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Sample records for american mink neovison

  1. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L.

    2013-01-01

    -tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its......American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits’ vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal...... behaviour and (2) development of hearing in kits 8–52days of age. We also studied sound production in 20 kits throughout postnatal days 1 to 44. Adult female mink had a broad hearing range from 1kHz to above 70kHz, with peak sensitivity (threshold of 20dB SPL) at 8–10kHz, and no difference...

  2. The status of the American mink (Neovison vison) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.; Hofmeester, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a north American mustelid that has been farmed for its fur in Europe since the 1920s. It has been feral in the Netherlands since 1958. This paper discusses its distribution, diet, the indications for reproduction, and whether feral animals are born in the wild

  3. Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Data from: "Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014....

  4. A comparative, BAC end sequence enabled map of the genome of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Smith, Amanda; Christensen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the analysis of approximately 2.7 Mb of genomic information for the American mink (Neovison vison) derived through BAC end sequencing. Our study, which encompasses approximately 1/1000th of the mink genome, suggests that simple sequence repeats (SSRs...

  5. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a competent host for native European parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C

    2017-11-30

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the

  6. The first draft reference genome of the American mink ( Neovison vison )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It’s an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we...... present the first draft genome of mink. In our study, two mink individuals were sequenced by Illumina sequencing with 797 Gb sequence generated. Assembly yielded 7,175 scaffolds with an N50 of 6.3 Mb and length of 2.4 Gb including gaps. Repeat sequences constitute around 31% of the genome, which is lower...

  7. The draft genome sequence of the American mink (Neovison vison) opens new opportunities of genomic research in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Panitz, Frank; Petersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic mustelid native to North America. It is an important animal for the fur industry. Although many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, the lack of a reference genome impedes the search. American mink has...... of Carnivora. Here we present the draft genome sequence of American mink. In our study, a male inbred pearl mink was sequenced by Illumina paired-end and mate pair sequencing. The reads were assembled, which lead to 22,419 scaffolds with an N50 (shortest sequence length at 50% of the genome) of 646,304 bp...

  8. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Pujolar, José Martin

    2015-01-01

    Feral American mink populations (Neovison vison), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling incl...

  9. Albinism in the american mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud

    2008-01-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the prodicted...

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia sp. NV-1 detected from wild American Mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishinabe, Satoki; Jinnai, Michio; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoan disease affecting many mammalian species worldwide, caused by the intraerythrocytic multiplication of Babesia spp. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Babesia sp. in 13 American mink from Hokkaido, Japan. One of 13 animals was positive, as indicated by nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes from species of Babesia and Theileria. Sequencing of the PCR product of SSU rDNA revealed 99% homology to the isolates of Babesia sp. SAP#131 found in raccoons in Hokkaido, whereas that of the CCT7 gene showed 80% homology to the isolates of Babesia gibsoni in dogs as determined by BLAST analysis. We refer to the cognate sequence as Babesia sp. NV-1. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA and CCT7 genes from Babesia sp. NV-1 revealed them to be most closely related to the Babesia sp. SAP#131 from a raccoon in Hokkaido and to canine B. gibsoni, respectively. Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of the Babesia sp. NV-1 parasite in feral American mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

  11. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  12. Influenza A Virus Surveillance in the Invasive American Mink (Neovison vison) from Freshwater Ecosystems, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, H; Busquets, N; Fernández-Aguilar, X; Sánchez, A; Ribas, M P; De Pedro, G; Lizarraga, P; Alarcia-Alejos, O; Temiño, C; Cabezón, O

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3-3.6 CI 95% ) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, provinces, river basins, sexes or ages of the animals. All seropositive sera resulted negative to the panel strains used in the HI assay, showing that the most relevant strains circulating in swine, the most relevant avian subtypes (H5 and H7) and the H10N4 subtype isolated in minks have not been circulating in this free-ranging exotic carnivore from Spain. In the light of these results, the free-range American mink from Northern Spain do not seem to have an important role in the epidemiology of IAVs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Role of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the development of fasting-induced fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Harris, Lora; Dick, Morag; Pal, Catherine; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-10-28

    American mink (Neovison vison) develop fatty liver quickly in response to food deprivation, which results in preferential mobilisation of n-3 PUFA. The altered n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the liver may activate the endocannabinoid system resulting in increased lipid synthesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding intensity (80 or 120% RDA), dietary fat source (n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acids (FA)) and short-term fasting (1-7 d) on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the development of fatty liver in mink. Significantly elevated expression of mRNA encoding for acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and FA synthase (FAS) was observed in the liver of mink fasted for 5-7 d, while upon re-feeding for 28 d after a 7 d food deprivation, DNL returned to pre-fasting levels. The females had a higher expression of ACC-1 and FAS mRNA than the males. In the non-fasted animals, dietary fat source and feeding intensity had significant effects on ACC-1 mRNA. The highest levels were observed in the mink fed the rapeseed oil (n-9) diet at 80% RDA, while the lowest levels were seen when the same diet was fed at 120% RDA. For FAS, the highest gene expression was seen in the fasted mink fed at 80% RDA and the lowest in the non-fasted mink fed at 80%. It is concluded that short-term food deprivation induces hepatic lipidosis in mink and that during this process, hepatic DNL further exacerbates liver fat accumulation.

  14. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers...... for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different ‘roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH...

  15. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  16. Estradiol stimulates glycogen synthesis whereas progesterone promotes glycogen catabolism in the uterus of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kole; Rose, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthesis by mink uterine glandular and luminal epithelia (GE and LE) is stimulated by estradiol (E 2 ) during estrus. Subsequently, the glycogen deposits are mobilized to near completion to meet the energy requirements of pre-embryonic development and implantation by as yet undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesized that progesterone (P 4 ) was responsible for catabolism of uterine glycogen reserves as one of its actions to ensure reproductive success. Mink were treated with E 2 , P 4 or vehicle (controls) for 3 days and uteri collected 24 h (E 2 , P 4 and vehicle) and 96 h (E 2 ) later. To evaluate E 2 priming, mink were treated with E 2 for 3 days, then P 4 for an additional 3 days (E 2 →P 4 ) and uteri collected 24 h later. Percent glycogen content of uterine epithelia was greater at E 2 + 96 h (GE = 5.71 ± 0.55; LE = 11.54 ± 2.32) than E 2 +24 h (GE = 3.63 ± 0.71; LE = 2.82 ± 1.03), and both were higher than controls (GE = 0.27 ± 0.15; LE = 0.54 ± 0.30; P glycogen content (GE = 0.61 ± 0.16; LE = 0.51 ± 0.13), to levels not different from controls, while concomitantly increasing catabolic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase m and glucose-6-phosphatase) gene expression and amount of phospho-glycogen synthase protein (inactive) in uterine homogenates. Interestingly, E 2 →P 4 increased glycogen synthase 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and hexokinase 1mRNA and protein. Our findings suggest to us that while E 2 promotes glycogen accumulation by the mink uterus during estrus and pregnancy, it is P 4 that induces uterine glycogen catabolism, releasing the glucose that is essential to support pre-embryonic survival and implantation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen...... in several Danish mink farms. In all of the farms, the clinical symptoms were upper respiratory tract symptoms with sneezing and coughing as the most dominant symptoms. Peracute deaths were seen in mink without any clinical symptoms. Influenza H3N2 was found detected by PCR in the lungs from diseased mink...... and four of these farms used feed medication in three weeks. The farmers, however, noted that the medication had little or no effect. The most plausible way of transmission of the influenza is from the raw untreated pig waste containing lungs used in the production of mink feed. Because the first clinical...

  18. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    and four of these farms used feed medication in three weeks. The farmers, however, noted that the medication had little or no effect. The most plausible way of transmission of the influenza is from the raw untreated pig waste containing lungs used in the production of mink feed. Because the first clinical......Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen...... in several Danish mink farms. In all of the farms, the clinical symptoms were upper respiratory tract symptoms with sneezing and coughing as the most dominant symptoms. Peracute deaths were seen in mink without any clinical symptoms. Influenza H3N2 was found detected by PCR in the lungs from diseased mink...

  19. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, Tina

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus...

  20. Identifying QTL for fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thikness, and density of woll) was performed in a 3-generation population (F2-design). In the parental generation, Nordic wild mink were crossed reciprocally with American short nap mink. Twenty o...

  1. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with...

  2. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Bijma, Peter; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises...... a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks...... genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite marks and probably aggression behaviour in group-housed mink....

  3. Postvaccination wounds associated predominantly with Arcanobacterium phocae in mink (Neovison vison) at three mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Robert J; Buter, Rianne; Sroka, Agnieszka

    2017-04-01

    The emerging skin disease fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) has been attributed to infection with Arcanobacterium phocae (ABP). The exact pathogenesis and risk factors of FENP have yet to be elucidated. Three mink from each of three different mink farms (A-C) with postvaccination skin wounds at the vaccination site and six mink from an unaffected mink farm (D) that had used the same vaccine batch and vaccination site (hind leg). All mink from farms A-C had severe necrotizing to necropurulent dermatitis where they were vaccinated intramuscularly in the hind leg. ABP was the sole bacterium cultured from six of nine wounds. Using 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and BOX-PCR, the ABP isolates from these wounds were indistinguishable from isolates originating from several cases of FENP. This is the first report of FENP-like lesions at the site of vaccination, in the days following the procedure, associated with ABP. At farms with FENP vaccination, procedures should be considered carefully. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. QTL-mapping in mink (Neovison vison) shows evidence for QTL for guard hair thickness, guard hair length and skin length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    Fur quality in mink (Neovison vison) is a composite trait, consisting of e.g. guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool. A genome wide QTL search was performed to detect QTL for fur quality traits in mink. Here we present the results of QTL analyses for guard hair length, guard...... hair thickness and density of wool. Data from an F2-cross was analysed across fourteen chromosomes using 100 microsatellites as markers with a spacing of approximately 20 cM. The two lines used for the F2-cross were Nordic wild mink and American short nap mink. In total 1,083 animals (21 wild type, 25...... short nap, 103 F1 and 934 F2) were marker typed and recorded for the three presented fur quality traits. For the QTL-analyses a regression analysis implemented in QTL Express software was used. Evidence was found for the existence of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool...

  5. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% – 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks. PMID:24454897

  6. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Trebbien

    Full Text Available A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%. The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  7. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Amer......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic...

  8. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  9. A cross-sectional field study on potential associations between feed quality measures and usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Feed quality is generally assumed to affect health status in animal production. In previous studies, the feed producer has been found to affect the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease and antimicrobial use in Mink (Neovison vison). Mink are fed with moist, freshly produced feed, based...... on perishable ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of specific feed parameters on antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was cross-sectional, including 1472 mink herds, responsible for 97% of oral antimicrobials prescribed for Danish mink during the study period......, 2012-2014. Data were obtained from the national veterinary prescription database (VetStat), Kopenhagen Fur database, and the Voluntary Feed Control (Mink producers Organization). All feed batches subject to feed control were included. A multi-variable variance analysis was carried out analysing...

  10. Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria from mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria isolated from Danish mink during the period 2014-2016. The aim of this investigation was to provide data on antimicrobial resistance and consumption, to serve as background knowledge for new veterinary guidelines for prudent and optimal antimicrobial usage...... and macrolides. Conclusions: The study showed that antimicrobial resistance was common in most pathogenic bacteria from mink, in particular hemolytic E. coli. There is a need of guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials for mink....

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Mink (Neovison vison) Skin Reveals the Key Genes Involved in the Melanogenesis of Black and White Coat Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingchao; Xu, Chao; Liu, Zongyue; Yue, Zhigang; Liu, Linling; Yang, Tongao; Cong, Bo; Yang, Fuhe

    2017-09-29

    Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks. Significant differences were not observed in the expression of MC1R and TYR between the two different coat colours, and the expression of ASIP was not detected in the mink skin of either coat colour. The expression levels of KITLG, LEF1, DCT, TYRP1, PMEL, Myo5a, Rab27a and SLC7A11 were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq analysis. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of two coat colours in mink skin. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying skin physiology and melanogenesis in mink and will provide a foundation for future studies.

  12. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i......PS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas...

  13. Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings......Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other...... were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark...

  14. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Rhod Larsen, Anders; Skov, Robert Leo

    2017-01-01

    was to examine the presence of LA-MRSA in farmed mink. The investigation comprised three different sample types 1) clinical samples from carcasses submitted to the laboratory for diagnostic examination, 2) paws and pharyngeal swabs from healthy animals collected at pelting, and 3) feed samples from mink feed...... farms, including paw samples (29%) and pharyngeal samples (16%). Twenty out of the 108 feed samples from feed producers were positive for LA-MRSA. The dominant spa-types were t034 and t011 associated to CC398, corresponding to the dominant spa-types detected in the Danish pig production, from which...

  15. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Aalbaek, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters....... Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were...... isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same...

  16. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km² area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  17. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  18. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Themudo, G. E.; Jelsbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the genetic and geographical relationship among outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia by pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing of P. aeruginosa isolates. Furthermore, chosen isolates were typed by a commercial genotyping method based on single nucleotide polymorphisms...... (SNPs) and compared to a larger dataset of human and environmental origin. The bacterial isolates were obtained from diagnostic samples from 2002-2009 and contained 164 isolates from 95 outbreaks on 90 farms. Our results show that most outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink are caused by distinct...

  19. [Introduction of species and microevolution: the European beaver, raccoon dog, and American mink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, M P; Korablev, P N

    2011-01-01

    Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and six samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa.

  20. Animal prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infive Danish mink (Neovison vison) farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Pedersen, Karl; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær

    /50) of screened healthy Danish mink farms were found positive. LA-MRSA in mink is believed to originate from contaminated slaughter-offal in the mink feed. Objective. The objective of the present study was to identify the animal-prevalence of LA-MRSA in five Danish minkfarms. Materials and Methods. We collected 1......,500 mink carcasses from five Danish mink farms. Farmers were asked to collect 100 mink for each of the three consecutive months following the whelping period (May-July 2017). From each carcass, the right forepaw and a pharyngeal-swab was collected for investigation of MRSA by enrichment, followed...... may be explained by an overall low animal-prevalence in the farm. Another explanation could be the high proportion of young mink kits (15/20) tested. All mink kits were

  1. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, Niels Enggaard; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...

  2. Genomics using the Assembly of the Mink Genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Cai, Zexi; Sahana, Goutam

    2018-01-01

    The American Mink’s (Neovison vison) genome has recently been sequenced. This opens numerous avenues of research both for studying the basic genetics and physiology of the mink as well as genetic improvement in mink. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) generated marker data for 2,352 Danish farm...... mink runs of homozygosity (ROH) were detect in mink genomes. Detectable ROH made up on average 1.7% of the genome indicating the presence of at most a moderate level of genomic inbreeding. The fraction of genome regions found in ROH varied. Ten percent of the included regions were never found in ROH....... The ability to detect ROH in the mink genome also demonstrates the general reliability of the new mink genome assembly. Keywords: american mink, run of homozygosity, genome, selection, genomic inbreeding...

  3. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina

    2017-01-01

    the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color......Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink, also known as "sticky kits", is a syndrome and outbreaks occur every year on commercial mink farms in all mink producing countries. Morbidity and mortality can be considerable on a farm with huge economic consequences for the farmer as well as compromised welfare...... for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case...

  4. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether provision of additional appetitive and consummatory elements of foraging reduces baseline stress and abnormal behaviour – in terms of fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink. We studied 200 juveniles (n = 100 females and 100 males) during the 5-month growth......; (iii) CONS, chunky feed (parts up to 42 mm), replacing conventional feed; (iv) BOTH, access to both biting ropes and chunky feed. In growing mink, biting ropes reduced fur-chewing (P = 0.044) and chunky feed reduced stereotypic behaviour (P = 0.038) and fur-chewing in female mink (P = 0.019). During......, stereotypic behaviour was reduced by provision of chunky feed, increasing the consummatory element in daily foraging. Fur-chewing was reduced upon access to either biting ropes or chunky feed in female mink throughout the study. Our findings support frustrated foraging, mainly consummatory, behind abnormal...

  5. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Struve, Tina; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-06-29

    Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink, also known as "sticky kits", is a syndrome and outbreaks occur every year on commercial mink farms in all mink producing countries. Morbidity and mortality can be considerable on a farm with huge economic consequences for the farmer as well as compromised welfare for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case control study was carried out on 30 Danish mink farms. Data concerning management, biosecurity, hygiene, feed consumption, antibacterial prescription and production efficiency were analyzed. The proportion of 1-year old females, farm size (total number of females), energy supply per female in the late gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk factor, but needs further clarification.

  6. Short-term effect of oral amoxicillin treatment on the gut microbial community composition in farm mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Laura Meier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that antibiotics have pronounced modulatory effects on the intestinal bacterial community of both humans and animals, with potential health consequences. The gut microbiota of mink has however attracted little attention due to low bacterial load and fast gastrointestinal...

  7. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  8. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zalewski

    Full Text Available Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55, genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  9. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine. This virus had not previously been described in swine, mink or humans. PCRs assays...... specifically targeting the new reassortant were developed and used to screen influenza positive samples from humans and swine in Denmark with negative results. Thus, there was no evidence that this virus had spread to humans or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again...... diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings indicate that mink is highly susceptible for influenza A virus of human...

  10. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine....... This virus had not previously been described in swine, mink nor humans. PCRs assays specifically targeting the new reassortant were developed and used to screen influenza positive samples from humans and swine in Denmark with negative results. Thus, there was no evidence that this virus had spread to humans...... or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings...

  11. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina

    2017-01-01

    gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating...... the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color...... types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk...

  12. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  13. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the "marbled" variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested...... the hypothesis that the color pattern in question-light-colored body with dark-colored points (ears, face, tail, and feet)-is due to a mutation in the melanin-producing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) that results in temperature-sensitive pigment production. Our study shows that marbled mink carry a mutation in exon 4...... of the TYR gene (c.1835C > G) which results in an amino acid substitution (p.H420Q). The location of this substitution corresponds to the amino acid position that is also mutated in the TYR protein of the Himalayan mouse. Thus, the marbled variant is more aptly referred to as the Himalayan mink....

  14. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    are unsustainable. Often, prescribed pairs of animals appear to be incompatible and reproductively unsuccessful. This is also a problem in solitary carnivore species, many of which are threatened with extinction. A suggested solution to this problem is to investigate, which male cues and signals the females use...... or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), size, and behaviour. The latter may represent aspects of animal personality. The background for this is explained in the introduction (Chapter I). In Chapter II, a published article, I present a novel study on aspects of animal personality in the American mink...... aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. These findings highlight the importance of carefully considering the context as well as the limitations of using the shyness-boldness continuum for describing animal personality traits. Chapter III, a manuscript, adds to the knowledge of animal...

  15. The urinary metabolome in female mink (Mustela neovison) shows distinct changes in protein and lipid metabolism during the transition from diapause to implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The mink exhibit an obligatory diapause. The metabolic changes during the transition from diapause to implantation and established pregnancy are currently unknown. Objectives The study aimed to characterize changes in the urinary metabolome in mink during the period from mating...... to early gestation and to identify the metabolites involved. Methods Urine samples were collected from 56 female mink on March 24, April 8, and April 15, covering the period from mating to early pregnancy. The urine samples were subjected to non-targeted LC-MS metabolomics. Processed data were evaluated...

  16. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species......Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...

  17. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, D.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2012-01-01

    Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison...... born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low – FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate – FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring...... had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal...

  18. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in response to dietary protein supply, probably by adapting the size of the liver and kidneys to the level of protein......Growth performance and metabolism were investigated in mink kits (n = 210) exposed to the same dietary treatment as their dams (n = 30), i.e. high (HP; 61% of metabolisable energy, ME), medium (MP; 48% of ME) or low (LP; 30% of ME) protein supply, from birth until 10 weeks of age. The kits were...... the heaviest. After transition to solid feed MP kits weighed most at nine weeks of age (p age, the kits fed the LP diet retained less (p

  19. The ventricles of the brain in the N. American mink (Mustela vison (Brisson, 1756))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicka, D; Stankiewicz, W; Szpinda, M [Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Using anatomical as well as radiographic and tomographic methods, sixty brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that there was the olfactory recess present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace-like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, this ins and outs of the mink`s anatomical structure have begun to absorb anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that furry animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated as if ``before our eyes``. For this reason and because of the easy access to material, examining of the brain ventricles in the mink was taken up. (author). 14 refs, 13 figs.

  20. De novo SNP calling from RAD sequences for a mink (Neovison vison) specific genotyping assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pujolar, José Martin; Larsen, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    mink from Brown and Black color types were obtained. A mean of 49,789,860.2 (± 9,813,587.2) raw reads of high quality per sample were sequenced. SNPs were called using the software pipeline Stacks. The populations program was used to estimate population structure and genetic divergence between the two...

  1. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2016-01-01

    interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family...

  2. Feeding mink (Neovison vison) a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy induces higher birth weight and altered hepatic gene expression in the F2 offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, Dominique; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition during foetal life can induce modifications in the phenotype of an individual. The present study aimed to observe effects of low foetal life protein provision on modifications of the phenotype and changes in the progeny of 1-year-old female mink (F1 generation) offspring of mothers f...

  3. Heterosis in the second and third generation affects litter size in a crossbreed mink (Neovison vison) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pertoldi, Cino; Larsen, Peter Foged

    2014-01-01

    Litter sizes in a cross between Brown and Black mink color types were observed through six generations. Litter size was significantly affected by yearly environmental variations. After adjusting for year effects, we found significant increases in litter size in the second and third generations (F2...... caused by an increase in litter size compared to the Black parental line. This indicates that the Black line was affected by inbreeding depression prior to crossing. We also found that two-year old F1 females had significantly more offspring compared to one-year old F1 females...

  4. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    with respect to CP digestibility and AA composition and included lamb meal (LBM), poultry meal (PM), and fish meal (FM) with low, intermediate, and high protein quality, respectively. Nitrogen balance, BW gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were used as measures...... by the European Pet Food Industry Federation. It was concluded that growth studies with mink kits can provide valuable information in protein quality assessment of extruded dog foods. Furthermore, the study showed that to ensure nutritional adequacy of dog food and to be able to compare protein quality of dog...

  5. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.

    2009-01-01

    hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...... of the human and dog genome assemblies revealed a number of large synteny blocks, some of which are corroborated by data from the mink linkage map....

  6. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer, Anne S.; Clausen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short...... length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4–5 hr. In this study, we used high...... interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies...

  7. Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdorf, Kristine Høvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbo- hydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance...... experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate...... (37% vs 26% of HE, P vs 0.4 g.kg-0.75.day-1, P vs 1.4, P vs 11.6 g...

  8. High Prevalence of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-ranging Mink on a Remote Danish Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark......, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32...... of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains....

  9. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  10. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  11. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...... consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  12. The reliability of welfare assessment according to the WelFur-protocol in the nursing period of mink (Neovison vison) is challenged by increasing welfare problems prior to weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body condition of the mink dam, the frequency of dirty nests, frequency of injuries and diarrhoea change significantly with the day of assessment, post-partum, within the data collection period from parturition to weaning, influencing...... feeding', but not by enough to affect the estimated welfare classification. The score for the three other measures also varied with date of assessment but not enough to affect the classification. However, the observed change in the four measures we focused on indicates that a change in the overall Wel......Fur classification can occur if these or other measures change a little more for the better or worse. Possible solutions to this could be reducing the time window for assessment, development of a valid correction factor or to stratify the visits into an early, middle and late visit on a farm within the three...

  13. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea

    2016-01-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for am...... and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown.......A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials...

  14. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  15. Removal of American mink increases the success of simulated nests in linear habitat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padyšáková, E.; Šálek, Martin; Poledník, L.; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2009), s. 225-230 ISSN 1035-3712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SE/620/1/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/60/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mink * nest predation * introduction * allien species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2009

  16. Morfologisk og molekylær karakterisering af en eimeriaart fra danske mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2017-01-01

    I perioden april til oktober 2016, blev fæces fra mink (Neovison vison) på 30 danske minkgårde undersøgt med henblik på at fastlægge forekomsten og arterne af Eimeria hos danske mink (Neovison vison). På basis af morfologisk undersøgelse af sporulerede oocyster, blev oocyster som lignede tidligere...... beskrevet art, kaldet E. vison identificeret. Den fundne art var dog en smule mindre end E. vison. Efterfølgende blev oocysterne forsøgt identificeret molekylært og sammenlignet med sekvenser i Genbank. Desværre var der ikke tilgængelige mink sekvenser i GenBank, og den nyligt fundne Eimeria art kaldes...... derfor for Eimeria vison-like. I alt fandtes 2,6% (108/4.141) af de underøgte fæcesprøver positive for E. vison-like oocyster ved mikroskopi, svarende til at 23,9% (78 mink) af minkene udskilte E. vison-like oocyster mindst én gang i undersøgelsesperioden....

  17. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  18. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  19. DON-induced changes in bone homeostasis in mink dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.

  20. Chronic fuel oil toxicity in American mink (Mustela vison): systemic and hematological effects of ingestion of a low-concentration of bunker C fuel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Julie A.; Aldridge, Brian M.; Lasley, Bill L.; Snyder, Paul W.; Stott, Jeff L.; Mohr, F. Charles

    2004-01-01

    Petroleum oil enters the coastal marine environment through various sources; marine mammals such as sea otters that inhabit this environment may be exposed to low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons through ingestion of contaminated prey. The inability to perform controlled studies in free-ranging animals hinders investigations of the effects of chronic petroleum oil exposure on sea otter morbidity and mortality, necessitating the development of a reliable laboratory model. We examined the effects of oral exposure to 500 ppm bunker C fuel oil over 113-118 days on American mink, a species phylogenetically related to the sea otter. Hematological parameters and organs were examined for fuel oil-associated changes. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA expression and fecal cortisol concentrations were also measured. Ingestion of fuel oil was associated with a decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Total leukocytes were elevated in the fuel oil group from increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Significant interactions between fuel oil and antigen challenge were found for erythrocyte parameters, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Liver and adrenal weights were increased although mesenteric lymph node weights were decreased in the fuel oil group. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA was elevated in the fuel oil group. Fecal cortisol concentration did not vary between the two groups. Our findings show that fuel oil exposure alters circulating leukocyte numbers, erythrocyte homeostasis, hepatic metabolism and adrenal physiology and establish a framework to use mink as a model for sea otters in studying the systemic effects of marine contaminants

  1. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  2. Acoustic Ecology of Minke Whales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Calls of minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, off the coast of NE Australia in July of 1997 were recorded utilizing a newly described population, where minke whales maintain long contacts with vessels...

  3. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khlebodarova, TM; Malchenko, Sergey; Matveeva, NM

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation...

  4. Predation of the alien American mink Mustela vison on native crayfish populations in middle-sized streams in central and western Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, D.; Pavluvčík, P.; Sedláček, František; Šálek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 45-56 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : mink diet * stone crayfish * prey selectivity * density-dependent predation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2009

  5. Stereotypic behaviour in farm mink (Neovison vison) can be reduced by selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B K; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Berg, P

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present the first estimation of genetic variation of stereotypic behaviour (SB). Stereotypic behaviour is defined as an unvarying behaviour without any specific goal or function repeated at least five times. All types of SB were included in the analyses. Altogether 1484 adult...

  6. Mink's adaptation to group housing in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In this project, we test the hypothesis whether mink populations with a higher social tolerance have been developed in practice and thus are better adapted to housing in stacked cages. The hypothesis has been tested by comparing the level of bite damages and bit marks in mink kept in pairs...... and in mink kept in social groups. In total, the project included 1,191 brown mink housed on four farms in up to five different types of social groups. The result showed that mink in groups had significantly more bite marks than mink kept in pairs, and that mink with bite wounds had significantly more bite...... marks than mink that did not haev bite wounds. Thus, based upon bite mark results, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that mink populations adapted to group housing have been developed. The number of mink that had died or had been removede during the test period, or that had bite wounds at the time...

  7. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  8. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  9. Mink kan også have influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    , hvis der opstår mistanke om influenza ved obduktionen, eller hvis der er alvorlige langvarige udbrud. For at kunne iværksætte foranstaltninger, der begrænser forekomsten af influenza hos mink, er det nødvendigt at kende udbredelsen af influenzavirus blandt farmede mink i Danmark. Formålet med denne...... minkobduktionskursus, samt vilde mink. Der blev påvist influenza A virus i mink fra otte farme. Genetiske analyser indikerede, at disse virus stammede fra både danske svin og mennesker. For at forebygge udbrud af influenza i farmede mink anbefales det, at undgå kontakt mellem mink og influenzasyge personer, samt sikre...

  10. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per Walter; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde

    2008-01-01

    Den digene ikte Pseudamphistomum forekommer som metacercarie i skaller fra Furesøen og som adult i mink fra området. Dette er belyst ved morfometriske og molekylære metoder. Fundet er væsentligt, idet parasitten er zoonotisk og kan inficere mennesker, der indtager utilstrækkeligt varmebehandlet f...

  11. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... follows: (1) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two distemper susceptible mink or ferrets...

  12. Alien Mink Predation and Colonisation Processes of Rodent Prey on Small Islands of the Baltic Sea: Does Prey Naivete Matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, K.; Korpimaki, E.; Banks, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Colonisation, an important part of meta-population dynamics of fragmented populations, depends on both the dispersal ability and the ability to establish in the new habitat. Predation can hinder successful establishment of prey, and where the predation pressure comes from an alien predator, the effects on colonisation might be devastating. We studied the establishment of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inhabiting small islands of the archipelago of the Baltic Sea, SW Finland, under presence and absence of the alien American mink (Mustela vison). We translocated experienced voles from islands with mink, and inexperienced voles from islands from which mink had been removed, to other islands where mink was present or absent. By radio-tracking we studied survival, space and micro habitat use of voles within four weeks after translocation. Survival of voles on mink islands was significantly lower than on mink-free islands, but experienced voles did not survive better than inexperienced voles. Experienced voles were more often located in juniper habitats than inexperienced voles, but they appeared not to gain any survival benefit from altered micro habitat use. This study provides novel evidence, that alien mink predation inhibits establishment of colonising field voles and may thus ultimately induce extinction of voles from the outer archipelago.

  13. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (rho = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection.......1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two...

  14. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  15. Måling af stress hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Sammendrag Stress indgår som et element ved vurdering af dyrevelfærd. Endvidere kan stress mål anvendes i undersøgelser, hvor forskellige typer af avl, burmiljø og pasning af mink sammenlignes. Men hvad er stress egentlig og hvordan måles det? Er unormal adfærd koblet til stress hos mink? På...... temadagen præsenteres nye resultater og metoder til at vurdere stress hos mink. I en metode måles koncentrationen af nedbrydningsprodukter af hormonet cortisol i gødning fra mink. Der er en række fordele ved denne metode, frem for blodprøvetagning. Forsøg viste, at hovedparten af cortisol udskilles i fæces...... (83 %) frem for i urin (17 %), samt at omsætningen af radioaktivt mærket cortisol ikke er forskellig mellem mink med hhv. lav og høj forekomst af stereotypi. Denne viden kan bruges til bedre at forstå koblingen f.eks. unormal adfærd og stress hos mink....

  16. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  17. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  18. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  19. Coccidia infections in Danish farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    day (April-October 2016) from bitches and cups on 30 farms (n=335 mink) from South- or North Jutland, or Zealand. Minimum once, 60.9% (n=204) mink excreted Eimeria, 56.7% (n=190) Isospora and 20.9% (n=70) excreted both coccidia. Positive mink were identified on all farms. Eimeria prevalence was higher...... on the Zealand farms (25.4±2.2%, PEimeria prevalence peaked in June-July (12.6%-24.9%), while Isospora prevalence peaked in July-August (12.......1%-27.6%). More cups (19.5%) than bitches (4.6%) were Isospora positive, while Eimeria prevalence was similar for cups (15.7%) and bitches (10.5%). For cups, Eimeria prevalence peaked when cups were 7-11 weeks old and again when 18-24 weeks old. Isospora prevalence peaked in cups 13-15 weeks old. Three Eimeria...

  20. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  1. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate beha...... mink production seasons: Winter, spring, and autumn, in order to cover the life cycle of mink and proved feasible for a one-day visit.......European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...

  2. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid......Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  3. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety...

  4. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  5. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik

    to diarrhea in mink. Rotavirus is poorly described in mink, but has previously been demonstrated in feces from mink pups with and without clinical signs (Jorgensen et al. 1996). The pathogenicity of these viruses could be related to viral load, virulence and the age of the mink. Therefore, there is a need...

  6. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B

    1994-01-01

    of low virulence. The 107 mink kits that survived inoculation with ADV as newborns developed lesions typical of classical Aleutian disease irrespective of the ADV isolate used. The lesions consisted of chronic immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and infiltrations with mononuclear cells, including...

  7. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.

    2017-01-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis....

  8. Molecular characterization of H9N2 influenza virus isolated from mink and its pathogenesis in mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Chen, Chen; Kai-yi, Han; Feng-xia, Zhang; Yan-li, Zhu; Zong-shuai, Ling; Xing-xiao, Zhang; Shi-jin, Jiang; Zhi-jing, Xie

    2015-03-23

    In mid-August 2013, two H9N2 influenza viruses, named A/mink/Shandong/F6/2013 (Mk/SD/F6/13) and A/mink/Shandong/F10/2013 (Mk/SD/F10/13), were isolated from lung samples of 2 of 45 farmed mink exhibiting respiratory signs in mideastern Shandong province, China. The seroprevalence of antibodies to H9N2 in mink was 20% (53/265). Based on sequence analysis, the eight nucleotide sequences showed 99.7-100% identity between Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13. The HA, NP and NS genes of Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13 were close to A/chicken/Zhejiang/329/2011 (H9N2), the NA and PB1 genes to A/duck/Hunan/S4111/2011 (H9N2), the PA and M genes to A/chicken/Shanghai/C1/2012 (H9N2). However, the PB2 genes had a close relationship with A/Turkey/California/189/66 (H9N2). Based on Sialic acid (SA) receptor detection, a range tissues of the mink demonstrated staining for MAA and/or SNA, and mink could serve as an intermediate host for influenza viruses with pandemic potential for the other animals. Experimental infection of mink demonstrated that mink could be infected by H9N2 influenza viruses and presented mild clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion, but no animals died of the disease. It implied that mammalian host-adapted avian H9N2 strains infected mink. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mink predation on brown trout in a Black Hills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacob L.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000’s, declines in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery in Rapid Creek, South Dakota, caused concern for anglers and fisheries managers. We conducted a radio telemetry study in 2010 and 2011 to identify predation mortality associated with mink, using hatchery-reared (2010) or wild (2011) brown trout. Estimated predation rates by mink (Mustela vison) on radio-tagged brown trout were 30% for hatchery fish and 32% for wild fish. Size frequency analysis revealed that the size distribution of brown trout lost to predation was similar to that of other, radio-tagged brown trout. In both years, a higher proportion of predation mortality (83–92%) occurred during spring, consistent with seasonal fish consumption by mink. Predation by mink appeared to be a significant source of brown trout mortality in our study.

  10. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...... mink out of a total mink population of ten million might be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This large number of possible sero-positive mink in Denmark indicates that there exists a potential risk of acquiring toxoplasmosis by pelting mink....

  12. Infection studies in mink with seal-derived morbillivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Svansson, V; Have, P.

    1989-01-01

    Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper.......Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper....

  13. Two avian H10 influenza A virus strains with different pathogenicity for mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, L; Hård af Segerstad, C

    1998-01-01

    We compared two strains of avian influenza A viruses of subtype H10 by exposing mink to aerosols of A/mink/Sweden/3,900/84 (H10N4) naturally pathogenic for mink, or A/chicken/Germany/N/49, (H10N7). Lesions in the respiratory tract during the first week after infection were studied and described. Both virus strains caused inflammatory reactions in the lungs and antibody production in exposed mink but only mink/84 virus was reisolated. The lesions caused by mink/84 virus were more severe with higher area density of pneumonia, lower daily weight gain, and more virus in the tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that mink/84 (H10N4), but not chicken/49 virus (H10N7), established multiple cycle replication in infected cells in the mink.

  14. Site fidelity of female minke whales in the Gulf of. St Lawrence, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lopes, Xenia; Bérubé, Martine; Berrow, Simon D.; Larsen, Finn; Haug, Tore; Hoekendijk, Jeroen; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Kot, Brian; Øien, Nils; Oosting, Tom; Pampoulie, Christophe; Ramp, Christian; Robbins, Jooke; Ryan, Conor; Sears, Richard; Simon, Malene; Skaug, H. J.; Verkuil, Yvonne; Vikingsson, G.A.; Witting, Lars; van der Zee, Jurjan; Palsboll, Per

    2017-01-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is a globally-distributed species whose population ecology is poorly understood. Most knowledge about minke whale populations, including gender differences, originates from historical data collected during commercial harvests. Here we present results from

  15. Acoustic Ecology and Remote Acoustic Monitoring of a Minke Whale Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedamke, Jason

    2000-01-01

    Sound is the most effective means of communication in the ocean. A uniquely inquisitive minke whale population on the northern Great Barrier Reef presents an unprecedented research opportunity to study minke acoustics...

  16. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...

  17. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Harrington, R D; Zhuang, D; Yan, H; Truscott, T C; Dassanayake, R P; O'Rourke, K I

    2012-11-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The distribution of PrP(d) within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrP(TME) and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrP(TME) in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrP(TME) in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum, after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrP(TME) was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrP(TME) was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection, with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrP(TME) in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrP(TME) accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrP(TME) in the lymphoid

  18. Recombinant proteins as vaccines for protection against disease induced by infection with mink astrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and polypeptides of the capsid protein of a novel mink astrovirus strain denoted DK7627. Such polynucleotides and polypeptides may be used for the production of vaccines against mink astrovirus which may induce pre-weaning diarrhoea in minks. The invention furthermore relates to vectors, host cells, compositions...

  19. Studies on the pathogenesis of Aleutian disease of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Peddinghaus, R.; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H.; Kalden, J.R.; Trautwein, G.; Ueberschaer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) of mink most closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in man; both are immune complex disease. In experimental AD serum immune complexes are determined by the 125 J-C 1 q-binding test using human C 1 q. Mink (n = 12) infected intraperitoneally with Aleutian disease virus (ADV), grown in fetal mink kidney cells, developed during the course of infection a mean of 125 I-C 1 q serum binding equivalent to 3.62 +- 1.68 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. (aggregated human immunoglobulin). Sera of mink (n = 8) which were infected with ADV grown in L-cells showed a less marked 125 I-C 1 q binding with a mean equivalent to 2.52 +- 1.43 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In contrast control animals (n = 8) treated with non-ADV-infected mink epidermal fibroblasts or Eagle's minimal essential medium substituted with fetal calf serum only bound 125 I-C 1 q equivalent to 1.02 +- 0.99 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In mink infected with ADV propagated in fetal mink kidney cells a constant increase in the 125 I-C 1 q serum binding occurred from the 4th to the 7th and 13th week after ADV infection. Mink which were infected with ADV propagated in mouse L-cells exhibited a different pattern of the 125 I-C 1 q serum binding capacity with a sharp increase from the 4th to the 7th week, followed by a decline towards the 13th week post infection. The serum 125 I-C 1 q binding capacity of all experimental animal groups exhibited at different times of the experiment a significant correlation with the presence of hypergammaglobulinaemia and raised ADV-antibody titers. From the data obtained it appears that the 125 I-C 1 q binding test, utilizing human C 1 q, is a suitable method for the detection of circulating serum immune complexes in mink during the course of ADV-infection. (orig.) [de

  20. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....

  1. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...

  2. Distribution of Aleutian mink disease virus contamination in the environment of infected mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Fernández-Antonio, R; Díaz-Cao, J M; López, G; Díaz, P; Alonso, J M; Morrondo, P; Fernández, G

    2017-05-01

    Control and eradication of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) are a major concern for fur-bearing animal production. Despite notably reducing disease prevalence, current control programs are unable to prevent the reinfection of farms, and environmental AMDV persistence seems to play a major role regarding this issue. In this study 114 samples from different areas and elements of seven infected mink farms were analyzed by qPCR in order to evaluate the environmental distribution of AMDV load. Samples were classified into nine categories, depending on the type of sample and degree of proximity to the animals, the main source of infection. Two different commercial DNA extraction kits were employed in parallel for all samples. qPCR analysis showed 69.3% positive samples with one kit and 81.6% with the other, and significant differences between the two DNA extraction methods were found regarding AMDV DNA recovery. Regarding sample categorization, all categories showed a high percentage of AMDV positive samples (31%-100%). Quantification of positive samples showed a decrease in AMDV load from animal barns to the periphery of the farm. In addition, those elements in direct contact with animals, the street clothes and vehicles of farm workers and personal protective equipment used for sampling showed a high viral load, and statistical analysis revealed significant differences in AMDV load between the first and last categories. These results indicate high environmental contamination of positive farms, which is helpful for future considerations about cleaning and disinfection procedures and biosecurity protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  4. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouteux, B. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Muir, D.C.G. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: Derek.Muir@ec.gc.ca; Backus, S. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Born, E.W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Dietz, R. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Haug, T. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 6404, N-9294 Tromso (Norway); Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C. [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Oien, N. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2008-05-15

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and {sigma}CHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 {+-} 110 and 41 {+-} 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 {+-} 4100 and 1100 {+-} 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters.

  5. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouteux, B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Backus, S.; Born, E.W.; Dietz, R.; Haug, T.; Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Oien, N.

    2008-01-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and ΣCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 ± 110 and 41 ± 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 ± 4100 and 1100 ± 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters

  6. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis to the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques as...

  7. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...

  8. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed; Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passey, C A; Roy, D; Savoie, L [St. Hyacinthe Food Research Centre, Agriculture (Canada); Malo, R [AgriZo Vet Consultants, St. Hyacinthe, QA (Canada); Wilson, J [J.J. Wilson et Fils, Inc., St. Hyacinthe, QA (Canada)

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1{plus minus}0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author).

  9. Mortality and some biochemical changes in mink (Mustela vison) given sublethal doses of aflatoxin each day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Marth, E H; Shackelford, R M

    1976-10-01

    Two feeding trials were done to study the susceptibility of mink (Mustela vison) to multiple sublethal doses of aflatoxins. In the 1st trial, twenty 3-month-old male mink were divided equally among groups. Each mink in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was given a meatball daily that contained 15, 30, 45, or 0 mug of aflatoxins (B1:G1, 40:60), respectively. All mink in group 3 died between the 25th and the 30th days of the feeding trial. Each mink had ingested 1,035 to 1,480 mug of aflatoxins. Four of the mink in group 2 died almost as soon as did mink in group 3. Four mink in group 1 died between 40 and 59 days after the start of the feeding trial. Generally, a marked increase in plasma cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase activity appeared before mink died. The liver from animals that died of aflatoxicosis showed prominent pathologic changes which included hemorrhages and appearance of pink yellow spots. Histopathologic examination of liver from dead mink revealed fatty infiltration, bile duct proliferation, bile stasis, pseudotubular formation, congestion, and fibrosis. The feeding trial was repeated with 20 mink (8 males and 12 females) that were 1.5 to 2 years old. In this instance, 0, 20, 40, and 60 mug of aflatoxins were administered each day. All treated animals, except 1, were dead within 37 days after the experiment started. The survivor was given the lowest dosage of toxins and died after 52 days by which time 960 mug of aflatoxins were consumed. Plasma cholesterol content and alkaline phosphatase activity generally were similar to those observed in younger mink of the 1st feeding trial.

  10. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  11. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  12. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  13. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    to detect viral DNA in full blood, organs, faeces and oro-nasal swabs weekly for the first 8 weeks and then biweekly for another 16 weeks after AMDV challenge inoculation of wild type mink. The mink (n=29) was infected and seroconverted 2–3 weeks after AMDV inoculation and AMDV antibodies persisted during...... the maximum experimental period of 24 weeks. Viraemia and faecal excretion of viral DNA was detected in the mink (n=29) at various and intermittent time intervals. Excretion of viral DNA in oro-nasal swabs was detected for 1–8 weeks in 21 mink. This highlights the risk of transmitting AMDV between infected...

  14. Intestinal remodelling in mink fed with reduced protein content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    2009-01-01

    Low protein intake occurs in humans in relation to diseases, starvation and post-operatively. Low-protein diets may affect the gastrointestinal structure and mechanical function. The aim was to study the passive biomechanical properties and tissue remodelling of the intestine in minks on reduced...... protein diets. Twenty-seven male minks were divided into three groups receiving different protein level in the diet for 6 weeks: High protein level (group H, 55% energy from protein), moderate protein level (group M, 30% energy from protein) and low protein level (group L, 15% energy from protein) (n=9...... groups. Feeding the low-protein diet shifted the stress-strain curves to the right for the circumferential direction, indicating the wall become softer in the circumferential direction. However, no significant difference was observed in the longitudinal direction for any of the intestinal segments...

  15. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark

    research has been performed in this field and most published work is more than 25 years old. The studies presented in this thesis aim at elucidating varying aspects of the disease: Article I investigates the relationships of P. aeruginosa isolated from mink hemorrhagic pneumonia using pulsed field gel...... electrophoresis (PFGE) and a commercial typing system based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on chosen strains. The results presented in this article show that 70% of P. aeruginosa isolated from outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink consist of unique strains, while the remaining 30% belongs to either...... in hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli in diagnostic material. The distribution of the two pathogens is visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two histological patterns were observed in the work presented in Article II; one was very hemorrhagic with few bacteria while...

  16. Projekt skal undersøge MRSA i danske mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    MRSA blev for første gang isoleret fra to danske mink, som var indsendt til undersøgelse på DTU Veterinærinstituttet, i 2013. I løbet af 2017 gennemfører DTU Veterinærinstituttet et projekt, som har til formål at klarlægge MRSA-forekomsten og smitteoverførslen på danske minkgårde....

  17. Er genomisk selektion en revolution af avlsarbejdet med mink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Peer

    2011-01-01

    Genomisk selektion udnytter, at den enkelte mink kan genotypes for tusindvis af genetiske markører. Et dyrs avlsværdi kan skønnes med ret stor sikkerhed på basis af en blod- eller hårprøve, hvor dyrets sæt af genetiske markører bestemmes. Det er altså ikke nødvendigt at registrere minkens egne eg...

  18. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...... measures such as "stereotypy", "tremperament" and "body condition". These measures were in each fo 9 Danish mink farms on approximately 250 adult mink on each farm collected during the nursing season 2011 by a total of 8 observers working in pairs. Descriptive result showed a large between herd variations...

  19. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  20. Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink | Liu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the growth curve parameters for live weight of standard black, brown, mahogany, Hedlund white and sapphire minks. The data were collected from five colour types in the period from seven days to 24 weeks of age. Three hundred mink (about 60 of each colour types) ...

  1. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.

    1989-01-01

    When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mi...

  2. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    synchronize their daily activity rhythm to the expected time of feeding. In addition, a high feeding motivation appears to be a precondition for circadian anticipatory activity in mink whereas anticipatory activity of mink fed ad libitum or close to ad libitum may be provoked by stimuli from the actual...

  3. Comparison of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from mink by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2003-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical infections in mink were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. A total of 212 isolates of P aeruginosa from the year 1998 to 2001 were included in this study: 168 isolates from mink obtained from 74 farm out...

  4. Mortality in farmed mink: Systematic collection versus arbitrary submissions for diagnostic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of diagnoses of mortality in mink submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL) for diagnostic investigation in the calendar year 1997 was compared with the diagnoses of mortality in all dead mink collected at 4 selected farms (project farms) during the same period. A total...

  5. Pre-slaughter bodyweight and daily gains in mink are independent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natasza

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... larger space and low density of animals might result in increased use of .... Heritability of body length and weight in mink, and the effects of time of birth and litter ... slaughterhouse offal and supplementary folic acid in mink diet.

  6. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests....... The spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink...

  7. Effects of group size on behaviour, growth and occurrence of bite marks in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helene M. K.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Loberg, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours and the activity level in farmed mink when group housed in climbing cages and if group housing increase aggression by assessing the prevalence of bite marks. This was studied in juvenile mink of the colour types...... sunset during six periods of five days each from August-October. After pelting, the leather side of the undried skins were visually inspected for bite marks. Stereotypic behaviours were infrequent (0.1% of observations). Pair housed mink in climbing cages were more "inactive out in cage" than pair housed...... mink in standard cages (p 0.0001), but cage type had no effect on the behaviours "being in nest box", "active out in cage", "interactions with enrichments" or "social interactions" (n.s.). Group sizes of three or four mink increased the behaviours "active out in cage" (P 0.0001) and decreased "being...

  8. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    of the brown colour type (N = 140) and the white colour type (N = 60). Twentybrown and 20 white mink (housed in pairs since weaning) were housed individually at theage of 16 weeks. Every second week (at the age of 20, 22, 24, 25 and 28 weeks), four brownand four white mink were subjected to pressure......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P ...tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of...

  9. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  10. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamberg, Mary; Boila, Gail; Stern, Gary; Roach, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 μg g -1 in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 μg g -1 in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 μg g -1 in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 μg g -1 . All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon

  11. On-farm biosecurity practices and causes of preweaning mortality in Canadian commercial mink kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, Nicole; Pearl, David L; Tapscott, Brian; Storer, Amanda; Hammermueller, Jutta; Brash, Marina; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-08

    Mink are an important animal commodity group in Canada and excessive kit mortality represents a significant loss to production. National biosecurity standards have been developed for Canadian mink farms, but it is unclear how well these standards have been implemented as there are no studies correlating management practices of mink producers with causes of death in mink kits. To that end, we surveyed Ontario mink producers on their biosecurity and management practices and conducted almost 5660 post mortem examinations on found-dead, preweaned kits to characterize mink farm biosecurity practices and causes of death in preweaned kits. We found that very few biosecurity and management practices were uniformly used by producers, despite good awareness of appropriate practices. Use of personal protective equipment was implemented by fewer than 50% of respondents, while control of mink shed access, disinfection of feed containers after use, and use of a rodent control program were the only practices implemented by greater than 70% of respondents. Only 18% of producers reported regular use of antimicrobials in feed or water, although 91% stated they used antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases on a regular basis. On post mortem examination, no gross abnormalities were noted in 71% of the kits, 45% were thought to be stillborn or aborted, 27% had some form of abnormal fluid distribution in the body, and 2% had a congenital malformation. A subset of 69 gastrointestinal tract samples was submitted for bacterial culture, of which 45 samples yielded sufficient growth. Most interesting was the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in 11% of samples. The results of this study will provide a benchmark for Canadian mink producers and their veterinarians, defining the areas to which greater attention should be given to ensure more rigorous biosecurity practices are in place. Ultimately, these improvements in practices may contribute to increased mink

  12. Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of Chernobyl she-minks of different age and immunological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudenko, V.I.; Podgorskij, V.S.; Ryasenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative and species characteristics of bacteria and yeast isolated from the food and gastrointestinal tract of she-minks of different age groups and different immunological state have been established. The species composition of bacteria forming the basic and accompanying microflora of small and large intestine of minks is determined. An increase in the quantity of anaerobic (bifidobacteria), microaerophilic (lactic acid bacilli, enterococci) and aerobic (intestinal bacilli) bacteria in the content of the large intestine of minks has been established in comparison with the stomach and small intestine in all examined groups of animals of various age and immunological state

  13. Distance estimation experiment for aerial minke whale surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Witting

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between aerial cue–counting and digital photography surveys for minke whales conducted in Faxaflói Bay in September 2003 is used to check the perpendicular distances estimated by the cue-counting observers. The study involved 2 aircraft with the photo plane at 1,700 feet flying above the cue–counting plane at 750 feet. The observer–based distance estimates were calculated from head angles estimated by angle-boards and declination angles estimated by declinometers. These distances were checked against image–based estimates of the perpendicular distance to the same whale. The 2 independent distance estimates were obtained for 21 sightings of minke whale, and there was a good agreement between the 2 types of estimates. The relative absolute deviations between the 2 estimates were on average 23% (se: 6%, with the errors in the observer–based distance estimates resembling that of a log-normal distribution. The linear regression of the observer–based estimates (obs on the image–based estimates (img was Obs=1.1Img (R2=0.85 with an intercept fixed at zero. There was no evidence of a distance estimation bias that could generate a positive bias in the absolute abundance estimated by cue–counting.

  14. Canine distemper of vaccine origin in European mink, Mustela lutreola--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Kommonen, C; Rudbäck, E; Anttila, M; Aho, M; Huovilainen, A

    2003-04-02

    Cases of canine distemper (CD) related to vaccination of exotic carnivores extend over three decades and have been described in at least nine different species. Our report describes a case of acute CD in a European mink, Mustela lutreola, vaccinated with live attenuated CD vaccine licensed for use in fur-farmed mink. The male mink died of an acute grey matter disease with an unusually long incubation period. A female vaccinated at the same time showed no obvious signs of illness. The diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by subsequent sequencing of the PCR products. The sequenced products of the virus isolated from the mink and of the vaccine batch showed 100% identity. This is the first report in which molecular methods were used to confirm that the disease was caused by the vaccine strain. Based on our findings, it is clearly evident that current CD vaccines cannot be safely used in exotic species.

  15. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  16. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) from mink, horse, and man: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhaug, G.; Husby, G.; Husebeck, A.; Sletten, K.

    1986-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was isolated from mink, horse, and human serum by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting followed by autoradiography and N-terminal amino acid analysis. SAA was found in similar quantities in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of serum from a patient suffering from systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and mink stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in somewhat smaller quantities in serum from horses stimulated with Escherichia coli cultures. Only very small quantities were present in normal human controls and not detectable in normal mink and horse. Striking similarities were found between human and mink SAA with respect to molecular weight, isolectric point and degree of heterogeneity, while the molecular weight, isolectric point and degree of heterogeneity, while the molecular weight of horse SAA seemed to be somewhat lower, and no obvious heterogeneity could be demonstrated in this protein using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Immunologic cross-reactivity between SAA from the three species was not found. In contrast to human and horse HDL, mink HDL was found not to contain apoA-II and only minute amounts of apoC proteins. Normal horse HDL also contained additional apoproteins not present in HDL from the other species. N-terminal amino acids analysis of SAA from mink and horse demonstrated the same similarity with the corresponding AA protein as previously reported for human SAA/AA

  17. A test of mink microsatellite markers in the ferret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2006-01-01

    Short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in mammalian genomes. Genetic variations at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis and to identify individuals, and is very useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. Fifty-nine microsatellite mar...... that were identical in size to those from mink displayed a high degree of conservation, with some differences at the repeat motif sites. These results could aid cross-utilization of markers between these two species.......Short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in mammalian genomes. Genetic variations at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis and to identify individuals, and is very useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. Fifty-nine microsatellite...

  18. A study of tobacco carcinogenesis XLVIII. Carcinogenicity of N'-nitrosonornicotine in mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppang, N; Rivenson, A; Reith, A; Dahle, H K; Evensen, O; Hoffmann, D

    1992-11-01

    During tobacco processing and smoking, nicotine and nornicotine give rise to N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a highly abundant, strong carcinogen. NNN is known to exert carcinogenic activity in mice, rats and hamsters. Major target organs for NNN carcinogenicity in the rat are the esophagus and the nasal mucosa, and in the Syrian golden hamster trachea and nasal mucosa. In comparison with the rat, the mink (Mustela vison) has a markedly expanded nasal mucosa. Therefore, we explored in this study whether the mink could serve as a non-rodent model for nasal carcinogenesis using NNN as the carcinogen. Twenty random-bred mink, beginning at the age of 3 weeks, received twice weekly s.c. injections of NNN, a total dose of 11.9 mM per animal over a 38 week period. All of the 19 mink at risk developed malignant tumors of both the respiratory and the olfactory region of the nose within 3.5 years. In most animals the malignant tumors, primarily esthesioneuroepithelioma, invaded the brain. Remarkably, NNN induced no other tumors in the mink. None of the control animals developed nasal tumors nor tumors at other sites during the 3.5 years of the assay. The historical data from the farm did not reveal any spontaneous occurrence of nasal tumors in mink at any age. This study supports the concept that NNN is a proven carcinogen for multiple species of mammals and that the mink can serve as a non-rodent, non-inbred animal model for nasal carcinogenesis, especially since NNN induces only tumors in the nasal cavity in this species and not at other sites, as it does in mice, rats and hamsters.

  19. Influence of farm, feed-producer and season on incidence of gastrointestinal disorders in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together with the ...

  20. Generalised additive models to investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) spatial density in austral summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, B.W.P.M.; Forcada, J.; Murphy, E.J.; Baar, H.J.W.; Bathmann, U.V.; Fleming, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to characterise the physical environment associated with Antarctic minke whale density in order to understand long-term changes in minke whale distribution and density in open waters of the Southern Ocean during austral summer months. To investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic

  1. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60% (...

  2. Are Antarctic minke whales unusually abundant because of 20th century whaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Scott Baker, C; Vant, Murdoch; Jackson, Jennifer A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Severe declines in megafauna worldwide illuminate the role of top predators in ecosystem structure. In the Antarctic, the Krill Surplus Hypothesis posits that the killing of more than 2 million large whales led to competitive release for smaller krill-eating species like the Antarctic minke whale. If true, the current size of the Antarctic minke whale population may be unusually high as an indirect result of whaling. Here, we estimate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale prior to whaling by sequencing 11 nuclear genetic markers from 52 modern samples purchased in Japanese meat markets. We use coalescent simulations to explore the potential influence of population substructure and find that even though our samples are drawn from a limited geographic area, our estimate reflects ocean-wide genetic diversity. Using Bayesian estimates of the mutation rate and coalescent-based analyses of genetic diversity across loci, we calculate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale to be 670,000 individuals (95% confidence interval: 374,000-1,150,000). Our estimate of long-term abundance is similar to, or greater than, contemporary abundance estimates, suggesting that managing Antarctic ecosystems under the assumption that Antarctic minke whales are unusually abundant is not warranted.

  3. Utilization of milk energy by suckling mink kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Kirsten Bislev

    2004-01-01

    A total of 36 mink dams and their litters of 3, 6 or 9 kits were used for determination of milk intake of the suckling young by means of deuterium dilution technique, and chemical composition of milk and of kit bodies. Measurements were performed during lactation weeks 1-4, each week with 3 dams...... with each litter size. Milk intake was determined over a 48 h measurement period, and by the end of this milk samples were collected and 2 kits (litters of 6 and 9) or 1 kit per litter (litters of 3) were killed for body chemical composition. Based on the results, different models were applied...... for calculation of the energetic efficiency of milk. Dam milk yield increased steadily from week 1 until week 3 but only slightly from week 3 to 4. The increase declined with increasing litter size, and for dams suckling 9 kits the increment from week 3 to week 4 was only 2 g. The dry matter content of milk...

  4. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted

    2015-01-01

    During 8 months from July 2012 to February 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the Danish peninsula of Jutland. The canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit...... distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine...... distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case...

  5. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...... 30 d old. Drinking started almost 2 wk later. During these 2 wk there was a peak in the licking of saliva from the dam and of the inter-litter agonistic behaviour. A causal relationship between experienced thirst and agonistic behaviour is suggested. The kits' sucking declined to only 5% of the time...... budget in the seventh week and the stereotypy frequency of the dams increased to about 4% of the time budget. It is suggested that some dams are frustrated by the forced cohabitation with their nutritionally independent kits already in the seventh week and that this should be taken into account when...

  6. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  7. Brucella ceti Infection in a Common Minke Whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) with Associated Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Nicholas J; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dawson, Claire; Dagleish, Mark P; Haskins, Gary; Muchowski, Jakub; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2017-07-01

    There are three major lineages of marine mammal strains of Brucella spp.: Brucella ceti ST23, found predominantly in porpoises; B. ceti ST26, in pelagic delphinids and ziphiids; and Brucella pinnipedialis ST24/25, predominantly in seals. The isolation of Brucella spp. in mysticetes has been described only in common minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) in Norway and Scotland. We report a third case of Brucella infection and isolation in a minke whale associated with a large abscess. In contrast to the two previous reports that involved isolates of B. pinnipedialis ST24 or the porpoise-associated B. ceti complex ST23, this case was associated with the dolphin-associated B. ceti ST26. Thus, minke whales can be infected naturally with members of all the distinct major lineages of Brucella associated with marine mammals. This report is unique in that the B. ceti ST26 did not originate from a pelagic delphinid or a beaked whale.

  8. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Beasley, Val R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  9. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this......"Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females...

  10. Genetic characterization of canine distemper virus involved in outbreaks in farmed mink in Denmark 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Struve, T.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Danish farmed mink herds experienced a large outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2012. Full-length sequence analysis (1824 nucleotides) of the variable hemagglutinin (H) gene were performed on 27 viruses collected from mink and on 7 viruses collected from wild foxes. Results of the study showed...... with other European canine distemper viruses and showed the highest level of similarity (99.3 - 99.6 %) to viruses isolated from wild foxes in Germany. The fox should therefore be considered as an important wild life reservoir of canine distemper virus and may also contribute to the transmission of the virus...

  11. Lesions in mink (Mustela vison) infected with giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, T F

    1976-01-01

    Adult Dioctophyma renale occupied the enlarged renal pelvis of the right kidney of naturally infected mink. Lesions in the kidney parenchyma consisted of connective tissue proliferation in the interstitial tissue, tubular atrophy and fibrosis, and periglomerular fibrosis. The luminal surface of the renal pelvis wall was formed of numerous papillae covered with transitional epithelium. The nematodes in the lumen were bathed in an albuminous fluid containing red blood cells, epithelial cells and D. renale eggs. The left (uninfected) kidney was 60% larger than the left kidney of normal mink.

  12. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation have...... in humans (7), growing pigs (8), and growing rats (9). In adult cats, both protein synthesis and breakdown were lower when feeding a low- than when feeding a high-protein diet [20 vs. 70% of metabolizable energy (ME)5 from protein] (10). The objectives of this study were therefore to develop a ¹5N...

  13. Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Rikke; Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), and at 24 h (n = 3), 48 h (n = 3) and 1 week (n = 12) postpartum. The milk samples were analysed for dry......, the differences between colostrum and mature milk were less pronounced in the mink than in many other species. Thus, colostrum seems to be of little importance in the mink in conferring passive immunity and hence for kit survival....

  14. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits...

  15. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    SAMMENDRAG (DANISH SUMMARY) Mink blev inokuleret med to forskellige vildtype hundesygevirus (CDV) stammer fra forskellige genotyper. DK91 stammen repræsenter de europæiske genotyper isoleret efter 1990, mens Snyder Hill stammen repræsenter de gamle amerikanske genotyper isoleret før 1960. De to C...

  16. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  17. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cyc...

  18. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorph...

  19. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  20. Genetic and non-genetic indirect effects for bite mark traits in group housed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members vs. non-family members. We showed that mink interact differently either due to sex or the family relationship with their group mates. Our results show that IGEs are very important...

  1. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure.

  3. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  4. Phenozan Influence on the Physiological-Biochemical Parameters of the Young Minks Leading to Their Advanced Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Balakirev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant influence on the physiological-biochemical parameters of productive animals is one of the most important directions in modern animal science. Phenozan is a synthetic antioxidant with high biological activities including those for animals. The positive effects of phenozan on the physiological-biochemical parameters of the mink blood were found. These effects are leading to the intensive growth, strong health, enhancement of the mink fur quality, and so forth. The total amount of the erythrocytes in the mink blood increased by about 4-5% due to phenozan inclusion in the mink diet. Even a more significant increase was found in hemoglobin content in the mink blood and erythrocytes (by about 9.5% and 8.8%, resp. due to phenozan inclusion of 100 mg/day, whereas it was found only by about 6.1–5.3% or 5.5–0.3%, owing to phenozan inclusion of 50 or 150 mg/day. For many other parameters the optimal phenozan concentration was about 100 mg/day per head according to the result obtained for all studied animal groups. Thus, phenozan can be successfully used as a biologically active compound for mink nutrition and is recommended for other farm animals.

  5. Spatial distribution of common Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) as an indication of a biological hotspot in the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasom; An, Yong Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dabin; Joo, Hui Tae; Oh, Young Geun; Kim, Su Min; Kang, Chang Keun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is the most common baleen whale among several marine mammal species observed in Korea. Since a high concentrated condition of prey to whales can be obtained by physical structures, the foraging whale distribution can be an indicator of biological hotspot. Our main objective is verifying the coastal upwelling-southwestern East Sea as a productive biological hotspot based on the geographical distribution of minke whales. Among the cetacean research surveys of the National Institute of Fisheries Science since 1999, 9 years data for the minke whales available in the East Sea were used for this study. The regional primary productivity derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used for a proxy of biological productivity. Minke whales observed during the sighting surveys were mostly concentrated in May and found mostly (approximately 70%) in the southwestern coastal areas (whales was found in recent years, which indicate that the major habitats of mink whales have been shifted into the north of the common coastal upwelling regions. This is consistent with the recently reported unprecedented coastal upwelling in the mid-eastern coast of Korea. Based on high phytoplankton productivity and high distribution of minke whales, the southwestern coastal regions can be considered as one of biological hotspots in the East Sea. These regions are important for ecosystem dynamics and the population biology of top marine predators, especially migratory whales and needed to be carefully managed from a resource management perspective.

  6. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  7. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  8. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  9. Selection against stereotyped behaviour may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of farm mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Malmkvist, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if divergent selection for stereotypic behaviour in mink influences the welfare of the animals. Two breeding lines were used, a high stereotyping line (HSL, N = 139) and a low stereotyping line (LSL, N = 132). Their welfare was assessed on the basis...... of adrenocortical activity (faecal cortisol metabolites, FCM), confident versus fearful temperament, growth and reproduction. The results showed that the LSL performed less stereotypic behaviour and were less active than the HSL. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that: (1) the LSL had lower concentrations......) there was no failure to grow in any line, but on average the body weight in the LSL was higher than that in the HSL. The correlation between stereotypy and confidence in the present study supports earlier findings showing a higher proportion of fearful animals in groups of low stereotyping mink. So, although...

  10. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  11. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  12. Multispecies functional response of the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata based on small-scale foraging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Smout, Sophie; Lindstrøm, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Atlantic minke whales are important predators in the Barents Sea ecosystem; capelin Mallotus villosus, krill Thysanoessa sp. and Meganyctephanes norvegica and herring Clupea harengus are their major prey. Their consumption of commercial species may present an economic problem for the local fishery. In order to estimate this consumption and understand the potential consequences for prey dynamics, it is essential to determine the multispecies functional response of the whales. The parameterisat...

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Proteome Alterations in CDV-Infected Mink Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Tong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a paramyxovirus, causes a severe highly contagious lethal disease in carnivores, such as mink. Mink lung epithelial cells (Mv.1.Lu cells are sensitive to CDV infection and are homologous to the natural host system of mink. The current study analyzed the response of Mv.1.Lu cells to CDV infection by iTRAQ combined with LC–MS/MS. In total, 151 and 369 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were markedly up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively. Thirteen DEPs were validated via real-time RT-PCR or western blot analysis. Network and KEGG pathway analyses revealed several regulated proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. Further validation was performed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay, which demonstrated that different CDV strains induced NF-κB P65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, the results provided interesting information that some identified DEPs possibly associated with the pathogenesis and the immune response upon CDV infection. This study is the first overview of the responses to CDV infection in Mv.1.Lu cells, and the findings will help to analyze further aspects of the molecular mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and the immune responses upon CDV infection.

  14. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent; Pertoldi, Cino; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2015-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy and diar......Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...... among the six mink farms, for tetracycline (0-16.4%. average 21.9), ampicillin (2.9-50.0%. average 23.3), spectinomycin (8.0-35.7%. average 21.9), sulfamethoxazole (8.6-57.7%. average 30.0) and trimethoprim (0-35.7%. average 9.5). Resistance to tetracycline was statistically more prevalent among...

  16. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoekkynen, Ari; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykoenen, Teija; Asikainen, Juha; Haenninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and β-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the β-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits

  17. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted; Andresen, Lars; Chrièl, Mariann; Hagberg, Emma; Jensen, Mette Kragh; Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Struve, Tina

    2015-09-30

    During 8 months from July 2012 to February 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the Danish peninsula of Jutland. The canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both case and control farms. Not using plastic boot covers, presence of dogs and cats, presence of demarcated area for changing clothes when entering and leaving the farm area and presence of hand washing facilities significantly lowered the odds of the farm having a canine distemper virus outbreak. The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be

  18. Water baths for farmed mink: intra-individual consistency and inter-individual variation in swimming behaviour, and effects on stereotyped behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MONONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming behaviour and effects of water baths on stereotyped behaviour in farmed mink (Mustela vison were studied in three experiments. The singly-housed mink had access from their home cages to extra cages with 20.5 litre water baths. Two short-term experiments aimed to investigate how quickly adult and juvenile mink start using and how consistently they use water baths over 10 days, and whether the extent of the use correlates between dams and their females kits. A four-month experiment was designed to compare the development of stereotyped behaviour in juvenile mink housed with and without swimming opportunity. The behavioural analyses were based on several 24-hour video recordings carried out in all three experiments. There were obvious inter-individual differences and intra-individual consistency in swimming frequency and time. Farmed mink’s motivation to swim can be assessed in short-term experiments, and measurement of water losses from the swimming baths and use of instantaneous sampling with 10 min sampling intervals provide quite reliable measures of the amount of swimming. The bath use of the juveniles correlated with that of their dams, indicating that an individual mink’s eagerness to swim may have a genetic component. The lower amount of stereotyped behaviour in mink housed with water baths indicates that long-term access to baths may alleviate frustration in singly-housed juvenile farmed mink.;

  19. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-related coronavirus have been demonstrated in mink sera by indirect immunofluorescence, peroxidase-linked antibody assays and immunoblotting. This is the first serological evidence of a specific coronavirus infection in mink. The putative...

  20. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose...... had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink....

  1. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  2. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 8: Experimental study of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on reproductive success in mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Lewis, L.

    1999-01-01

    As a component of an ecological risk assessment of Poplar Creek (located on the Oak Ridge Reservation [ORR]) and the Clinch River (a large river-reservoir system), fish from Poplar Creek, the Clinch River, and Atlantic Ocean were fed to ranch mink to evaluate reproductive success. Five diets, each composed of 75% fish and 25% normal ranch mink chow, were prepared. Two diets served as reference diets and contained 75% Atlantic Ocean fish or 75% Clinch River fish collected above the ORR. The fish portion of the remaining three diets contained 25, 50, and 75% fish collected from Poplar Creek and 50, 25, and 0% ocean fish, respectively. Five mink groups (eight females and two males each) were each fed one of the prepared diets for 196 days. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were determined in diets and various mink tissues, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined in liver tissue, and reproductive success was evaluated. Concentrations of PCB were greatest in the diet composed of 75% Poplar Creek fish and in tissues from mink fed this diet and their offspring. There was a trend toward decreased adult female and kit weights and reduced mean litter size in mink fed diets containing 75% Poplar Creek fish; however, at 6 weeks of age, kit survival was similar among diet groups. Liver EROD activity significantly increased in adult female mink fed 50 and 75% Poplar Creek fish diets. Estimated dietary concentrations of PCBs were similar to or slightly lower than concentrations associated with adverse effects in experimentally dosed mink. Mercury (Hg) concentrations previously reported in these same mink were below that associated with adverse effects, and there was no indication of additive or synergistic effects from exposure to PCBs plus Hg. It is unlikely that population-level reproductive effects would be observed in mink consuming fish from Poplar Creek on the ORR

  3. Comparison of histological lesions in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.

    2013-01-01

    also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities......, as P. aeruginosa was most often found surrounding blood vessels and lining the alveoli, while E. coli showed a more diffuse distribution in the lung tissue. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa often elicited a very hemorrhagic response in the lung, while infection with E. coli was associated with a higher......Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...

  4. Genomic selection in mink yield higher accuracies with a Bayesian approach allowing for heterogeneous variance than a GBLUP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Su, Guosheng; Cai, Zexi

    2018-01-01

    by sequencing. Four live grading traits and four traits on dried pelts for size and quality were analysed. GWAS analysis detected significant SNPs for all the traits. The single-trait Bayesian model resulted in higher accuracies for the genomic predictions than the single-trait GBLUP model, especially......The accuracy of genomic prediction for mink was compared for single-trait and multiple-trait GBLUP models and Bayesian models that allowed for heterogeneous (co)variance structure over the genome. The mink population consisted of 2,103 brown minks genotyped with the method of genotyping...... for the traits measured on dried pelts. We expected the multiple-trait models to be superior to the single trait models since the multiple-trait model can make use of information when traits are correlated. However, we did not find a general improvement in accuracies with the multiple-trait models compared...

  5. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhui Cao

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  6. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  7. Evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences confirms inter-farm transmission of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Larsen, Lars E

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with mink farming. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AMDV have been based on shorter and more conserved parts of the genome, e.g. the partial NS1 gene. Such fragments are suitable for detection but are less useful...... direction of spread. It was however impossible to infer transmission pathways from the partial NS1 gene tree, since all samples from the case farms branched out from a single internal node. A sliding window analysis showed that there were no shorter genomic regions providing the same phylogenetic resolution...

  8. Farmers’ perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore farmers' perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare. Stable schools are knowledge exchange between farmers working towards a common goal, being able to give practical advice to each other. The concept is based......, and that motivation for working towards a common goal is very important for the process of common learning among the farmers. The uniform production system at mink farms gives special challenges in how to work with the different subjects to ensure farmer ownership of the process. The farmers did not see the seasonal...

  9. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  10. Acid-base status and cardiovascular function in mink (Mustela vison) anaesthetized with ketamine/midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, S; Svendsen, P; Johansen, B

    1996-01-01

    Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and blood acid-base status were determined in 18 adult female mink (mean (+/- SEM) body weight 1052 +/- 34 g) during long-term anaesthesia with either controlled ventilation (n=12) or spontaneous respiration (n=6). Surgical anaesthesia was induced by intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (Ketaminol Vet, 40.0 +/- 1.7 mg/kg) and midazolam hydrochloride (Dormicum 2.8 +/- 0.1 mg/kg) and maintained for at least 5 h by continuous intravenous infusion of this drug combination in 0.9% saline. For all animals, the mean rates of infusion of ketamine and midazolam were 48.4 +/- 1.6 and 1.61 +/- 0.12 mg/h, respectively. Following continuous infusion of the anaesthetics in isotonic saline, at a rate of 20 ml/h, a moderate 'dilution acidosis' developed, which could be corrected by replacement of part of the saline with sodium bicarbonate to a final concentration of approximately 25 mmol NaHCO3 per litre. However, when the animals were allowed to breathe spontaneously, an increase in heart rate and a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis occurred, due to severe respiratory depression. Apart from these effects and a few cases of increased salivation, no adverse effects over time were observed on the arterial blood acid-base status and cardiovascular function of the animals during ketamine/midazolam anaesthesia. It is concluded that the procedure described for long-term anaesthesia in mink is convenient and safe for acute physiological experiments in this species, provided normal body temperature and pulmonary gas exchange is sufficiently maintained. Thus, the need for an adequately controlled artificial ventilation is strongly emphasized. Finally, a proposal for the composition of an intravenous solution, containing ketamine and midazolam hydrochloride, and sodium bicarbonate in saline, suitable for long-term anaesthesia in adult mink is presented.

  11. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xue; Liu, Dongxu; Li, Jianming; Shi, Kun; Zeng, Fanli; Zong, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhibo; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Yadong; Du, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28-37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.

  12. Outbreak tracking of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) using partial NS1 gene sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Hagberg, E. E.

    2017-01-01

    . However, in 2015, several outbreaks of AMDV occurred at mink farms throughout Denmark, and the sources of these outbreaks were not known. Partial NS1 gene sequencing, phylogenetic analyses data were utilized along with epidemiological to determine the origin of the outbreaks. The phylogenetic analyses...... not be excluded. This study confirmed that partial NS1 sequencing can be used in outbreak tracking to determine major viral clusters of AMDV. Using this method, two new distinct AMDV clusters with low intra-cluster sequence diversity were identified, and epidemiological data helped to reveal possible ways...

  13. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next......The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is, however, known about dam stress...... and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...

  14. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    =46) or standard cages (2.550 cm², n=44). Behavioural observations were made four weeks before birth until kits were nine weeks old with one-zero sampling during two hours before feeding. During week 1-4 after females had given birth they were mostly recorded in the nest box and there were......The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...

  15. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  16. [Evaluation of the immune response after vaccination against distemper at a mink (Mustela vison) farm in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jar, A M; Ramayo, L G; Stempler, A; Goldman, L H; Mundo, S L

    2010-01-01

    Distemper virus causes a disease affecting minks with respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and skin symptoms and showing high morbidity and mortality, mainly among puppies. It is controlled through immunization, using vaccines that are supplied for mink use. The aim of this work was to determine the seroneutralization titer against the distemper virus at a mink farm in Argentina. The antibody kinetics obtained after vaccination in 27 adult animals, as well as the duration of colostrum-transferred antibodies in 10 puppies were determined. All vaccinated adult minks showed protective titers up to at least 3 months after vaccination, and 37.5% significantly reduced their antibody levels, 12 months after vaccination. Only 20% of the puppies showed protective levels of colostrum-transferred antibodies at the age of 7 weeks, while non-detectable levels of antibodies were found when puppies reached 11 weeks old. Vaccination performed in these puppies at the age of 13 weeks, elicited protective seroneutralization titers. These results show that vaccination induces a satisfactory humoral immune response in our environment, and support the convenience of vaccinating dams annually before the beginning of the breeding season. The vaccination plan in puppies is also discussed.

  17. Feed efficiency and body weight growth throughout growing-furring period in mink using random regression method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    days of age for 2139 male mink and the same number of females. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with three weeks interval based on daily feed consumption between weighing’s from 105 to 210 days of age. Heritability estimates for RFI increased by age from 0.18 (0.03, standard deviation...

  18. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...

  19. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  20. Ferro-manganese encrustation on the tympanic bulla of a minke whale from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    Ear bone of a minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) was collected from 5200 m water depth with thin coating of Fe-Mn oxide on its surface. The Fe-Mn coating material was similar in nature and ratios Mn/Fe and Cu + Ni/Co were closely comparable...

  1. Identification of biosecurity measures and spatial variables as potential risk factors for Aleutian disease in Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Houe, Hans; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup

    2012-01-01

    Disease Virus. These factors account for 35% of the variation of the infection status of mink farms located in Vendsyssel during 2009. These results indicate that only a coordinated effort from the farmers in the area will succeed in eradicating the disease from Denmark, because individual farms that have...

  2. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P.J.; Lam, F.P.A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P.L.; Harris, C.M.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without

  3. Mink S38G Gene Polymorphism and Atrial Fibrillation in the Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 1871 Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mink gene S38G polymorphism in the β-subunit of slow activating component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel current potassium channel has been associated with increased atrial fibrillation (AF risk. However, the individual studies results were still controversial. To investigate the association of Mink S38G gene polymorphisms with AF, a meta-analysis including 1871 subjects from six individual studies was conducted. Mink S38G gene polymorphism was significantly related to AF under allelic (OR: 1.380, 95% CI: 1.200–1.600, P<0.00001, recessive (OR: 1.193, 95% CI: 1.033–1.377, P=0.017, dominant (OR: 1.057, 95% CI: 1.025–1.089, P<0.00001, additive (OR: 1.105, 95% CI: 1.036–1.178, P=0.002, homozygous (OR: 1.128, 95% CI: 1.068–1.191, P<0.00001, and heterozygous genetic models (OR: 1.078, 95% CI: 1.014–1.146, P=0.016. A significant association between Mink S38G gene polymorphism and AF risk was found. G allele carriers may predispose to AF.

  4. A first estimate of the amino acid requirement for milk production of the high-producing female mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Thirty mink dams nursing litters of six kits were assigned to one of three dietary treatments [high protein (HP), medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP)], fed ad libitum for 4 week from parturition, to investigate the effects of protein supply on milk yield and milk composition in order to esti...

  5. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Socha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license evaluation were obtained by males in majority of the traits. Statistic analysis of body weight showed that the highest body weight characterized males of platinum and white Hedlunda colour types. Minks of standard and pastel colour types were characterised by lower body weight. The mean body weight of males was 2581.17g and of females 1401.42g (there is a clear sexual dimorphism in minks. Minks of white Hedlunda colour type were characterised by the highest means of colour purity, both males and females. Other colour types obtained lower means. The best fur quality characterised platinum minks. Variability of traits, measured by variability coefficient, had the highest values in animal weight (in grams and ranged from 6.0 to 32.0%. Variability of total number of scores ranged from 2.00 to 8.20%. Positive phenotypic correlations were the highest between body size (in points and total number of scores (0.676, while the lowest were obtained between body size (in points and fur quality (–0.178.

  6. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  8. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y.; Evans, R. Douglas; Evans, Hayla E.

    2008-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0.......02 SD) was achieved at the late growth stages. The genetic correlation between different growth stages for RFI showed a high association (0.91 to 0.98) between early and late growing periods. However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.29 to 0.50. The residual variances were substantially higher...

  10. Molecular diagnostics of aleutian mink disease virus: applied use of next generation sequencing and phylogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth

    based either on partial or entire genes, or on pure epidemiological data. Thus, when initiating this project, little was known about AMDV’s total genomic diversity and how the virus was spread between farms. Recent advances in the field of molecular diagnostics have made high throughput tools...... could contribute to the elucidation of AMDV transmission between farms and improve molecular diagnostics. During the first phase of this project a method for performing whole genome sequencing of AMDV was developed. This protocol enabled the sequencing of a large number of in vivo infectious AMDV......-estimates. Altogether, the work presented in this thesis provides a contribution to the molecular diagnostics of AMDV, enables us better to understand the virus’ evolutionary behaviour in the context of mink farming, and is anticipated to be of value for more accurately tracing back in time the emergence of future...

  11. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein...... previously reported for herbivores and omnivores, including humans. This demonstration of nutrient balancing in a carnivorous mammal indicates that the capacity for nutrient balancing is a more general phenomenon across trophic levels than was hitherto believed to be the case...

  12. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2017-01-01

    increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams’ additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we cannot confirm that temperature is the primary reason for kit mortality, under the conditions of plenty straw access for maternal nest......We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams...... building. Instead, prenatal and/or parturient litter size is the primary factor influencing early kit vitality. The results indicate that the focus should be on litter size and dam welfare around the times of gestation and birth to increase early kit survival in farmed mink....

  13. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Socha; Dorota Kołodziejczyk; Ewa Kondraciuk; Danuta Wójcik; Aldona Gontarz

    2010-01-01

    The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license eva...

  14. Effect of HMB and 2-Ox administered during pregnancy on bone properties in primiparous and multiparous minks (Neivison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.

  15. Characterization of the env gene and long terminal repeat of molecularly cloned Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, A; Sakai, K; Kitamura, N; Nakanishi, S; Niwa, O; Matsuyama, M; Ishimoto, A

    1984-01-01

    The highly oncogenic erythroleukemia-inducing Friend mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) virus was molecularly cloned in phage lambda gtWES.lambda B, and the DNA sequences of the env gene and the long terminal repeat were determined. The nucleotide sequences of Friend MCF virus and Friend spleen focus-forming virus were quite homologous, supporting the hypothesis that Friend spleen focus-forming virus might be generated via Friend MCF virus from an ecotropic Friend virus mainly by some deletions. ...

  16. Fatty acid alterations caused by PCBs (Aroclor 1242) and copper in adipose tissue around lymph nodes of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, R.; Hyvaerinen, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid composition was determined in adipose tissue surrounding the mesenteric lymph nodes of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 1 mg Aroclor 1242 in food day -1 for 28 days) and/or copper (62 mg kg -1 food). These specific adipose tissues are known to have functional relationships with lymphocytes, and proliferation of cultured lymphocytes is influenced by the quality of fatty acids available in media. In six experimental groups the diet was based on freshwater fish, and in two groups it was based on marine fish. These basal diets differed in terms of fatty acid composition and content of fat-soluble vitamins A 1 and E. The fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids (PL) responded to PCBs more than that of triacylglycerols (TG). The effects of copper were small. In female minks fed a diet of freshwater fish, the proportion of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL decreased by 5 wt.% due to PCBs, and the acids seemed to be replaced by monounsaturated fatty acids (9 wt.% increase of total). This decrease of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL was milder in minks on the marine fish diet rich in fat-soluble vitamins. In TG of minks on the marine diet, however, PCBs decreased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The possibility that these alterations in the fatty acid metabolism of adipose tissue supporting the lymph nodes affect immune function during PCB exposure should be studied further. Interestingly, the quality of the fish diet affected the magnitude of the alterations. The fatty acid responses may also differ between males and females. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Species Identification of Fox-, Mink-, Dog-, and Rabbit-Derived Ingredients by Multiplex PCR and Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingqing; Xiang, Shengnan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhao, Jinyan; Xia, Jinhua; Zhen, Yueran; Liu, Bang

    2018-05-01

    Various detection methods have been developed to date for identification of animal species. New techniques based on PCR approach have raised the hope of developing better identification methods, which can overcome the limitations of the existing methods. PCR-based methods used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA sequences. In this study, by targeting nuclear DNA, multiplex PCR and real-time PCR methods were developed to assist with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The multiplex PCR was found to simultaneously and effectively distinguish four species (fox, dog, mink, and rabbit) ingredients by the different sizes of electrophoretic bands: 480, 317, 220, and 209 bp. Real-time fluorescent PCR's amplification profiles and standard curves showed good quantitative measurement responses and linearity, as indicated by good repeatability and coefficient of determination R 2  > 0.99. The quantitative results of quaternary DNA mixtures including mink, fox, dog, and rabbit DNA are in line with our expectations: R.D. (relative deviation) varied between 1.98 and 12.23% and R.S.D. (relative standard deviation) varied between 3.06 and 11.51%, both of which are well within the acceptance criterion of ≤ 25%. Combining the two methods is suitable for the rapid identification and accurate quantification of fox-, dog-, mink-, and rabbit-derived ingredients in the animal products.

  18. Studies on the pathogenesis of Aleutian disease of mink. X. demonstration of immune complexes by the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test after experimental infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Peddinghaus, R [Kali-Chemie Pharma G.m.b.H., Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Pathologie; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Klinische Immunologie und Bluttransfusionswesen; Kalden, J R [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Klinische Immunologie; Trautwein, G; Ueberschaer, S [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    1980-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) of mink most closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in man; both are immune complex disease. In experimental AD serum immune complexes are determined by the /sup 125/J-C 1 q-binding test using human C 1 q. Mink (n = 12) infected intraperitoneally with Aleutian disease virus (ADV), grown in fetal mink kidney cells, developed during the course of infection a mean of /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding equivalent to 3.62 +- 1.68 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. (aggregated human immunoglobulin). Sera of mink (n = 8) which were infected with ADV grown in L-cells showed a less marked /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding with a mean equivalent to 2.52 +- 1.43 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In contrast control animals (n = 8) treated with non-ADV-infected mink epidermal fibroblasts or Eagle's minimal essential medium substituted with fetal calf serum only bound /sup 125/I-C 1 q equivalent to 1.02 +- 0.99 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In mink infected with ADV propagated in fetal mink kidney cells a constant increase in the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding occurred from the 4th to the 7th and 13th week after ADV infection. Mink which were infected with ADV propagated in mouse L-cells exhibited a different pattern of the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding capacity with a sharp increase from the 4th to the 7th week, followed by a decline towards the 13th week post infection. The serum /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding capacity of all experimental animal groups exhibited at different times of the experiment a significant correlation with the presence of hypergammaglobulinaemia and raised ADV-antibody titers. From the data obtained it appears that the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test, utilizing human C 1 q, is a suitable method for the detection of circulating serum immune complexes in mink during the course of ADV-infection.

  19. The vomeronasal system of the mink, Mustela vison. I. The vomeronasal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, I; Cifuentes, J M; Quinteiro, P S; Caballero, G

    1994-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the mink is restricted to the area of the Fissura palatina and thus always topographically related to the Ductus incisivus (DI). The VNO and DI have also a functional relation because the vomeronasal duct ends in the incisive duct. On the other hand, as the DI has its mouth in the Papilla incisiva there is a communication between the VNO and the oral cavity. The vomeronasal cartilage, approximately in 1/6 of its length, wraps completely the parenchyma of the VNO whose main structure is the vomeronasal duct, with two different epithelia: sensory receptor in the medial wall, and respiratory in the lateral one. Nevertheless the variations of epithelia belong to the segment of the duct because in its rostral and caudal parts the medial and lateral epithelia are very similar. Branches and tubular PAS positive glands stand out in three points: superior, inferior and medial areas of the vomeronasal duct in which they end. An important number of vessels, mainly veins of different diameter, are located around the duct, while the nervous fibers are close to the medial wall of the duct and very easy to identify in the caudal third of the organ. Two immunohistochemical techniques were used to identify the nerve fibers and the receptor cells.

  20. Separating the mink dam from the litter at 7 or 8 weeks after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... around the time of separation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of separating the dam from the litter, using brown first-parity dams (N=374) randomly assigned within each date of delivery to two treatment groups: The dam was taken away from the litter either at day 49 ±1 (7w, N=185) or at day 56 ±1...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment...

  1. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next.......024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after birth. Additionally, the separation-induced calling in dams decreased with increasing litter size (P = 0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal...

  2. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  3. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear...... thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  4. Roles of three amino acids of capsid proteins in mink enteritis parvovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hou, Qiang; Bian, Dawei; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-15

    Virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) strain MEV-LHV replicated to higher titers in feline F81 cells than attenuated strain MEV-L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the VP2 gene of MEV-LHV, MEV-L and other strains in GenBank revealed two evolutionary branches separating virulent and attenuated strains. Three residues, 101, 232 and 411, differed between virulent and attenuated strains but were conserved within the two branches. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of infectious plasmids of attenuated strain MEV-L respectively replacing residues 101 Ile and 411 Ala with Thr and Glu of virulent strains (MEV-L I101T and MEV-L A411E) increased replication efficiency but still to lower levels than MEV-LHV. However, viruses with mutation of residue 232 (MEV-L I232V and MEV-L I101T/I232V/A411E) decreased viral transcription and replication levels. The three VP2 residues 101, 232 and 411, located on or near the capsid surface, played different roles in the infection processes of MEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...... performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  7. Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nemvalts, Kristel; Sandre, Siiri-Lii; Tammaru, Toomas

    2017-06-01

    Founding captive populations is often the last chance for saving endangered species from extinction. Ensuring successful reproduction is typically most critical for the maintenance of captive populations, with purposeful selection of individuals for breeding being one of the crucial aspects. Comparable cross-species data on the determinants of reproduction success are most useful for solving problems in captive species programs. In the present study, we provide an overview of a 20-year captive breeding program of the critically endangered European mink. The mating season starts in March, reaching its peak in the middle of April. The average gestation length was 43.8days (mode 43), the mean litter size being 4.4 (mode 4). Litter size and cub survival were negatively correlated with maternal age but this effect was entirely due to the lower performance of the females over 4 years of age. Female body weight also showed a positive correlation with litter size, with the weight itself having increased by 10% during the 20- year period. We did not find any signs of a cost of reproduction: the number of litters the female had delivered earlier in her life did not have an effect on her litter size in the focal year. Beyond the effect of age and size, individual females did not differ in litter sizes. Consistently, we found the heritability of litter size to be low. We conclude that, when selecting females for breeding, there is little need to consider aspects other than genetic relatedness crucial for avoiding progressive inbreeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanmei; Yu, Yongle; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Guimei; Yu, Zekun; Zhang, Hongliang; Shan, Hu

    2014-12-15

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay has been developed to detect and differentiate between canine parvovirus (CPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). Eight CPV and three MEV epidemic strains isolated from 28 pathological samples from dogs and minks suspected of being infected with parvovirus were amplified by PCR using a pair of specific primers designed based on the CPV-N strain (M19296). PCR amplified a fragment of 1016bp from the genomic DNA of both MEV and CPV. The MEV-derived fragment could be digested with the restriction enzyme BSP1407I into three fragments of 102bp, 312bp and 602bp, while the fragment amplified from the CPV genomic DNA was digested into only two fragments of 414bp and 602bp. The lowest DNA concentration of CPV and MEV that could be detected using this assay was 0.004μg/ml and 0.03μg/ml, respectively. The PCR-RFLP assay developed in the present study can, therefore, be used to detect and differentiate MEV from CPV with high specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The auditory anatomy of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): a potential fatty sound reception pathway in a baleen whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Maya; Ketten, Darlene R; Arruda, Julie; Cramer, Scott; Moore, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    Cetaceans possess highly derived auditory systems adapted for underwater hearing. Odontoceti (toothed whales) are thought to receive sound through specialized fat bodies that contact the tympanoperiotic complex, the bones housing the middle and inner ears. However, sound reception pathways remain unknown in Mysticeti (baleen whales), which have very different cranial anatomies compared to odontocetes. Here, we report a potential fatty sound reception pathway in the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a mysticete of the balaenopterid family. The cephalic anatomy of seven minke whales was investigated using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, verified through dissections. Findings include a large, well-formed fat body lateral, dorsal, and posterior to the mandibular ramus and lateral to the tympanoperiotic complex. This fat body inserts into the tympanoperiotic complex at the lateral aperture between the tympanic and periotic bones and is in contact with the ossicles. There is also a second, smaller body of fat found within the tympanic bone, which contacts the ossicles as well. This is the first analysis of these fatty tissues' association with the auditory structures in a mysticete, providing anatomical evidence that fatty sound reception pathways may not be a unique feature of odontocete cetaceans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The mediator-modulator brain system in minks exposed to radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishunina, T.M.; Kalinskaya, L.N.; Pil'kevich, L.I.; Kononenko, V.Ya.; Ryasenko, V.I.; Bogdanova, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the activity of the important metabolizing mediators/modulators of the central nervous system: adenosine, angiotensin and GABA as well as specific bonding of 14 C-GABA by synaptic membranes of brain structures in minks who were in the 10-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP from 0.5 months to 3 years. Adenosine deaminase, angiotensin converting enzyme and glutamate decarboxylase activities endured significant changes in the hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral, cortex, medulla oblongata and midbrain of minks; the direction and the extent of manifestation of those changes depend on the term of animals' stay in the zone. The GABA reception in the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata increased significantly and progressively with the prolongation of exposure to radiation. It is concluded that the variety of changes, their regional-specificity and dependence on exposure of animals to the radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone may induce development of serious complications not only in nervous but in some other systems

  11. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejborn, H.

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis

  12. Changes in digestive enzyme activity, intestine morphology, mucin characteristics and tocopherol status in mink kits (Mustela neovision) during the weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Clausen, T.N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Weaning of livestock mammals is often associated with digestive problems related to profound changes in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. This study was undertaken to study the developmental changes in the gastrointestinal tract of mink kits during the period of 34 to 59 days of age. ...

  13. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein...

  14. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six...

  15. The failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Four experimental vaccine preparations comprising a strain of mink enteritis virus inactivated by either formalin or beta-propiolactone, and either adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted, failed to stimulate a consistent serum antibody response in 20 vaccinated dogs and failed to protect all but one of these dogs against oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

  16. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Martin, D A; Oie, K L; Huhtanen, M E; Costello, F; Wolfinbarger, J B; Hayes, S F; Agbandje-McKenna, M

    1997-01-01

    The capsid proteins of the ADV-G isolate of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were expressed in 10 nonoverlapping segments as fusions with maltose-binding protein in pMAL-C2 (pVP1, pVP2a through pVP2i). The constructs were designed to capture the VP1 unique sequence and the portions analogous to the four variable surface loops of canine parvovirus (CPV) in individual fragments (pVP2b, pVP2d, pVP2e, and pVP2g, respectively). The panel of fusion proteins was immunoblotted with sera from mink infected with ADV. Seropositive mink infected with either ADV-TR, ADV-Utah, or ADV-Pullman reacted preferentially against certain segments, regardless of mink genotype or virus inoculum. The most consistently immunoreactive regions were pVP2g, pVP2e, and pVP2f, the segments that encompassed the analogs of CPV surface loops 3 and 4. The VP1 unique region was also consistently immunoreactive. These findings indicated that infected mink recognize linear epitopes that localized to certain regions of the capsid protein sequence. The segment containing the hypervariable region (pVP2d), corresponding to CPV loop 2, was also expressed from ADV-Utah. An anti-ADV-G monoclonal antibody and a rabbit anti-ADV-G capsid antibody reacted exclusively with the ADV-G pVP2d segment but not with the corresponding segment from ADV-Utah. Mink infected with ADV-TR or ADV-Utah also preferentially reacted with the pVP2d sequence characteristic of that virus. These results suggested that the loop 2 region may contain a type-specific linear epitope and that the epitope may also be specifically recognized by infected mink. Heterologous antisera were prepared against the VP1 unique region and the four segments capturing the variable surface loops of CPV. The antisera against the proteins containing loop 3 or loop 4, as well as the anticapsid antibody, neutralized ADV-G infectivity in vitro and bound to capsids in immune electron microscopy. These results suggested that regions of the ADV capsid proteins

  17. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... sized groups (n = 60): (i) ‘EARLY’, transfer to maternity unit immediately after the end of the mating period, March 23; (ii) ‘INTERMEDIATE’, transfer in the middle of the period, April 10; (iii) ‘LATE’, transfer late in the pregnancy period, April 25. Data collection included weekly determination...... of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) and evaluation of maternal care: nest building, in-nest temperature, plus kit-retrieval behaviour, kit mortality and growth day 0–7 postpartum. We document that mated mink females build and maintain a nest at least 1 month prior to delivery when transferred...

  18. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h....... In Periods 1 and 5 all animals were fed a diet with a high quality fish meal (FISH; n=12), while in Period 3 half of the animals received the FISH diet (n=6) and the other half a diet with soy protein concentrate (SOY; n=6) as main protein source. An intraperitoneal injection of 1-13C-leucine was given...

  19. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...... blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies...... originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus....

  20. A study on the improvement of age estimation in common minke whales using the method of gelatinized extraction of earplug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Maeda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to settle the potential problems of bias caused by too soft earplugs and poor formation of the growth layers in age readings of common minke whales. Thus, we examined the feasibility of a new technique of incorporating gelatin in order to collect earplugs for age assessment. Frozen sectioning and histology of the earplug core were also used as methods to improve age estimation. Earplugs were collected by filling the space in the external auditory meatus with gelatin, hardening the gelatin, earplug and its fragments, by spraying with cooling gas, and removing the earplug embedded in gelatin. In 174 trials with common minke whales in the Western North Pacific of coastal waters of Japan in 2007–2009, it was revealed that embedding earplugs with gelatin minimized breakage and protected the neonatal line (NL. This method was particularly effective in younger animals. As a result, the readability was improved. We also examined the histological sections, which were sliced using the Kawamoto specialized frozen sectioning technique, and stained them separately with toluidine blue, haematoxylin and eosin, Sudan III, Sudan VII, and alizarin red S to display a clearer core surface image of the growth layers. The histological sections stained with alizarin red S provided the clearest images, in which we could easily identify both dark and pale laminations. This suggested a close relationship with the seasonal changes in calcium intake from feeding. Earlier age estimation methods focused on fat content in the growth layers; however, we found potential for an improvement in the readability of unclear growth layers when focusing on calcium.

  1. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Kalisinska

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96, Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47, while Cd in minks (~0.06. We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively.

  2. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively).

  3. Thermal adaptation of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac delayed rectifier current, IKs, by homomeric assembly of Kv7.1 subunits without MinK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, Minna; Laulaja, Salla; Paajanen, Vesa; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates experience acute and chronic temperature changes which affect cardiac excitability and may threaten electrical stability of the heart. Nevertheless, ectothermic hearts function over wide range of temperatures without cardiac arrhythmias, probably due to special molecular adaptations. We examine function and molecular basis of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) in cardiac myocytes of a eurythermic fish (Carassius carassius L.). I(Ks) is an important repolarizing current that prevents excessive prolongation of cardiac action potential, but it is extremely slowly activating when expressed in typical molecular composition of the endothermic animals. Comparison of the I(Ks) of the crucian carp atrial myocytes with the currents produced by homomeric K(v)7.1 and heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicates that activation kinetics and pharmacological properties of the I(Ks) are similar to those of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels. Consistently with electrophysiological properties and homomeric K(v)7.1 channel composition, atrial transcript expression of the MinK subunit is only 1.6-1.9% of the expression level of the K(v)7.1 subunit. Since activation kinetics of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels is much faster than activation of the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels, the homomeric K(v)7.1 composition of the crucian carp cardiac I(Ks) is thermally adaptive: the slow delayed rectifier channels can open despite low body temperatures and curtail the duration of cardiac action potential in ectothermic crucian carp. We suggest that the homomeric K(v)7.1 channel assembly is an evolutionary thermal adaptation of ectothermic hearts and the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels evolved later to adapt I(Ks) to high body temperature of endotherms.

  4. A probabilistic risk assessment of the effects of methylmercury and PCBs on mink and kingfishers along East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Teed, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    Over fifty years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes from the US Department of Energy (US DOE) Y-12 nuclear weapons facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, has resulted in the contamination of water, sediment, biota, and floodplain soils of East Fork Poplar Creek. A preliminary assessment revealed that methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the contaminants of most concern. Because these contaminants are persistent, accumulate in tissues, and biomagnify up the food chain, piscivorous wildlife are the biota at greatest risk of exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate the risks posed by methylmercury and PCBs to two piscivorous species: mink and belted kingfishers. The authors conducted Monte Carlo simulations to estimate total daily intakes of each contaminant by each species and then integrated the resulting distributions with their respective dose-response curves to estimate risks. The results indicate that methylmercury poses a moderate risk to female mink (24% probability of at least 15% mortality) and kingfishers (50% probability of at least a 12--28% decline in fecundity depending on location). The PCBs pose a very serious risk to mink (52% probability of at least a 50% decline in reproductive fecundity), a species known to be especially sensitive to the effects of organochlorine substances, but little risk to kingfishers (<5% probability of a decline in reproductive fecundity greater than 10% at any location).

  5. Comparison of biological and genomic characteristics between a newly isolated mink enteritis parvovirus MEV-LHV and an attenuated strain MEV-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Wang, Jigui; Hou, Qiang; Xi, Ji; Zhang, Xiaomei; Bian, Dawei; Yu, Yongle; Wang, Xi; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-06-01

    A virus isolated from mink showing clinical signs of enteritis was identified as a high virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) based on its biological characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Mink, challenged with this strain named MEV-LHV, exhibited severe pathological lesions as compared to those challenged with attenuated strain MEV-L. MEV-LHV also showed higher infection and replication efficiencies in vitro than MEV-L. Sequence of the complete genome of MEV-LHV was determined and analyzed in comparison with those in GenBank, which revealed that MEV-LHV shared high homology with virulent strain MEV SD12/01, whereas MEV-L was closely related to Abashiri and vaccine strain MEVB, and belonged to a different branch of the phylogenetic tree. The genomes of the two strains differed by insertions and deletions in their palindromic termini and specific unique mutations (especially VP2 300) in coding sequences which may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the biological and genomic characteristics of MEV and identify certain regions and sites that may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity.

  6. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T M; Malmkvist, J

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1. Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (P<0.001) and increased kit growth (P=0.003). Litter size affected kit vitality; larger total litter size at birth was associated with greater risks of kit death (P<0.001) and reduced growth (P<0.001). The number of living kits in litters had the opposite effect, as kits in large liveborn litters had a reduced risk of death (P<0.001) and those with large mean litter size on days 1 to 7 had increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams' additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we

  7. Energy metabolism and nutrient oxidation in the pregnant mink (Mustela vison) as a model for other carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauson, A H; Elnif, J; Hansen, N E

    1994-12-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and a seasonal breeder, which may be used as an experimental model for other carnivores. The present investigation comprised a total of 44 balance experiments, each including a 24-h measurement of heat production by indirect calorimetry, carried out from mating until close to parturition. For observations with a nonprotein respiratory quotient between 0.7 and 1.0 (n = 42), quantitative oxidation of nutrients was calculated. The weight gain of the uterus during pregnancy was studied in 41 females killed either before mating, before implantation, after implantation or in mid or late true gestation, and energy retention was calculated. Heat production did not increase with advancing stage of gestation. Mean energy retention was low and in some individuals with repeated measurements even negative, indicating that part of the energy requirement for pregnancy may be supplied by mobilization of body reserves. This was reflected by a high level (42%) of fat oxidation in relation to total heat production. Protein oxidation accounted for 38% of heat production. The weight gain of the uterus during pregnancy could be described by logarithmic functions. Energy deposition in fetal tissue was low and only averaged approximately 350 kJ 47 d after mating.

  8. On the olfactory anatomy in an archaic whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephen J; Geisler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Yearling mink dams fed restricted in early lactation have less mammary gland tissue six weeks after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Pinkalski, Mariann Nakano

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... around the time of separation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of separating the dam from the litter, using brown first-parity dams (N=374) randomly assigned within each date of delivery to two treatment groups: The dam was taken away from the litter either at day 49 ±1 (7w, N=185) or at day 56 ±1...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment...

  10. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Frank; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study...... the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  11. Effects of Aroclor 1242 and different fish-based diets on vitamins A(retinol) and A2 (3,4-didehydroretinol), and their fatty acyl esters in mink plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, Anne; Kaekelae, Reijo; Hyvaerinen Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 21-week exposure to Aroclor 1242 (1 mg per day in feed on plasma concentrations of vitamins A 1 (retinol) and A(3,4-didehydroretinol) and their principal fatty acyl esters (A 1 -16:0 A 2 -16:0 (palmitates), A 1 -18:1n-9; A 2 -18:1n-9 (oleates), and A 1 -18:0 A 2 -18:0 (stearates)) were studied in young female mink (Mustela vison) fed a diet based on freshwater smelt. These vitamin levels were also examined in mink fed diets containing Baltic herring or fatty marine fish. In the Aroclor-exposed smelt-fed mink, the plasma concentrations of A 1 and Aesters were significantly lower than the levels in controls fed the uncontaminated smelt diet. In addition, the A 2 esters reacted mor sensitively to the polychlorinated biphenyls than did A 1 esters. I contrast, in the plasma of the exposed mink the level of alcoholic A 1 was normal, and transport of thyroxine (T 4 ) and nonspecific lipoprotei transport of major lipids were not impaired. Despite the large dietary supply of vitamin A 2 and high levels of plasma A 2 esters, the mink fed freshwate smelt had only trace amounts of alcoholic vitamin A 2 in their plasma. The concentrations of A 1 and A 2 esters in the plasma of all the mink studied correlated with the hepatic total concentrations of the vitamins. Thus, in carnivores that have nonspecific lipoprotein transport of vitamin A esters determination of plasma levels of the esterified vitamins may be a useful nondestructive way to estimate stores of the vitamin A analogs in the body and to assess the organochlorine-induced decrease in the vitamin stores

  12. Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses specifically recombine with different endogenous retroviral sequences to generate mink cell focus-forming viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L H; Cloyd, M W

    1985-01-01

    A group of mink cell focus-forming (MCF) viruses was derived by inoculation of NFS/N mice with Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV 1387) and was compared to a similarly derived group of MCF viruses from mice inoculated with Friend MuLV (Fr-MuLV 57). Antigenic analyses using monoclonal antibodies specific for MCF virus and xenotropic MuLV envelope proteins and genomic structural analyses by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide finger-printing indicated that the Moloney and Friend MCF viruses arose by recombination of the respective ecotropic MuLVs with different endogenous retrovirus sequences of NFS mice.

  13. The Ste20 Family Kinases MAP4K4, MINK1, and TNIK Converge to Regulate Stress-Induced JNK Signaling in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larhammar, Martin; Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Rudhard, York; Sengupta-Ghosh, Arundhati; Lewcock, Joseph W

    2017-11-15

    The c-Jun- N -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway regulates nervous system development, axon regeneration, and neuronal degeneration after acute injury or in chronic neurodegenerative disease. Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is required for stress-induced JNK signaling in neurons, yet the factors that initiate DLK/JNK pathway activity remain poorly defined. In the present study, we identify the Ste20 kinases MAP4K4, misshapen-like kinase 1 (MINK1 or MAP4K6) and TNIK Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK or MAP4K7), as upstream regulators of DLK/JNK signaling in neurons. Using a trophic factor withdrawal-based model of neurodegeneration in both male and female embryonic mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, we show that MAP4K4, MINK1, and TNIK act redundantly to regulate DLK activation and downstream JNK-dependent phosphorylation of c-Jun in response to stress. Targeting MAP4K4, MINK1, and TNIK, but not any of these kinases individually, is sufficient to protect neurons potently from degeneration. Pharmacological inhibition of MAP4Ks blocks stabilization and phosphorylation of DLK within axons and subsequent retrograde translocation of the JNK signaling complex to the nucleus. These results position MAP4Ks as important regulators of the DLK/JNK signaling pathway. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuronal degeneration occurs in disparate circumstances: during development to refine neuronal connections, after injury to clear damaged neurons, or pathologically during disease. The dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK)/c-Jun- N -terminal kinase (JNK) pathway represents a conserved regulator of neuronal injury signaling that drives both neurodegeneration and axon regeneration, yet little is known about the factors that initiate DLK activity. Here, we uncover a novel role for a subfamily of MAP4 kinases consisting of MAP4K4, Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK or MAP4K7), and misshapen-like kinase 1 (MINK1 or MAP4K6) in regulating DLK/JNK signaling in neurons. Inhibition of

  14. Molecular evolution of adiponectin in Carnivora and its mRNA expression in relation to hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Kapiainen, Suvi; Harris, Lora; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2010-09-15

    Adiponectin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone with low circulating concentrations and/or mRNA expression in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The adiponectin mRNA of several Carnivora species was sequenced to enable further gene expression studies in this clade with potential experimental species to examine the connections of hypoadiponectinemia to hepatic lipidosis. In addition, adiponectin mRNA expression was studied in the retroperitoneal fat of the American mink (Neovison vison), as hepatic lipidosis with close similarities to NAFLD can be rapidly induced to the species by fasting. The mRNA expression was determined after overnight-7d of food deprivation and 28d of re-feeding and correlated to the liver fat %. The homologies between the determined carnivoran mRNA sequences and that of the domestic dog were 92.2-99.1%. As the mRNA expression was not affected by short-term fasting and did not correlate with the liver fat %, there seems to be no clear connection between adiponectin and the development of lipidosis in the American mink. In the future, the obtained sequences can be utilized in further studies of adiponectin expression in comparative endocrinology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. American Women and American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  16. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  17. Molecular epidemiology of parasitic protozoa and Ehrlichia canis in wildlife in Madrid (central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Fornelio, Angel; Martín-Pérez, T; Verdú-Expósito, C; Reinoso-Ortiz, S A; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2018-07-01

    Wildlife species are involved in the transmission of diverse pathogens. This study aimed to monitor raccoons (Procyon lotor), American minks (Neovison vison), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as potential reservoirs in central Spain. Specifically, 200 spleen and fecal samples (from 194 raccoons, 3 minks, and 3 foxes) were analyzed molecularly by PCR/qPCR and sequencing for the presence of piroplasmids, Hepatozoon spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Ehrlichia canis infections in the Community of Madrid (Spain). Biological samples were obtained in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. No pathogen DNA was found in fecal samples. In contrast, analysis of raccoon spleen samples revealed that Toxoplasma was the most prevalent pathogen (prevalence 3.6 ± 2.6%), followed by Hepatozoon canis and E. canis (each with a prevalence of 2.57 ± 2.2%). Hepatozoon canis was also diagnosed in all three of the analyzed foxes. Analysis of yearly prevalence showed that tick-borne pathogens were less frequent in raccoon in 2015, a dry and warm year compared both to 2014 and 2016. These data suggest that fecal PCR assays are unsuitable for detection of DNA of non-erythrocytic pathogens. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the raccoon (an invasive species often living in proximity to domestic areas) and the red fox are putative reservoirs for pathogenic organisms in the Community of Madrid.

  18. Detection of intracellular canine distemper virus antigen in mink inoculated with an attenuated or a virulent strain of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1989-09-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, the distribution of viral antigen in various tissues and blood mononuclear leukocytes was studied in wild mink, either vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine strain of canine distemper virus (CDV) or experimentally inoculated with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of CDV. Viral antigen was detected in cells of the lymphoid system 6 to 12 days after vaccination. From 2 to 3 days after inoculation with the virulent strain, CDV antigen was demonstrated in cells of the lymphoid system and, during the incubation period, the antigen had spread to the epithelia and brain at days 6 and 12, respectively. In clinical cases of acute fatal canine distemper, the viral antigen was detected in a wide variety of tissues, including the cells of the lymphoid system, epithelial cells of skin, mucous membranes, lung, kidney, and cells of the CNS. The diagnostic importance of CDV antigen detection is discussed on the basis of these findings.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Jun; Yan, Xi-Jun; Chai, Xiu-Li; Martella, Vito; Luo, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Gao, Han; Liu, Ying-Xue; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Tao; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Chun-Fei; Wang, Feng-Xue; Shao, Xi-Qun; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2010-01-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. Genetic/antigenic heterogeneity has been observed among the various CDV strains, notably in the haemagglutinin (H) gene, that appears as a good target to gather epidemiological information. Based on sequence analysis of the H gene, wild-type CDV strains cluster into distinct geographic lineages (genotypes), irrespective of the species of isolation. The sequence of the H gene of 28 CDV strains detected from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks from different geographical areas of China during the years 2004-2008 was determined. All the CDV strains but two (strains HL and HLJ2) were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (96.2-99.7% at the amino acid [aa] level) and to other Asia-1 strains (96.1-99.5% aa) previously detected in China. The CDV strains HL and HLJ2 were both collected from foxes in Heilongjiang province in 2005. Strain HL resembled CDVs of the Arctic genotype (GR88-like) and displayed high aa identity (98.0%) to the Chinese canine strain Liu. By converse, strain HLJ2 was barely related to CDVs of the Asia-2 genotype (88.7-90.3% aa identity), and could represent a novel CDV genotype, tentatively proposed as Asia-3. These results suggest that at least three different CDV genotypes, distantly related (81.8-91.6% aa identity) to the vaccine strains, Onderstepoort-like (America-1 genotype), are currently circulating in breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China, and that the genotype Asia-1 is predominant. Whether the diversity between wild-type CDVs and the vaccine strains may affect, to some extent, the efficacy of the vaccines deserves further investigations.

  20. [The growth of attenuated strains of canine parvovirus, mink enteritis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and rabies virus on various types of cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffa, T

    1987-10-01

    The growth characteristics were studied in the attenuated strains of canine parvovirus CPVA-BN 80/82, mink enteritis virus MEVA-BN 63/82 and feline panleucopenia virus FPVA-BN 110/83 on the stable feline kidney cell line FE, and in the attenuated canine distemper virus CDV-F-BN 10/83 on chicken embryo cell cultures (KEB) and cultures of the stable cell line VERO. When the FE cultures were infected with different parvoviruses in cell suspension at MOI 2-4 TKID50 per cell, the first multiplication of the intracellular virus was recorded 20 hours p. i. In the canine parvovirus, the content of intracellular and extracellular virus continued increasing parallelly until the fourth day; then, from the fourth to the sixth day, the content of extracellular virus still increased whereas that of intracellular virus fell rapidly. In the case of the mink enteritis virus the release of the virus into the culture medium continued parallelly with the production of the cellular virus until the sixth day. In the case of the feline panleucopenia virus the values concerning free virus and virus bound to cells were lower, starting from the second day p. i. When KEB or VERO cultures were infected in cell suspension with the canine distemper virus at MOI about 0.004 per 1 cell, the replicated intracellular virus was first recorded in the KEB cultures five hours after infection but in the VERO cultures only 20 hours after infection, with a timely release of the virus into the culture medium in both kinds of tissue. In the KEB and VERO cultures the highest values of infection titres were recorded on the fourth day p. i., the course of virus multiplication on the cells being parallel with its release into the culture medium.

  1. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIntosh, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models

  2. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  3. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  4. Baleen as a biomonitor of mercury content and dietary history of North Atlantic Minke Whales (Balaenopetra acutorostrata): combining elemental and stable isotope approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, K.A.; Riget, F.F.; Outridge, P.M.; Dietz, R.; Born, E

    2004-09-20

    Baleen is an incrementally-growing tissue of balaenopteran whales which preserves relatively well over time in museums and some archeological sites, and, therefore might be useful for studies examining long-term changes of metal levels in whales. This study examined Hg and stable C and N isotopic composition of baleen plates of the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which continues to be a food source for people in Greenland and elsewhere. We compared the Hg levels and stable isotopes of major tissues (kidney, liver and muscle) with those of baleen plates to see whether baleen could be used as a biomonitor of variations of Hg intake and diet both between individuals and within individuals over time. Mercury was significantly correlated with concentrations in all tissues (kidney, liver and muscle). Stable C and N isotopes in baleen were generally similar to those of muscle, which reflects the recent (approximately one month) feeding of the whale, but in some individuals there were significant differences between baleen and muscle. Sectioning of baleen into 1 cm longitudinal increments showed that these differences were due to marked dietary shifts by some individuals over time that had been recorded in the baleen but were lost from the muscle record. Whole baleen C and N isotopes were better correlated with tissue Hg levels, suggesting that baleen may provide a more reliable indicator of long-term average diet, which in turn may be better related to Hg accumulation in tissues than the shorter-term diet record contained in muscle.

  5. Total Mercury, Methylmercury, Inorganic Arsenic and Other Elements in Meat from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North East Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maage, Amund; Nilsen, Bente M; Julshamn, Kaare; Frøyland, Livar; Valdersnes, Stig

    2017-08-01

    Meat samples of 84 minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) mainly from the Barents Sea, collected between 1 May and 16 August 2011, were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, lead, total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and selenium. The average total mercury concentration found was 0.15 ± 0.09 mg/kg, with a range from 0.05 to 0.49 mg/kg. The molar ratio of selenium to mercury varied between 1.0 and 10.3. Cadmium content ranged from 0.002 to 0.036 mg/kg, while the content of lead in whale meat ranged from whale samples exceeded established EU maximum levels for metals in fish muscle, but 4.8% and 6.8% of the samples exceeded Japanese maximum levels for total mercury and methylmercury, respectively, in whale meat. There was only minor variations in element concentrations between whales from different geographical areas, and cadmium was the only element were the concentration increased with increasing length.

  6. Baleen as a biomonitor of mercury content and dietary history of North Atlantic Minke Whales (Balaenopetra acutorostrata): combining elemental and stable isotope approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, K.A.; Riget, F.F.; Outridge, P.M.; Dietz, R.; Born, E.

    2004-01-01

    Baleen is an incrementally-growing tissue of balaenopteran whales which preserves relatively well over time in museums and some archeological sites, and, therefore might be useful for studies examining long-term changes of metal levels in whales. This study examined Hg and stable C and N isotopic composition of baleen plates of the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which continues to be a food source for people in Greenland and elsewhere. We compared the Hg levels and stable isotopes of major tissues (kidney, liver and muscle) with those of baleen plates to see whether baleen could be used as a biomonitor of variations of Hg intake and diet both between individuals and within individuals over time. Mercury was significantly correlated with concentrations in all tissues (kidney, liver and muscle). Stable C and N isotopes in baleen were generally similar to those of muscle, which reflects the recent (approximately one month) feeding of the whale, but in some individuals there were significant differences between baleen and muscle. Sectioning of baleen into 1 cm longitudinal increments showed that these differences were due to marked dietary shifts by some individuals over time that had been recorded in the baleen but were lost from the muscle record. Whole baleen C and N isotopes were better correlated with tissue Hg levels, suggesting that baleen may provide a more reliable indicator of long-term average diet, which in turn may be better related to Hg accumulation in tissues than the shorter-term diet record contained in muscle

  7. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch...

  8. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus; Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2

  9. Influence of thymogene on the repair of lymphocyte DNA in the spleen of minks under the influence of chronic irradiation.; Vpliv timogehu na reparatsyiyu DNK lyimfotsityiv selezyinki norok za umov khronyichnogo opromyinennya.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkhorzhevs` kij, B M; Demidov, S V; Ryasenko, V Yi; Khrapunov, S M [Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Kiev (Ukraine); [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Results of own investigations of the authors as to the thymogene influence on correction of the repair system under the effect of chronic irradiation are discussed in the article. The influence of thymogene on the repair of DNA in lymphocytes of the spleen of minks has been investigated. Changes in the correlation between single- and double stranded DNA forms in a cell were determinated. It has been found that the quantity of DNA with single stranded breaks has considerably increased in animals under conditions of chronic irradiation. The use of thymogene promotes activation of repair processes in a cell.

  10. Observaciones sobre el plan de vacunación contra el distemper en visones (Mustela vison en un criadero de Argentina Evaluation of the immune response after vaccination against distemper at a mink (Mustela vison farm in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus del distemper produce una enfermedad en los visones que cursa con síntomas respiratorios, gastrointestinales, neurológicos y cutáneos y presenta alta morbilidad y mortalidad, principalmente en los cachorros. La enfermedad se controla mediante la aplicación de vacunas destinadas a esta especie. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el título de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el virus del distemper en visones vacunados y no vacunados de un criadero de Argentina. Se analizó la cinética de anticuerpos obtenidos posvacunación en 27 animales adultos y de anticuerpos calostrales en 10 cachorros. Todos los visones adultos vacunados mostraron títulos protectores hasta por lo menos 3 meses después de la vacunación. El 37,5% redujo significativamente sus niveles de anticuerpos a los 12 meses de la vacunación. En los cachorros, sólo un 20% mostró niveles protectores de anticuerpos calostrales a las 7 semanas de edad, que se negativizaron hacia las 11 semanas. La vacunación a las 13 semanas de edad produjo títulos protectores en todos estos animales. Estos resultados muestran que la vacunación induce respuesta humoral satisfactoria en el medio estudiado e indican la conveniencia de revacunar a las madres anualmente antes del servicio. Se discute el plan de vacunación en cachorros.Distemper virus causes a disease affecting minks with respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and skin symptoms and showing high morbidity and mortality, mainly among puppies. It is controlled through immunization, using vaccines that are supplied for mink use. The aim of this work was to determine the seroneutralization titer against the distemper virus at a mink farm in Argentina. The antibody kinetics obtained after vaccination in 27 adult animals, as well as the duration of colostrum-transferred antibodies in 10 puppies were determined. All vaccinated adult minks showed protective titers up to at least 3 months after vaccination, and 37

  11. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  12. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  13. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  14. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  16. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  17. Mercury Hazard Assessment for Piscivorous Wildlife in Glacier National Park

    KAUST Repository

    Stafford, Craig P.

    2016-12-14

    We examined the mercury hazard posed to selected piscivorous wildlife in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Logging Lake was our focal site where we estimated the dietary mercury concentrations of wildlife (common loon [Gavia immer], American mink [Neovison vison], river otter [Lontra canadensis], and belted kingfisher [Megaceryle alcyon]) by assuming that fishes were consumed in proportion to their relative abundances. To evaluate if Logging Lake provided a suitable baseline for our study, we made geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels and investigated the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP. We complimented our assessment by examining selenium:mercury molar ratios in fishes from Logging Lake and Saint Mary Lake. Our results suggest fish consumption does not imperil wildlife from Logging Lake based on published thresholds for adverse mercury effects, but some hazard may exist particularly if there is strong feeding selectivity for the most contaminated species, northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). The geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels, together with the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP, suggest that Logging Lake provided a relatively protective baseline among our study lakes. Risk may be further reduced by the molar excess of selenium relative to mercury, particularly in the smaller fishes typically consumed by GNP wildlife. Our findings contrast with studies from northeastern US and southeastern Canada where greater mercury hazard to wildlife exists. An emergent finding from our research is that waterborne concentrations of methylmercury may provide limited insight into regional differences in fish mercury levels.

  18. Garbage in the diet of carnivores in an agricultural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowiak Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human food waste is considered to be richer in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins than most natural food supplies; however, it is very well digested in scats. So, as an indication of this kind of food in the diet, we have used each indigestible, anthropogenic origin element found in faeces (e.g., glass, plastic, rubber, etc.. There are few studies discussing the importance of garbage in the diet of mammalian predators living in farmland; definitely, most focus on this issue in urban areas. We studied the contribution of garbage in the diet of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, red fox (Vulpes vulpes, marten (Martes sp., polecat (Mustela putorius, stoat (Mustela erminea, American mink (Neovison vison and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in the agricultural areas of western Poland in 2006-2010. In addition, we examined the spatial changes in the diet of red fox and polecat. The largest contribution of garbage was found in scats of raccoon dog (8.8%, red fox (4.8% and marten (4.3%. The diet of polecat, stoat and Eurasian otter contained 2.5%, 1.7% and 0.2% garbage items respectively. The most frequent item was plastic. Our analysis showed that garbage consumption by red fox and polecat was greater closer to human settlements. The results reveal a continuous gradient in the garbage consumption that corresponds with the degree of synanthropization of particular species.

  19. Mercury Hazard Assessment for Piscivorous Wildlife in Glacier National Park

    KAUST Repository

    Stafford, Craig P.; Downs, Christopher C.; Langner, Heiko W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the mercury hazard posed to selected piscivorous wildlife in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Logging Lake was our focal site where we estimated the dietary mercury concentrations of wildlife (common loon [Gavia immer], American mink [Neovison vison], river otter [Lontra canadensis], and belted kingfisher [Megaceryle alcyon]) by assuming that fishes were consumed in proportion to their relative abundances. To evaluate if Logging Lake provided a suitable baseline for our study, we made geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels and investigated the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP. We complimented our assessment by examining selenium:mercury molar ratios in fishes from Logging Lake and Saint Mary Lake. Our results suggest fish consumption does not imperil wildlife from Logging Lake based on published thresholds for adverse mercury effects, but some hazard may exist particularly if there is strong feeding selectivity for the most contaminated species, northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). The geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels, together with the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP, suggest that Logging Lake provided a relatively protective baseline among our study lakes. Risk may be further reduced by the molar excess of selenium relative to mercury, particularly in the smaller fishes typically consumed by GNP wildlife. Our findings contrast with studies from northeastern US and southeastern Canada where greater mercury hazard to wildlife exists. An emergent finding from our research is that waterborne concentrations of methylmercury may provide limited insight into regional differences in fish mercury levels.

  20. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  1. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  2. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  3. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  4. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  5. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  6. Does removal of mammalian predators significantly affect success of simulated nests in linear habitats? Case study on American mink Mustela vison \\& Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and habitat type

    OpenAIRE

    PADYŠÁKOVÁ, Eliška

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is made up of two studies dealing with predation of waterfowl nests. in the first study, we determined wheather removal of introduced predator Mustela vison affected nest survival of simulated duck nests in linear habitat. In the second study, we tested two hypothesis: 1)predation depends on density of waterfowl nests, 2)mammals are main predators in forest habitat and birds mainly depredate nests deployed in open land.

  7. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  8. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Önnerth, Lars; Neubert, Mikkel; Omerbasic, Dejan; Heyman, Minch; Kimberly, Marie; Nielsen, Lyngbo; Mynte, Anne; Hørlyck Kaastrup, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon that is the American Dream and its effect on the working and upper class citizens in American society. To give context to the American dream and its origin, we have made use of professor Jim Cullen’s book “The American Dream: A Short Story of an Idea that Shaped a Nation” from 2003. We have identified what we decided to call the “the traditional dream” and “the modern dream”, both representing different outlooks on lives and ethical standards. We have done t...

  9. Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

  10. Close relationships between asian american and european american college students

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes reg...

  11. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More October 20, 2017 0 American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors By ATA | 2017 ... Featured , News Releases | No Comments American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors October 19,… Read ...

  12. The Quiet American Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legters, Lyman H.

    1984-01-01

    What is wrong in the American parochialism about foreign languages is the assumption that language acquisition is a cosmetic gain, without any immediate or forseeable practical use. Languages will only be learned effectively when Americans learn that they can be used in getting tasks accomplished. (MSE)

  13. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  14. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  15. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  16. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  17. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  18. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  19. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    discomfort at President Bush’s rallying good against evil speeches and the words of the NSS. The President’s us versus them foreign policies...of global leadership, and of concern for the well being of the global community. Classically, American exceptionalism refers to the uniquely free ...longer that force for good, but a force for its own good. Exceptionalism once meant a nation free from tyrannical rule and offering of bountiful

  20. Lolita - the American nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  1. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  2. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect cattle transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-Type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soyoun; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded conformation (PrPSc). This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC can be used for the detection of prions in a variety of biological tissues from humans and animals. Extensive work has been done to demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive prion detection assay. RT-QuIC uses recombinant prion protein to detect minute amounts of PrPSc. RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc from different prion diseases with a variety of substrates including hamster, human, sheep, bank vole, bovine and chimeric forms of prion protein. However, recombinant bovine prion protein has not been used to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) or to differentiate types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in samples from cattle. We evaluated whether PrPSc from TME and BSE infected cattle can be detected with RT-QuIC using recombinant bovine prion proteins, and optimized the reaction conditions to specifically detect cattle TME and to discriminate between classical and atypical BSE by conversion efficiency. We also found that substrate composed of the disease associated E211K mutant protein can be effective for the detection of TME in cattle and that wild type prion protein appears to be a practical substrate to discriminate between the different types of BSEs.

  3. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...

  4. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  5. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  6. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谷雨

    2016-01-01

    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  7. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  8. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  9. American Academy of Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Award Recipients Nov 07, 2017 View all news Optometry and Vision Science Journal Optometry and Vision Science is the official journal of the American Academy of Optometry. AAO members receive a complimentary online subscription. Learn ...

  10. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  11. Latin American Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mary A.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the historical development of the press in Latin America from the sixteenth century to the present. Discusses the various pressures that Latin American newspapers are subject to, including political censorship, economic restrictions, and cultural conflicts. (AEA)

  12. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  13. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  14. American Samoa Longline Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test the...

  15. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases, 35: 451-464, 2002) What is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by ... mission with your own tax-deductible contribution. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. PO Box 466 Lyme, CT 06371 ...

  16. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic Plan ... CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education Services ...

  17. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Vitiligo Voices Contact Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation Home Page Top Isabella T., California An ... 20.00 USD 20 for - 35.00 USD Vitiligo Doesn't Scare Me by Kim Kirkland Kim ...

  18. American Samoa Cannery Offloading

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  19. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Meetings & Events Employee Resources Research Academia Practice Management Reimbursement Coding Compliance Resources and Tools Publications & News News Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures Multimedia Guidelines and Standards ...

  20. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  1. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  2. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  3. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  4. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  5. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and ... their eyebrows, widening their eyes, and tilting their bodies forward. Just as with other languages, specific ways of expressing ideas in ASL vary ...

  6. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  7. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets/detail/chagas-disease-(american-trypanosomiasis)","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... capacities, focusing on: strengthening world epidemiological surveillance and information systems; preventing transmission by blood transfusion and organ ...

  8. The American Oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  9. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  10. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

  11. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...

  12. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  13. American Holidays and Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凌

    2002-01-01

    One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.

  14. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  15. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  16. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  17. Hispanic American Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…

  18. Civic Innovation & American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis

    1997-01-01

    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  19. American Porphyria Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nicole Castelano Gregary Edwards Megan Parrish ~ How the dog I didn't want became the dog I'd always dreamed of Darnisha Davenport Liz ... or through the site for commercial or public purposes. The American Porphyria Foundation (APF) Tax Forms 990 ...

  20. Asian Americans and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The communities that constitute the racialized category of Asian Americans consist of approximately 20 million people in the United States, or about 5% of the total population. About 20% or 4 million are of primary or secondary school age, and over 1.1 million are in higher education. Both in popular and academic discourse, "Asian…

  1. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  2. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  3. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  4. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  5. An American Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the paradox that while Americans generally identify themselves as environmentalists, they show little willingness to voluntarily restrain their behavior or to support specific fiscal policies that would result in increased levels of environmental protection. I explore the role of values in the explanation of this paradox, and discuss some of the difficulties involved in studying values and their role in human behavior

  6. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  7. Improving American Innovation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Why has Jap~m succeeded: western technology and the Japanese ethos. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. (NC 462 MO634 Norman , Colin...productivity growth. Review of Economics and Statistics 64:627-34, N~ovember 1982. Smith, G. W. and W. N. Smallwood . Preparing for breakthroughs: the rewards of...recommendations. Edited by Charles E. Larsen and WI. Novis Smith. Washington: American Chemical Society, 1980. Kobert, Norman . Agressivn management style

  8. American Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Antsyferova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  9. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    background, influences , and influence . It illuminates Robinson’s efforts to account for factors associated with an American citizen -army and the... influences , and assessing their influence on doctrine and leaders of the Second World War. Additionally, this paper contains recommendations to improve the...addresses this gap by analyzing the theories of Brigadier General William K. Naylor and Colonel Oliver P. Robinson, examining their influences , and

  10. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  11. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  12. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Asian American Health - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  13. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...

  14. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  15. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  16. Facts about American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  17. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  18. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the outer banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Shiloh A.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. We evaluated survival with respect to nesting island, year, time of season, brood age, distance to tide (m), presence of off-road vehicles and proximity of foraging habitat. The daily nest survival (mean 0.981, standard error [SE] 0.002) was affected by year and island, and declined over the nesting season. Mammals were responsible for 54% of identified nest failures. Daily brood survival (mean 0.981, SE 0.002) varied by island and increased non-linearly with age, with highest mortality in the seven days after hatching. Model results indicate direct access to foraging sites has a positive effect on brood survival, whereas presence of off-road vehicles has a negative effect. We studied chick behavior and survival using radio telemetry and direct observation and found that vehicles caused mortality and affected behavior and resource use by oystercatcher chicks. We identified the source of mortality for 37 radio-tagged chicks. Six (16%) were killed by vehicles, 21 (57%) by predators, and 10 (27%) by exposure and starvation. From 1995 to 2008, 25 additional oystercatcher chicks were found dead, 13 (52%) killed by vehicles. Chicks on beaches closed to vehicles used beach and intertidal zones more frequently than chicks on beaches open to vehicles. Chick predators included Great Horned Owls Bubo virginianus, Fish Crows Corvus ossifragus, cats Felis catus, mink Mustela vison, raccoons Procyon lotor, and ghost crabs Ocypode albicans. The factors affecting reproductive success differed between the incubation and chick-rearing stages.  Management actions that influence chick survival will have a larger effect on total productivity than actions affecting nest survival.

  1. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  2. Paul Graham, American Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bernard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le photographe britannique Paul Graham (1956- ne jouit pas encore en France de la notoriété de son compatriote Martin Parr et on ne peut, par conséquent, que se féliciter de voir l’une de ses plus puissantes séries — American Night — représentée à la Galerie Les Filles du Calvaire.Connu, avec Parr, pour avoir profondément influencé la photo documentaire anglaise en la faisant passer à la couleur avec virulence, Graham a été révélé il y a une vingtaine d’années par une série d’images prises à...

  3. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  4. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  5. Teaching about American Federal Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Stephen L., Ed.

    Ten essays discuss federal democracy, the form of government of the United States. The first essay discusses the origins of American federalism. The second examines why we have a federal system, the functions federalism serves, and the consequences of federalism for the American political system. Federalism in the Constitution and constitutional…

  6. American uranium: Relic or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a review of the American Uranium industry. Historical aspects are presented as the industry's history is outlined from the mid-1950's to the present day. Present capabilities are noted, as are a current comparison of American production costs vs. world costs. Future trends are analyzed

  7. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  8. A Slice of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  9. Family Values in American Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  10. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  11. The oxymoron of American pastoralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sayre

    2013-01-01

    Pastoralism has been variously defined in American literary studies. In European literature the pastoral persisted as a distinct genre and self-conscious literary tradition from Theocritus and Virgil through the eighteenth century. Major eighteenth and nineteenth-century American authors alluded to this tradition, but they could not really lay claim to it, for as this...

  12. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  13. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  14. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.

  15. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  16. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  17. Reconsidering Asian American Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the applicability of student development theories in light of empirical research on Asian American college students through a twofold approach: (a) revisiting the relevance of Kodama, McEwen, Liang, and Lee's (2001, 2002) theoretical work on Asian American student development; and (b) using Jones' and Stewart's (2016)…

  18. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  19. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  20. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  1. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  2. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  3. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  4. Energy geopolitics, an American perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Even if geopolitics can be said not to exist for Americans who, like for example in the field of energy, believe that any problem can find a solution with the help of money and of the American ingenuity, and who are in fact only interested in a lower energy price, the author comments how energy issues are addressed by the candidates to the President election of 2008. The author notices that American people may have to realise, at least for a while, that their country is accused to bear a large share of responsibilities in environmental problems

  5. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  6. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  7. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  8. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  9. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  10. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... a transnational sense of Arab Americanness to negotiate her own gender and ethnic identity. This is significant because we currently lack a broader historical understanding of Arab American women’s public agency, particularly during the mid-twentieth century. Hakim’s memoir requires us to rethink the history...... of Arab American women’s strategies of self-representation in ways that acknowledge but are not confined within the terms of conventional orientalist discourses....

  11. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  12. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  13. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  14. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  15. American Association of Tissue Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Committees Accreditation American Board of Tissue Banking Bylaws / Ethics Communications Donor Family Services Ad Hoc Committee Education Finance ... Bureau Accredited Bank Search Bookstore Bulletins Global Topics Communications & Media Job Center News Releases Patients and Community Useful ...

  16. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  17. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  18. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  19. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  20. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  1. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  2. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  3. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  4. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  6. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    DNA and viral mRNA were detected in cells in the mesenchymal stroma of the placental labyrinth and hematoma but only occasionally in the cytotrophoblast of the placental hematoma. Placentae of animals infected during pregnancy showed in addition very high levels of virus and also viral replication...... in a large number of cytotrophoblast cells in the placental hematoma, which exhibited distinct inclusion bodies. In both groups, neither virus nor virus replication could be detected in maternal endothelial cells or fetal syncytiotrophoblast of the placental labyrinth. Fetuses were positive for virus...

  7. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  8. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  9. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  10. The Native American Experience. American Historical Images on File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, Lelia, Ed.

    This photo-documentation reference body presents more than 275 images chronicling the experiences of the American Indian from their prehistoric migrations to the present. The volume includes information and images illustrating the life ways of various tribes. The images are accompanied by historical information providing cultural context. The book…

  11. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  12. 75 FR 70300 - USEC, Inc.; American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of Receipt of a License Transfer... SNM-2011, for the American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and the American Centrifuge Plant... USEC Inc., (the Licensee), for its American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (LCF) and American...

  13. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  14. American Indians in Graduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1989-01-01

    The number of American Indians enrolled in institutions of higher education is very small. Enrollment figures for fall 1984 show Indians made up .68% of the total enrollment in institutions of higher education in the country, but only 15% of them were in universities. Their largest representation was in two-year institutions, where 54% of Indian…

  15. The Evil that Americans Did

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John David

    2007-01-01

    Slavery's unequivocal evil lies at the heart of debates over apologizing for America's "peculiar institution" and awarding reparations. In The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform, a provocative collection of original essays, the editors Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, along with 23 contributors,…

  16. Communication; A Scientific American Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  17. The American Inventors Protection Act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O.I.; Kleimeier, Stefanie; Mimiroglu, Nagihan; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the impact of innovation disclosure through patenting on firms' cost of debt, focusing on the American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA) as an exogenous shock in innovation disclosure regulation. Post-AIPA, firms have an incentive to apply for patents only if commercial success is likely.

  18. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  19. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  20. Textbooks and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert, Ed.

    An independent Indian publishing house has been formed to provide classroom instructional materials which deal accurately with the history, culture, and role of the American Indian. This book is a preliminary statement in that publishing program. General criteria, valid for instructional materials from elementary through high school, are applied…

  1. Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    Throughout the United States, many Filipino Americans, especially students, are beginning to want to know more about their cultural heritage and future. Overall, there has been very little written to transmit knowledge about Filipino history, ideas, and values, even though Filipinos make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States.…

  2. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  3. AMERICAN INDIANS AND EDUCATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS, WILLARD P.; BURGER, HENRY G.

    MANY OF THE DIVERSE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED FOR YEARS, BUT HAVE BEEN PERMITTED TO LAY DORMANT. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IS EXHIBITED IN AREAS OF INCOME, UNEMPLOYMENT, SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE, EXPECTED LIFE SPAN, INFANT MORTALITY RATE, BIRTH RATE, AND HEALTH HISTORY. COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS BLOCK THE…

  4. Dimensions of Native American Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffery R.; Rouse, Linda P.

    1987-01-01

    Reports responses of 226 University of Texas undergraduates concerning their stereotypical perceptions of American Indians. Examines cultural stereotypes, personal stereotypes, perceived degree of Indian homogeneity, attitudes toward assimilation, and victim blaming. Suggests an emergent Indian stereotype based on cultural relativism prevailing…

  5. The American Way of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Military Experience: History and Learning,” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1971), 208. 19 Jerome S. Bruner , Jacqueline... Bruner , Jerome S., Goodnow, Jacqueline J, and Austin, George A. A Study of Thinking. New York: Wiley, 1956. Bruscino, Thomas A, “Our American

  6. American Elements in Czech Parody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemelíková, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-113 ISSN 0022-3840 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech interwar literature * parody * Brdečka, Jiří * Kuděj, Zdeněk Matěj * americanism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision Impact factor: 0.070, year: 2015

  7. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  8. Ideas That Shaped American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1981-01-01

    Briefly discusses 10 books, or series of books, that represent major turning points in American education in the last 75 years. The authors include William H. McGuffey, Abraham Flexner, Lewis M. Terman, John Dewey, George S. Counts, Jerome S. Bruner, James S. Coleman, Michael B. Katz, and B. F. Skinner. (IRT)

  9. Sexism in modern American society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available the authors of the article consider that modern life is still full of various stereotypes. One of the most controversial questions in this article is the issue of discrimination against women in contemporary American society, and it is hard to believe, because this country claims to be a main guarantor of the human rights and freedoms.

  10. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  13. American Akicita: Indigenous American warriors and military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J Douglas

    2017-08-01

    Indigenous Americans (i.e., Native/American Indians, AK natives, Pacific Islanders) have consistently volunteered for military service at greater rates than any other ethnic group, including the majority culture, since the early days of the country. This article is an introduction to the special section which includes a number of outstanding papers that provide an innovative and compelling effort to overcome the challenges of casualties from war and render effective and culturally informed care. These manuscripts describe culturally appropriate considerations of suicide (O'Keefe), family involvement and access to care (Whealin), and telehealth for treatment of rural Native veterans (Goss). Challenging and complex treatment needs call for equally mindful and competent approaches. These authors and providers present compelling examples of addressing these needs in working with our Wounded Warriors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  15. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  16. American Indian Education Opportunities Program. Supplement 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Paulette F.

    1997-01-01

    Activities of the American Indian Educational Opportunities Program (AIEOP) at Hampton University for this reporting period included the establishment of a student chapter of the American Indian Science & Engineering Society (AISES), a move to new office space, hosting events on campus for visiting students from the American Indian Education Program of Oxon Hill, Maryland and Onondaga Community College in Syracuse, New York, collaboration with the Multicultural Leadership Team at NASA Langley Research Center for a Native American elder to serve as a speaker, participation in Native American conferences and other events, and continuing efforts to recruit and retain American Indian students.

  17. Polydactyly in the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingle, G J; Niswander, J D

    1975-01-01

    Polydactyly has an incidence in the American Indian twice that of Caucasians. A minimum estimate of this incidence is 2.40 per 1,000 live births. Preaxial type 1 has an incidence three to four times that reported for Caucasians or Negroes. The overall sex ratio in Indians is distorted with more males affected than females. The preaxial type 1 anomaly has a strong predilection for the hands and always is unilateral in contrast to postaxial type B where more than one-half are bilateral. The evidence to date, consisting of varying incidences of specific types of polydactyly among American whites, Negroes, and Indians in varying enviroments, suggests different gene-frequencies for polydactyly in each population. The incidence in Indians with 50% Caucasian admixture suggests that the factors controlling polydactyly are in large part genetically determined. Family studies and twin studies reported elsewhere offer no clear-cut genetic model which explains the highly variable gene frequencies.

  18. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  19. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  20. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  1. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  2. Destabilizing the American Racial Order

    OpenAIRE

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla; Burch, Traci

    2011-01-01

    Are racial disparities in the United States just as deep-rooted as they were before the 2008 presidential election, largely eliminated, or persistent but on the decline? One can easily find all of these pronouncements; rather than trying to adjudicate among them, this essay seeks to identify what is changing in the American racial order, what persists or is becoming even more entrenched, and what is likely to affect the balance between change and continuity. The authors focus on young America...

  3. The incunabula of American optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Only a very few American opticians (optometrists) wrote textbooks or manuals before the end of the 19th century. The important hand-book by William Bohne has already been excellently covered by David Goss but three others appear to have been largely unnoticed. These are manuals by Walter Alden, August Morck and J W Queen & Co.: pioneer works that can be regarded as the incunabula or cradle of printing of optometric publishing in the United States.

  4. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Understanding American Identity: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    this leads to is, how can we begin this transformation ? D. HOW TO GET THERE: PATRIOTIC BUILDING BLOCKS 1. Civic Education Many have argued that civic... transformation of the U.S. public education system and writes, “High schools brought young people together into an adolescent world that helped to obscure...Revamped civic education and national service programs can serve to form those cross-cutting ties. 14. SUBJECT TERMS American identity, national identity

  6. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New Research AADSM Highlights Members More news... Dental Sleep Medicine: An area of dental practice that focuses on ... SomnoMed Silver Sponsors Copyright © American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, All Rights Reserved. American Academy of Dental Sleep ...

  8. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  9. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  11. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not trained in how to manage it. The American Board of Obesity Medicine certifies physicians looking to bridge this gap. ... an ABOM diplomate. APPLY NOW OUR MISSION The American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM) serves the public and the field ...

  12. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  13. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Rudy

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays ...

  14. The Depiction Of Homosexuality In American Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays ...

  15. Understanding the Strengths of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn-Blake, Sheila M.; Darling, Carol Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on strengths of African-American families and how they function, relevant conceptual approaches, and trends and issues in studying African-American families that can facilitate understanding. A shift from studying dysfunctional families to more positive aspects can help African-American families meet societal challenges. (SLD)

  16. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  17. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  18. Nostalgia and Educational History: An American Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the way in which nostalgia informs the 1953 painting of a school setting by the popular American artist Norman Rockwell. "The Girl with Black Eye", the cover image of the American popular magazine "The Saturday Evening Post" on 23 May 1953, draws on traditional American iconography of the disciplining of…

  19. American Psychology "Is" Becoming More International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gregory D.; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors argue that while Arnett's assessment was poignant, and his call for a more inclusive, international, and cross-cultural representation in American psychology…

  20. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  1. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  2. American Jazz Cathedra Enters into Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> On the evening of 25 June, 2003, an American Music Cathedra was held in the In ternational Friendship Hall of Beijing Jintai Art Museum. And its theme is "a form of American Art-Jazz". The Economic Department, Press Department of American Embassy and Beijing Jueshi Culture Development Co.Ltd. sponsored the activity.

  3. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 77 FR 9273 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0355] USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct Transfer of Licenses In the Matter of USEC INC. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order EA-12- [[Page 9274

  5. A psychometric revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans using the Rasch model

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Wolfe, M M

    2005-01-01

    The 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P H. Yang, E C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch,1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European AmericanValues Scale for Asian Americans-Revised.

  6. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  7. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  8. 75 FR 10246 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... nationwide categorical waivers of the Buy American requirements of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act... domestic manufacturers for these products. This strategy will ensure that all future determinations of...

  9. 77 FR 17456 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-2138-01] Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 AGENCY... exception to the Buy American Provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA or... future years on electricity. The contract specifications required that all exterior photovoltaic...

  10. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  12. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  13. Space and the American imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction will set out the principal theme of the book: that the rise of the U.S. space program was due to a concerted effort by science writers, engineers, industrialists, and civic and political leaders to create a popular culture of space exploration based on important elements of American social life (such as frontier mythology, fears about the cold war, and the rise of the consumer culture). Much of the disillusionment with the NASA space program which set in during the third decade of space flight can be traced to a widening gap between popular expectations and the reality of space exploration.

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  15. Redeeming American democracy in Sayonara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Seguro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affection is perceived as something natural, pre-existing Culture and, therefore, free form discursive constructions. However, insofar as reality is mediated, if not given existence by language, human relationships are inevitably fashioned by narratives. Romance fictions and in particular heterosexual, interracial love stories have been used in U.S. popular culture as a means of promoting American democratic values of racial harmony at home and abroad. This will be exemplified by analyzing James A. Michener’s 1953 novel Sayonara together with Joshua Logan’s 1957 film adaptation.

  16. American cutaneous leishmaniasis triggered byelectrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sales Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Three months later, a skin fragment tested positive for Leishmania culture; the parasite was identified as L. (V. braziliensis. Trauma may generate inflammatory cascades that favor Leishmania growth and lesion formation in previously infected patients. American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a dynamic disease with unclear pathophysiology because of continually changing environments, demographics, and human behaviors.

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  18. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  19. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  20. History of Latin American Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Two recent contributions (Oyuela-Caycedo 1994 and Politis 1995 to analyses of the intellectual development of archaeology in Latin America provide us with new perspectives. A theme shared by both is the perception by the authors of a need to distance the development of archaeology in Latin American countries from the overweening influence of Europe and especially U. S. archaeologists. Politis argues that U.S. influence has been tantamount to 'cultural imperialism' (1995:226. He sees U.S. archaeologists as having a history of appropriating and manipulating the knowledge of the past which ignores the local peoples own traditional perceptions of their patrimony, and argues that the U.S. perspective is designed to satisfy the needs of western scholarship but fails to enter a dialog with the legitimate concerns of the subject countries. Oyuela·Caycedo's introductory essay in his book "Nationalism and Archaeology" carries a very similar message. He faults U.S. archaeologists for failing to locate their studies in the areas social and local context, which he sees as leading the U.S. scholars to employ a model derived from "dependency theory" (1994:5, resulting in an overly simplistic perception of the context for the development of archaeological disciplines in respective Latin American countries.