations elsewhere via financing of emission reduction activities. This so-called joint implementation (JI) enlarges the effectiveness of the international climate change policy. It is assumed that the marginal costs of the emission reductions differ between countries. The application of JI has benefits, but also bears risks. With regard to potential nett benefits and costs/risks it is of interest to distinguish between micro-effects (on a project level), macro-effects (on a national level) and global effects, focusing on JI between OECD countries and developing countries. Five comments on this tripartite are made: (1) it is important to gain insight in the JI potential; (2) JI can contribute to projects of a high development priority; (3) there is a chance that parties, involved in JI, claim more reductions (credits) than take place in reality (double counting); (4) there exists the risk of a delay of technological progress; and (5) the danger exists that JI causes a minor stimulus for developing countries to accept emission reduction obligations. A functional JI-system demands criteria that limits the risks and optimize the benefits. The main criteria concern verification of realized emission reductions; an acceptable balance between measures in one's own country and JI, for which three mechanisms are briefly discussed (partial credit entry, funds, and separated targets); and additionality of JI-financing. Side criteria are the monitoring, verification and control of the possession of the credits. Finally attention is paid to the role of the government in JI and further developments and chances for JI. 7 refs

  13. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  14. The phylogeography of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids is consistent with the geological history of South American river basins and the transoceanic dispersal of Crocodylus at the Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermino, Bruno R; Viola, Laerte B; Paiva, Fernando; Garcia, Herakles A; de Paula, Catia D; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; Hamilton, Patrick B; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2013-10-29

    Little is known about the diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography of trypanosomes infecting non-mammalian hosts. In this study, we investigated the influence of host species and biogeography on shaping the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship, and distribution of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids. Small Subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes were employed for phylogenetic inferences. Trypanosomes from crocodilians were obtained by haemoculturing. Growth behaviour, morphology, and ultrastructural features complement the molecular description of two new species strongly supported by phylogenetic analyses. The inferred phylogenies disclosed a strongly supported crocodilian-restricted clade comprising three subclades. The subclade T. grayi comprised the African Trypanosoma grayi from Crocodylus niloticus and tsetse flies. The subclade T. ralphi comprised alligatorid trypanosomes represented by Trypanosoma ralphi n. sp. from Melanosuchus niger, Caiman crocodilus and Caiman yacare from Brazilian river basins. T. grayi and T. ralphi were sister subclades. The basal subclade T. terena comprised alligatorid trypanosomes represented by Trypanosoma terena n. sp. from Ca. yacare sharing hosts and basins with the distantly genetic related T. ralphi. This subclade also included the trypanosome from Ca. crocodilus from the Orinoco basin in Venezuela and, unexpectedly, a trypanosome from the African crocodilian Osteolaemus tetraspis. The close relationship between South American and African trypanosomes is consistent with paleontological evidence of recent transoceanic dispersal of Crocodylus at the Miocene/Pliocene boundaries (4-5 mya), and host-switching of trypanosomes throughout the geological configuration of South American hydrographical basins shaping the evolutionary histories of the crocodilians and their trypanosomes.

  15. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin conditions, most organic

  16. Unbiased quantitative testing of conventional orthodontic beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-03-01

    This study used a preexisting database to test in hypothesis from the appropriateness of some common orthodontic beliefs concerning upper first molar displacement and changes in facial morphology associated with conventional full bonded/banded treatment in growing subjects. In an initial pass, the author used data from a stratified random sample of 48 subjects drawn retrospectively from the practice of a single, experienced orthodontist. This sample consisted of 4 subgroups of 12 subjects each: Class I nonextraction, Class I extraction, Class II nonextraction, and Class II extraction. The findings indicate that, relative to the facial profile, chin point did not, on average, displace anteriorly during treatment, either overall or in any subgroup. Relative to the facial profile, Point A became significantly less prominent during treatment, both overall and in each subgroup. The best estimate of the mean displacement of the upper molar cusp relative to superimposition on Anterior Cranial Base was in the mesial direction in each of the four subgroups. In only one extraction subject out of 24 did the cusp appear to be displaced distally. Mesial molar cusp displacement was significantly greater in the Class II extraction subgroup than in the Class II nonextraction subgroup. Relative to superimposition on anatomical "best fit" of maxillary structures, the findings for molar cusp displacement were similar, but even more dramatic. Mean mesial migration was highly significant in both the Class II nonextraction and Class II extraction subgroups. In no subject in the entire sample was distal displacement noted relative to this superimposition. Mean increase in anterior Total Face Height was significantly greater in the Class II extraction subgroup than in the Class II nonextraction subgroup. (This finding was contrary to the author's original expectation.) The generalizability of the findings from the initial pass to other treated growing subjects was then assessed by

  17. Cenozoic History of Paleo-Currents through the Central American Seaway: Insights from Deep Sea Sediments and Outcrops in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Paleontologic, oceanographic, and ecologic studies suggest gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway between ~15 to 2 Ma that caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. This diminishing communication has been further associated with changes in surface and deep ocean currents, atmospheric flow, and ultimately regional and global climate. Recent studies of the Isthmus of Panama's exhumation history, palm phylogenies, and fossil/molecularly derived migration rates, however, suggest that the isthmus may have risen much earlier. An earlier rise scenario would call into question many accepted consequences of this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Despite considerable research on the Neogene, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined long-term changes in the adjacent oceans over the Cenozoic to evaluate the potential for earlier events in the closure history of the seaway. In this study, we extend records of bottom water circulation reconstructed from the Nd-isotopes of fish teeth from several Caribbean International Ocean Discovery Program sediment cores (ODP Sites 998, 999, 1000). These reconstructions clearly depict an increase in Pacific volcanism throughout the Cenozoic and sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean basin from ~50 to 9 Ma, although there appear to be interesting complexities within the Caribbean basin itself. We also present preliminary investigations into the potential of Nd-isotopic analyses on fossil fish teeth recovered from outcrops and exposures of marine strata across Panama to further elucidate the regional dynamics and shoaling history of the Central American Seaway.

  18. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcaíno Sergio F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have shaped the evolutionary history of diverse terrestrial organisms. Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification. Indeed, extant xenarthran species are relicts from an evolutionary radiation enhanced by their isolation in South America during the Tertiary era, a period for which major climate variations and tectonic events are relatively well documented. Results We applied a Bayesian approach to three nuclear genes in order to relax the molecular clock assumption while accounting for differences in evolutionary dynamics among genes and incorporating paleontological uncertainties. We obtained a molecular time scale for the evolution of extant xenarthrans and other placental mammals. Divergence time estimates provide substantial evidence for contemporaneous diversification events among independent xenarthran lineages. This correlated pattern of diversification might possibly relate to major environmental changes that occurred in South America during the Cenozoic. Conclusions The observed synchronicity between planetary and biological events suggests that global change played a crucial role in shaping the evolutionary history of extant xenarthrans. Our findings open ways to test this hypothesis further in other South American mammalian endemics like hystricognath rodents, platyrrhine primates, and didelphid marsupials.

  19. Redrawing the Boundaries of Membership: Labor Migrants in the UN Convention on Migrant Workers, NAFTA, and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joseph Trawicki

    2013-01-01

    Labor migrants occupy an indeterminate place in the rights regimes of nation-states. Even when engaged in documented movements, labor migrants enjoy a set of rights more limited than those of citizens. This dissertation reviews three international legal agreements, the UN Convention on Migrant Workers, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the European Union (EU) in order to understand how they influence where this boundary between sets of rights is drawn. In examining this...

  20. Parent-child Relationships in Latin-American Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Marisa; Lathrop, Fabiola

    2017-01-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child has had a reforming impact on Latin American legislation. Relations between parents and children have not been outside this legal renewal. The development would have been quite uneven; at least that is what happens with the figure of parental responsibility. Few States that have introduced substantial changes in the legal regime of parent-child relationships. Others who would have stayed halfway and a third group, who had not yet noted the progress of...

  1. The framework convention on climate change a convention for sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassing, P.; Mendis, M.S.; Menezes, L.M.; Gowen, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, over 165 countries signed the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). These countries have implicitly agreed to alter their `anthropogenic activities` that increase the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and deplete the natural sinks for these same greenhouse gases. The energy sector is the major source of the primary anthropogenic GHGs, notably carbon dioxide and methane. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries presently account for the major share of GHG emissions from the energy sector. However, the developing countries are also rapidly increasing their contribution to global GHG emissions as a result of their growing consumption of fossil-based energy. Implementation of this global climate change convention, if seriously undertaken by the signatory countries, will necessitate changes in the energy mix and production processes in both the OECD and developing countries. International actions also will be needed to put the world on a sustainable energy path. By adoption of the FCCC, representatives of the world`s populations have indicated their desire to move toward such a path. The Conference of Parties to the Convention has just concluded its second meeting, at which the Parties endorsed a U.S. proposal that legally binding and enforceable emissions targets be adopted. It is clearly evident that the FCCC, as presently operating, cannot achieve the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere unless it adopts a major protocol to significantly reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. As demonstrated here, a good starting point in determining the steps the Parties to the FCCC should take in designing a protocol is to remember that the primary source of anthropogenic GHG emissions is the consumption of fossil fuels and the future growth of GHG emissions will derive primarily from the ever-increasing demand for and consumption of these fuels.

  2. Prospective randomized controlled study comparing low-cost LED and conventional phototherapy for treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau Colindres, Johanna; Rountree, Corey; Destarac, Marie André; Cui, Yiwen; Pérez Valdez, Manuel; Herrera Castellanos, Mario; Mirabal, Yvette; Spiegel, Garrett; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Oden, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to carry out a prospective, randomized, single-blind study to evaluate whether light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy using a low-cost set of lights is as effective as conventional phototherapy in treating hyperbilirubinemia in neonates. The study included 45 pre-term neonates requiring phototherapy as per American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines; participants were randomized to receive phototherapy using LED-based lights, conventional fluorescent blue lights or conventional halogen lights. There were no statistically significant differences in the average bilirubin levels at the onset, at the maximum and at the end of treatment, nor in the duration of phototherapy treatment and the rate of decrease in bilirubin levels in the neonates receiving conventional fluorescent blue light, conventional halogen light and LED phototherapy. (Differences were considered significant at p LED phototherapy, respectively. The average duration of phototherapy treatment in the three groups was 108.8 ± 85.9 h, 92.8 ± 38.1 h, 110.4 ± 42.6 h, respectively. In this pilot study, LED phototherapy using a simple, low-cost set of lights was as effective as conventional phototherapy in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. LED phototherapy lights that deliver 30-40 µW cm(-2 )nm(-1) can be assembled in small quantities for phototherapy to be safely and reliably delivered in low-resource settings.

  3. The American Armies: 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Liberation Front) in El Salvador has evaporated, paving the way for resolution of El Salvador’s civil conflict. A minor "reverse domino" effect is...being felt throughout Latin America. As the conflict in El Salvador subsided, Honduran fears about the size of El Salvadoran forces have eased, resulting...30 American nations, especially since US. participation in the overthrow of Allende in 1973.21 Bolivia’s aspirations for direct access to the Pacific

  4. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  5. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is to ...

  6. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  7. Roselle improvement through conventional and mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Omar; Mohd Nazir Basiran; Azhar Mohamad; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin

    2002-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) from Malvaceae family is relatively a new crop in Malaysia. The origin is not fully known but believed to be from West Africa, although the plant is found native from India to Malaysia. The calyxes, stems and leaves are acid and closely resemble the cranberry (Vaccinium spp.) in flavour. Anthocyanins, which are now receiving a growing importance as natural food colorant, are responsible for the red to purple color of the calyx and other parts of the plant. The calyxes from the flowers are processed to produce juice for drink containing very high vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and also into jam, jelly and dried products. Interestingly, many other parts of the plant are also claimed to have various medicinal values. Presently, roselle is planted in Terengganu (175 ha in 2002) on bris soils, but its planting has spread to some parts of Kelantan, Pahang, Johor and also Sarawak. The number of roselle varieties available for planting is very limited; however, the effort carried out for roselle improvement thus far is equally very limited. There has been very little serious conventional breeding attempted, although varietal evaluation has had been carried out, particularly in form of agronomic trials. Since 1999, several studies on induced mutations have been attempted at UKM. A preliminary polyploidization study was conducted to determine the effects of colchicine concentrations of 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, 0.12% and 0.16% and soaking times of 2 and 4 hours at room temperature (30 degree C) on 2-day old germinated seeds on morpho-agronomic traits (e.g. number of branches, internode length, leaf length, leaf width, number of flowers and days to flowering), ploidy level and pollen grain size in treated and also derived generations. Flow cytometric analyses of nuclear DNA AT content of leaf samples using LB01 lysis buffer and DNA specific fluorochrome DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining were carried out using a flow cytometer at MINT, Bangi

  8. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  9. International nuclear liability conventions: status and possible changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, Patrick.

    1978-01-01

    The table of ratifications and accessions annexed to this paper shows that despite the considerable progress achieved these past years and the entry into force of the Vienna Convention, the number of Contracting Parties to the Nuclear Civil Liability Conventions remains insufficient. The adaptation of the first of these Conventions - the Paris Convention - as well as its Brussels Supplementary Convention to the technical and economic developments which have taken place since their adoption should provide the means for encouraging their implementation at international level. The main amendments which are envisaged are replacement of the present unit of account by the Special Drawing Right, the increase of the amounts of liability and compensation and finally, the technical scope of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  10. Guidelines regarding national reports under the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material which it may be useful to include in the national reports required by Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  11. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material which it may be useful to include in the national reports required by Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  12. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  14. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  15. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  16. African-American wildland memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker

    2004-01-01

    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  17. The convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.

    2000-01-01

    The ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (EIA Convention) is the first multilateral treaty to specify the procedural rights and duties of Parties with regard to transboundary impacts of proposed activities and to provide procedures, in a transboundary context, for the consideration of environmental impacts in decision-making. The EIA Convention, elaborated under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), was adopted at Espoo, Finland, in February 1991. Obligations stipulated, and measures and procedures provided for in this Convention are described. (author)

  18. Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relationship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to have their roots in perceptual constraints, those conventions that differ from priors may help us appreciate how visual arts differ from everyday perception.

  19. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  20. Conventional breeding strategies to enhance the sustainability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional breeding strategies to enhance the sustainability of Musa biodiversity conservation for endemic cultivars. M Pillay, R Ssebuliba, J Hartman, D Vuylsteke, D Talengera, W Tushemereirwe ...

  1. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  2. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Capturing American black ducks in tidal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M.K.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Stotts, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    We modified conventional, funnel-entrance dabbling duck bait traps to increase captures for banding of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) in tidal saltmarsh habitats of Smith Island, Maryland, one of the few remaining strongholds for breeding Black Ducks in the Chesapeake Bay. Traps and trapping techniques were adapted to tidal creeks and refined to improve capture rate, reduce mortality, and minimize interference by gulls. Best results were achieved by synchronizing trapping with predawn, low-tide foraging patterns of Black Ducks. Trap entrances were critical to retaining ducks, and use of loafing platforms reduced overall mortality to 3% of captures per year. We captured 3071 Black Ducks during the 14-year period, 1984-199

  4. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  5. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  6. The United Nations Watercourses Convention from the Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, I argue that it is better for Ethiopia to stay out from the Convention and the complexities thereto while expecting at least 'a half and a loaf' from the application of the customary international water law regime, if there is any. Keywords: equitable use, framework convention, Nile basin, riparian, significant harm, ...

  7. VapeCons: E-cigarette user conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarette ‘vaping conventions’ provide a venue for user social networking, parties, and ‘try before you buy’ access to a wide range of e-cigarette products. This study identifies and describes vaping conventions, raising awareness of this potentially problematic practice. Methods Conventions were identified via Google searches in April and May 2014 and August 2015. Details captured included location, sponsors, admission cost, event features, and promotions. Results 41 distinct organizations have planned 90 vaping conventions in 37 different locations since 2010. Conventions promoted access to a wide range of product vendors, seminars, social interactions with other users, parties, gifts, vaping contests, and other events. E-cigarette use at conventions was encouraged. Conclusions Vaping conventions promote e-cigarette use and social norms without public health having a voice to educate attendees about negative consequences of use. Future research should focus on the effects of attending these conventions on attendees and on indoor air quality in vapor-filled convention rooms. PMID:26424201

  8. National nuclear safety report 1998. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine Republic subscribed the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved by a Diplomatic Conference in Vienna, Austria, in June 17th, 1994. According to the provisions in Section 5th of the Convention, each Contracting Party shall submit for its examination a National Nuclear Safety Report about the measures adopted to comply with the corresponding obligations. This Report describes the actions that the Argentine Republic is carrying on since the beginning of its nuclear activities, showing that it complies with the obligations derived from the Convention, in accordance with the provisions of its Article 4. The analysis of the compliance with such obligations is based on the legislation in force, the applicable regulatory standards and procedures, the issued licenses, and other regulatory decisions. The corresponding information is described in the analysis of each of the Convention Articles constituting this Report. The present National Report has been performed in order to comply with Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and has been prepared as much as possible following the Guidelines Regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved in the Preparatory Meeting of the Contracting Parties, held in Vienna in April 1997. This means that the Report has been ordered according to the Articles of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the contents indicated in the guidelines. The information contained in the articles, which are part of the Report shows the compliance of the Argentine Republic, as a contracting party of such Convention, with the obligations assumed

  9. Imaging in hematology. Part 1: Ultrasonography and conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhechev, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Applications of conventional ultrasonography techniques (B-mode or real time) in oncohematology are presented. The newer adaptations (in particular colour Doppler) provide incremental advantages that support their inclusion in the imaging techniques available to modern hematology. Conventional radiologic studies include chest and bone X-ray, gastrointestinal contrast examination and bipedal lymphangiography

  10. Evaluation of the adjudicatory relevance of the African Convention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Convention on Human Rights is what gave birth to the “African Charter on Human and People's Rights”. It is not in doubt that the major difference between the African Charter and other Charters, is that the African Charter obliges state parties to give effect to the provisions of the Charter. Thus, the Convention ...

  11. Conventional and anomalous quantum Rabi oscillations in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Enamullah, E-mail: enamullah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Vipin, E-mail: enamullah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Upendra, E-mail: enamullah@iitg.ernet.in; Setlur, Girish S., E-mail: enamullah@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We study the non linear response of graphene in presence of quantum field in two different regimes. Far from resonance, using our new technique asymptotic rotating wave approximation (ARWA), we obtained that the matter field interaction leads to the slow oscillations like conventional Rabi oscillations observed in conventional semiconductors using well known rotating wave approximation (RWA). The Rabi frequency obtained in both the regimes.

  12. A comparison of efficacy between conventional and modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... cooling and exsiccation (Grund et al., 1998). As a result, conventional animals models of ischemia/reperfusion injury continue to suffer high mortality and low success rates. Futhermore, the conventional MI model does not approximate the clinical myocardial infarction event in all aspects. Clinically, patients ...

  13. Knowing linguistic conventions | Robinson | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are three standard accounts of the epistemic status of linguistic conventions, which all play into the first camp: (1) knowledge by intuition, (2) inferential a priori knowledge and (3) a posteriori knowledge. I give reasons why these accounts should be rejected. I then argue that linguistic conventions, if conceived of as ...

  14. Non-conventional energy research and application in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Duc Hien

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents current research and application of non-conventional energy in Vietnam. The main activities in this field are micro hydropower, wind energy, water heating module, solar cell and biogas. The technical data of the apparatus for non-conventional energy is given. (author)

  15. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  16. Panoramic and conventional radiographs in diagnosis of mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, S.L. de; Antonini, R.; Souza, L.C.M. de.

    1988-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs of the mandibles are compared with conventional studies for the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. It is considered that panoramic radiographs are extremely useful in the diagnostic of mandibular fractures but also that conventional X ray must be used to detect the osseous shift in the fracture line. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. The Urgency of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-02-08

    Feb 8, 2008 ... Editorial. The Urgency of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in. Africa. February 2nd of every year is designated “World Wetlands Day” to focus international attention on the importance of protecting endangered wetlands, and on repairing damaged ecosystems. The international Convention on Wetlands.

  18. Biocatalysis in non-conventional media : kinetic and thermodynamic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermuë, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade biocatalysis in non-conventional media has gained a lot of interest. Especially in the field of bio-organic synthesis, where poorly water-soluble substrates and products are involved, these media are very attractive.

    Non-conventional media generally consist of

  19. An alternative to the Lewisian view of conventions | Smit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Lewis (1969) characterises conventions as regularities that arise from recurrent coordination games. I argue, contra Lewis, that conventions are rules that promote a relevant goal in virtue of coordinating our behaviour. I demonstrate the virtues of this view by showing that it provides an elegant way of dealing with ...

  20. Functional MRI of Conventional and Anomalous Metaphors in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kathleen; Liu, Ho-Ling; Lee, Chia-Ying; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fang, Shin-Yi; Hsu, Yuan-Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study looks at whether conventional and anomalous metaphors are processed in different locations in the brain while being read when compared with a literal condition in Mandarin Chinese. We find that conventional metaphors differ from the literal condition with a slight amount of increased activation in the right inferior temporal gyrus. In…

  1. 19 CFR 114.2 - Customs Conventions and Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs Conventions and Agreements. 114.2 Section 114.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS General Provisions § 114.2 Customs Conventions and Agreements. The...

  2. An alternative to the Lewisian view of conventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clear that the things we call a 'convention' form a kind. The things that we most .... way in which the rule 'if at the office, don't use the internet' promotes productivity is that it eliminates one source of .... logic and ontology have been claimed to reflect human conventions, as opposed to how things objectively are. On Lewis' ...

  3. Comparing the 810nm Diode Laser with Conventional Surgery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the use of the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in the management of soft tissue mucogingival problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Methods: Orthodontic patients requiring different soft tissue surgical procedures were randomly assigned to receive conventional surgery or soft tissue ...

  4. But: Do Age and Working Memory Influence Conventional Implicature Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Leen; Drooghmans, Stephanie; Schaeken, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Conventional implicatures are omnipresent in daily life communication but experimental research on this topic is sparse, especially research with children. The aim of this study was to investigate if eight- to twelve-year-old children spontaneously make the conventional implicature induced by "but," "so," and…

  5. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  6. A comparison of efficacy between conventional and modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to develop and compare the efficacy of a modified versus conventional rat model of chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Sixty Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, a modified group (mask respiratory support and short-time chest-opening) and a conventional ...

  7. Revision of the Paris and Brussels Conventions of Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Contracting Parties to the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and to the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, have concluded this Spring four years of negotiation on the revision of these instruments. This exercise was itself started as a logical consequence of the adoption in 1997 of a revised Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The Contracting Parties have concluded that the existing regime established by these Conventions remains viable and sound but that it also warrants improvements to ensure that greater financial security will be available to compensate a potentially larger number of victims in respect of a broader range of nuclear damage. A number of more technical amendments have also been agreed, in particular to ensure compatibility with other existing Conventions in this field. When the revised Paris and Brussels Conventions come into force, the total amount of funds available for compensation, provided by the liable nuclear operator and by the States concerned, will be 1.5 billion euros. (author)

  8. 26 CFR 521.103 - Scope of the convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... convention, to be accomplished on a reciprocal basis, are to avoid double taxation upon major items of income... looking to the avoidance of double taxation and fiscal evasion. (b) The specific classes of income from... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who Are Residents of...

  9. The definition of investment and the ICSID convention: matters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article contends that the omission to define investment in the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (the ICSID Convention) has a trickledown effect on the Nigerian Investment Promotion Act (the NIPC Act), in the context of investment treaty law and arbitration ...

  10. Family Environment Factors and Children's Knowledge of Rules and Conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; McGillicuddy-Delisi, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Investigated relationships among socioeconomic status, family constellation, parental practices, and preschool-age children's awareness of and rationales for rules and conventions. Children's knowledge of rules and conventions was related to social class variables. Parental behaviors were found to be better predictors of the level of children's…

  11. Comparative evaluation of organic and conventional farming on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five samples of organic fruits with seal certification, organic fruits without seal certification and conventional fruits were acquired from supermarkets and farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Organic lime and orange showed higher mean values of acidity, being 4.5 and 34.8% higher, when compared to conventional fruit, ...

  12. Islamic vs. conventional banks : Business models, efficiency and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Merrouche, O.

    2013-01-01

    How different are Islamic banks from conventional banks? Does the recent crisis justify a closer look at the Sharia-compliant business model for banking? When comparing conventional and Islamic banks, controlling for time-variant country-fixed effects, we find few significant differences in business

  13. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  14. Digital luminescence radiography and conventional radiography in abdominal contrast examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Harnischmacher, U.; Krahe, T.; Fischbach, R.; Altenburg, A.; Krings, F.

    1995-01-01

    In 326 patients abdominal contrast radiographs were compared to digital luminescence radiographs (DLR) and conventional screen-film system ones. The digital exposure dose was 50% of the conventional. In DLR, 2 different types of postprocessed images were obtained from each data set. A display with low spatial frequency enhancement filtered to look like a conventional radiograph was compared to a display with high spatial frequency enhancement. Conventional and DLR images were evaluated randomly and separately by 4 radiologists by means of a questionnaire. DLR proved to be diagnostically equivalent to the conventional technique with the exception of a slightly diminished visibility of the mucosal pattern. High spatial frequency enhancement did not provide additional diagnostic information and should be dispensed with in abdominal examinations. (orig.)

  15. INTEREST RATES AND CURRENCIES EFFECTS ON ISLAMIC AND CONVENTIONAL BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Syamni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bond markets have not been well developed in emerging countries. Realizing its important role, especially after the 1997 crises and the islamic economics development, emerging countries have started to develop such markets. This research examines the effect of interest rates and currencies on Islamic and conventional bonds in Bursa Malaysia. The analysis on Islamic bonds shows that interest rates and currencies do not influence Islamic bonds, which supports the prohibition of interest in Islam. The analysis on conventional bonds finds evidence that both interest rates and currencies affect conventional bond. It also finds evidence of a negative association between interest rates and a conventional bond. Keywords: Interest rate, currency, conventional bond, Islamic bond JEL classification numbers: G11, G12, G15

  16. Environmental impact of non-conventional energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema; Nipaney, P.C.; Ramasamy, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Whereas the global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources, only a few studies have been conducted on the clean environment image of the non-conventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones. The question whether the non-conventional sources are really as benign as they are made out to be is addressed in the present paper in the background of a classical paradigm developed by Lovin which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then assesses the likely environmental impacts of several major non-conventional energy sources and comes up with the note of caution that in many cases the adverse impacts may not be insubstantial; indeed in some cases they can be as strongly negative as the impacts of the conventional energy sources. (author). 31 refs

  17. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... decisions where the CISG has been held to apply, thus evidencing the conduct of countless international traders who – by default or by express choice – regularly subject their sales contracts to the Convention regime. The CISG has also impacted on sales legislation at national and regional (e.g. EU) levels....... With this monograph as their guide, lawyers and scholars who deal with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when...

  18. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... of countless international traders who – by default or by express choice – regularly subject their sales contracts to the Convention regime. The CISG has also impacted on sales legislation at national and regional (e.g. EU) levels. With this monograph as their guide, lawyers and scholars who deal...... with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6...

  19. Does the American Psychological Association’s Code of Ethics work for us?

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Gayle Skawennio, Ph.D.; Blume, Art W., Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    The following article evaluates the efficacy of the American Psychological Association's (APA) Code of Ethics for Indigenous people. The paper reviews the Society of Indian Psychologists recent work on creating a commentary to the APA code, as well as a panel discussion by key stakeholders of the four ethnic psychological associations at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association and a similar panel discussion at the United Nations. The consensus remains that key indigeno...

  20. Native Americans and cultural impact analysis: The proposed nuclear waste repository at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Beneath a surface patterning of legal, political, economic and other formal structures, Native American reservations and their tribes possess many culturally distinctive values and patterns of life. Generally it is this ancient underlying culture that Native American leaders wish to preserve and nourish. Their primary objective is tribal survival, and socioeconomic and cultural impact assessment theories and methods must reflect this objective. Conventional impact analysis rarely meets the needs of tribal leadership. Current, fragmented approaches must be replaced by integrative, holistic alternatives

  1. Amendment of APPRE for Ratification of the International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ho

    2010-01-01

    Both the international community and the IAEA have been making efforts to strengthen the global regime on nuclear security. As a result of these efforts, two conventions regarding nuclear security were issued by the UN and IAEA. The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (NTC) and the Amendment to Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNMNF). The NTC entered into force in 2007, but the CPPNMNF still has not yet been enacted. In the work plan released after the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (which was held in Washington D.C) these conventions were mentioned as important tools against nuclear terrorism. The purpose of these conventions was to prevent malicious acts against radioactive materials and nuclear facilities. The article also specifies strong penal provisions. Many countries which had ratified these conventions had to revise or change their domestic acts or laws in order conform to these new international regimes. The ROK signed these two conventions in 2005: however, it has not ratified them yet. The government has a plan to ratify them before the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, which will be held in the ROK. Each article in the conventions should be reviewed thoroughly in terms of their effects on the domestic legal and institutional systems. The penal provisions regulating the conventions should especially be carefully scrutinized since their effects are considerable. In this paper, we compared the penal provisions in the conventions with the ROK's laws and selected the provisions that are not specified in the ROK's legal system. The proposed articles for amendment to the APPRE are also suggested

  2. Double-Blind Comparison of Ultrasonic and Conventional Osteotomy in Terms of Early Postoperative Edema and Ecchymosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, A Emre; Cengiz, Betul; Caypinar Eser, Basak

    2016-04-01

    Edema and ecchymosis are common complications of rhinoplasty. Modifications to osteotomy may reduce edema and ecchymosis and ameliorate postoperative discomfort in patients who undergo rhinoplasty. The authors performed osteotomy with conventional instruments or with an ultrasonic device and compared these methods with respect to the severities of ecchymosis and edema in the early postoperative period. Fifty-six patients who underwent primary rhinoplasty with medial oblique, low-to-high internal osteotomy performed conventionally or with an ultrasonic device were evaluated in a prospective study. Photographs of the patients on postoperative days 3 and 7 were scored for ecchymosis and edema by 2 physicians who did not perform the operations and were blinded to the osteotomy procedure. Ecchymosis scores on postoperative days 3 and 7 and edema scores on postoperative day 3 were significantly higher for the 22 patients who underwent conventional osteotomy than for the 34 patients who underwent ultrasonic osteotomy, as scored by both examiners. Edema scores on postoperative day 7 were significantly higher for conventional than for ultrasonic osteotomy as assessed by 1 examiner but were not significantly different as determined by the other examiner. The results of this comparative study suggest that rhinoplasty with ultrasonic osteotomy is associated with less edema and ecchymosis in the early postoperative period than is rhinoplasty with conventional osteotomy. 3 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26.

  4. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, organic broiler chicken production has received more attention worldwide. This study has carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. To achieve this goal, 400 slow-growing broiler chickens (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system, and the same number of fast-growing birds (Ross-308 in a conventional system. The profitability was deduced with an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was € 0.75, which is 180% higher than chicken meat grown in a conventional system (€ 0.27; however, the price of organic broiler meat sold in the present study was twice as high as that obtained for conventional broilers. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more profitable than conventional rearing.

  6. Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

  7. The 1968 Brussels convention and liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, Ph.; Galizzi, P.

    2000-01-01

    The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage These establish particular rules governing the jurisdiction of national courts and other matters, including channelling of liability to nuclear operators, definitions of nuclear damage, the applicable standard of care, and limitations on liability. Another instrument - the 1968 Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters (hereinafter referred to as 'the Brussels Convention') - which is not often mentioned in the nuclear context will nevertheless also be applicable in certain cases. It is premised upon different rules as to forum and applicable law, and presents an alternate vision of the appropriate arrangements governing civil liability for nuclear damage. In this paper we consider the relative merits and demerits of the Brussels Convention from the perspective of non-nuclear states which might suffer damage as a result of a nuclear accident in another state. We conclude that in the context of the applicability of the Brussels Convention the dedicated nuclear liability conventions present few attractions to non-nuclear states in Europe. We focus in particular on issues relating to jurisdiction and applicable law, and do so by reference to a hypothetical accident in the United Kingdom which has transboundary effects in Ireland. (author)

  8. Comparison of conventional radiography and MDCT in suspected scaphoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Karul, Murat; Henes, Frank Oliver; Laqmani, Azien; Catala-Lehnen, Philipp; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2015-01-28

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of conventional radiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in suspected scaphoid fractures. One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled in our study who had suffered from a wrist trauma and showed typical clinical symptoms suspicious of an acute scaphoid fracture. All patients had initially undergone conventional radiography. Subsequent MDCT was performed within 10 d because of persisting clinical symptoms. Using the MDCT data as the reference standard, a fourfold table was used to classify the test results. The effective dose and impaired energy were assessed in order to compare the radiation burden of the two techniques. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the two diagnostic modalities. Conventional radiography showed 34 acute fractures of the scaphoid in 124 patients (42.2%). Subsequent MDCT revealed a total of 42 scaphoid fractures. The sensitivity of conventional radiography for scaphoid fracture detection was 42.8% and its specificity was 80% resulting in an overall accuracy of 59.6%. Conventional radiography was significantly inferior to MDCT (P < 0.01) concerning scaphoid fracture detection. The mean effective dose of MDCT was 0.1 mSv compared to 0.002 mSv of conventional radiography. Conventional radiography is insufficient for accurate scaphoid fracture detection. Regarding the almost negligible effective dose, MDCT should serve as the first imaging modality in wrist trauma.

  9. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    CLA-rich milk production included linseed supplement and contained less maize meal than conventional rations and a greater proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and salts. The relative proportions of the phospholipids studied were similar in all 3 types of milk, descending in the order PE>(PC, SM)>PS>PI, with PC being slightly more abundant than SM in organic milk and vice versa in CLA-rich milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  11. Nitrogen isotope composition of organically and conventionally grown crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D; Woolfe, Mark

    2007-04-04

    Authentic samples of commercially produced organic and conventionally grown tomatoes, lettuces, and carrots were collected and analyzed for their delta15N composition in order to assemble datasets to establish if there are any systematic differences in nitrogen isotope composition due to the method of production. The tomato and lettuce datasets suggest that the different types of fertilizer commonly used in organic and conventional systems result in differences in the nitrogen isotope composition of these crops. A mean delta15N value of 8.1 per thousand was found for the organically grown tomatoes compared with a mean value of -0.1 per thousand for those grown conventionally. The organically grown lettuces had a mean value of 7.6 per thousand compared with a mean value of 2.9 per thousand for the conventionally grown lettuces. The mean value for organic carrots was not significantly different from the mean value for those grown conventionally. Overlap between the delta15N values of the organic and conventional datasets (for both tomatoes and lettuces) means that it is necessary to employ a statistical methodology to try and classify a randomly analyzed "off the shelf" sample as organic/conventional, and such an approach is demonstrated. Overall, the study suggests that nitrogen isotope analysis could be used to provide useful "intelligence" to help detect the substitution of certain organic crop types with their conventional counterparts. However, delta15N analysis of a "test sample" will not provide unequivocal evidence as to whether synthetic fertilizers have been used on the crop but could, for example, in a situation when there is suspicion that mislabeling of conventionally grown crops as "organic" is occurring, be used to provide supporting evidence.

  12. American foundations : roles and contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Hammack, David

    2010-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  13. The climate change convention: What role can business play?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit Cutajar, M.

    1994-01-01

    The development, content, and some implications of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are treated briefly. The Climate Change Convention commits those developed countries which have ratified it to limit their emissions of greenhouse gases. While this Convention is an agreement among Governments, and is not directly binding on companies, individuals or organizations, business people and others need to understand it and be prepared for the national initiatives that will follow its ratification. New opportunities are being created for energy-efficient firms, and for new technologies and products. (author)

  14. Conventional diagnostic imaging of the temporal bone. A historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canigiani, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Viennese Medical School played an important role in the development of radiological examinations and signs of the temporal bone with conventional X-rays. Famous pioneers include E.G. Mayer (1893-1969) and L. Psenner (1910-1986). Nowadays conventional X-rays and tomography have lost their important role in diagnostic radiology of the temporal bone, but the basic principles established in those early years of radiology are still used now. This statement is correct not only for conventional X-rays, but particularly for 'poly'-tomography in comparison with CT. (orig.) [de

  15. Patient radiation dose in conventional and xerographic cephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copley, R.L.; Glaze, S.A.; Bushong, S.C.; West, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation doses for xeroradiographic and conventional film screen cephalography was made. Alderson tissue-equivalent phantoms were used for patient simulation. An optimum technique in terms of patient dose and image quality indicated that the dose for the Xerox process ranged from five to eleven times greater than that for the conventional process for entrance and exit exposures, respectively. This dose, however, falls within an acceptable range for other dental and medical radiation doses. It is recommended that conventional cephalography be used for routine purposes and that xeroradiography be reserved for situations requiring the increased image quality that the process affords

  16. The history of double tax conventions in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Arbutina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short introduction, the authors briefly describe the national experience in handling the problems of international double taxation through double tax conventions. This chapter is divided according to stages in the history of double tax conventions identified. The authors analyse the goals of tax treaty policies in differentiated stages with a survey of the economic implications. Special focus is placed on inter-country influences and the impact on and of international institutions and organisations through an examination of the influence of bilateral tax treaties on model tax conventions and vice versa. The fifth chapter presents concluding observations.

  17. Brazil and the UN framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques De Souza, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Due to a high share (96%) of hydropower generation in its electricity production, Brazil emits relatively small amounts of CO 2 . It is argued that, because developed countries are responsible for some 65% of the global emissions of GHGs, they should start to reduce their greenhouse gas emission, which follows also directly from the Framework Convention on Climate Change. After ratification of the Convention Brazil has taken all steps to implement the Convention and to assess its greenhouse gas emissions. Various advisory and co-ordinating bodies have been installed by decree in mid 1994. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    in the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have been...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...

  19. American Academy of Pain Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 7. GET STARTED AAPM... the Voice of Pain Medicine Become part of the distinguished multimodal, interdisciplinary community of pain medicine clinicians. Join Today! Welcome The American Academy of ...

  20. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  1. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  2. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.

  3. Do social media display correct conventional hotel ratings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Conventional ratings are ratings, commonlyusing stars as a symbol, allocated by government or private bodies that work with hotel inspectors. The data from guest ratingson TripAdvisor was explored through two samples of hotels that were ...

  4. Gun barrel erosion - Comparison of conventional and LOVA gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Leurs, O.

    2006-01-01

    The research department Energetic Materials within TNO Defence, Security and Safety is involved in the development and (safety and insensitive munitions) testing of conventional (nitro cellulose based) and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based gun propellants. Recently our testing capabilities have

  5. Therapeutic cancer vaccines in combination with conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...

  6. AutoCAD discipline layering convention. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, B.L.

    1995-05-17

    This document is a user`s guide to establishing layering standards for drawing development. Uniform layering standards are established to exchange of AutoCAD datasets between organizations and companies. Consistency in the layering conventions assists the user through logical separation and identification of drawing data. This allows the user to view and plot related aspects of a drawing separately or in combination. The use of color and Linetype by layer is the preferred layering convention method, however to accommodate specific needs, colors and linetypes can also be assigned on an entity basis. New drawing setup files (also identified in AutoCAD documentation as Prototype drawings) use this layering convention to establish discipline drawing layers that are routinely used. Additions, deletions or revisions to the layering conventions are encourage.

  7. Orthodontic intrusion : Conventional and mini-implant assisted intrusion mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Belludi

    2012-01-01

    intrusion has revolutionized orthodontic anchorage and biomechanics by making anchorage perfectly stable. This article addresses various conventional clinical intrusion mechanics and especially intrusion using mini-implants that have proven effective over the years for intrusion of maxillary anteriors.

  8. Conventional radiology in the bony compromise of Langerhans cells Histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Nilson; Gonzalez, Claudia Patricia; Melendez, Patricia; Terselich, Gretty

    1999-01-01

    We present a descriptive study of 47 patients who attended the National Cancer Institute in Bogota, Colombia with pathological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We reviewed the most frequent conventional x-ray findings

  9. Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and

  10. Third National Report on compliance with the Joint Convention Obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, hereinafter referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. This report is the third one of its kind. It is published in accordance with Article 32 of the Joint Convention and presents the measures taken by France to meet each of her obligations set out in the Convention. The facilities and the radioactive materials covered by this Convention are quite diversified in nature and are controlled in France by different regulatory authorities. Above a specific threshold of radioactive content, a facility is referred to as a 'basic nuclear facility' (installation nucleaire de base - INB) and placed under the control of the Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN). Below that threshold and provided that the facility involved is subject to the nomenclature of classified facilities for other purposes than their radioactive materials, any facility may be considered as a 'classified facility on environmental-protection grounds' (installation classee pour la protection de l'environnement - ICPE) and placed under the control of the Ministry for the Environment. Facilities that contain only

  11. Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1998-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    .... Some general data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  13. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment between Warm SMA and Conventional SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report presents the comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) between warm stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and conventional : SMA. Specifically, the study evaluated and compared the life cycle environmental and economic performances of two mixtures: a ...

  14. The Chemical Weapons Convention: Strategic Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogel, Frederick

    1997-01-01

    ... the U.S. national security interest. The author explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the convention, including operational, policy, Constitutional, and industry impact...

  15. Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The document presents the original draft for a Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, full reports of all the discussions held by representatives of Member States at meetings called by the IAEA, texts of written comments provided by Member States and the final agreed text of the Convention, list of original signatory States and status of the list of signatory States at the date of publication

  16. Access to justice in the Convention on Rights system

    OpenAIRE

    Gerards, J.H.; Glas, L.R.

    2017-01-01

    The numerous reforms to the Convention system of the past two decades have unquestionably had an effect on applicants’ means to access justice in the system. It is, however, open to question how these changes should be evaluated: with reference to the individual right to petition, or with reference to a more substantive and general conception of access to justice. This article explores these two approaches to the notion of access to justice both generally and for the Convention system specifi...

  17. Specific features of human rights guaranteed by the Aarhus Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etinski Rodoljub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aarhus Convention legally articulates basic human needs to live in the environment adequate for human health and well-being and to engage in protection and improvement of the environment. It recognized and protected a general human right to adequate environment and three particular rights in environmental matters - to information, to public participation in decision-making and to justice. The Aarhus Convention introduced innovative approach to human rights protection in relation to transboundary issues and legal standing.

  18. Magnetic Gearing Versus Conventional Gearing in Actuators for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchhammer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic geared actuators (MGA) are designed to perform highly reliable, robust and precise motion on satellite platforms or aerospace vehicles. The design allows MGA to be used for various tasks in space applications. In contrast to conventional geared drives, the contact and lubrication free force transmitting elements lead to a considerable lifetime and range extension of drive systems. This paper describes the fundamentals of magnetic wobbling gears (MWG) and the deduced inherent characteristics, and compares conventional and magnetic gearing.

  19. National legislation, international conventions and exposure to harmful chemicals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hietkamp, S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available , international conventions and exposure to harmful chemicals 12 June 2006 Sibbele Hietkamp Toxicological society of South Africa Venue: University of Pretoria Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Contents • Introduction • National... environmental management act • Rotterdam convention Slide 3 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Introduction • Without legislation pollution is regarded as an “externality” High levels of air and water pollution in Europe resulted increasing...

  20. The raw milk quality from organic and conventional agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment the parameters of milk quality from organic and conventional dairy farm were analyzed. The number of somatic cells was 219. 103 . ml−1 in the organic milk and 242. 103 . ml−1 in the conventional milk. It seems that conditions of organic farming could be able to have a positive effect of health of mammary gland. We found the highest number of somatic cells at the end of the year (336.103 . ml−1 in organic milk in December, respectively 336.103 . ml−1 in conventional milk in November. The total bacteria count was higher in organic milk (86.103 CFU . ml−1 than conventional (51.103 CFU . ml−1 likewise the number of coliform bacteria. Number of coliform bacteria was by conventional milk under 1000 CFU . ml−1 for all samples. The highest number of coliform bacteria in organic milk was achieved in February (1000 CFU . ml−1. We found higher content of fat (4.23 g . 100g−1 and protein (3.41 g . 100g−1 by organic milk in comparison with the conventional milk (4.11 g . 100g−1, resp. 3.39 g . 100g−1. The higher content of protein and fat in organic milk and the higher protein content in conventional milk were determined in December. The heat resistance was determined by 96 % ethanol required to coagulation of 2 ml of milk. The conventional milk has significantly lower heat resistance (1.38 ml than the organic one (1.86 ml. Better heat stability by organic milk and higher content of Ca (144.29 mg . 100g−1 correspond with higher technological quality of organic milk.

  1. Enhanced Surveillance during the Democratic National Convention, Charlotte, NC

    OpenAIRE

    Deyneka, Lana; Ising, Amy; Li, Meichun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how the existing state syndromic surveillance system (NC DETECT) was enhanced to facilitate surveillance conducted at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina from August 31, 2012 to September 10, 2012. Introduction North Carolina hosted the 2012 Democratic National Convention, September 3?6, 2012. The NC Epidemiology and Surveillance Team was created to facilitate enhanced surveillance for injuries and illnesses, early detection of outbreaks durin...

  2. Sandia software guidelines. Volume 3. Standards, practices, and conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies software standards, conventions, and practices. These guidelines are the result of a collective effort within Sandia National Laboratories to define recommended deliverables and to document standards, practices, and conventions which will help ensure quality software. 66 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Laws and Conventions in Language-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Golonka, S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to look at language-related behaviors in light of a strict definition of direct perception. I highlight a key dimension, conventionality, which discriminates between behaviors that are coordinated with respect to law-based information and those that are not (and, therefore, do not qualify as direct perception according to the definition used in this article). The difference between conventional and law-based information does not break down clearly along obvious lin...

  4. Lessons from the experience of U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities: addressing the democratic deficit in global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E; Suozzi, David; Taylor, Allyn L

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) to the progressive development of both international human rights law and global health law and governance. It provides a summary of the global situation of persons with disabilities and outlines the progressive development of international disability standards, noting the salience of the shift from a medical model of disability to a rights-based social model reflected in the CRPD. Thereafter, the article considers the Convention's structure and substantive content, and then analyzes in specific detail the particular contributions of the Convention to health and human rights law and global health governance. It concludes with an exploration of the potential implications of the CRPD's innovations for some of the most pressing issues in global health governance, including the Convention's contributions to the principle of participation in decision-making. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy vs Conventional Cholecystectomy in Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Thapa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Use of laparoscopic surgery has demanded principles of less trauma of access hence less scar and so probably less complications. Hence conventional laparoscopic surgeries were tried with natural orifice transluminal surgery (NOTES and then single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS. With refinement in instruments and surgeons skills SILS have bridged up between conventional and NOTES in order to quench the desire of less or no scar at all. METHODS: Comparative case control study between conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy and SILS in public teaching hospital. RESULTS: Total 20 patients underwent SILS cholecystectomy and 20 underwent conventional cholecystectomy and found that no difference between both in terms of post operative pain score, hospital stay and post operative wound infection except significant difference in mean operative time and patient's level of satisfaction was less in patient with SILC if were subjected to pay for instruments in order to maintain cosmesis. CONCLUSIONS: Though SILS have gained rapid acceptance in surgical fraternity, large number of randomized controlled trials are necessary to show its benefit over conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Keywords: cholecystectomy, conventional, laparoscopy, single incision, surgery

  6. The evolution of NATO's conventional force posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation has three objectives. The first is to describe the evolution of NATO's conventional force posture in greater detail than has previously been possible by drawing upon recently declassified government documents. The author's focus is on changes that have occurred in the role of conventional forces in NATO strategy as well as in the structure and actual capabilities of NATO's conventional forces. He examines five episodes in NATO history during which significant change in the alliance's conventional forces was seriously contemplated, attempted, or actually took place. The second objective is to explain this history. To this end, he examines several leading theories of international relations: balance of power and balance of threat, public goods, and regimes. By comparing the predictions of these theories with the historical record, he was able to identify the factors most important in shaping NATO's conventional force posture over the years. Since these factors are likely to continue to be important, this analysis allows assessing prospects for future change, the third objective. This study suggests that NATO's conventional force posture has become increasingly static over the years.

  7. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  8. A Slice of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  9. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  10. Family Values in American Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  11. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  12. Native American Women: Leadership Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothy L.

    1978-01-01

    Personal rewards for American Indian women in bicultural leadership roles are largely lacking due to the dilemmas rooted in the ambiguity of the two social structures between which they move. Despite strains and pressures, many of these women are making their voices heard on native American issues. (Author/GC)

  13. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  14. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 4 American Foreign Policy...American comparative ad- vantage, including the liberalization of textile and agricultural policies in the United States, thereby leveling the playing

  15. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  16. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs.

  17. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  18. Fulfilling the Promise: African American Educators Teach for Democracy in Jim Crow's South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston-Grimes, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    America's civic community from the end of the Great Depression through the post World War II years was hardly rational or racially neutral in its uneven and unequal treatment of African Americans and other underrepresented groups. Conventional civic scholarship of the era has ignored the complexities of a racially segregated society that in theory…

  19. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  20. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    ) and modern day American–associated universities in the Middle East. Much policy attention, but little scholarly attention has been devoted to the question of soft power of especially higher education in the USA and much less American overseas higher education. This chapter will present analysis on the soft......This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  1. Exposure of free-flying birds to anticholinesterase insecticides in two conventionally managed fruit orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    Conventionally managed orchards receive extensive applications of anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides throughout the growing season. Because many avian species make use of these environments for nesting and foraging, they may receive substantial exposure to anti-ChEs. The model used to assess avian risk in these environments is highly simplified, and indicator species used in risk studies may misrepresent the risk of the species in the field. A better understanding of avian risk is needed, and should begin with a closer examination o# their exposure in these environments. Exposure of free-flying birds was examined in two conventional orchards during the nesting seasons of 1999 and 2000. Our goal was to demonstrate the influences of species and chemical differences on the exposure we observed. Plasma ChE activity and ChE reactivation were used to identify exposure in multiple species following anti-ChE applications (applied singly and in mixtures). Chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis), and American robins (Turdus migratorius) demonstrated significant ChE activity depression in 1999 (p 0.005), and only chipping sparrows demonstrated significant depression in 2000 (p = 0.0002). These three species demonstrated the highest proportion of exposed individuals among all species examined in both years. Because many chemicals were simultaneously present in each orchard, chemical influences on the exposure we observed could not be discerned. This work does demonstrate, however, that avian species differ significantly in their exposure, and that chipping sparrows demonstrated the greatest exposure among the species analyzed. These results underscore the need for multiple species studies and for choosing indicator species on a biologically relevant basis.

  2. Differences in Family-of-Origin Perceptions Among African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…

  3. Gothic roots: Brockden Brown's Wieland, American identity, and American literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. Mautner Wasserman

    2012-11-01

    Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.

  4. Differences in behavioral conventions: a comparison of United States-born and Mexico-born Hispanics, and Anglo Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L Heywood; Raquel L. Engelke

    1995-01-01

    Past research on ethnicity in outdoor recreation has focused on park use and participation in recreation activities. Explanations of differences in park use and participation rates by minorities and non-minorities have emphasized the marginality and ethnicity hypotheses. A different approach can be used that emphasizes visitor's expectations and preferences for...

  5. Digital versus conventional implant impressions for edentulous patients: accuracy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Gallucci, German O; Chen, Chun-Jung; Hanssen, Stijn; Naert, Ignace; Vandenberghe, Bart

    2016-04-01

    To compare the accuracy of digital and conventional impression techniques for completely edentulous patients and to determine the effect of different variables on the accuracy outcomes. A stone cast of an edentulous mandible with five implants was fabricated to serve as master cast (control) for both implant- and abutment-level impressions. Digital impressions (n = 10) were taken with an intraoral optical scanner (TRIOS, 3shape, Denmark) after connecting polymer scan bodies. For the conventional polyether impressions of the master cast, a splinted and a non-splinted technique were used for implant-level and abutment-level impressions (4 cast groups, n = 10 each). Master casts and conventional impression casts were digitized with an extraoral high-resolution scanner (IScan D103i, Imetric, Courgenay, Switzerland) to obtain digital volumes. Standard tessellation language (STL) datasets from the five groups of digital and conventional impressions were superimposed with the STL dataset from the master cast to assess the 3D (global) deviations. To compare the master cast with digital and conventional impressions at the implant level, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's post hoc test was used, while Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used for testing the difference between abutment-level conventional impressions. Significant 3D deviations (P impressions (P > 0.001). Digital implant impressions are as accurate as conventional implant impressions. The splinted, implant-level impression technique is more accurate than the non-splinted one for completely edentulous patients, whereas there was no difference in the accuracy at the abutment level. The implant angulation up to 15° did not affect the accuracy of implant impressions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Infliximab Versus Conventional Combination Treatment and Seven-Year Work Loss in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Randomized Swedish Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jonas K; Wallman, Johan K; Miller, Heather; Petersson, Ingemar F; Ernestam, Sofia; Vivar, Nancy; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Neovius, Martin

    2016-12-01

    To compare long-term work loss in methotrexate-refractory early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients randomized to the addition of infliximab or conventional combination treatment. This study was a multicenter, 2-arm, parallel, randomized, active-controlled, open-label trial. RA patients with infliximab or conventional combination treatment with sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine. Yearly sick leave and disability pension days >7 years after randomization were retrieved from nationwide registers kept by the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. Of 210 working-age patients, 109 were randomized to infliximab (mean age 48.4 years, 73% women) and 101 to conventional treatment (mean age 48.7 years, 77% women). The year before randomization, the mean number of annual work days lost was 127 in the infliximab arm and 118 in the conventional treatment group (mean difference 9 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -23, 39]). Compared to the year before randomization, the mean changes at 7 years were -25 days in the infliximab and -26 days in the conventional treatment group (adjusted mean difference 10 [95% CI -25, 46]). The cumulative mean for work-loss days was 846 in the infliximab group and 701 in the conventional treatment group (adjusted mean difference 104 [95% CI -56, 284]). Long-term work loss improved significantly in early RA patients randomized to infliximab plus methotrexate or conventional combination therapy. No difference was detected between strategies, and the level of work-loss days remained twice that observed in the general population. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Immigration reform, American style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status.

  8. Strategy for identification & characterization of Bartonella henselae with conventional & molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Diddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium usually causing self limiting infections in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life threatening infection, such as bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infections and research into molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have been hindered by lack of appropriate and reliable diagnostic techniques. We undertook this study to standardize methods to characterize B. henselae in clinical samples to diagnose Bartonella infection correctly. Methods: B. henselae ATCC 49882 strain was procured from American type culture collection, USA. This strain was revived and maintained in the laboratory, and identification and characterization of this strain was done by conventional and molecular techniques, which included culture on various media, staining by different methods including electron microscopy, biochemical analysis by conventional methods and API, polymerase chain reaction (PCR for amplification of citrate synthase gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Results: This organism was biochemically inert due to slow growth and generated unique identification code with API. The amplification of the citrate-synthase gene with primers yielded a 381 bp product followed by specific RFLP profile for B. henselae. Interpretation & conclusions: Bartonella is fastidious and fragile organism and should be handled carefully. Extra effort and careful observation are required to isolate and characterize this organism.

  9. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASTRO, Raquel Morais; SMITH NETO, Perrin; HORTA, Martinho Campolina Rebello; PITHON, Matheus Melo; OLIVEIRA, Dauro Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. Material and Methods The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. Results There was a significant difference (pwire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (pwire. Conclusion Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested. PMID:24037069

  10. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Morais Castro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA, with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA. The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in static friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (p<0.05. The angulation influenced friction (p<0.05 when the brackets were associated with a 0.018" wire. CONCLUSION: Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested.

  11. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raquel Morais; Neto, Perrin Smith; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2013-01-01

    To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. There was a significant difference (pstatic friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (pfriction (pstatic frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested.

  12. International convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsch-Prevor, O.

    2005-01-01

    The Preamble, composed of 13 paragraphs and drafted in the usual style of a General Assembly resolution, is aimed at placing the convention in a number of relevant contexts. First, the convention is linked to the issue of the maintenance of international peace and security through a reference to the purposes of the United Nations under Article 1 of the Charter. Next, it is presented as being a further step in the decisions, measures and instruments developed by the United Nations over the past ten years with the common objective of eliminating international terrorism in all its forms. Lastly, the convention is placed in its specific nuclear context through a number of references. In its third paragraph, the Preamble contains a reference to the principle recognizing 'the right of all states to develop and apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benefits to be derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy'. This paragraph is identical to the first paragraph of the Preamble of the CPPNM, and the same principle is stated again in the first paragraph of the Preamble of the Amendment to the CPPNM, and constitutes a kind of general statement in favour of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and technology, without explicit reservations concerning non-proliferation, the safety and security of nuclear facilities or the management of radioactive waste. A draft amendment presented by the United States delegation in the final phase of work that suggested adding the phrase 'while recognizing that the goals of peaceful utilisation should not be used as a cover for proliferation' to the sentence cited above, was apparently not retained. Next, the Preamble mentions the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, and in the tenth paragraph the threat that 'acts of nuclear terrorism may result in the gravest consequences and may pose a threat to international peace and security'. Paragraph 11 of the

  13. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  14. Contextual Factors Related to Conventional and Traditional Tobacco Use Among California Asian Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Mistry, Ritesh; Maxwell, Annette E; Divan, Hozefa A; McCarthy, William J

    2018-04-01

    California's tobacco control program contracted for tobacco use surveillance of Asian Indian Americans to address the paucity of information about tobacco use in this community, given their growing proportion of California's population. This study examined correlates of conventional (CTU) and Asian Indian traditional tobacco use (TTU) in a population-based sample of predominantly immigrant Asian Indian adults residing in California (N = 3228). The analytic sample (n = 2140) was limited to self-identified immigrants from India. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine correlates of tobacco use among Asian Indian immigrants related to their acculturation and religious affiliation. While 65% of the sample had ever used traditional tobacco products (paan masala, gutka, bidis), only 25% had ever used conventional tobacco (cigarettes, cigar, pipe, chewing tobacco, snuff). Less than 5% reported tobacco use in the past 30 days. Rates of ever TTU and CTU were higher among men than women. Ethnic enclave residence was not associated with tobacco use. Impaired mental health was associated with CTU, and number of years spent in the U.S. was positively associated with both CTU and TTU. Individuals affiliated with Sikhism were less likely to use tobacco than individuals affiliated with Hinduism. Few population-based studies in the U.S. address both CTU and TTU use among Asian Indian immigrants. Tobacco use in Asian Indian immigrants may be seriously underestimated if surveillance is limited to conventional tobacco products. Interventions to reduce tobacco use should address mental health issues and consider religious affiliation.

  15. Energy balance in IPM rice farms compared to conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazeli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.

  16. Conventional natural gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of decline curve analysis to analyse and extrapolate the production performance of oil and gas reservoirs was discussed. This mathematical analytical tool has been a valid method for estimating the conventional crude oil resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). However, it has failed to provide a generally acceptable estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the WCSB. This paper proposes solutions to this problem and provides an estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the basin by statistical analysis of the declining finding rates. Although in the past, decline curve analysis did not reflect the declining finding rates of natural gas in the WCSB, the basin is now sufficiently developed that estimates of conventional natural gas resources can be made by this analytical tool. However, the analysis must take into account the acceleration of natural gas development drilling that has occurred over the lifetime of the basin. It was concluded that ultimate resources of conventional marketable natural gas of the WCSB estimated by decline analysis amount to 230 tcf. It was suggested that further research be done to explain why the Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) estimate for Alberta differs from the decline curve analysis method. 6 refs., 35 figs

  17. Engineering challenges of the acoustics of a political convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randorff, Jack E.

    2002-05-01

    The acoustical challenges encountered during the 2000 Republican Convention are discussed. The convention has held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's First Union Center. This venue is a dual-purpose facility catering to professional basketball and professional ice hockey. The acoustical needs of the delegates and the broadcast audience are discussed. The technical performance requirements of convention sound reinforcement and media network broadcast feed are outlined. The necessary technical and performance trade-offs are enumerated with respect to the physical constraints, schedule requirements, budget limitations, and technical planning committee expectations. The conversion of a major sporting arena to a large-scale meeting room with reverberation times and general room conditions conducive to good listening was a significant undertaking. The site had been chosen for a preliminary screening visit approximately 2 years before. This presentation is a followup to ``Acoustics of Political Conventions-A Review,'' delivered at the Acoustical Society of America 139th Meeting in Atlanta in June 2000, 2 months before the convention in Philadelphia.

  18. The nuclear safety convention. Results for Argentine as contracting party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    A powerful mechanism for increasing safety worldwide is through the development and adoption of legally binding Safety Conventions. Since 1986 four Conventions were ratified in the areas of Nuclear, Radiation and Waste Safety. The Nuclear Safety Convention establishes an international co-operation mechanism to maintain safety nuclear installations, focused on: to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation including, where appropriate, safety-related technical co-operation; to establish and maintain effective defences in nuclear installations against potential radiological hazards in order to protect individuals, society and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation from such installations and to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. Each contracting party shall take, within the framework of its national law, the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures and other steps necessary for implementing its obligations under this Convention. Moreover, each contracting parties shall submit for review prior to each review meeting, a National Report on the measures it has taken to implement each of the obligations of the Convention. The contracting parties concluded that the review process had proven to be of great value to their national nuclear safety programmes. (author)

  19. Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains the text of the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention opens with a preamble which notes, among other things, that children are entitled to special care and assistance, that the family is the natural environment for the nurturing of children, and that international cooperation is important for improving the living conditions of children, especially in developing countries. Part 1 of the Convention contains 41 Articles which specify the rights of children to such things as protection against discrimination; proper care and protection; survival and development; a name and nationality; a unified family; freedom of expression, thought, conscience, religion, association, and peaceful assembly; access to information; adoption; having special needs met (in the case of handicapped children); health; social security; an adequate standard of living; education; rest and leisure; and protection from economic exploitation, illegal drugs, and sexual abuse. In addition, no child under the age of 15 years should serve in any armed forces. Parts 2 and 3 of the Convention deal with administrative issues such as the establishment of a Committee on the Rights of the Child as well as ratification, reservations, amendments, and denouncements of the Convention.

  20. Birds select conventional over organic wheat when given free choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Ailsa J; Whittingham, Mark J

    2010-08-30

    Global demand for organic produce is increasing by euro4 billion annually. One key reason why consumers buy organic food is because they consider it to be better for human and animal health. Reviews comparing organic and conventional food have stated that organic food is preferred by birds and mammals in choice tests. This study shows the opposite result-that captive birds in the laboratory and wild garden birds both consumed more conventional than organic wheat when given free choice. There was a lag in preference formation during which time birds learnt to distinguish between the two food types, which is likely to explain why the present results differ from those of previous studies. A further experiment confirmed that, of 16 potential causal factors, detection by birds of consistently higher levels of protein in conventional seeds (a common difference between many organic and conventional foodstuffs) is the likely mechanism behind this pattern. The results of this study suggest that the current dogma that organic food is preferred to conventional food may not always be true, which is of considerable importance for consumer perceptions of organically grown food. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Alberta's conventional oil supply: How much? How long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the future conventional crude oil supply potential in Alberta, a modelling system was designed with the capacity to determine the fraction of existing and potential reserves which could prove technically, economically and/or commercially viable over time. The reference case analysis described assumed constant real oil prices and fiscal burdens, capital and operating costs. Reserve additions from new pool discoveries were summed with reserves from existing pools to arrive at an estimate of the potential supply of established reserves in each play area. The established reserves from all plays were then totalled to provide the provincial conventional oil resource potential. Alberta's recoverable conventional crude oil reserves were shown to be declining at about 2 percent per year. However, even with declining recoverable reserves and relatively low prices, the results of the study indicated that the conventional oil industry remained a major revenue generator for the province and would continue to be so over the next 15 to 20 years. Improved operating efficiencies, cost reductions, reasonable prices and cooperation between industry and government were shown to be necessary to assure the continued viability of Alberta's conventional oil industry. figs., tabs., 11 refs

  2. Implications of the Law of the Sea Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, W.C. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that protection and preservation of the marine environment from wastes and toxic substances was an early concern of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, and the subject is extensively dealt with in the text of the Convention, adopted on 30 April 1982. The environmental provisions of the Convention are intended to serve as an umbrella treaty that states general goals, delimits the power and geographical jurisdiction of states in dealing with environmental problems, and requires states to cooperate through regional and global organizations in the development of standards. The most complex provisions of the environmental text deal with vessel discharges, reflecting the high degree of public interest in oil pollution, whereas the ocean dumping provisions rely largely on the standards of the London Dumping Convention. Pollution carried by air and rivers and wastes from seabed mining within national jurisdiction are treated briefly. The International Seabed Authority, created elsewhere in the Convention to regulate seabed mining, is granted power to regulate pollution from such mining beyond national jurisdiction. Overall, the most important contribution made by the Law of the Sea Convention to the protection of the marine environment is the obligation of states to bring national marine pollution laws up to global standards

  3. Parent-child Relationships in Latin-American Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Herrera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on the Rights of the Child has had a reforming impact on Latin American legislation. Relations between parents and children have not been outside this legal renewal. The development would have been quite uneven; at least that is what happens with the figure of parental responsibility. Few States that have introduced substantial changes in the legal regime of parent-child relationships. Others who would have stayed halfway and a third group, who had not yet noted the progress of this international legal tool, observing a pending debt to the human rights of children. Which states have complied with this mandate, how and in what sense to be in accordance with the postulates of the Convention? This is the key question that transversalizes this contemporary study on the figure of parental responsibility in Latin America.

  4. Comparison of sealer penetration using the EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Unal, Bayram

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the EndoVac irrigation system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and conventional endodontic needle irrigation on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Forty single-rooted, recently extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the irrigation technique used: conventional endodontic needle irrigation and EndoVac irrigation. All teeth were instrumented using the ProFile rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were then measured. Mann-Whitney test results showed that EndoVac irrigation resulted in a significantly higher percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation at both the 1- and 3-mm levels (P irrigation system significantly improved the sealer penetration at the 1- to 3-mm level over that of conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Laparoscopy-assisted hepatectomy versus conventional (open) hepatectomy for living donors: when you know better, you do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Kausar; Chorasiya, Vishal Kumar; Sood, Gaurav; Srivastava, Piyush Kumar; Dargan, Puneet; Vij, Vivek

    2014-10-01

    The conventional incision for donor hepatectomy is a right subcostal incision with a midline extension. With increased experience in both donor hepatectomy and laparoscopy, the conventional incision can be shortened to a significant extent. Laparoscopic mobilization of the liver coupled with a hand port allows the insertion of one hand inside the abdomen for control; this makes small-incision donor hepatectomy a technically feasible alternative. We compared 26 right lobe donor hepatectomies performed with a laparoscopy-assisted technique (the laparoscopy-assisted donor hepatectomy group) to 24 donor hepatectomies performed with the conventional open technique (the conventional donor hepatectomy group). The donors in both groups and their recipients were followed for 6 months. Pain, discomfort related to the scar [including abdominal wall sensorineural deficits (numbness and differences in tactile and temperature sensations) and tightness around the scar], and donor quality of life (assessed with the International Quality of Life Assessment Short Form 8 scoring system) were compared between the 2 groups. In conclusion, laparoscopy-assisted surgery can be a technically feasible alternative in experienced hands, and as with other minimally invasive surgeries, it has advantages such as significantly less pain, reduced incision-related complications, and better donor quality of life during the early postoperative period without compromising donor safety. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Effect of Different Liners on Fracture Resistance of Premolars Restored with Conventional and Short Fiber-Reinforced Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Doozandeh, Maryam; Ghaffaripour, Dordaneh

    2018-01-11

    To see whether applying four different liners under short fiber-reinforced composite (SFRC), everX Posterior, compared to conventional composite resin, Z250, affected their strengthening property in premolar MOD cavities. Mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared in 120 sound maxillary premolars divided into 10 groups (n = 12) in terms of two composite resin types and 4 liners or no liner. For each composite resin, in 5 groups no liner, resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), conventional flowable composite (COFL), self-adhesive flowable composite resin (SAFL), and self-adhesive resin cement (SARC) were applied prior to restoring incrementally. After water storage and thermocycling, static fracture resistance was tested. Data (in Newtons) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Fracture resistance was significantly affected by composite resin type (p = 0.02), but not by the liner (p > 0.05). The interaction of the two factors was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). SFRC exhibited higher fracture strength (1470 ± 200 N) compared to conventional composite resin (1350 ± 290), irrespective of the application of liners. Application of SARC and SAFL liners led to a higher number of restorable fractures for both composite resins. The four liners can be used without interfering with the higher efficacy of SFRC, compared to conventional composite resins, to improve the fracture strength of premolar MOD cavities. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  8. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    her narrative performance within the histories of American orientalism, the emerging Cold War, and ethnic beauty pageants to provide a better understanding of the specific intersection in these 1950s hegemonic discourses that framed and enabled her public agency. Her analysis then looks at how Hakim...... herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  9. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  10. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  11. Financing options to develop non-conventional reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricoli, C.

    1997-01-01

    The economics of non-conventional natural gas reserves such as coalbed methane, gas shales and tight gas were discussed, with special reference to financing options to develop such reserves. Before 1992, tax credits were used to stimulate the development of non-conventional gas. The requirements for section 29 tax credits, the objectives of investors and producers, and the methods used to monetize section 29 tax credits, such as public royalty trusts, partnership structures, and up-front payment mechanisms were described. The capital gains implications of gas sales were also reviewed. It was noted that in the absence of tax credits, financing the development of non-conventional reserves must undergo the same economic scrutiny as any other oil and gas project

  12. Interactive Translation Prediction versus Conventional Post-editing in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis-Trilles, German; Alabau, Vicent; Buck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a field trial in computer-assisted professional translation to compare Interactive Translation Prediction (ITP) against conventional post- editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) output. In contrast to the conventional PE set-up, where an MT system first produces a static translation...... hypothesis that is then edited by a professional translator (hence \\post-editing"), ITP constantly updates the translation hypothesis in real time in response to user edits. Our study involved nine professional translators and four reviewers working with the web-based CasMaCat workbench. Various new...... interactive features aiming to assist the post-editor were also tested in this trial. Our results show that even with little training, ITP can be as productive as conventional PE in terms of the total time required to produce the final translation. Moreover, in the ITP setting translators require fewer key...

  13. Suppression of neutrophil superoxide production by conventional peritoneal dialysis solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, B L; Gupta, D K; Nawab, Z M; Zhou, F Q; Rahman, M A; Daugirdas, J T

    1988-09-01

    The pH of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution is normally in the range of 5.0 to 5.5, because acid has been added during the manufacturing process to prevent caramelization of dextrose during sterilization. We studied the effects of normalizing the pH of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution on superoxide production by normal human neutrophils. At a pH of 6.0, superoxide generation was 4.07 +/- 2.56 (SD) nanomoles per million cells. With normalization of pH to 7.4, superoxide production was 19.3 +/- 7.3 (p less than 0.001). The results suggest that the unphysiologic acidity of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution has deleterious consequences on neutrophil superoxide formation.

  14. Fifth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Fifth National Report is a new update to include relevant information for the period of 2007/2009. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the Brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  15. Dural ectasia and conventional radiography in the Marfan lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, N.U.; Nallamshetty, L.; Ahn, U.M.; Buchowski, J.M.; Kebaish, K.M.; Sponseller, P.D.; Rose, P.S.; Garrett, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To determine how well conventional radiographic findings can predict the presence of dural ectasia in Marfan patients.Design and patients. Twelve Marfan patients without dural ectasia and 21 Marfan patients with dural ectasia were included in the study. Five radiographic measurements were made of the lumbosacral spine: interpediculate distance, scalloping value, sagittal canal diameter, vertebral body width, and transverse process width.Results. The following measurements were significantly larger in patients with dural ectasia: interpediculate distances at L3-L4 levels (P 38.0 mm, sagittal diameter at S1 >18.0 mm, or scalloping value at L5 >5.5 mm.Conclusion. Dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome is commonly associated with several osseous changes that are observable on conventional radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. Conventional radiography can detect dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome with a very high specificity (91.7%) but a low sensitivity (57.1%). (orig.)

  16. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the fa......This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work...... that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area....

  17. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitze, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author recommends a framework convention that will stimulate policy changes without expensive emission reductions in the short term. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change. The convention should go beyond organizational structure to establish a process for updating the parties' understanding of the science and potential impacts of climate change and for building consensus on policy responses. Each party must then be required to prepare and distribute its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for adapting to future change while achieving its development objectives. A set of targets and timetables for the reduction of greenhouse gas reductions is presented

  18. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material is composed of the text of 23 articles, annex 1 showing the levels of physical protection and annex 2 which is the categorization list of nuclear material. The text consists of definitions (article 1), the scope of applications (2), liability of protecting nuclear material during international transport (3 and 4), duty of mutual cooperation (5 and 6), responsibility for criminal punishment (7 to 13), and final provisions (14 to 23). It is to be noted that the nuclear material for military purposes and domestic nuclear facilities are excluded in the connection. After the brief description of the course leading to the establishment of the convention, individual articles and annexes and the respective Japanese version, and the explanation based on the intergovernmental meeting discussion on the draft convention are described. (J.P.N.)

  19. Comparison of single-port and conventional laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Rosenstock, Steffen; Bulut, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the last two decades, surgical treatment of colorectal cancer has changed dramatically from large abdominal incisions to minimal access surgery. In the recent years, single port (SP) surgery has spawned from conventional laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this study was to co......BACKGROUND: Within the last two decades, surgical treatment of colorectal cancer has changed dramatically from large abdominal incisions to minimal access surgery. In the recent years, single port (SP) surgery has spawned from conventional laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this study...... was to compare conventional with SP laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (LAPR) for rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-center non-randomised retrospective comparative study of prospectively collected data on 53 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer; 41...

  20. Extraordinary Meeting to the Convention of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    On the 27-31, August, 2012, the 2-nd Extraordinary Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Nuclear Safety took place. The meeting was devoted to lessons learned from the Fukushima-Daiichi accident and to analysis of the effectiveness of the Convention. Measures taken or planned in response to the Fukushima-Daiichi accident were discussed in six topical areas: External threats, Design issues, Severe accident management and recovery (on-site), National organizations, Emergency preparedness and response and post-accident management (off-site), International cooperation. There were more than 600 participants from 64 Contracting Parties of the Convention, as well as representatives of international organizations and Agency's specialists [ru