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Sample records for american mink mustela

  1. Black crystal: a novel color mutant in the American mink (Mustela vision Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V

    1997-01-01

    Black crystal, a new mutant of coat color pattern occurring in the American mink in the course of selection for domestic behavior, is described. A salient feature of the mutation is the appearance of white guard hairs producing a veil-like covering of the body. In the Black crystal homozygote, coat color is of the Himalayan type. Breeding data demonstrate that the novel color phase is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. The mutant gene is designated as Black crystal and is symbolized by Cr. The Cr gene is not allelic to the multiple-allelic series at the Black cross locus.

  2. Characterization of microsatellite markers isolated from the American Mink (Mustela vison) genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, S.; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Farid, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Two size-selected mink genomic libraries were constructed and recombinant colonies (n=6,144) were screened with a pool of probes, containing (AAAG)8, (AAGG)8, (AGGG)8, (ATAG)8 and (AG)15 oligonucleotides in equal amounts. A total of 44 colonies were hybridized and confirmed upon replating...

  3. [Effect of mutations affecting coat color on the blood lymphocyte structure in the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Trapezov, O V; Kizhina, A G; Iliukha, V A; Trapezova, L I; Tiutiunnik, N N

    2011-01-01

    American minks with different genotypes containing the Aleutian coat color allele in the homozygous state, including the single recessive Aleutian (a/a); double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and lavender (m/m a/a); triple recessive violet (m/m a/a p/p); and dominant-recessive cross sapphire (S/+ a/a p/p), sapphire leopard (S(K)/+ a/a p/p), and shadow sapphire (S(H)/+ a/a p/p) minks, as well as American minks without the Aleutian allele, including the standard (+/+); single recessive silver-blue (p/p) and hedlund-white (h/h); double recessive pearl (k/k p/p), Finnish topaz (t(S)/t(S) b/b); incompletely dominant royal silver (S(R)/+), standard leopard (S(K)/+), and black crystal (C(R)/+); and dominant-recessive snowy topaz (C(R)/+ t(S)/t(S) b/b) and Kujtezhy-spotted (S(K)/+ b/b) minks have been studied. Homozygosity for the a allele has been found to disturb the subcellular structure of leukocyte, namely the formation of abnormally large granules.

  4. [Effects of monorecessive and double recessive mutations affecting coat color on the monoamine content of the brain of the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; alekhina, T A; Klochkov, D V; Ivanov, Iu N

    2009-12-01

    The effects of mutations affecting the coat color on the dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus and brainstem of the American mink have been studied. The sample comprised standard (+/+) and mutant minks, including the monorecessive pastel (b/b), silver-blue (p/p), and white hedlund (h/h) and the combination double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and pearl (k/k p/p) ones. The dopamine content of the brainstem of the monorecessive pastel (b/b) and silver-blue (p/p) minks has been found to be higher than in standard (+/+) minks. Conversely, the homozigosity for two coat color loci in double recessive pearl minks (k/k p/p) significantly decreases the noradrenaline and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus. In addition, monorecessive and double recessive minks differ from each other in the serotonin contents of the midbrain and medulla.

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  6. [Effect of coat color mutations on behavioral polymorphism in farm populations of american minks (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; Sergeev, E G

    2008-04-01

    Behavioral polymorphism estimated by the expression of the defensive reaction towards humans has been studied in farm-bred American minks and sables with different color types. Most animals (both minks and sables) from farm populations displayed passive defensive behavior towards humans in the standard hand catch test. Coat color genes have been found to have pleiotropic effects; they influence both the penetrance and expressivity of domestication behavior: in animals with aberrant color types (both sapphire minks and white-and-black sables), the proportion of animals with domestication behavior and the expressivity of this behavior are significantly higher (p <0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively).

  7. [Phenogenetic analysis of pigmentation of a new coat color mutation of American mink (Mustela vison. Schr. L.) and its combination with some of the known mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasolova, L A; Tikhomirov, I B; Vsevolodov, E B; Latypov, I F; Trapezov, O V

    1994-02-01

    A new dominant coat color mutation "talitsa" was revealed in the mink population of "Znamenskii" state fur farm (Tverskaya region', Russia). Qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of the hair pigment of minks with the standard coat color, Talitsa, Royal-Pastel and American pearl mutations, as well as Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids were conducted. It was shown that hair of all genotypes studied contained only one pigment type, namely, eumelanin. Hair of the standard-colored minks showed the greatest eumelanin content, whereas hair of Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids showed the least content. The morphologic patterns of pigmentation of the mutant minks studied was described, including the shapes, dimensions and color of the pigment granules, as well as their distributions throughout the length and layers of the hair. Talitsa mutation was demonstrated to behave as a strong coloration attenuator in combinations with the Royal-Pastel and American Pearl mutations. It was proposed that the main mechanism determining the phenotypic expression of the Talitsa mutation is the reduction of number of melanocytes in the hair bulbs.

  8. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola.

  9. Decline in endangered species as an indication of anthropic pressures: the case of European mink Mustela lutreola Western population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, T; Cormier, J P; Le Jacques, D

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.

  10. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile Dieta del visón norteamericano Mustela vison y su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa de Isla Navarino, Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELKE SCHÜTTLER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive exotic species of mammalian predators represent a major cause of vertebrate animal extinctions on islands, particularly those that lack native mammalian carnivores. In 2001, the American mink (Mustela vison was recorded for the first time on Navarino Island, in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (55° S in Chile, representing the southernmost population of mink worldwide. In order to assess its potential impact on native fauna, we studied its diet on Navarino Island, as part of an integrative management program on invasive species. Over a three-year period (2005-2007 we collected 512 scats in semi-aquatic habitats: marine coasts, riparian and lake shores. Overall, the main prey was mammals (37 % biomass, and birds (36 %, followed by fish (24 %. Over the spring and summer, mink consumed significantly more birds, whereas mammals constituted the main prey over the autumn and winter when migratory birds had left the area. Among birds, the mink preyed mainly on adult Passeriformes, followed by Anseriformes and Pelecaniformes, caught as chicks. Among mammals, the exotic muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus was the most important prey, and together with the native rodent Abrothrix xanthorhinus it accounted for 78 % of the biomass intake. For an integrated management of invasive exotic mammal species on Navarino Island and in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve it is important to further research interactions established here among the various introduced mammals, and to initiate immediate control of the mink population in its initial stage of invasion.Las especies exóticas de mamíferos carnívoros invasores constituyen una de las principales causas de extinciones de vertebrados en islas, particularmente en aquellas que carecen de predadores mamíferos nativos. En 2001, el visón norteamericano (Mustela vison fue registrado por primera vez en Isla Navarino en la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos (55° S en Chile, representando la población de visones m

  11. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khlebodarova, TM; Malchenko, Sergey; Matveeva, NM;

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation...

  12. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per Walter; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde

    2008-01-01

    Den digene ikte Pseudamphistomum forekommer som metacercarie i skaller fra Furesøen og som adult i mink fra området. Dette er belyst ved morfometriske og molekylære metoder. Fundet er væsentligt, idet parasitten er zoonotisk og kan inficere mennesker, der indtager utilstrækkeligt varmebehandlet f...

  13. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, L L; Palme, R

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... of circulating cortisol (Experiment 3). Faeces are the predominating excretory route of cortisol (83%), with peak concentrations after 4.2 h (urine: 3.4 h). Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) reflected changes in relation to handling/ACTH challenge. In Experiment 1 (n = 162), HS mink had approximately 54% higher...

  14. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...... and only a few isolates belonged to other Streptococcus species. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a selection of isolates revealed several patterns and several different clones. Attempts to reproduce disease by the injection of cultures of a field isolate into healthy mink failed....

  15. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion of ci...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....... of circulating cortisol (Experiment 3). Faeces are the predominating excretory route of cortisol (83%), with peak concentrations after 4.2 h (urine: 3.4 h). Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) reflected changes in relation to handling/ACTH challenge. In Experiment 1 (n = 162), HS mink had approximately 54% higher...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...

  16. Inbreeding affects fecundity of American mink (Neovison vison) in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demontis, Ditte; Larsen, P F; Bækgaard, H

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding is an increasing problem in farmed mink, because of limited exchange of individuals between farms. In this study, genetic relatedness within seven American mink (Neovison vison) colour strains originating from 13 different mink farms in Denmark was analysed using 21 polymorphic microsa...

  17. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  18. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  19. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  20. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h....... In Periods 1 and 5 all animals were fed a diet with a high quality fish meal (FISH; n=12), while in Period 3 half of the animals received the FISH diet (n=6) and the other half a diet with soy protein concentrate (SOY; n=6) as main protein source. An intraperitoneal injection of 1-13C-leucine was given...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...

  2. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  3. Orienting behaviour during aerial and underwater visual discrimination by the mink (Mustela vison schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstone, N; Sinclair, W

    1978-02-01

    Orienting responses by mink during aerial and underwater visual discrimination tests were most frequent when the grating lines subtended angles at the eye near the visual threshold angle. Factorial analysis showed that in air and in water at ranges from 10 to 90 cm most responses occurred at 30 cm discrimination distance and more occurred to marginally supra-threshold than to marginally sub-threshold stimuli. Between media, more responses occurred in air than in water. At longer ranges the mink oriented less readily than at 30 cm but if orienting occurred better discrimination followed than if the mink did not orient.

  4. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...... budget in the seventh week and the stereotypy frequency of the dams increased to about 4% of the time budget. It is suggested that some dams are frustrated by the forced cohabitation with their nutritionally independent kits already in the seventh week and that this should be taken into account when...

  5. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    been used to obtain a more detailed knowledge of the protein utilization of the lactating mink (3-5). These results have shown that lactating mink dams are able to regulate protein oxidation rate and that milk yield, during the first 4 wk post-partum, was improved, and dam weight loss reduced, when...... in humans (7), growing pigs (8), and growing rats (9). In adult cats, both protein synthesis and breakdown were lower when feeding a low- than when feeding a high-protein diet [20 vs. 70% of metabolizable energy (ME)5 from protein] (10). The objectives of this study were therefore to develop a ¹5N......The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation have...

  6. Selection against stereotypic behaviour may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of farm mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Hansen, Bente Krogh; Malmkvist, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if divergent selection for stereotypic behaviour in mink influences the welfare of the animals. Two breeding lines were used, a high stereotyping line (HSL, N = 139) and a low stereotyping line (LSL, N = 132). Their welfare was assessed on the basis...... the selection against stereotypic behaviour clearly reduced the FCM it may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of the mink...

  7. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    mink and found a pronounced ability to balance and regulate intake of protein and lipid. When faced with one of several different pairings of complementary foods varying in protein to lipid composition, mink apportioned intake between the two foods to defend a near constant ratio and amount (intake...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein......Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...

  8. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this...

  9. Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can be a cause of stress for free-ranging wildlife. The response of wildlife to chemical contaminants requires that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis be precisely regulated to allow for proper glucocorticoid-mediated adaptive responses. Chronic oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil causes the development of adrenal hypertrophy in male ranch mink (Mustela vison) without increasing serum or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. This hypertrophy is an adaptive response to fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To determine if the same phenomenon occurs in female mink or male mink exposed to artificially weathered fuel oil, female mink were fed 0 ppm (mineral oil) or 420 ppm fuel oil and male mink were exposed to 0 ppm, 420 ppm fuel oil, or 480 ppm artificially weathered fuel oil in the diet for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, serum glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed along with body and organ weight measurements. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed at time points throughout the exposure. Male mink fed fuel oil or weathered fuel oil and female mink fed fuel oil had adrenal enlargement without any significant increases in the serum or fecal concentration of glucocorticoids, which is consistent with fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To address the physiological consequences of adrenal insufficiency, fuel oil-exposed male mink were administered an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Fuel oil-exposed animals had a smaller incremental increase in serum glucocorticoid concentration after ACTH challenge compared to control animals. Our findings provide further evidence that the HPA axis of fuel oil-exposed animals is compromised and, therefore, not able to respond appropriately to the diverse stressors found in the environment.

  10. Effects of feeding and short-term fasting on water and electrolyte turnover in female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, S; Tauson, A H; Elnif, J

    1996-11-01

    Daily (24 h) rates of water and electrolyte turnover were measured in a conventional balance study in ten adult female pastel mink (Mustela vison) given free access to a standard mink feed for a 1-week conditioning period, followed by a 4 d experimental period and a 2 d fasting period. Drinking water was available throughout. In addition, the completeness of urine collection and the fraction of urine collected with the faeces were determined using a new experimental technique based on 24 h recoveries of specific urinary markers such as tritiated p-aminohippuric acid ([3H]PAH) or 14C-labelled inulin ([14C]IN) continuously delivered by small Alzet osmotic pumps implanted intraperitoneally. During feeding the mean individual percentage recovery in urine of [3H]PAH released from the osmotic pumps ranged from 68 to 88% (median 78%). The mean percentage of urinary [3H]PAH recovered from faecal collections was 6% (range 3-12%). In response to fasting the mean individual percentage recovery of [3H]PAH in urine ranged from 62 to 78% (median 68%). For urinary [14C]IN the mean percentage recoveries in fed and fasted animals were 79 and 63% respectively. Furthermore, during fasting, withdrawal of the supplies of dietary water caused a slight but insignificant (P = 0.17) increase in the daily intake of drinking water and, hence, the animals maintained their normal water balance by a dramatic reduction in urine excretion (P < 0.001). At the same time urinary solute excretion declined significantly (P < 0.001), due in part to the cessation of dietary electrolyte intake and in part to reduced formation of urea, whereas urinary osmolality decreased only moderately. The mean 24 h balances of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl and P were close to zero and only minor differences between the feeding and fasting periods were observed. When corrected for the measured inaccuracies in urine collection the balance data obtained in the present study represent useful reference standards for normally fed and

  11. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E;

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  12. Mapping of the silver gene in mink and its association with the dilution gene in dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    recessive mutations within mink fur farming being part of some of the popular color types which combine more recessive mutations. We report there the mapping of the 'silver' gene on MVI3 by means of the first linkage genetic map in the American mink (Mustela vison). A Canis familiaris BAC clone containing...

  13. Genetic determination of coat color affects testicular steroidogenesis in the Mustela vison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, A G; Sundqvist, C; Bartke, A

    1996-06-01

    Coat color genes in mammals are known to be developmental genes with wide pleiotropic effects. The present study was undertaken to study testicular steroidogenesis in American Mink (Mustela vison) of various coat color phenotypes. No differences in testicular steroid levels were observed between fertile and infertile mink with the standard phenotype and genotype (BB jj MM PP). Mink with the opaline phenotype and genotype (bb mm pp), were found to have in their testes, 20-40% higher levels of progesterone, five times higher levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and eight times higher levels of testosterone, than the corresponding values in other mink. No other differences were observed among the different types of mink. Since the genotype of the opaline mink differs from the other mink studied, only in their combination at the pastel (b) and moyle (m) loci, their bb mm genotype could be assumed to be responsible for the increase in testicular steroids.

  14. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  15. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60.......7% on Diet I to 26.6% on Diet IV, and oxidation of fat increased from 53.8% on Diet I to 63.5% Diet IV. In conclusion, protein and energy metabolism remained unaffected when up to 40% of DN was derived from BPM....

  16. Assessment of the aerobic faecal microflora in mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) with emphasis on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus intermedius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriél, Mariann

    2003-01-01

    and their offspring on seven mink farms throughout the production season and a semi-quantitative enumeration of total E. coli and haemolytic E. coli, beta-haemolytic streptococci, beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci, total lactic acid bacteria, and enterococci was carried out in all samples using...

  17. A first estimate of the amino acid requirement for milk production of the high-producing female mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    to estimate the amino acid requirement of the lactating mink. Twelve dams were held in an intensive care unit and subjected to balance experiments and the kits were injected with deuterium oxide to determine water kinetics and milk yield. Eighteen dams were kept under normal farm conditions but with feed...

  18. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose–respo...

  19. [Morphology and biochemistry of blood of various mustelids. 3. Enzymographic studies of arterial plasma of mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeissler, R; Wenzel, U D; Strauch, W

    1980-01-01

    Twelve different enzyme activities, which are listed and explained in greater detail in Table 2, were determined statistically secured, and discussed, following a three-year study into arterial plasma of 118 female and 124 male minks, aged between six and seven months and kept under anaesthesia. Simply normally distributed or logarithmically distributed plasma enzyme activities were found to differ primarily by sex, with other experimental conditions being identical and regular. The enzyme activities of ICDH, active CPK, and total LDH (the latter only with females) were normally distributed, whereas all the other enzymes activities tested, except for gamma-GT and SDH, were of Gaussian distribution only after logarithmic transformation of the individual values. The plasma enzyme activities of GPT, LAP, ChE, LDH1, MDH, and AP differed from those of GOT, gamma-GT, SDH, total LDH and active CPK, in that they usually exhibited highly significant sex-related differences. All minks were tranquilised and kept under general anaesthesia, using neuroleptanalgesia, but all their enzyme activities were found to vary just as widely as those reported elsewhere in literature, in the context of minks without anaesthesia. The latter result was experimentally confirmed by means of a model experiment in which enzyme activities were recorded from nine male ferrets, prior to, during, and after neuroleptanalgesia.

  20. Metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and body composition of growing farm-raised male pastel mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R B; Travis, H F; Glinsky, M S

    1978-12-01

    The requirement of metabolizable energy (ME) for maintenance was studied in 31 male pastel farm-raised mink. The procedure used was a body balance regression technique that included an initial baseline group, a group allowed feed ad libitum, and a group allowed feed at the level of 65% of average intake of the ad libitum animals. The requirement for ME was 147.8 +/- 6.06 kcal/wtkg 0.734/day. This value falls within the range of estimates of maintenance requirements noted for younger animals of other species, such as the rat, chicken, and calf. The relationships of the chemical composition of the body to functions of body weight were also examined. The composition of the mink body was closely related to the weight of the animal rather than to age or conformation, as has been noted in other species. However, the fat-free dry body of the mink contained more protein and less ash than any other species studied up to this point. On a percentage basis, protein was 87.29 and ash was 12.72. Protein in the fat-free body of other species range from 80 to 82%.

  1. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  2. A comparative, BAC end sequence enabled map of the genome of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Smith, Amanda; Christensen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the analysis of approximately 2.7 Mb of genomic information for the American mink (Neovison vison) derived through BAC end sequencing. Our study, which encompasses approximately 1/1000th of the mink genome, suggests that simple sequence repeats (SSRs...

  3. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on reproduction and offspring growth and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and mortality were evaluated. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). The percentage of stillborn kits per litter was significantly increased by dietary concentrations of 4.5 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater. All offspring exposed to dietary concentrations of 4.5 and 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 and 38 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 10 weeks of age, and all offspring exposed to 1.5 and 2.8 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (10 and 18 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 31 weeks of age, leaving juveniles in the control and 0.72 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (0.41- and 4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) groups only. The dietary concentration predicted to result in 20% kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age was 0.34 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed). The corresponding maternal hepatic concentration was 0.80 µg ∑PCBs/g liver, wet weight (13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver, wet wt). Mink residing in the upper Hudson River would be expected to consume species of fish that contain an average of 4.0 µg ∑PCBs/g tissue. Thus, a daily diet composed of less than 10% Hudson River fish could provide a dietary concentration of ∑PCBs that resulted in 20% kit mortality in the present study.

  4. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    are unsustainable. Often, prescribed pairs of animals appear to be incompatible and reproductively unsuccessful. This is also a problem in solitary carnivore species, many of which are threatened with extinction. A suggested solution to this problem is to investigate, which male cues and signals the females use......Conservation-breeding programs in zoos are essential for the management of threatened species. By moving animals amongst institutions for prescribed breeding, these programs aim to promote demographic stability and preserve genetic variation in the captive populations. Yet many breeding programs...... or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), size, and behaviour. The latter may represent aspects of animal personality. The background for this is explained in the introduction (Chapter I). In Chapter II, a published article, I present a novel study on aspects of animal personality in the American mink...

  5. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers fo...... of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink....

  6. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L.;

    2013-01-01

    -tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its...

  7. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.;

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present an extended linkage map of the American mink (Neovison vison) consisting of 157 microsatellite markers and comprising at least one linkage group for each of the autosomes. Each linkage group has been assigned to a chromosome and oriented by fluorescence in situ hybridiza......In this report we present an extended linkage map of the American mink (Neovison vison) consisting of 157 microsatellite markers and comprising at least one linkage group for each of the autosomes. Each linkage group has been assigned to a chromosome and oriented by fluorescence in situ...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...

  8. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  9. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... of time as mink without access to a running wheel performed stereotypies, and the daily rhythms of the two types of activity were identical with a peak around feeding time. No other behavioural differences between stereotyping and non-stereotyping mink were found and neither was there any difference...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...

  10. Cloning of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and its expression in the uterus during embryonic diapause and implantation in the mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Houde, A; Murphy, B D

    1998-09-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is essential for embryo implantation in mice. Whether LIF plays a role in termination of embryonic diapause and initiation of implantation in carnivores, especially in species with obligate delayed implantation such as the mink, is not known. The objectives of this study were to clone the LIF coding sequence in the mink and determine its mRNA abundance in the uterus through embryonic diapause, implantation, and early postimplantation. We show that the mink LIF cDNA contains 609 nt encoding a deduced protein of 203 amino acids. The homologies are 80.6, 90, 88.2, 87.6, and 86.8% in coding sequence and 79.2, 90.1, 91, 90.1 and 85.4% in amino acid sequence with mouse, human, pig, cow, and sheep respectively. Glycosylation sites and disulfide bonds present in other species are generally conserved in the mink LIF sequence. Quantitation by polymerase chain reaction amplification indicates that LIF mRNA is expressed in mink uterus just prior to implantation and during the first two days after implantation, but not during diapause or later after implantation pregnancy. The abundance of LIF mRNA was significantly higher in the uterus at the embryo expansion stage (P coincidence of LIF expression with implantation in this species suggests that LIF is involved in the implantation process, and may be a maternal signal which terminates obligate embryonic diapause.

  11. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Pujolar, José Martin

    2015-01-01

    Feral American mink populations (Neovison vison), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling incl...

  12. Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Data from: "Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014....

  13. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink.

  14. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    Mink is a production animal breed for the fur. Both quality and quantity of the produced skin are important for the producer. In these analyses both fur quality traits, such as structure of guard hair and wool, which determines the quality of the skin, and litter size which determines the quantity...... of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...

  15. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V;

    1992-01-01

    -reacted with N and M polypeptides of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Thus MCV may occupy an intermediate position between the TGEV group of coronaviruses and PEDV. The possibility that MCV may be associated with syndromes of acute enteritis in preweaning mink is discussed....

  16. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  17. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein......, except for males on the 8% BPM diet. Balance experiments carried out with 18 and 28 weeks old males, revealed similar digestibility of main nutrients except for fat that were reduced with BPM inclusion. N-retentions were similar for the dietary groups. Daily excretion of urine was lower with the 8% BPM...... not affected by diet, except for shorter hair length with inclusion of BPM. In conclusion, the experiment showed that BPM can account for 40% of dietary protein in growing-furring mink without negative effects on N metabolism, body weight gain or fur quality....

  18. Effects of lactic acid fermentation and gamma irradiation of barley on antinutrient contents and nutrient digestibility in mink (Mustela vison) with and without dietary enzyme supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrede, Anders; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Connor, Kirsti Hjelme; Skrede, Grete

    2007-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of fermentation of barley, using two different strains of lactic acid bacteria, a Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus strain isolated from spontaneously fermented rye sourdough (AD2) and a starch-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum (AM4), on contents of mixed-linked (1 --> 3) (1 --> 4)-beta-glucans, alpha-amylase inhibitor activity, inositol phosphates, and apparent digestibility of macronutrients in mink. Effects of fermentation were compared with effects of gamma irradiation (gamma-irradiation: 60Co gamma-rays at 25 kGy). The diets were fed to mink with and without a supplementary enzyme preparation. Both lactic acid fermentation and gamma-irradiation followed by soaking and incubation, reduced concentrations of soluble beta-glucans, phytate and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity. Dietary enzyme supplementation increased significantly digestibility of crude protein, fat, starch and crude carbohydrate (CHO). Fermentation of the barley increased digestibility of starch and CHO. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria AD2 resulted in higher starch and CHO digestibility than strain AM4, and had greater effect than gamma-irradiation, soaking and incubation. The highest digestibility of starch and CHO was obtained after AD2 fermentation followed by enzyme supplementation. It is concluded that both lactic acid fermentation of barley and enzyme supplementation have positive nutritional implications in the mink by limiting the effects of antinutrients and improving digestibility and energy utilization.

  19. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i......PS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas...

  20. Changes in digestive enzyme activity, intestine morphology, mucin characteristics and tocopherol status in mink kits (Mustela neovision) during the weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Clausen, T.N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2011-01-01

    of age. At 34, 47 and 59 days of age, one male mink kit from each litter was euthanized. The activity of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase in the pancreatic tissue increased during the experimental period, whereas the activity of carboxyl ester hydrolase remained constant. The vitamin E......, whereas the biologically less active 2S isomers showed a clear increase. The concentration of bile salts did not change during the experimental period. The villous height increased in the proximal part of the small intestine and decreased in the distal part, whereas the crypt depth was doubled in both...... the proximal and distal part of the small intestine. The mucin-staining area on the villi was markedly reduced during the experimental period but no change in the mucin-staining area in the crypts was observed....

  1. Identification of mustelid species: otter ( Lutra lutra ), American mink ( Mustela vison ) and polecat ( Mustela putorius ), by analysis of DNA from faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Jacobsen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    mustelid species. A method is described for assigning faeces to these three mustelid species, based on analysis of DNA extracted from their seats. Mustelid-specific primers were developed for PCR amplification of a part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and two restriction enzymes were found...

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is a predatory, semiaquatic mammal that is generally associated with stream and river banks, lake shores, fresh and saltwater marshes, and marine shore habitats (Gerell 1970).  Mink are chiefly nocturnal and remain active throughout the year (Marshall 1936); Gerell 1969; Burgess 1978).  The species is adaptable in its use of habitat, modifying daily habits according to environmental conditions, particularly prey availability (Wise et al. 1981; Linn and Birds 1981; Birks and Linn 1982).  The species is tolerant of human activity and will inhabit suboptimum habitats as long as an adequate food source is available; however, mink will be more mobile and change home ranges more frequently under such conditions (Linn pers. comm.).

  3. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  4. Newcastle disease virus from domestic mink, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Sun, Lingshuang; Sun, Xiao; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Wen; Pulscher, Laura A; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.

  5. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'. Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male, and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites. E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm, effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis', similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a. and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  6. Comparison of destructive periodontal disease in blue iris mink to PCB 126-induced mandibular and maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation in natural dark mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellick, Rachel M; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Link, Jane E; Bursian, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals have been reported to develop mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation that results in the destruction of alveolar bone and eventual tooth loss. This jaw lesion has been reported in wild mink collected from areas contaminated with TCDD-like compounds and is a potential biomarker for exposure to these chemicals. The blue iris strain of domestic mink is prone to develop severe periodontal disease, which results in destruction of bone and tooth loss that is grossly similar to the lesion induced by exposure to TCDD-like chemicals. A histological assessment of jaws from blue iris mink and natural dark mink exposed to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was done to determine whether the oral lesions are similar. The jaw tissue from the blue iris mink had lesions indicative of lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis and osteomyelitis, caused by inflammation entering the dental sulcus, while the jaw tissue from the mink exposed to PCB 126 exhibited squamous epithelial proliferation. Therefore, it was determined that the tooth loss and bone destruction seen in these mink are of different origin despite the similarity of the gross clinical signs.

  7. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  8. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J

    1985-05-01

    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  9. Persistent spatial clusters of plasmacytosis among Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Ostergaard, J.; Ersboll, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian disease (Plasmacytosis) is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), an autonomous parvovirus and affects many mustelid species, including the American mink (Neovisonvison). In Denmark, an eradication program reduced the prevalence of test-positive farms from 100% in 1976 to 15...

  10. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  11. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the "marbled" variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested...

  12. 饲粮粗蛋白质与外源褪黑激素水平对水貂生长性能、血清生化指标及营养物质消化率的影响%Effects of Dietary Protein and Exogenous Melatonin Levels on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Digestibility of Minks (Mustela vison)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兴超; 薛海龙; 陈秀敏; 杨镒峰; 魏海军; 李光玉; 杨福合

    2013-01-01

    试验各项测定指标可以得出,皮下埋植10 mg/只外源MT时,水貂较适宜的饲粮CP水平为32% ~36%.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) and exogenous melatonin (MT) levels on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility of minks. Ninety healthy fifty-day-old male minks with a similar body weight were randomly divided into 6 groups with 15 replicates per group and 1 mink per replicate. The trial was carried out using three dietary CP levels (32% , 36% and 40% ) and two subcutaneous implant exogenous MT levels (0 and 10 mg per mink) in a 3 x 2 factorial design. The trial lasted for 64 days. The results showed as follows: 1) the final weight of minks fed diets with 40% CP level in 10 mg MT group was significantly higher than that in 0 mg MT group (Ρ0. 05). 2) The serum albumin (ALB) content of minks fed diets with 32% and 40% CP levels in 10 mg MT group was significantly lower than that in 0 mg MT groups (P 0. 05). 3) For 10 mg MT groups, the dry matter (DM) intake of minks fed diets with 32% and 36% CP levels was significantly higher than that of minks fed diets with 40% CP level (P 0. 05). 4) For 10 mg MT groups, the ether extract (EE) digestibility of minks fed diets with 36% CP level was siginificantly higher than that of minks fed diets with 32% and 40% CP levels (P0. 05). Considering all factors, dietary 32% to 36% CP level is considered to be optimal for minks with 10 mg exogenous MT implantation.

  13. Testing for bias in a sentinel species: contaminants in free-ranging domestic, wild, and hybrid mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Nituch, Larissa A; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel species are important tools for studies of biodiversity and environmental health. The American mink (Neovison vison) has long been considered a sentinel of environmental contamination, since the species is known to be sensitive to a number of common contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and mercury. Mink may not always satisfy an important criterion of sentinels however--that they are continuous residents of the environment being sampled. This is because domestic mink commonly escape from farms, and can be confused with wild mink in areas where mink ranching is prevalent, biasing estimates of environmental contamination taken from free-ranging mink samples. We tested for bias in a sample of free-ranging mink from Ontario, Canada, where both genetic ancestry (domestic, wild, and domestic-wild hybrid) and contaminant burdens (PCBs and mercury) were known. Of 133 mink sampled for both contaminants and genetic ancestry, 9% were determined to be domestic and 10.5% hybrid animals. We found that including domestic and hybrid mink in our analysis resulted in overestimating mean PCB burdens in wild mink by 27%, and underestimating mercury by 13%. We also investigated morphological methods to aid in excluding domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples and found that we had the highest classification success using skull size (condylobasal length), which was 15% and 12% greater in male and female domestic than wild mink, respectively. Given the potential use of mink as sentinels, and also the potential for bias, we recommend that researchers take steps to exclude domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples in studies of environmental health.

  14. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-09-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink.

  15. Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    2004-01-01

    . Testing was conducted to determine the cause of the disease, including general virological investigations (virus culture, negative-staining electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction for herpesviruses, adenoviruses, pestiviruses, and coronaviruses), tests for specific viral...... diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation......, it is postulated that the disease is caused by a yet unidentified virus....

  16. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden...

  17. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (penvironmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system.

  18. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... have developed mink enteritis following inoculation with virulent mink enteritis virus. Each...

  19. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.;

    2001-01-01

    , the most frequent being O2 (11.0%). O78 (11.0%), O153 (7.1%). O25 (5.7%). O6 (4.8%). and O15 (4.8%). but diarrhoea was not associated with specific serogroups. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin and colistin. In contrast, considerable variations in susceptibility were found...

  20. Serogroups and antimicrobiological susceptability among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chriél, Mariann;

    2001-01-01

    , the most frequent being O2 (11.0%), O78 (11.0%), O153 (7.1%), O25 (5.7%), O6 (4.8%), and O15 (4.8%), but diarrhoea was not associated with specific serogroups. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin and colistin. In contrast, considerable variations in susceptibility were found...

  1. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    of heat production (HE) by means of indirect calorimetry lasting 3 h were performed on neonatal kits and kits from 1 to 54 days of age. Both single kits and groups of 4-5 huddling kits were kept at 15 degrees C (L) or 30 degrees C (H) [from 35 days onwards at 25 degrees C (H)]. Animals were weighed before...

  2. Stereotypic behaviour in farm mink (Mustela vison) can be reduced by selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B K; Jeppesen, L L; Berg, P

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present the first estimation of genetic variation of stereotypic behaviour (SB). Stereotypic behaviour is defined as an unvarying behaviour without any specific goal or function repeated at least five times. All types of SB were included in the analyses. Altogether 1484 adult...

  3. Aleutian disease of mink: the antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Aleutian disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Hadlow, W J; Chesebro, B

    1975-10-01

    The specific antiviral antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Pullman strain of ADV has been examined. Sapphire mink inoculated with from 300,000-3 LD50 developed high levels of specific antibody and AD. Pastel mink inoculated with parallel doses of ADV also produced antibody but did not develop AD. The low incidence of AD in pastel mink inoculated with Pullman strain of ADV is probably related to factors other than antiviral antibody.

  4. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated,vith ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy...

  5. Mink's adaptation to group housing in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2012-01-01

    marks than mink that did not haev bite wounds. Thus, based upon bite mark results, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that mink populations adapted to group housing have been developed. The number of mink that had died or had been removede during the test period, or that had bite wounds at the time...... of observation was low on farm A, B, and C, and significantly lower than on farm D. This partly supports the hypothesis about having developed mink populations and or management adapted to group housing. The investigation has confirmed that the level of bite marks is a useful, objective measuring parameter......In this project, we test the hypothesis whether mink populations with a higher social tolerance have been developed in practice and thus are better adapted to housing in stacked cages. The hypothesis has been tested by comparing the level of bite damages and bit marks in mink kept in pairs...

  6. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... follows: (1) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two distemper susceptible mink or...

  7. Contaminants in Otter, Mink and Marten in British Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding L.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of studies of mustelids on the Columbia and Fraser River systems in north-western North America, chlorinated hydrocarbon and trace metal contamination of mink, marten and river otter were assessed in relation to physiological and reproductive measures of condition. Mink, marten and river otter were collected during the winters 1994/95 and 1995/96 from commercial trappers. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum (in males masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analysed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs. Contamination levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-92 of these regional populations. Nutritional condition varied slightly amongst collection regions, but showed no relationships with contaminant burdens. Specifically, mink from the upper Fraser River appeared to have less fat stores (evaluated by stomach contents and omentum mass, but also showed some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had unremarkable contamination profiles. Although a few individuals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between Aroclor 1260 concentrations and baculum length in juvenile mink. The influence of baculum length on reproductive success is unknown, but given similar associations found in juvenile otter from Oregon, the incidence of smaller baculum size and its influence on reproduction needs to be further characterized in a larger subset of these

  8. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data......The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried...... a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period...

  9. Pyometra in a Siberian Polecat (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.D.; Biggins, D.E.; Wrigley, R.H.; Mangone, B.A.; Wimsatt, J.

    1999-01-01

    A 2-year-old Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni) from a breeding colony presented for ultrasound evaluation for pregnancy. It was paired with a male for 2.75 months and had remained absent of pregnancy signs when it was anesthetized and clinically evaluated. Until this time, the animal had eaten well and shown no outward signs of debility. On palpation, the animal had a fluid-filled tubular structure in the caudal abdomen, consistent in location and size with the uterus. No sign of vaginal discharge was present. Ultrasonography revealed 10 fluid-filled evaginations (approximately 12 mm in diameter) of the uterine horns. A presumptive diagnosis of a fluid-filled reproductive tract and likely reproductive failure was made in light of the animal's history, its clinical signs, and the ultrasound findings. Euthanasia was performed because the animal was nonreproductive and might yield information relevant to the breeding colony as a whole. Necropsy of the polecat revealed a distended fluctuant uterus containing mildly odiferous, thick, yellow-green, purulent material. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pyometra. A pure and heavy growth of Enterococcus fecalis was cultured from the uterine contents. In light of results from routine minimal inhibitory concentration antibiotic sensitivity screening, this isolate was resistant to all antibiotics tested in the standard teaching hospital screen.

  10. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E;

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...... parvoviruses is discussed....... important implications for the pathogenesis of MEV-induced disease. The data presented on MEV are correlated with earlier results on the other mink parvovirus, Aleutian mink disease parvovirus, and a possible explanation for the remarkable differences in pathogenesis of disease caused by these two...

  11. High Prevalence of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-ranging Mink on a Remote Danish Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann;

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark......, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32...... of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains....

  12. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.;

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  13. Contaminant concentrations in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It appears that PCB levels in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink are high enough to adversely affect reproduction. Although levels of contaminants in Massachusetts...

  14. Måling af stress hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2010-01-01

    temadagen præsenteres nye resultater og metoder til at vurdere stress hos mink. I en metode måles koncentrationen af nedbrydningsprodukter af hormonet cortisol i gødning fra mink. Der er en række fordele ved denne metode, frem for blodprøvetagning. Forsøg viste, at hovedparten af cortisol udskilles i fæces...... (83 %) frem for i urin (17 %), samt at omsætningen af radioaktivt mærket cortisol ikke er forskellig mellem mink med hhv. lav og høj forekomst af stereotypi. Denne viden kan bruges til bedre at forstå koblingen f.eks. unormal adfærd og stress hos mink.......Sammendrag Stress indgår som et element ved vurdering af dyrevelfærd. Endvidere kan stress mål anvendes i undersøgelser, hvor forskellige typer af avl, burmiljø og pasning af mink sammenlignes. Men hvad er stress egentlig og hvordan måles det? Er unormal adfærd koblet til stress hos mink? På...

  15. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B;

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate...

  16. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  17. Infection of the ferret stomach by isogenic flagellar mutant strains of Helicobacter mustelae.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrutis, K A; Fox, J G; Schauer, D B; Marini, R P; Li, X.; L. Yan; Josenhans, C; Suerbaum, S

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter mustelae, like Helicobacter pylori, possesses two flagellin proteins, FlaA and FlaB. Isogenic mutant strains of H. mustelae have been constructed by disruption of the flaA or flaB gene with a kanamycin resistance cassette or by introduction of both a kanamycin and a chloramphenicol resistance gene to produce a double mutant. To determine whether one or both flagellin proteins are necessary for colonization and persistence of infection with H. mustelae, 19 ferrets, specific pathog...

  18. Diversity and stability of Aleutian mink disease virus during bottleneck transitions resulting from eradication in domestic mink in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hansen, Lene Gram; Chriél, Mariann;

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (plasmacytosis) virus (AMDV) in domestic mink (Neovison vison) has been subject to eradication in Denmark since 1976. In 2001, approximately 5% of Danish mink farms were still infected and all were located in the northern part of the peninsula of Jutland. In the present study...

  19. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Persson

    Full Text Available Aleutian mink disease (AMD is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133 had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006, heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  20. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  1. Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Charly; Huynh, Minh; Husnik, Roman; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common complaint in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Their relatively simple and short gastrointestinal tract makes them good candidates for flexible endoscopy. However, apart from a few references in biomedical research articles, there is little information on the use of flexible endoscopy in ferrets. This review describes patient preparation, equipment, and select gastrointestinal endoscopy techniques in ferrets, including esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, duodenoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, jejunoileoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy.

  2. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (pprescription patterns varied significantly between veterinarians, and some veterinarians were associated with both larger and more frequent prescriptions of antimicrobials at herd level. Herd size is associated with different prescription patterns. Finally, infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, astrovirus, influenza virus and Salmonella spp. was associated with an increase in antimicrobial use.

  3. Comparative genomics and proteomics of Helicobacter mustelae, an ulcerogenic and carcinogenic gastric pathogen

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Paul W

    2010-03-10

    Abstract Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase) and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a) are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin\\/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A\\/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome sequence was

  4. Comparative genomics and proteomics of Helicobacter mustelae, an ulcerogenic and carcinogenic gastric pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMullan Geoff

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome

  5. Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Rikke; Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    contents did not change (p>0.05) during the first week of lactation. The proportion of essential amino acids tended to decrease during the first 24 h postpartum. During the first week of lactation, the phenylalanine and tyrosine contents decreased while the cysteine content increased. However, in general...... matter (DM), ash, crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, and amino acid composition. The DM content was higher (p

  6. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  7. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  8. Effect of Persistent Infection of Mink with Aleutian Mink Disease Virus on Reproductive Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic infections of mink with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMD on reproductive performance and the morphology of the internal organs. The study drew its subjects from two farms where the disease was endemic and included 450 clinically healthy female mink divided into three equal groups: two AMD positive groups and one AMD negative control group. The mink were subjected to clinical observations throughout the period of reproduction, and then for the first seven weeks after birth. Data collected during this period were evaluated using selected breeding and reproductive indices. All reproductive indices including conception rate, litter size, and litter weight at birth as well as neonatal mortality were substantially poorer. Histopathological examination revealed changes typical for AMD, particularly in the spleen, kidneys, liver, and lymph nodes. The results highlighted and proved the frequently underestimated extent of economic losses on farms where AMD is endemic yet the mink stock is apparently healthy.

  9. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety...

  10. De novo SNP calling from RAD sequences for a mink (Neovison vison) specific genotyping assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pujolar, José Martin; Larsen, Peter F;

    population sizes. The aim of this study was to create a mink specific SNP panel well suited for population genetic studies, parental testing and forensic investigations. A SNP panel specific for American mink (Neovison vison) has been generated from Restriction site-Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Fourteen...... and require a large market to cover the cost. New technologies based on next generation sequencing (NGS) have made it possible to identify thousands of SNPs using a cost effective and fast method. The method can be used for non-model organisms in conservation biology and for production species with small...

  11. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...... behaviour) and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured on-farm. The major steps in the development of the WelFur mink protocols are described: (1) Writing leterature reviews and listing potential measures. (2) Identifying valid, reliable and feasable welfare measures. (3) Developing registration protocols......, descriptions, and schemes. (4) Testing preliminary protocols in relevant seasons of the annual production. This paper focus on the evaluation of validity, reliability anf feasibility of the 22 measures that have been selected for the WelFur assessment protocols. These protocols haev been tested in the three...

  12. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  13. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is an acute and fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mink are typically found dead without prior clinical symptoms. The disease can be highly contagious and varying mortalities on the farm level has been reported. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink...... in hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli in diagnostic material. The distribution of the two pathogens is visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two histological patterns were observed in the work presented in Article II; one was very hemorrhagic with few bacteria while...... is seasonal with outbreaks almost exclusively occurring from September to November in Denmark. In human medicine, P. aeruginosa is regarded as a pathogen for immune compromised individuals but no underlying disease or immune defect has been identified in mink dying of hemorrhagic pneumonia. In fact, little...

  14. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...

  15. Effect of Freund's adjuvant on standard dark and pastel mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabel, H; Ingram, D G

    1971-04-01

    Following a long series of injections of homologous immunoglobulin in complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant into mink, a moderate elevation in the level of gammaglobulin in the serum was observed in a few animals. Relatively mild pathological changes also were seen in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs and kidney. It is concluded that the injection of Freund's adjuvant, under the experimental conditions described, produced lesions which were readily distinguishable from the lesions characteristic of aleutian disease of mink.

  16. Demonstration of Aleutian disease virus-specific lymphocyte response in mink with progressive Aleutian disease: comparison of sapphire and pastel mink infected with different virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E

    1983-09-01

    Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.

  17. Recombinant proteins as vaccines for protection against disease induced by infection with mink astrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and polypeptides of the capsid protein of a novel mink astrovirus strain denoted DK7627. Such polynucleotides and polypeptides may be used for the production of vaccines against mink astrovirus which may induce pre-weaning diarrhoea in minks. The invention furthermore relates to vectors, host cells, compositions...

  18. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater.

  19. QTL-mapping in mink (Neovison vison) shows evidence for QTL for guard hair thickness, guard hair length and skin length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    Fur quality in mink (Neovison vison) is a composite trait, consisting of e.g. guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool. A genome wide QTL search was performed to detect QTL for fur quality traits in mink. Here we present the results of QTL analyses for guard hair length, guard...... hair thickness and density of wool. Data from an F2-cross was analysed across fourteen chromosomes using 100 microsatellites as markers with a spacing of approximately 20 cM. The two lines used for the F2-cross were Nordic wild mink and American short nap mink. In total 1,083 animals (21 wild type, 25...... short nap, 103 F1 and 934 F2) were marker typed and recorded for the three presented fur quality traits. For the QTL-analyses a regression analysis implemented in QTL Express software was used. Evidence was found for the existence of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool...

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the outer banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Shiloh A.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. We evaluated survival with respect to nesting island, year, time of season, brood age, distance to tide (m), presence of off-road vehicles and proximity of foraging habitat. The daily nest survival (mean 0.981, standard error [SE] 0.002) was affected by year and island, and declined over the nesting season. Mammals were responsible for 54% of identified nest failures. Daily brood survival (mean 0.981, SE 0.002) varied by island and increased non-linearly with age, with highest mortality in the seven days after hatching. Model results indicate direct access to foraging sites has a positive effect on brood survival, whereas presence of off-road vehicles has a negative effect. We studied chick behavior and survival using radio telemetry and direct observation and found that vehicles caused mortality and affected behavior and resource use by oystercatcher chicks. We identified the source of mortality for 37 radio-tagged chicks. Six (16%) were killed by vehicles, 21 (57%) by predators, and 10 (27%) by exposure and starvation. From 1995 to 2008, 25 additional oystercatcher chicks were found dead, 13 (52%) killed by vehicles. Chicks on beaches closed to vehicles used beach and intertidal zones more frequently than chicks on beaches open to vehicles. Chick predators included Great Horned Owls Bubo virginianus, Fish Crows Corvus ossifragus, cats Felis catus, mink Mustela vison, raccoons Procyon lotor, and ghost crabs Ocypode albicans. The factors affecting reproductive success differed between the incubation and chick-rearing stages.  Management actions that influence chick survival will have a larger effect on total productivity than actions affecting nest survival.

  1. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    gene product was characterized after expression in Sf9 insect cells. The MEV VP-2 product had the same size as that reported for the wild-type MEV VP-2 protein and was recognized by convalescent sera from MEV-infected mink and a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive to MEV. Furthermore, the VP-2...

  2. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  3. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, B; Muir, D C G; Backus, S; Born, E W; Dietz, R; Haug, T; Metcalfe, T; Metcalfe, C; Øien, N

    2008-05-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and SigmaCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170+/-110 and 41+/-39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800+/-4100 and 1100+/-780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters.

  4. 水貂品种、性别、年龄及外源褪黑激素与食毛症发病率相关分析%Effect of varieties, sex, age and exogenous melatonin on incidence rate of mink trichophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏来; 王星; 李秋芳; 刘诚刚; 白秀娟

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of trichophagy in five varieties of minks (jinzhou-black mink, coffee mink, silver blue mink, Red-eye white mink and American shorts mink) was counted in Dalian mink nursery. The incidence rate of different varieties, sex, and age implanted of exogenous melatonin or not were calculated and analyzed, respectively to explore the causes and relative factors of mink trichophagy. The results showed that variety difference significantly affected the incidence rate of trichophagy (P< 0.05) in these 5 kinds of minks, with the highest incidence rate of 12.61% occurred in coffee mink; sex also greatly affected the happen of disease, female mink' s incidence was obviously higher than that of the male mink (P<0.05); the age had no significant influence on the incidence (P>0.05); the while, exogenous melatonin implanting could significantly (P<0.05) reduce the incidence rate of trichophagy.%对大连水貂场5个品种水貂食毛症发病情况进行统计,分析不同品种、性别、年龄及埋植外源褪黑激素等因素与水貂食毛症发病率的相关性,以探讨水貂食毛症的病因及其影响因素.结果表明,金州黑、咖啡、银蓝、红眼白、美国短毛黑5个品种种间差异对食毛症的发病率影响显著(P<0.05),其中咖啡水貂发病率最高为12.61%;性别对食毛症发病率影响显著,母貂发病率显著高于公貂(P<0.05);年龄对水貂食毛症发病率影响差异不显著(P>0.05);埋植外源性褪黑激素能够显著降低食毛症发病率(P<0.05).

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.;

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  6. Some clinical and hematological features of virus enteritis of mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H A

    1969-04-01

    Twenty-six, ten-week-old mink were infected by force feeding by pipette 2 ml of a tissue suspension containing a Wisconsin strain of mink enteritis virus. Four days later, diarrhea and partial or complete loss of appetite developed simultaneously in all of the animals. Squinting and occasional vomiting were also observed. By the sixth day after inoculation, all of the mink were anorectic and weak. Anorexia persisted for 48 to 96 hours. Diarrhea and vomiting continued until the eighth to ninth day after exposure. For the first two days after the appearance of diarrhea, the feces contained large quantities of mucus and intestinal casts were seen frequently in the droppings. Thereafter, the feces consisted mostly of yellowish green, watery fluid and contained no casts. Some of the animals died on the eighth day after infection. Those which survived were severely dehydrated and debilitated, but resumed eating and achieved complete clinical recovery within the next five to six days.Leukopenia, i.e., total leukocyte count of less than 5,000 cells per mm(3) of blood, was found in seven of nine mink examined during the height of the disease. Leukopenic animals were deficient in both lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  7. The effect of handling and training on measures of affective state of farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if handling and training female mink on a learning task, as preparation for a cognitive bias test, had an effect on measures of their affective state. Adult female farm mink were used based on measures of approach/avoidance behaviour, and categorised as explorat......The present study aimed to examine if handling and training female mink on a learning task, as preparation for a cognitive bias test, had an effect on measures of their affective state. Adult female farm mink were used based on measures of approach/avoidance behaviour, and categorised...... handling and training for the cognitive bias test. Furthermore, the handling and training also had an effect on the E mink, but in the opposite direction. This study showed the preparing mink for a cognitive bias test had a marked effect on measures of their affective state, which has to be considered when...... interpreting the results from experiments using training to assess welfare....

  8. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  9. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  10. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink.

  11. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.;

    2012-01-01

    plasma samples were extracted to analyze the content of free choline and betaine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma choline was only increased in mink kits fed the highest level of choline whereas plasma choline dit not change in full-grown mink irrespectively of choline level in the feed....... Plasma betaine increased when the level of choline in the diet increased. The changes in plasma betaine were most prominent in mink kits. The present study shows that plasma betaine may be a more reliable marker of choline status than plasma choline, especially in mink kits....

  12. Royal pastel mink respond variously to inoculation with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1984-04-01

    Information was sought on the varied responses of royal pastel mink (a non-Aleutian genotype) to Aleutian disease virus of low virulence. Thus, of 20 yearling female pastel mink inoculated subcutaneously with a large amount of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus, only 3 succumbed to the disease. Of the other 17 mink, 3 had neither viremia nor a rise in level of serum gamma globulin during the 24 weeks after inoculation. The other 14 mink were viremic for variable periods during the first 12 weeks. In only five mink was the viremia accompanied by elevated levels of serum gamma globulin, usually from week 8 on. Of the 16 subclinically infected mink that did not succumb to intercurrent disease and otherwise remained healthy, 9 were examined at 19 to 31 months for persisting virus. In only one mink, small amounts were detected in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen nearly 28 months after inoculation. The other seven mink that survived the infection were not protected when challenged 31 months later with a small amount of the highly virulent Utah-1 strain. Even though still poorly understood, these varied responses of the royal pastel mink to infection with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence have important pathogenetic and epidemiological implications.

  13. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  14. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  15. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Awei; Li, Erli; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Haolong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yu, Lili; Liu, Sha; Ahn, Kung; Cooper, Jesse; Park, Sin-Gi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Jin, Wook; Kim, Heui-Soo; Park, Chankyu; Lee, Kyooyeol; Chun, Sung; Morin, Phillip A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Jumpei; Moon, Dae Yeon; Manica, Andrea; Edwards, Jeremy; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Sangsoo; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels.

  16. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.

    2017-01-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... traditional animal model for this disease. Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination of sections from the infected animals revealed disintegration of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates...... and swelling and edema of the submucosa. The expression of mucins and sialylated glycans was examined using immunohistochemistry. MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC were upregulated in the inoculated animals as a much stronger staining was present in the respiratory epithelium in the infected animals compared...

  17. Intestinal remodelling in mink fed with reduced protein content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke;

    2009-01-01

    Low protein intake occurs in humans in relation to diseases, starvation and post-operatively. Low-protein diets may affect the gastrointestinal structure and mechanical function. The aim was to study the passive biomechanical properties and tissue remodelling of the intestine in minks on reduced...... protein diets. Twenty-seven male minks were divided into three groups receiving different protein level in the diet for 6 weeks: High protein level (group H, 55% energy from protein), moderate protein level (group M, 30% energy from protein) and low protein level (group L, 15% energy from protein) (n=9...... for each group). Ten centimetre long segments from duodenum, jejunum and ileum were excised at the end of the study period. The mechanical test was performed as a ramp distension experiment. The intestinal diameter and length, wall thickness, wall area and opening angle were obtained from digitized images...

  18. Effect of infectious dose and season on development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine H; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Høiby, Niels; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2013-07-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is an acute and fatal disease of farmed mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been resolved. Mink are the only animals known to be susceptible to acute, contagious, and fatal lung infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between dose-response and season of infection and to clarify whether Danish mink are carriers of P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa during the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease, an infectious dose-response trial was carried out on adult mink and mink kits, both in the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia (November) as well as out of season (July). It proved difficult to infect mink via the intra-nasal route. Only 4 out of 60 infected mink developed clinical disease and were euthanized, all of them in November, illustrating that predisposing factors in the mink itself and not infectious dose might be crucial for disease development. We were able to culture P. aeruginosa from the nasal cavity of the clinically healthy experimental mink 8 d after inoculation. This indicated that the mink can carry P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa without developing the disease. It was not possible, however, to culture P. aeruginosa from the nasal cavity of clinically healthy mink obtained from farms in November, which indicates that the organism is not a normal part of the nasal mucosal flora of mink.

  19. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen in se...

  20. Detection and molecular characterization of cultivable caliciviruses from clinically normal mink and enteric caliciviruses associated with diarrhea in mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Evermann, J F; Saif, L J

    2001-01-01

    Enteric caliciviruses are emerging pathogens responsible for diarrhea or gastroenteritis in their respective hosts. In this report, mink enteric caliciviruses (MEC) were detected in feces from diarrheic mink by both immune electron microscopy (IEM) and RT-PCR using a broadly reactive primer pair (p289/290) targeting the highly conserved RNA polymerase regions of the enteric caliciviruses, Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) and Sapporo-like viruses (SLVs). The MEC possess classical caliciviral morphology with typical cup-shaped depressions on the viral surface. Sequence analyses based on nucleotide and predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of the RT-PCR products indicated that MEC is most closely related genetically to SLVs of humans and animals. The MEC shared the highest aa identities (64-71%) in the RNA polymerase region with both human SLVs and the porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) Cowden strain SLV, indicating that MEC may belong to an individual genogroup or subgroup in the SLV genus. The MEC shared only limited aa identities in the RNA polymerase region with vesiviruses (40-51%) and NLVs (29-33%). The RNA polymerase regions of the cultivable, non-enteric mink caliciviruses (MCV) were also amplified by RT-PCR using the primer pair Pol1/Pol3 based on sequences of vesiviruses, and the primer pair p289/290. Sequence analysis indicated that these MCV shared higher aa identities in the RNA polymerase region with vesiviruses (58-81%) than with SLVs (43-51%) including the MEC, lagoviruses (35-37%) and NLVs (27-35%), suggesting that they are most closely related genetically to vesiviruses. The MEC associated with diarrhea in mink are morphologically similar to but are genetically distinct from the cultivable MCV and likely represent a new member of the SLV genus.

  1. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.;

    1989-01-01

    When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mi...

  2. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...

  3. Mortality in farmed mink: Systematic collection versus arbitrary submissions for diagnostic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.;

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of diagnoses of mortality in mink submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL) for diagnostic investigation in the calendar year 1997 was compared with the diagnoses of mortality in all dead mink collected at 4 selected farms (project farms) during the same period. A total...

  4. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders is the main cause for submitting mink (Neovison vison) carcasses for post-mortem examination at the National Veterinary Institute in Denmark and has been described as the predominant cause of disease and mortality in the Danish mink production (Rattenborg et al. 19...

  5. Rapid detection of self-biting disease of mink by specific sequence-characterized amplified regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-yue; NING Fang-yong; YANG Hong-yan; WEI Lai; BAI Xiu-juan

    2011-01-01

    Self-biting disease occurred in most farmed fur animals in the world. The mechanism and rapid detection method of this disease has not been reported. We applied bulked sergeant analysis (BSA) in combination with RAPD method to analyze a molecular genetic marker linked with self-biting trait in mink group. The molecular marker was converted into sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid detection of this disease. A single RAPD marker A8 amplified a specific band of 263bp in self-biting minks, which was designated as SRA8-250,and non-specific band of 315bp in both self-biting and healthy minks.The sequences of the bands exhibited 75% and 88% similarity to Canis familiarizes major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅱ region and Macaca mulatta MHC class Ⅰ region, respectively. A SCAR marker SCAR-A8 was designed for the specific fragment SRA8-250 and validated in 30 self-biting minks and 30 healthy minks. Positive amplification of SCAR-A8 was detected in 24 self-biting minks and 12 healthy minks. x2 test showed significant difference (p<0.01) in the detection rate between the two groups. This indicated that SRA8-250 can be used as a positive marker to detect self-biting disease in minks. Furthermore, the finding that self-biting disease links with MHC genes has significant implications for the mechanism of the disease.

  6. Apparent lack of effect of vaccination against mink enteritis virus (MEV). A challenge study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1988-01-01

    The mink enteritis virus part of a triple vaccine was tested in mink. No raise in antibody response was measured after vaccination. Subsequent challenge of groups of vaccinated or not-vaccinated animals revealed no differences in virus excretion or antibody response in the different animals....

  7. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P experimentally byuse of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social...

  8. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... mink only showed habituation in experiment 2. Regardless of the frequency used (2 and 18 kHz), cues predicting the danger situation initially elicited slower responses compared to those predicting the safe situation but quickly became faster. Using auditory cues as discrimination stimuli for female...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  9. Effect of infectious dose and season on development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is an acute and fatal disease of farmed mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been resolved. Mink are the only animals known to be susceptible to acute, contagious, and fatal lung infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The purpose...... of this study was to investigate the correlation between dose-response and season of infection and to clarify whether Danish mink are carriers of P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa during the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease, an infectious dose-response trial...... was carried out on adult mink and mink kits, both in the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia (November) as well as out of season (July). It proved difficult to infect mink via the intra-nasal route. Only 4 out of 60 infected mink developed clinical disease and were euthanized, all of them in November...

  10. Minke whales maximise energy storage on their feeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Víkingsson, Gísli A; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Lusseau, David

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal trends in energy storage of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a capital breeder, were investigated in Iceland, a North Atlantic feeding ground. The aim was to better understand the energy acquisition strategies of minke whales and the energetic costs that different reproductive classes face during the breeding season. We modelled total blubber volume, using blubber thickness and morphometric measurements of individual whales. Blubber volume was influenced by body length, and was higher for pregnant females than mature whales. Blubber volume increased linearly through the feeding season at the same rate for mature (mean ± s.e.m.=0.0028 ± 0.00103 m(3) day(-1); N=61 male, 5 female) and pregnant whales (0.0024 ± 0.00100 m(3) day(-1); N=49), suggesting that minke whales aim to maximise energy storage while on the feeding grounds. The total amount of blubber accumulated over the feeding season (0.51 ± 0.119 m(3) for mature and 0.43 ± 0.112 m(3) for pregnant whales), together with energy stored as muscle and intra-abdominal fats, constitutes the total amount of energy available for reproduction (fetus development and lactation) on the breeding grounds, as well as migration, daily field metabolic rates, growth and body maintenance. No seasonal variation was observed for immature whales (N=4 male, 12 female), suggesting that they are investing most of their excess energy into growth rather than reproduction, in order to reach the length of sexual maturity faster and start reproducing earlier. Our novel modelling approach provides insight into large whale bioenergetics and life history strategies, as well as the relationship between single-site measurement of blubber thickness and total blubber volume.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly B. Ernest

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo is an important model organism for the study of avian influenza and other diseases of humans and animals, as well as a popular pet animal. In order to evaluate genetic diversity and study disease relationships in ferrets, 22 nuclear microsatellite loci (17 dinucleotide and 5 tetranucleotide were developed from ferret genomic libraries and organized into seven multiplex sets. Polymorphism was preliminarily assessed in one population in Australia and one in the USA, sampled with 25 individuals each. The loci displayed allelic diversity ranging from 1 to 5 alleles, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.04 to 0.65 and 0.04 to 0.76, respectively. Additionally, the loci amplified products in 15 samples from the wild ancestor, European polecat (Mustela putorius and domestic ferret-polecat hybrids. In polecat/hybrid samples, allelic diversity ranged from 3 to 8 alleles, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.13 to 0.81 and 0.13 to 0.80 respectively. These markers will be useful for molecular assessments of genetic diversity and applications to evolution, ecology, and health in domestic ferrets and wild polecats.

  12. A comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane for short-term anesthesia in polecats (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, J. S.; Wimsatt, J.; Mallinckrodt, C.; Biggins, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-four Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) from 12 litters were anesthetized with either inhaled sevoflurane or isoflurane. With 7% delivered sevoflurane and 5% delivered isoflurane, time to loss of righting reflex (mean +/- SE) with sevoflurane (1.9 +/- 0.1 min) was significantly shorter compared with isoflurane (2.6 +/- 0.1 min). During maintenance at a light plane of anesthesia, systolic arterial pressure was significantly higher with sevoflurane (83 +/- 2 mm Hg) compared with isoflurane (66 +/- 2 mm Hg), and heart rate was significantly lower with sevoflurane (191 +/- 3 beats/min) compared with isoflurane (204 +/- 3 beats/min). There was no difference in respiratory rate jugular venous pH, pCO3, HCO3-, base excess, or recovery of righting reflex. Induction of anesthesia is more rapid and blood pressure is better maintained with sevoflurane compared with isoflurane; therefore, sevoflurane may be less stressful and safer. Inhaled sevoflurane should be an appropriate anesthetic for black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) in laboratory and field conditions.

  13. Interferon response in normal and Aleutian disease virus-infected mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedbrauk, D L; Hadlow, W J; Ewalt, L C; Lodmell, D L

    1986-08-01

    Studies were done to determine whether differences in interferon production are responsible for the resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease. The abilities of normal pastel and sapphire mink to produce interferon when inoculated with either Newcastle disease virus or a synthetic polyribonucleotide, poly (I):poly (C), were identical, even to the production of a novel, acid-labile interferon. The resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease did not correlate with interferon production, because neither sapphire nor pastel mink produced detectable amounts of interferon when infected with either the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) or the highly virulent Utah I strain. Sapphire mink infected with the Pullman strain responded normally to poly (I):poly (C) early in the course of the disease, but interferon production was impaired late, when the mink were hypergammaglobulinemic and had renal, vascular, and hepatic lesions. These data suggest that ADV Pullman neither stimulates nor interferes with interferon production in infected mink and may represent a mechanism whereby ADV can more readily establish infection.

  14. Diagnosis of Canine Distemper Virus from Mink%貂犬瘟热病的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    永措; 刁富花; 汪生贵

    2012-01-01

    貂犬瘟热是危害貂、狐、貉最严重的烈性传染病之一.作者对某貂养殖场的病死貂进行临床症状观察,病理剖检及实验室诊断,通过病毒的分离培养及鉴定,确诊病死貂为貂犬瘟热病毒感染.鉴于养殖场中该病的存在及对养貂业的危害,建议加强对貂犬瘟热病的诊断及监控.%Mink distemper is one of the most serious deadly infectious diseases to mink or fox. The paper introduced a mink farm. The clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and laboratory diagnosis were observed, and mink distemper was detected by virus isolation culture and RT-PCR,the final diagnosis result was mink distemper. Because of the existence of the disease and the harm fulness to the mink industry, the diagnosis and monitoring of mink distemper should be strengthening.

  15. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    bone loss and tooth loss. There was a high prevalence of destructive periodontal disease among blue mink included in this study. Mild to moderate periodontal disease (defined by less than 50% alveolar bone loss related to 1 or more teeth) affected 73.7% of young mink (age = 7 mo) and 67.9% of older...... animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....

  16. Distance estimation experiment for aerial minke whale surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Witting

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between aerial cue–counting and digital photography surveys for minke whales conducted in Faxaflói Bay in September 2003 is used to check the perpendicular distances estimated by the cue-counting observers. The study involved 2 aircraft with the photo plane at 1,700 feet flying above the cue–counting plane at 750 feet. The observer–based distance estimates were calculated from head angles estimated by angle-boards and declination angles estimated by declinometers. These distances were checked against image–based estimates of the perpendicular distance to the same whale. The 2 independent distance estimates were obtained for 21 sightings of minke whale, and there was a good agreement between the 2 types of estimates. The relative absolute deviations between the 2 estimates were on average 23% (se: 6%, with the errors in the observer–based distance estimates resembling that of a log-normal distribution. The linear regression of the observer–based estimates (obs on the image–based estimates (img was Obs=1.1Img (R2=0.85 with an intercept fixed at zero. There was no evidence of a distance estimation bias that could generate a positive bias in the absolute abundance estimated by cue–counting.

  17. Serum amyloid A gene expression in rabbit, mink and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Hackett, B; Dowton, S B

    1997-02-01

    The expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, a major acute-phase reactant in most species, was examined by in situ hybridization in multiple organs of rabbit, mink and mouse. In livers of unstimulated mice and rabbits a heterogeneous pattern of SAA expression in hepatocytes was observed. In all three species, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration resulted in extensive uniform hybridization of SAA probes to hepatocytes and in the rabbit SAA transcripts were detected in cells in the white pulp of the spleen, the adrenal cortex and ovary as well as in the mucosa and lymphatic vessels of the small intestine. Examination of hybridizing SAA signals in the rabbit myocardium showed a speckled distribution in myocytes. The rabbit endocardium was strongly positive, and in the kidney rabbit SAA mRNA was mainly confined to epithelial cells of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. In the unstimulated mouse, SAA mRNA was detected in the liver and epithelial cells of the small and large intestine. After stimulation of an acute-phase response with LPS a strong response was seen in these organs as well as in the convoluted tubules of the kidney. In extrahepatic organs of the mink, no SAA mRNA was detectable in unstimulated animals, while the convoluted tubules of the kidney and uterine endometrium were strongly positive after systemic LPS injection.

  18. An effort to trap mink in Maine to protect nesting Seabirds 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details and effort to trap minks on the islands of Otter, Roberts, Carvers and Hay during the spring of 1998. This is to benefit and protect the seabirds...

  19. An effort to trap mink in Maine to protect nesting Seabirds 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details and effort to trap mink and survey black guillemots on islands in outer Penobscot Bay (Otter, Roberts, Little Roberts, Carvers, Hay, and...

  20. An effort to trap mink in Maine to protect nesting Seabirds 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mink were trapped off the seabird nesting islands south east of Vinalhaven, Maine (outer Penobscot Bay) during the late 1990's, and the local Black Guillemot...

  1. Heterosis and genetic variation in litter size in purebred and crossbred mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Larsen, Peter Foged; Pertoldi, Cino

    2014-01-01

    were analyzed and the effects of parity and production year were included in the analyses. Genetic trend and the proportions of the total variance explained by the effects of additive genetics (h2) , common environment (due to repeated litters from the same female; c2), and dam of the female (granddame......Crosses between different mink lines from 3 Danish mink farms that use different breeding strategies were studied to estimate heterosis and variance components for litter size. The study was designed to analyze crosses between lines of the same color type, between different color types, and between...... of the born litter; d2) were estimated. The results showed that mink of the Black color type potentially produced smaller litters compared to mink of the other studied color types. We found significant general maternal effect of heterosis for litter size. Analyses of specific heterosis showed a significant...

  2. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.;

    A major concern amongst the Danish mink farmers is the incidence of the syndrome pre-weaning diarrhea. The syndrome causes major management issues and decreases the welfare of the mink and increases mortality in the pre-weaning period. The etiology of the syndrome is considered multifactorial...... as a specific cause is not fully established or understood. Adding to an increased risk of developing pre-weaning diarrhea is the fact that the mink kits are born with very low levels of circulating immunoglobulins. Rapid achievement of high levels of immunoglobulins in the bloodstream is essential for the kits...... early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  3. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    The usage of antimicrobials for treatment of mink and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens in mink was investigated. The aim of the study was to provide data, which may serve as a basis for the formulation of recommendations for prudent Use....... There was a steady increase in the use of antimicrobials during the period 2001-2006, the majority of the prescribed amount being extended spectrum penicillins followed by aminoglycosides, sulphonamides with trimethoprim, and macrolides....... of antimicrobial's for mink. A total of 164 haemolytic staphylococci. 49 haemolytic streptococci. 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13 Pasteurella multocida. and 1093 Escherichia coli isolates front Danish mink were included in the Study. A high frequency of resistance among S. intermedius was found for tetracyclines (54...

  4. The Pattern of Ovarian Development in the Prepubertal Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    OpenAIRE

    TETSUKA, MASAFUMI; ASADA, Masatsugu; MOGOE, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; OHSUMI, Seiji; 手塚, 雅文; 福井, 豊

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the pre...

  5. Mink serum amyloid A protein. Expression and primary structure based on cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Husby, G; Dowton, S B

    1990-06-15

    The nucleotide sequences of two mink serum amyloid A (SAA) cDNA clones have been analyzed, one (SAA1) 776 base pairs long and the other (SAA2) 552 base pairs long. Significant differences were discovered when derived amino acid sequences were compared with data for apoSAA isolated from high density lipoprotein. Previous studies of mink protein SAA and amyloid protein A (AA) suggest that only one SAA isotype is amyloidogenic. The cDNA clone for SAA2 defines the "amyloid prone" isotype while SAA1 is found only in serum. Mink SAA1 has alanine in position 10, isoleucine in positions 24, 67, and 71, lysine in position 27, and proline in position 105. Residue 10 in mink SAA2 is valine while arginine and asparagine are at positions 24 and 27, respectively, all characteristics of protein AA isolated from mink amyloid fibrils. Mink SAA2 also has valine in position 67, phenylalanine in position 71, and amino acid 105 is serine. It remains unknown why these six amino acid substitutions render SAA2 more amyloidogenic than SAA1. Eighteen hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, mink SAA mRNA is abundant in liver with relatively minor accumulations in brain and lung. Genes encoding both SAA isotypes are expressed in all three organs while no SAA mRNA was detectable in amyloid prone organs, including spleen and intestine, indicating that deposition of AA from locally synthesized SAA is unlikely. A third mRNA species (2.2 kilobases) was identified and hybridizes with cDNA probes for mink SAA1 and SAA2. In addition to a major primary translation product (molecular mass 14,400 Da) an additional product with molecular mass 28,000 Da was immunoprecipitable.

  6. The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinxia; Alföldi, Jessica; Gori, Kevin; Eisfeld, Amie J; Tyler, Scott R; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Brawand, David; Law, G Lynn; Skunca, Nives; Hatta, Masato; Gasper, David J; Kelly, Sara M; Chang, Jean; Thomas, Matthew J; Johnson, Jeremy; Berlin, Aaron M; Lara, Marcia; Russell, Pamela; Swofford, Ross; Turner-Maier, Jason; Young, Sarah; Hourlier, Thibaut; Aken, Bronwen; Searle, Steve; Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Suresh, M; Tumpey, Terrence M; Siepel, Adam; Wisely, Samantha M; Dessimoz, Christophe; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Birren, Bruce W; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Di Palma, Federica; Engelhardt, John F; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.

  7. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse;

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  8. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, NE; Tauson, A-H

    information about the relative contribution of different nutrients to the total heat production (HE; Tauson et al. 1997). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of different provision of protein and carbohydrate on the energy metabolism and substrate oxidation of mink kits between 6 and 12 weeks......The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...

  9. Comparison of the tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of normal mink and mink affected with tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, S R; McGuire, T C; Prieur, D J

    2005-01-01

    Type II tyrosinemia, designated Richner-Hanhart syndrome in humans, is a hereditary metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by a deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Mutations occur in the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene, resulting in high levels of tyrosine and disease. Type II tyrosinemia occurs in mink, and our hypothesis was that it would also be associated with mutation(s) in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Therefore, the transcribed cDNA and the genomic tyrosine aminotransferase gene were sequenced from normal and affected mink. The gene extended over 11.9 kb and had 12 exons coding for a predicted 454-amino-acid protein with 93% homology with human tyrosine aminotransferase. FISH analysis mapped the gene to chromosome 8 using the Mandahl and Fredga (1975) nomenclature and chromosome 5 using the Christensen et al. (1996) nomenclature. The hypothesis was rejected because sequence analysis disclosed no mutations in either cDNA or introns that were associated with affected mink. This suggests that an unlinked gene regulatory mutation may be the cause of tyrosinemia in mink.

  10. Generalised additive models to investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) spatial density in austral summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, Bas W.P.M.; Forcada, Jaume; Murphy, Eugene J.; Baar, de Hein J.W.; Bathmann, Ulrich V.; Fleming, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to characterise the physical environment associated with Antarctic minke whale density in order to understand long-term changes in minke whale distribution and density in open waters of the Southern Ocean during austral summer months. To investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic

  11. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but several outbreaks have been described during recent years in Europe and the North America. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that...

  12. Rins de Baleia Minke (Baleanoptera acutorostrata: arquitetura e estrutura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.P. Sarmento

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre os mamíferos marinhos, a baleia é um dos animais que mais desperta atenção, especialmente no atinente ao seu sistema urinário. Este sistema segue o padrão entre os mamíferos quanto a sua constituição, entretanto, difere na morfologia renal, em número de lobos, que por sua vez, forma renículos completos, aglutinados às centenas. Esta estrutura é sustentada por tecido conjuntivo fibroso, mas altamente capaz de manter o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico. Foram dissecados 6 pares de rins de baleia Minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata, colhidos em 1982, Cabedelo, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil, na última pesca autorizada. Estes rins estavam conservados em formol 10% e apresentaram uma camada histológica de colágeno muito grande circundando a parede medular. O duto coletor urinário forma cálices papilares, desembocando num único centro coletor que desemboca no ureter. Verificou-se que o rim da baleia Minke apresenta característica lobulada possuindo em média 700 renículos, cada renículo possui características anatômicas e funcionais de um rim unipiramidal, com uma camada interna (medula, e uma camada externa (córtex, e irrigação independente, com formação das artérias arqueadas individualmente, como observadas em mamíferos terrestres unipiramidais. Entretanto, o conjunto destes renículos constitui ao final um rim multilobular e polipiramidal, contrariando a morfologia da maioria dos mamíferos terrestres. Não foi possível distinguir ao nível de microscopia de luz as estruturas do córtex renicular da baleia Minke. Na microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi possível visualizar uma camada cortical que fica localizada entre duas cápsulas fibrosas. Esta junção por sua vez é feita por tecido conjuntivo o qual juntamente com uma camada de colágeno e fibras elásticas, separa o córtex da medula , foram visualizados os glomérulos renais, completamente tomados pelos vasos glomerulares e dispostos em várias camadas

  13. Agonistic and antagonistic roles for TNIK and MINK in non-canonical and canonical Wnt signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikryukov

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling is a key regulatory factor in animal development and homeostasis and plays an important role in the establishment and progression of cancer. Wnt signals are predominantly transduced via the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors to two distinct pathways, the canonical ß-catenin pathway and a non-canonical pathway controlling planar cell polarity and convergent extension. Interference between these pathways is an important determinant of cellular and phenotypic responses, but is poorly understood. Here we show that TNIK (Traf2 and Nck-interacting kinase and MINK (Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase MAP4K signalling kinases are integral components of both canonical and non-canonical pathways in Xenopus. xTNIK and xMINK interact and are proteolytically cleaved in vivo to generate Kinase domain fragments that are active in signal transduction, and Citron-NIK-Homology (CNH Domain fragments that are suppressive. The catalytic activity of the Kinase domain fragments of both xTNIK and xMINK mediate non-canonical signalling. However, while the Kinase domain fragments of xTNIK also mediate canonical signalling, the analogous fragments derived from xMINK strongly antagonize this signalling. Our data suggest that the proteolytic cleavage of xTNIK and xMINK determines their respective activities and is an important factor in controlling the balance between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling in vivo.

  14. Pathogenesis of two strains of lion (Panthera leo) morbillivirus in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, J F; Leathers, C W; Gorham, J R; McKeirnan, A J; Appel, M J

    2001-05-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) was previously considered to have a host range restricted to the canid family. In 1994, the virus was associated with sporadic outbreaks of distemper in captive felids. However, after severe mortality occurred in the Serengeti lions (Panthera leo), attention became focused on the pathogenesis of the virus and a concerted effort was made to identify the virus as CDV or a closely related feline morbillivirus. The present study was designed to explore the susceptibility of ferrets to challenge with two morbilliviruses isolated from lions and the protective effects of a modified-live mink distemper vaccine. Because mortality in ferrets infected with pathogenic CDV approaches 100%, the ferret was selected as a test animal. Two strains of lion morbillivirus were used as a challenge, A92-27/20 (California lion isolate) and A94-11/13 (Serengeti lion isolate). The two strains of lion morbillivirus were antigenically related to CDV (Rockborn strain), and ferrets were susceptible to both of the viruses when inoculated intraperitoneally. The inoculated ferrets were anorectic at 5-6 days postinoculation (PI), exhibited oculonasal discharge at 9-12 days PI, and became moribund at 12-22 days PI. Severe bilateral conjunctivitis was the typical clinical sign. Inclusion bodies characteristic of morbillivirus (eosinophilic, intranuclear, and intracytoplasmic) were distributed in many epithelial cells, including those of the skin, conjunctiva, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, trachea, lung, urinary bladder, and kidney. Virus was reisolated from selected lung tissues collected at necropsy and identified by CDV-specific immunofluorescence. Ferrets vaccinated with the mink distemper vaccine (Onderstepoort strain) were protected from challenge with the two lion strains, adding further support to the premise that the viruses are closely related to CDV.

  15. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  16. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  17. Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis for the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques indicate a low cattle-to-primate species barrier. We therefore evaluated the zoonotic potential of cattle-adapted TME. In less than two years, this strain induced in cynomolgus macaques a neurological disease similar to L-BSE but distinct from c-BSE. TME derived from another donor species (raccoon induced a similar disease with even shorter incubation periods. L-BSE and cattle-adapted TME were also transmissible to transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP. Secondary transmissions to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP maintained the features of the three tested bovine strains (cattle TME, c-BSE and L-BSE regardless of intermediate host. Thus, TME is the third animal prion strain transmissible to both macaques and humanized transgenic mice, suggesting zoonotic potentials that should be considered in the risk analysis of animal prion diseases for human health. Moreover, the similarities between TME and L-BSE are highly suggestive of a link between these strains, and therefore the possible presence of L-BSE for many decades prior to its identification in USA and Europe.

  18. The MINK methodology: background and baseline. [USA - Midwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.; Frederick, K.D.; Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Bowes, M.D.; Sedjo, R.A.; Darmstadter, J.; Katz, L.A.; Lemon, K.M. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A four step methodology has been developed for study of the regional impacts of climate change and the possible responses thereto. First the region's climate sensitive sectors and total economy are described (Task A, current baseline). Next a scenario of climate change is imposed on the current baseline (Task B, current baseline with climate change). A new baseline describing the climate sensitive sectors and total regional economy is projected for some time in the future (Task C, future baseline, year 2030) in the absence of climate change. Finally, the climate change scenario is reimposed on the future baseline (Task D, future baseline with climate change). Impacts of the climate change scenario on the current and future regional economies are determined by means of simulation models and other appropriate techniques. These techniques are also used to assess the impacts of an elevated CO[sub 2] concentration (450 ppm) and of various forms of adjustments and adaptations. The region chosen for the first test of the methodology is composed of the four U.S. states of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. The climate change scenario is the actual weather of the 1930s decade in the MINK region. 'Current' climate is the actual weather of the period 1951-1980. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Optimisation of protocol for Clostridium botulinum detection in mink feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenda Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the test material mink feed with natural microflora was used. The analyses were conducted using Wrzosek and TPGY broth media, and Willis–Hobbs and Zeissler differential agar media. Wrzosek, Willis–Hobbs, and Zeissler media are described in Polish Standards approved by the National Standards Body in Poland and routinely used in detection of anaerobic bacteria in Poland. Detection and identification of C. botulinum was performed with a previously validated real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection, which is common in all C. botulinum toxotypes. The use of Wrzosek broth and Zeissler agar in routine analyses for detection and identification of C. botulinum was ineffective and limited. The obtained results showed the highest culturing process effectiveness in TPGY broth with 72 h incubation at 30°C and isolation on Willis–Hobbs agar. The real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection used in this study could be utilised as a supplementary tool to the mouse lethality assay.

  20. Luteinizing hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, N J; Kuijten, A M; Galac, S

    2008-04-01

    Hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is associated with increased circulating concentrations of adrenal androgens, whereas plasma concentrations of cortisol and ACTH are usually not affected. Here, we report on a 5-year-old castrated male pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in which the major presenting signs were polyuria and polyphagia. Routine biochemistry values were within their reference ranges. The urinary corticoid:creatinine ratio (UCCR) was increased and the plasma ACTH concentration was suppressed. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged right adrenal gland and atrophy of the left adrenal gland. Administration of hCG resulted in an increase of plasma cortisol and androstenedione concentrations. Based on these findings LH/hCG-dependent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism were suspected and treatment was started with a depot GnRH-agonist implant containing 9.4mg deslorelin. Within 3 weeks after placement of the implant all clinical signs had disappeared. Three months later the endocrine parameters had normalized, while abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the right adrenal gland had diminished in size and the left adrenal gland was considered of normal size. No recurrences of clinical signs were seen within 2 years after placement of the deslorelin implant. At that time urinary corticoid and plasma hormone concentrations were within their reference ranges, and no further change in the size of the adrenal glands was seen. In conclusion, this is the first confirmed case of LH-dependent hypercortisolism in a ferret that was treated successfully with a depot GnRH-agonist.

  1. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Immunoglobulin Proteins of the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as an animal model for the study of several viruses that cause human disease, most notably influenza. Despite the importance of this animal model, characterization of the immune response by flow cytometry (FCM) is severely hampered due to the limited number of commercially available reagents. To begin to address this unmet need and to facilitate more in-depth study of ferret B cells including the identification of antibody-secreting cells, eight unique murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specificity for ferret immunoglobulin (Ig) were generated using conventional B cell hybridoma technology. These mAb were screened for reactivity against ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FCM and demonstrate specificity for CD79β+ B cells. Several of these mAb are specific for the light chain of surface B cell receptor (BCR) and enable segregation of kappa and lambda B cells. Additionally, a mAb that yielded surface staining of nearly all surface BCR positive cells (i.e., pan ferret Ig) was generated. Collectively, these MαF-Ig mAb offer advancement compared to the existing portfolio of polyclonal anti-ferret Ig detection reagents and should be applicable to a wide array of immunologic assays including the identification of antibody-secreting cells by FCM. PMID:28286781

  2. Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) II: predator avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Calvo, Lorena; Hanebury, Lou; Wharton, Tracy

    1990-01-01

    We exposed naive Siberain polecats (Mustela eversmanni) (aged 2, 3, and 4 months) to a swooping stuffed great horned owl (Buho virginianus) and a stuffed badger (Taxidae taxus) mounted on a remote control toy automobile frame. The first introduction to each was harmless, the second was accompanied by a mild aversive stimulus, the third (1 day after attack) was harmless, and the fourth (30 days after attack) was harmless. Alert behavior increased after a single attack by either predator model. Escape responses of naive polecats did not differ between ages when exposed to the badger, but 4 month old polecats reduced their escape times after a single badger attack. When exposed to the swooping owl, naive 4 month old polecats redponded more quickly than the other two age groups, and 3 and 4 month old polecats reduced escape times after a single owl attack. This indicates an innate escape response to the owl model at 4 months of age, and a short-tert ability to remember a single mild aversive encounter with the badger and owl models at 3 or 4 months of age.

  3. Temporal replication of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus in royal pastel mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1985-09-01

    Information was sought on the temporal replication of Aleutian disease virus in 27 royal pastel mink. Groups of three were examined 8 to 126 days after they were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(3) 50% lethal doses of the Pullman strain. Much individual variation was noted in the onset of infection, occurrence of viremia, and extent of virus replication in the tissues. Thus, virus was detected in lymph nodes regional to the site of inoculation in only some mink during the first 14 days after inoculation. During this period, virus was often present as well in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen. First detected on day 10, viremia was present in all mink examined on day 28 but occurred irregularly thereafter, even when virus was widespread in the tissues. Except in five mink succumbing to the disease, the tissue distribution of virus after day 28 tended to be more limited, and the titers were generally lower than they had been earlier. Even though present in the lymph nodes and spleen, virus was often absent from the kidney, liver, and intestine after day 28. Specific antibody was detected on day 28 and was present in all mink thereafter, ostensibly without any adverse effect on virus replication. In most mink, the infection was considered subclinical, for it was usually not accompanied by a rise in serum gamma globulin or by morphologic evidence of the disease. The virologic findings in this study have a bearing on the relationship of subclinical infections to both horizontal and vertical transmission of the virus.

  4. Gode muligheder for høj velfærd hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Mink kan have god velfærd i moderne pelsproduktion. Men gruppeindhusning er problematisk, og der er behov for at overvåge, dokumentere og udvikle velfærden. Det mener forskere ved Aarhus og Københavns universiteter, som arbejder med husdyr og husdyrvelfærd.......Mink kan have god velfærd i moderne pelsproduktion. Men gruppeindhusning er problematisk, og der er behov for at overvåge, dokumentere og udvikle velfærden. Det mener forskere ved Aarhus og Københavns universiteter, som arbejder med husdyr og husdyrvelfærd....

  5. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  6. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: Chris.salice@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79410 (United States); Sample, Bradley E., E-mail: bsample@ecorisk.com [Ecological Risk Inc., Rancho Murieta, CA 95683 (United States); Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A.; Sable, Shaye [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Energy, Coast and Environment Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies. - Highlights: > We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate population-level impacts of PCB contamination. > The model was also used to explore the population responses to different PCB remediation strategies. > Population size had a large impact on whether mink populations persisted or went extinct. > Starting remediation sooner had a stronger positive effect on mink populations than did the rate of PCB clean-up. > Individual-based models are useful in understanding effects of contamination and different remediation strategies. - An individual-based model of mink showed strong population-level effects of PCB contamination and provided insight into optimal PCB remediation strategies.

  7. Value of mink vomit model in study of anti-emetic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhang; Lei Wang; Zhi-Hong Yang; Zhan-Tao Liu; Wang Yue

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a new, reliable vomit model of minks.METHODS: Adult male minks were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=6): cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg)intraperitoneal injection (ip) group, copper sulfate (40mg/kg) intragastric injection (ig) group, apomorphine (1.6 mg/kg) subcutaneous injection (sc) group, and 18Gy whole-body X-irradiation group, ondansetron injection group (2 mg/kg ip) 30 min later followed by cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg) ip, normal saline (NS) ip injection control group, metoclopramide injection group (4 mg/kg ip) 30min later followed by apomorphine (1.6 mg/kg) sc, NS ig control group. The frequency of retching and vomiting was calculated. After behavioral experiment, distribution of 5-HT in the ileum was detected by immunohistologic method.RESULTS: Cisplatin, apomorphine, copper sulfate and X-irradiation administered to minks evoked a profound emetic response in the animals. However, retching and vomiting were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ondansetron and metoclopramide in cisplatin and copper sulfate groups (P=0.018). Immunohistologic result showed that 5-HT released from enterochromaffin cells (EC cells) was involved in vomiting mechanism.CONCLUSION: Mink vomit model has a great value in studying the vomiting mechanism and screening new antiemetic drugs.

  8. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    leukocytter fra inficerede og ikke-inficerede mink ved flowcytometri. Vi fandt et tydeligt cytokinrespons (IFN-g, TNF-a og IL-4) i inficerede mink, selv i mink inficeret med den høj-virulente stamme, der udviklede udtalt immunsuppression med drastisk lymfopeni, forsinket eller udebleven virus neutraliserende...... (VN) antistofproduktion og alvorlig klinisk sygdom.  Den danske DK91 vildtype blev isoleret fra en akut dødelig syg hundehvalp under et hundesygeudbrud blandt den Københavnske hundepopulation i 1991. Både CDV og den nært beslægtede sælpest virus (PDV) har overlappende værtspektrum og har begge...... der registeret endnu et udbrud af sælpest og igen startede epidemien på øen Anholt i Kattegat. Vi udførte fylogenetiske analyser af vildtype virus isoleret direkte fra angrebne landlevende rovdyr (mink, grævling, ilder, husmår og mår) mellem 2000 og 2003 og fra spættede sæler (Phoca vitulina) fra 1988...

  9. Molecular characterization of a novel astrovirus associated with disease in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittelholzer, C.; Hedlund, K.O.; Englund, L.;

    2003-01-01

    , containing sequence motifs for a serine protease (ORF1a) and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (ORF1b). The structural proteins are encoded by ORF2 and, presumably, are expressed as a polyprotein precursor to be cleaved into the mature capsid proteins. These results indicate that mink astrovirus (MiAstV) has...

  10. Hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in mink fed Saginaw Bay carp (SBC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, M.J.; LeCaptain, L.; Rattner, B.A.; Heaton, S.; Aulerich, R.; Tillitt, D.; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from mink fed diets containing 0% (n = 12), 10% (n = 11), 20% (n = 12) and 40% (n = 10) SBC for 6 months contained 0.1, 2.2, 3.6, and 6.3 ug/g total PCBs, respectively. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxy-ROD (ER0D), pentoxy-ROD (PROD), and ethoxycoumarin-OD (ECOD). Mink fed SBC had increased AHH, EROD, and ECOD (group means 2.2-3.4 X control means), decreased BROD and unchanged PROD (the latter 2 assays indicators for phenobarbital-type induction in mammals). Three samples from each group were examined by western blot using a polyclonal anti-P450llB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450lA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Mink fed SBC showed induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450lA (8 X control), but had little protein recognized by anti-P450IlB. The monooxygenase activities and western blot data give a consistent picture of MC-type but not PB-type induction in mink fed SBC.

  11. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  12. Taxonomic status and origin of the Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mónica; Bos, Arthur R; Hoath, Richard; Schembri, Patrick J; Lymberakis, Petros; Cento, Michele; Ghawar, Wissem; Ozkurt, Sakir O; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Merilä, Juha; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) is a small mustelid with a distribution restricted to the lower Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. Traditionally considered a subspecies of the least weasel (M. nivalis), it is currently recognized as a separate species based on morphology. Here we present the first genetic assessment of the taxonomic status of the Egyptian weasel by comparing mitochondrial DNA (Cytochrome b gene and control region) sequences to those of least weasels from the western Palearctic, with a focus on the Mediterranean region. Our results provide no evidence to support the view that the Egyptian weasel is genetically distinct from the least weasel, as we found that, for both Cytochrome b and control region, haplotypes were shared between the two taxa. Specifically, the Cytochrome b and control region haplotypes detected in the Egyptian weasel were also present in M. nivalis from Turkey and Malta, two populations genetically analysed here for the first time. Our results suggest that the Egyptian weasel is distinct from the least weasel populations currently living in the Maghreb, which were inferred to be the result of an earlier colonization of North Africa, but the genetic data alone do not allow us to determine whether the Egyptian weasel is native or introduced. Nevertheless, the observed genetic patterns, together with the weasel fossil record in Israel and the unique commensal lifestyle of the Egyptian weasel, are consistent with the hypothesis that the Egyptian population is a relict of past range expansion from the Levant into Egypt. We suggest that the large size and characteristic sexual dimorphism of the Egyptian weasel are likely to represent ecotypic variation, but genomic studies are required to clarify the extent of its functional genetic divergence.

  13. Inverse nickel-responsive regulation of two urease enzymes in the gastric pathogen Helicobacter mustelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Jeroen; Breijer, Simone; Pot, Raymond G J; van der Neut, Daan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kusters, Johannes G; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2008-10-01

    The acidic gastric environment of mammals can be chronically colonized by pathogenic Helicobacter species, which use the nickel-dependent urea-degrading enzyme urease to confer acid resistance. Nickel availability in the mammal host is low, being mostly restricted to vegetarian dietary sources, and thus Helicobacter species colonizing carnivores may be subjected to episodes of nickel deficiency and associated acid sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate how these Helicobacter species have adapted to the nickel-restricted diet of their carnivorous host. Three carnivore-colonizing Helicobacter species express a second functional urea-degrading urease enzyme (UreA2B2), which functions as adaptation to nickel deficiency. UreA2B2 was not detected in seven other Helicobacter species, and is in Helicobacter mustelae only expressed in nickel-restricted conditions, and its expression was higher in iron-rich conditions. In contrast to the standard urease UreAB, UreA2B2 does not require activation by urease or hydrogenase accessory proteins, which mediate nickel incorporation into these enzymes. Activity of either UreAB or UreA2B2 urease allowed survival of a severe acid shock in the presence of urea, demonstrating a functional role for UreA2B2 in acid resistance. Pathogens often express colonization factors which are adapted to their host. The UreA2B2 urease could represent an example of pathogen adaptation to the specifics of the diet of their carnivorous host, rather than to the host itself.

  14. Antibody-forming cells and serum hemolysin responses of pastel and sapphire mink inoculated with Aleutian disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J

    1973-11-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV.

  15. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    the consequences of operating with several observers. Animal based measures on 9 Danish mink farms were taken in November 2011. Eight observers individually, but in paris on herd level, carried out data collection on the measures involving subjective grading, e.g. mink "activity", "injuries" and "fur......-chewing" on approximately 120 cages with mink per farm. The assessment of the two observers gave similar frequencies of welfare problems and thus similar welfare assessments. The individual problems observed were however, not the same leading to poor or fair, but rarely good inter observer reliability. Despite the skilled...... assessors, the short training was not sufficient to get highly reliable results. No overall difference was found between the inter observer reliability of cages with ≤2 or ≥3 mink in a cage. More training and better training material and, for some measures, observation procedures are needed in order...

  16. Influence of farm, feed-producer and season on incidence of gastrointestinal disorders in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together with the ......The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together...... with the distribution within farms was studied. The period of highest risk was in the months immediately after weaning (July and August). More than 17% of the farms recorded GI disorders among greater than or equal to 10% of pairs of animals. A multilevel statistical analysis showed that besides the effect of time...

  17. Phenozan Influence on the Physiological-Biochemical Parameters of the Young Minks Leading to Their Advanced Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Balakirev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant influence on the physiological-biochemical parameters of productive animals is one of the most important directions in modern animal science. Phenozan is a synthetic antioxidant with high biological activities including those for animals. The positive effects of phenozan on the physiological-biochemical parameters of the mink blood were found. These effects are leading to the intensive growth, strong health, enhancement of the mink fur quality, and so forth. The total amount of the erythrocytes in the mink blood increased by about 4-5% due to phenozan inclusion in the mink diet. Even a more significant increase was found in hemoglobin content in the mink blood and erythrocytes (by about 9.5% and 8.8%, resp. due to phenozan inclusion of 100 mg/day, whereas it was found only by about 6.1–5.3% or 5.5–0.3%, owing to phenozan inclusion of 50 or 150 mg/day. For many other parameters the optimal phenozan concentration was about 100 mg/day per head according to the result obtained for all studied animal groups. Thus, phenozan can be successfully used as a biologically active compound for mink nutrition and is recommended for other farm animals.

  18. Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northern China by PCR-RFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Li, Fa-Cai; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite, affecting a wide range of mammals and human beings. Little information is available about the distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in minks (Neovison vison). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from minks in China. A total of 418 minks brain tissue samples were collected from Jilin and Hebei provinces, northern China. Genomic DNA were extracted and assayed for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. 36 (8.6%) of 418 DNA samples were overall positive for T. gondii. Among them, 5 samples were genotyped at all loci, and 1 sample was genotyped for 9 loci. In total, five samples belong to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype#9, one belong to ToxoDB genotye#3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii in minks in China. Meanwhile, these results revealed a distribution of T. gondii infection in minks in China. These data provided base-line information for controlling T. gondii infection in minks. PMID:27806069

  19. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona;

    or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings......Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 and the second was reported from Canadian mink farms. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish...... mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine...

  20. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high......" in validity, reliability as well as feasibility - the latter both as regards time and economy costs. This paper based on empiric data addressed the questions on needed sample size for a robust herd assessment of animal based measures. The animal based part of the full WelFur protocol including 9 animal based...

  1. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  2. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted;

    2015-01-01

    in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine...... farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both....... The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be important factors in reducing the risk for canine distemper outbreaks....

  3. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted; Andresen, Lars; Aalbæk, Bent

    2017-01-01

    . Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were......Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters...... isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same...

  4. Separating the mink dam from the litter at 7 or 8 weeks after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation.......014). Likewise, the dam calls increased on the separation day, peaking on the first day after separation (D1). The proportion of dams with calls decreased with litter age at separation (P=0.024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after delivery....... Additionally, the amount of dam calls after separation decreased with the litter size (P=0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal motivation. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in studies of the optimal separation age in mink....

  5. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  6. Temperament, stereotypies and anticipatory behaviour as measures of welfare in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W.; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2006-01-01

    as a measure of poor welfare. On this basis, it was interesting to see if the sensitivity to a reward as expressed by the level of anticipatory behaviour of high and low stereotyping mink would clarify the discrepancy between the two classical measures of welfare. Twenty-four of the most stereotyping animals...... and 24 of the non-stereotyping animals were selected and exposed to Pavlovian conditioning with both positive and negative rewards. Their behaviour during anticipation of the reward changed, however, they also showed a great variation and dependence on feeding time as well as stereotypy status. So......A farm mink population of 290 1-year-old wild-coloured females was scanned for stereotyped behaviour in October 2003. At the same time the temperament of the individuals was established with a stick test. Some of the females performed no stereotypies in 54 scans and this fraction of the population...

  7. Spargana in a weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a wild boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk; Seo, Min

    2013-06-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana.

  8. Structure and steroidogenesis of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale.

  9. Improvement on in vitro maturation, fertilization and development of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, M; Tetsuka, M; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2001-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to improve in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of minke whale oocytes. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 10 and 20%) of fetal whale serum (FWS) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation, morphological grade (A or B) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) obtained from prepubertal and adult minke whales. Grade A (> or = 5 layers of cumulus cells) COC collected from the adult whales and cultured in the medium with 20% FWS had a higher (P whales and COC grades were not significantly affected by M-II oocytes. When in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes was performed in the presence of 20% FWS or 0.6% BSA in the fertilization medium, the proportions of sperm penetration and two-pronuclei formation in matured oocytes were not significantly different. Grade A COC cultured in a culture medium supplemented with 10% FWS cleaved at a higher rate (15.4%, P develop to morula (4.2%) compared with that of the oocytes from Grade B COC (2.5% and 0%). Coculture with granulosa cells during in vitro culture did not significantly affect cleavage and development to the morula stage. These results indicate that FWS addition in the maturation medium improved the rate of in vitro maturation and cleavage after insemination of minke whale oocytes. The BSA supplementation in fertilization medium was as effective as FWS supplementation for in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes. In vitro embryo production beyond the morula stage of minke whale oocytes could be possible, if Grade A COC was selected and cultured in the maturation medium supplemented with 10% or 20% FWS.

  10. The identification, typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jing; Li, Lulu; Du, Yijun; Wang, Shourong; Wang, Jinwen; Luo, Yanbo; Che, Jie; Lu, Jinxing; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Li, Jixia; Gong, Yanwen; Wang, Guisheng; Hu, Ming; Shiganyan; Liu, Yuqing

    2014-06-04

    The biological characteristics and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with mink hemorrhagic pneumonia from Shandong province of eastern China were determined in this study. From 2010 to 2011, 30 mink P. aeruginosa isolates were identified from lung, fecal and feed samples of clinical cases and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. The P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to four serotypes-21 of type G, four of type I, three of type M, one of type B, and one non-typable strain. The strains were divided into four large groups as determined by PFGE. Isolates from the group 2 were highly homologous and were obtained from the same region as an epidemic. All of the isolates were sensitive to piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin and resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime and cefuroxime axetil. A high frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.7%). Resistance to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was less common (13.3%). There was no relationship between antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of the isolates. The epidemic serotype of P. aeruginosa from the mink hemorrhagic pneumonia in Shandong province was type G, which was a clone of commonly found in this province. These findings reveal the genetic similarities and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of P. aeruginosa from clinical cases of mink hemorrhagic pneumonia and will facilitate the prevention and control of the disease in Shandong province of China.

  11. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  12. Cellular and humoral antibody responses of normal pastel and sapphire mink to goat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J; Munoz, J J

    1971-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10(6) cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE.

  13. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  14. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent; Pertoldi, Cino; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2015-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life.

  15. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with...

  16. Experimental Infection of Mink Enforces the Role of Arcanobacterium phocae as Causative Agent of Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP) is a severe, often lethal infectious disease affecting all three fur animal species: mink (Neovision vision), foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Previous studies showed an association between Arcanobacterium phocae and FENP. An experimental infection was conducted to confirm the ability of A. phocae to infect mink either alone or concurrently with a novel Streptococcus sp. found together with A. phocae in many cases of FENP. Different inoculation methods were tested to study possible routes of transmission. Typical signs, and gross- and histopathological findings for FENP were detected when naïve mink were infected with the tissue extract of mink with FENP, using a subcutaneous/ intradermal infection route. Edema, hemorrhage, necrosis and pus formation were detected in the infection site. A pure culture preparation of A. phocae alone or concurrently with the novel Streptococcus sp. caused severe acute signs of lethargy, apathy and anorexia and even mortality. The histopathological findings were similar to those found in naturally occurring cases of FENP. In contrast, the perorally infected mink presented no clinical signs nor any gross- or histopathological lesions. This study showed that A. phocae is able to cause FENP. The study also indicated that predisposing factors such as the environment, the general condition of the animals, temperature and skin trauma contribute to the development of the disease. PMID:27973532

  17. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four...... principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...... to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish...

  18. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhui Cao

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a “phiKMV-Like” Bacteriophage and Its Therapeutic Effect on Mink Hemorrhagic Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D.; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the “phiKMV-like Viruses” group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization. PMID:25615639

  20. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  1. A fast and robust method for whole genome sequencing of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Krarup, Anders; Fahnøe, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    have focused on limited regions of the viral genome. This paper describes a robust, reliable, and fast protocol for amplification of the full AMDV genome using long-range PCR. The method was used to generate next generation sequencing data for the non-virulent cell-culture adapted AMDV-G strain as well......Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with commercial mink breeding. AMDV infection leads to increased mortality and compromised animal health and welfare. Currently little is known about the molecular evolution of the virus, and the few existing studies...

  2. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  3. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.;

    2000-01-01

    digestibility could be predicted from combining the two reference quality parameters oil and ash with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. The best spectroscopic calibration models on the mink digestibility resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and a prediction error of 0.5 using the near......-infrared spectral ensemble and a correlation coefficient of 0.92 and a prediction error of 0.5 using the fluorescence spectral ensemble. In addition, the seven reference quality parameters could be predicted from the spectroscopic ensembles with good precision. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry....

  4. Flow-cytometric determination of genotoxic effects of exposure to petroleum in mink and sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, J.W.; Mazet, J.A.; Blake, J.; Smolen, M.J.; Lou, Y.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the genotoxic effects of crude oil on mink and sea otters, In the first experiment, the effects on mink of chronic exposure to weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil were studied, Female mink were fed a diet that included weathered crude oil for a period of 3 weeks prior to mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. Kits were exposed through lactation and by diet after weaning until 4 months of age. Kidney and liver tissues of the kits were examined using flow cytometry (FCM) and it was found that the genome size was increased in kidney samples from the experimental group compared to the control group. This effect was probably due to some type of DNA amplification and it could have been inherited from the exposed mothers or have been a somatic response to oil exposure in the pups, No evidence of clastogenic effects, as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the G(1) peak, was found in kidney or liver tissue. In the second experiment, yearling female mink were exposed either by diet or externally to crude oil or bunker C fuel oil. Evidence for clastogenic damage was found in spleen tissue for the exposure groups, but not in kidney tissue. No evidence of increased genome size was observed. In the third experiment, blood was obtained from wild-caught sea otters in Prince William Sound. The sea otters represented two populations: one from western Prince William Sound that was potentially exposed to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a reference population from eastern Prince William Sound that did not receive oil from the spill. The spill had occurred 1.5 years prior to obtaining the blood samples. Although the mean CVs did not differ between the populations, the exposed population had a significantly higher variance of CV measurements and five out of 15 animals from the exposed population had CVs higher than the 95% confidence limits of the reference population, It is concluded that FCM is a sensitive indicator

  5. A multilocus evaluation of ermine (Mustela erminea) across the Holarctic, testing hypotheses of Pleistocene diversification in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Natalie G.; Hope, Andrew G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We examined data for ermine (Mustela erminea) to test two sets of diversification hypotheses concerning the number and location of late Pleistocene refugia, the timing and mode of diversification, and the evolutionary influence of insularization. Location: Temperate and sub-Arctic Northern Hemisphere. Methods: We used up to two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci from 237 specimens for statistical phylogeographical and demographic analyses. Coalescent species-tree estimation used a Bayesian approach for clade divergence based on external mutation rate calibrations. Approximate Bayesian methods were used to assess population size, timing of divergence and gene flow. Results: Limited structure coupled with evidence of population growth across broad regions, including previously ice-covered areas, indicated expansion from multiple centres of differentiation, but high endemism along the North Pacific coast (NPC). A bifurcating model of diversification with recent growth spanning three glacial cycles best explained the empirical data. Main conclusions: A newly identified clade in North America indicated a fourth refugial area for ermine. The shallow coalescence of all extant ermine reflects a recent history of diversification overlying a deeper fossil record. Post-glacial colonization has led to potential contact zones for multiple lineages in north-western North America. A model of diversification of ermine accompanied by recent gene flow was marginally less well supported than a model of divergence of major clades in response to the most recent glacial cycles.

  6. Recombinant F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against virulent Yersinia pestis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Mencher, J.; Smith, S.R.; Friedlander, A.M.; Andrews, G.P.; Baeten, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are highly susceptible to sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, and this disease has severely hampered efforts to restore ferrets to their historic range. A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of vaccination of black-footed ferrets against plague using a recombinant protein vaccine, designated F1-V, developed by personnel at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Seven postreproductive black-footed ferrets were immunized with the vaccine, followed by two booster immunizations on days 23 and 154; three control black-footed ferrets received a placebo. After the second immunization, antibody titers to both F1 and V antigen were found to be significantly higher in vaccinates than controls. On challenge with 7,800 colony-forming units of virulent plague by s.c. injection, the three control animals died within 3 days, but six of seven vaccinates survived with no ill effects. The seventh vaccinate died on day 8. These results indicate that black-footed ferrets can be immunized against plague induced by the s.c. route, similar to fleabite injection.

  7. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    Levels of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) were determined in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic region and the North Sea. The sample consisted of muscle tissue from 135 minke whales caught in 1998 in 7 different areas: West Greenland, n = 44; East...... caesium concentration in minke whales from the North Sea is in accordance with previous findings that Cs-137 levels in the marine environment of the North Atlantic region decrease with increasing distance from major point sources (i.e. nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in the UK and France, and outflow...

  8. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt;

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Ameri......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3...... and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some...

  9. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  10. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj;

    2013-01-01

    the season of feed restriction, the wear/tear of biting ropes increased. Females on the chunky diet had a higher concentration of faecal cortisol metabolites (P = 0.033), probably due to a more severe slimming resulting in a 6.2% lower body weight (P = 0.006) than the mink on the finely ground diet; still...

  11. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings and old (3-5 years of age minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml. We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a reduction in basal progesterone release and (b alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I.

  12. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-21

    The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I.

  13. Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Minke whales were recorded in the central North Sea in an area characterised by frontal features and high productivity northeast of the Dogger Bank (4677 km2). Survey efforts were carried out from 28 March to 2 July 2007, at a finer scale than in earlier studies in the region, using 2 vessels as pla

  14. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P.J.; Lam, F.P.A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P.L.; Harris, C.M.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without

  15. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  16. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  17. Mink aging is associated with a reduction in ovarian hormone release and the response to FSH and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karina; Lauričik, Jozef; Morovič, Martin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-09-15

    The endocrine mechanisms of mink ovarian hormones release and reproductive aging are poorly investigated. The aims of our study were to: (1) identify hormones produced by mink ovaries (the steroids progesterone [P] and estradiol [E], the peptide hormone oxytocin [OT], and the prostaglandin F [PGF] and prostaglandin E [PGE]); (2) examine the effect of FSH and ghrelin on the release of the hormones listed previously; and (3) understand whether these hormones can be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging, i.e., whether aging can be associated with changes (a) in the basal release of P, E, OT, PGF, or PGE and (b) their response to FSH and ghrelin. Fragments of ovaries of young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks were cultured with and without FSH and ghrelin (0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL), and the release of hormones was analyzed by EIA/RIA. We found that isolated ovaries were able to release P, E, OT, PGF, and PGE, and the levels of P produced in the ovaries of old animals were lower than those produced in the ovaries of young animals, whereas the levels of other hormones did not differ. FSH was able to stimulate P and E and suppress OT and PGF and did not affect PGE release. Aging was associated with the inhibition of the effect of FSH on ovarian P and E, the appearance of the inhibitory action of FSH on OT, and the disappearance of this action on ovarian PGF. PGE was not affected by FSH, irrespective of animal age. Ghrelin was able to promote E (but not P) and suppress OT, PGF, and PGE output. Aging was associated with the appearance of an inhibitory influence of ghrelin on ovarian OT and PGE and with the disappearance of this influence on PGF output. Aging did not affect the action of ghrelin on ovarian P and E. Our observations (1) confirm the production of P and E and show that OT, PGF, and PGE are released from mink ovaries, (2) confirm the involvement of FSH and demonstrate the involvement of ghrelin in the control of mink ovarian hormone

  18. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Socha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license evaluation were obtained by males in majority of the traits. Statistic analysis of body weight showed that the highest body weight characterized males of platinum and white Hedlunda colour types. Minks of standard and pastel colour types were characterised by lower body weight. The mean body weight of males was 2581.17g and of females 1401.42g (there is a clear sexual dimorphism in minks. Minks of white Hedlunda colour type were characterised by the highest means of colour purity, both males and females. Other colour types obtained lower means. The best fur quality characterised platinum minks. Variability of traits, measured by variability coefficient, had the highest values in animal weight (in grams and ranged from 6.0 to 32.0%. Variability of total number of scores ranged from 2.00 to 8.20%. Positive phenotypic correlations were the highest between body size (in points and total number of scores (0.676, while the lowest were obtained between body size (in points and fur quality (–0.178.

  19. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Primi dati sull'uso dello spazio e sui ritmi di attività della donnola Mustela nivalis in Italia centrale

    OpenAIRE

    C. Magrini; Francesco Maria Angelici; Luigi Boitani; Manzo, E.; L. Zapponi

    2003-01-01

    La donnola Mustela nivalis, è il più piccolo carnivoro conosciuto. È distribuita in Italia su tutta la penisola fino ai 2000 m di quota e sulle isole maggiori, e, benché sia una specie largamente diffusa anche in ambienti antropizzati, pochi sono gli studi di campo condotti in Italia, che ne mettano in luce presenza, densità, ecologia di base (dieta, uso dello spazio e dell'habitat), e genetica. La presente ricerca avviata nel gennaio 2003, prevede una raccolta di dati m...

  1. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    OpenAIRE

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor...

  2. Effects of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine supplementation on hair growth and pelt quality in mink (Neovision vision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H H; Jiang, Q K; Sun, W L; Xu, C; Cong, B; Yang, F H; Li, G Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) from September to December. Skin biopsies were taken at the pelting. Histological techniques and computer-assisted light microscopy were used to determine the ratio of activity (ROA) of under hairs and guard hairs respectively. The results showed that when the dietary protein level reduced from 32% to 16%, body length, number and diameter of under hairs and guard hairs of minks declined, and pelt length and pelt weight of minks decreased significantly (p  0.05). The hair follicle density of the winter coat was not influenced by the dietary protein levels and Met supplementation (p > 0.05). Low-protein diets content led to a reduction of hair follicle developing to next phase. It was documented that 24% crude protein of DM with Met supplementation during growing-furring period was sufficient for minks to express their genetic capacity to develop hair follicles and achieve the prime fur characteristics. Overall this study demonstrated that hair growth and hair properties in pelts are very dependent on the dietary protein and Met supply in the growing-furring period of minks.

  3. Genetic variation in litter size and kit survival of mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B K; Su, G; Berg, P

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate variance components of litter size and kit survival rate and estimate genetic correlations of litter size and kit survival rate with dam's juvenile body weight and pregnancy length. Variance components for litter size and kit survival were analysed using an AI......-REML approach, based on data from 1940 litters of the black colour type mink from 1996 to 2001. The models included (i) additive genetic effect of dam; (ii) dam and sire genetic effects; (iii) additive genetic effect of dam in relation to litter size and dam and sire genetic effects in relation to survival rate......; (iv) additive genetic effect of dam to estimate the correlations of litter size or kit survival with dam juvenile body weight and pregnancy length on yearling dams (1357 litters). The dam heritabilities were of litter size (0.02-0.08) and survival rate (0.05-0.10). The permanent effects of dam were...

  4. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cycle...... with subthreshold levels of ADV products through the late S/G(2) block and, consequently, that the binary pattern of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest may be governed merely by viral replication levels within a single S phase. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide fluorescence and bromodeoxyuridine uptake showed...... that population A cells sustained significantly higher levels of DNA replication than population B cells during the ADV-induced cell cycle arrest. Therefore, the type of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest was not trivial and could have implications for subsequent viral replication in the target cell....

  5. Farmers’ perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore farmers' perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare. Stable schools are knowledge exchange between farmers working towards a common goal, being able to give practical advice to each other. The concept is based...... the group. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the farmers to evaluate their perception of stable schools. Based on the results from the study, and results from other studies of stable schools, we can conclude that farmers generally are positive to the structural way of working in stable schools...... therefore established two stable schools with farmers from five Danish mink farms in each group. The meetings were on the respective farms, and every farm was visited once within a year. The host-farmer presented one success story and two challenges he/she wanted to work with and get contributions to from...

  6. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    of Denmark. However, re-infections and new introductions of virus into farms require a confirmatory virological test to verify the positive test results of single animals and ultimately to investigate disease transmission. A one step PCR amplifying a 374-base fragment of the NS1 gene of AMDV was compared...... to the counter-current immune electrophoresis (CIE) routinely used in the serological screening programme. Mink organs (n = 299) obtained from 55 recently infected farms and 8 non-infected farms from 2008 to 2010 were tested by PCR, and the results were found to have a high correlation with the serological...... status of the mink. The relative diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 94.7%, and the relative diagnostic specificity was 97.9% when read in parallel with the CIE. PCR positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed high similarity within the analysed AMDV strains and to AMDV strains...

  7. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W;

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel......Fur protocols after two years of developmental work. Reviews for each of the 12 WQ welfare criteria were written for foxes and mink to identify the welfare measures that have been used in scientific studies. The reviews formed the basis for potential measures to be included in the WelFur protocols. All measures...... which the welfare of animals on European fur farms can be assessed....

  8. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) and evaluation of maternal care: nest building, in-nest temperature, plus kit-retrieval behaviour, kit mortality and growth day 0–7 postpartum. We document that mated mink females build and maintain a nest at least 1 month prior to delivery when transferred...... vitality from early moved females. In conclusion, transfer into the maternity unit early after mating, rather than later during the pregnancy period, reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink....

  9. Circadian photosensitive phase and photoperiodic control of testis activity in the mink, a short-day mammal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissin-Agasse, L.; Boissin, J.; Ortavant, R.

    1982-02-01

    Evidence of a circadian photosensitive phase in male mink, whose annual reproductive cycle is characterized by the recrudescence of testicular development in autumn, was based on the study of testicular response after interrupting the dark period by light breaks offered at various times. In this mammal, the experimental short days 4L:20D and 8L:16D stimulated testicular growth. Short photoperiods, including a main light period of 3.5 h and an additional 0.5 h light break 7.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, were as effective as 8L:16D in stimulating testicular development. On the other hand, when a 0.5 h light break occurred 11.5 or 15.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, the same inhibiting effect on testicular activity was obtained as for long photoperiods. However, when 0.5 h light breaks were given 19.5 after the beginning of the main light period, some minks recognized, as, the onset of the shorter of the two light periods offered. Thus our results proved the existence of a special phase in the day cycle in which light inhibited testicular development in the mink which appears to be a short-day animal. One explanation of the difference between long-day and short-day animals would be the following: if for long-day animals exposure to light during the photosensitive phase led to gonadostimulation, in short-day mammals, like mink, it exerted an inhibiting influence on testicular growth.

  10. Effect of HMB and 2-Ox administered during pregnancy on bone properties in primiparous and multiparous minks (Neivison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.

  11. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Sivle, L D; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P. J.; Lam, F. P. A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P. L.; Harris, C M; P. J. O. Miller

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without sonar transmis-sions, playbacks of killer whale vocalizations, and broadband noise were conducted as controls. Behavioural parameters such as horizontal movement, diving, social interactions, and v...

  12. Analysis of the vp2 gene sequence of a new mutated mink enteritis parvovirus strain in PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wenyu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mink enteritis virus (MEV causes a highly contagious viral disease of mink with a worldwide distribution. MEV has a linear, single-stranded, negative-sense DNA with a genome length of approximately 5,000 bp. The VP2 protein is the major structural protein of the parvovirus encoded by the vp2 gene. VP2 is highly antigenic and plays important roles in determining viral host ranges and tissue tropisms. This study describes the bionomics and vp2 gene analysis of a mutated strain, MEV-DL, which was isolated recently in China and outlines its homologous relationships with other selected strains registered in Genbank. Results The MEV-DL strain can infect F81 cells with cytopathic effects. Pig erythrocytes were agglutinated by the MEV-DL strain. The generation of MEV-DL in F81 cells could infect mink within three months and cause a disease that was similar to that caused by wild-type MEV. A comparative analysis of the vp2 gene nucleotide (nt sequence of MEV-DL showed that this was more than 99% homologous with other mink enteritis parvoviruses in Genbank. However, the nucleotide residues at positions 1,065 and 1,238 in the MEV-DL strain of the vp2 gene differed from those of all the other MEV strains described previously. It is noteworthy that the mutation at the nucleotide residues position 1,238 led to Asp/Gly replacement. This may lead to structural changes. A phylogenetic tree and sequence distance table were obtained, which showed that the MEV-DL and ZYL-1 strains had the closest inheritance distance. Conclusions A new variation of the vp2 gene exists in the MEV-DL strain, which may lead to structural changes of the VP2 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MEV-DL may originate from the ZYL-1 strain in DaLian.

  13. Evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the Siberian polecate (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.; Innes, Kim; Taylor, Bobbi; Garell, Della

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the safety and efficacy of an experimental canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) subunit vaccine in the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni), a close relative of the black-footed ferret, (M. nigripes), an endangered species that is highly susceptible to the virus. Siberian polecats were randomized into six treatment groups. Recombinant canine distemper vaccine was administered s.c. at three dose levels (104.5, 105.0, and 105.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per dose) and was administered orally by spraying the vaccine into the oropharnyx at two dose levels (105.5, 108.0 PFU per dose). The sixth group of control animals was not vaccinated. For both routes of administration, two 1-ml doses of reconstituted vaccine were delivered 4 wk apart, followed by live virus challenge 3 wk after the second vaccination. During the challenge, Synder Hill test strain CDV obtained from the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, was administered i.p. Serial blood samples for CDV serology were collected immediately before vaccination and challenge, and 10, 15, and 20 days after challenge. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded up to 32 days after challenge. The survival rate in animals receiving vaccine at the highest oral dose (108.0 PFU per dose) was 83.3%. Survival rate was 50.0% in the high s.c. and 60.0% in the medium s.c. groups. All animals in the low–s.c. dose, low–oral dose, and control groups died after exposure. Vaccine dose overall (oral and s.c.) and dose in response to s.c. administration when considered alone were significant predictors of survival (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04, respectively). Among the polecats challenged with virulent virus, those that died became sick sooner than those that survived. Animals that died lost significantly more weight during the 10 days after challenge than did animals that survived (P = 0.02). Survival rates did not differ by sex, founder female status, or breeding pedigree in any of

  14. Comparative ultrastructural and functional studies of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae flagellin mutants: both flagellin subunits, FlaA and FlaB, are necessary for full motility in Helicobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josenhans, C; Labigne, A; Suerbaum, S

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter mustelae causes chronic gastritis and ulcer disease in ferrets. It is therefore considered an important animal model of human Helicobacter pylori infection. High motility even in a viscous environment is one of the common virulence determinants of Helicobacter species. Their sheathed flagella contain a complex filament that is composed of two distinctly different flagellin subunits, FlaA and FlaB, that are coexpressed in different amounts. Here, we report the cloning and sequence determination of the flaA gene of H. mustelae NCTC12032 from a PCR amplification product. The FlaA protein has a calculated molecular mass of 53 kDa and is 73% homologous to the H. pylori FlaA subunit. Isogenic flaA and flaB mutants of H. mustelae F1 were constructed by means of reverse genetics. A method was established to generate double mutants (flaA flaB) of H. mustelae F1 as well as H. pylori N6. Genotypes, motility properties, and morphologies of the H. mustelae flagellin mutants were determined and compared with those of the H. pylori flaA and flaB mutants described previously. The flagellar organizations of the two Helicobacter species proved to be highly similar. When the flaB genes were disrupted, motility decreased by 30 to 40%. flaA mutants retained weak motility by comparison with strains that were devoid of both flagellin subunits. Weakly positive motility tests of the flaA mutants correlated with the existence of short truncated flagella. In H. mustelae, lateral as well as polar flagella were present in the truncated form. flaA flaB double mutants were completely nonmotile and lacked any form of flagella. These results show that the presence of both flagellin subunits is necessary for complete motility of Helicobacter species. The importance of this flagellar organization for the ability of the bacteria to colonize the gastric mucosa and to persist in the gastric mucus remains to be proven. PMID:7768796

  15. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition.

  16. Protein sequence evidence for monophyly of the carnivore families Procyonidae and Mustelidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W W

    1986-05-01

    The amino acid sequence of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin A of the ring-tailed cat, Bassariscus astutus, has been determined. The sequence of the Bassariscus alpha A chain, which is 173 residues long, was compared with the previously determined set of 41 mammalian alpha A sequences. Among the investigated carnivores (dog, cat, sloth bear, American mink, gray seal, and California sea lion) the Bassariscus alpha A sequence exclusively shares two amino acid replacements with the alpha A chain of the mink, Mustela vison: 7 His----Gln and 61 Ile----Val. The Mustela and Bassariscus alpha A sequences differ at only three positions and have no replacements in common with any of the other investigated carnivore alpha A chains. Furthermore, the replacement 7 His----Gln has only been found in three-toed sloth, whereas 61 Ile----Val occurs scattered in three other taxa: pig, rhinoceros, and prosimians. It thus is most parsimonious to join Bassariscus and Mustela--and consequently their respective families, Procyonidae and Mustelidae--as sister groups in the phylogenetic tree of mammalian alpha A sequences.

  17. Areolae of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2014-03-07

    In this study, we examined the existence and structure of areolae and the steroidogenesis of areolar trophoblast cells in the Antarctic minke whale placenta morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. The opening and cavity of fetal areolae formed by taller columnar trophoblast cells (areolar trophoblast cells) with long microvilli and a bright cytoplasm, as compared with the trophoblast cells of the chorionic villi interdigitating with the endometrial crypts, were recognized in observations of serial sections. The opening of the areolar cavity was hidden by chorionic villi with areolar trophoblast cells. Furthermore, a closed pouch-like structure lined by tall columnar cells similar to areolar trophoblast cells within the stroma of chorionic villi was noticed and continued to the areolar cavity, with the opening seen on serial sections. In a surface investigation of the chorion and endometrium by SEM, maternal (endometrial) areolae irregularly surrounded by endometrial folds were obvious. Moreover, we distinguished areolar trophoblast cells with long microvilli attached with many blebs from trophoblast cells. In our immunohistochemical observations, a steroidogenic enzyme, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), was detected with strong immunoreactivity in trophoblast cells. However, areolar trophoblast cells showed weak or no immunoreactivity for P450scc.

  18. Complex cytokine modulation of a continuous line of mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J; Baldor, L; Absher, M

    1992-01-01

    The continuous mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu has proven to be a sensitive reporter line in the bioassay for purified TGF-beta, exhibiting a sigmoid-shaped concentration-response relationship with an EC50 of 12 pM (0.3 ng/mL). Maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu cells generates a 75-95% decrement in the number of adherent cells. However, this bioassay is not specific for TGF-beta as originally claimed. Mv1Lu cells are sensitive to other cytokines and substances found in complex biological fluids. In this study the effects of other biological response modifiers in this assay were tested and several were found to have important growth modulatory capacities that confound the quantitation of TGF-beta. EGF, TGF-alpha, fibronectin, and IGF-I all induce Mv1Lu cell proliferation. In contrast, neither PDGF (-AA, -AB, -BB) nor endotoxin ( or = 10 ng/mL) are the only cytokines examined that inhibit Mv1Lu proliferation. TGF-beta decreases final cell number both by preventing mitosis and by inhibition of adherence of cells to the uncoated dish. Several strategies are suggested to assure the specificity of this otherwise convenient bioassay for TGF-beta.

  19. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology.

  20. Effect of low-protein diet with supplementing different levels of DL-methionine on production performance of minks in growing-furring period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-hua; LI Guang-yu; XING Xiu-mei; REN Er-jun; YANG Ying; YANG Fu-he

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate production performance of minks in growing-furring period with supplementing DL-Methionine (Met) in low protein diet.Seventy healthy male minks were randomly divided into five groups of 14 minks each.The minks were fed in five kinds of experiment diets (HP,LP,LP+M1,LP+M2 and LP+M3).The dietary protein levels,expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM),were 32% (high protein,HP) and 24% (low protein,LP).LP was supplemented with Met 0.4% (M1),0.8% (M2) and 1.2% (M3) DM.From mid of September to December 10,apparent digestibility of CP (crude protein),N intake and urinary N excretion were decreased with declining dietary protein levels (p < 0.05) and N retained was the highest in treatment LP+M2.No significant difference was found in total serum protein (TP) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) among all treatment groups (p >0.05).Skin length of treatment HP and LP+M2 was higher than that of other groups (p < 0.05):Body length,skin weight,length of guard hair and under hair were not affected by different dietary protein levels (p>0.05).The best performance could be observed in treatment LP+M2.In diet,24% (DM) protein level with 1.54% Met supplementing was enough for minks during growing-timing period.Dietary protein lowered from 32% to 24% with supplementing Met in diets would result in a 37.9% decrease in urinary N excretion.Furthermore,addition of Met in diets for minks would be beneficial in terms of reducing feed expenses and lessening nitrogen emissions to the environment.

  1. The feasibility of assessing the diets of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea through fatty acid composition in blubber and stable isotopic ratio of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ah-Ra; Ju, Se-Jong; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    To track the diet of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), a conjoint analysis of fatty acids and C and N stable isotopes was performed on blubber and skin from the whale and its potential prey. The total lipid content in the blubber of minke whales ranged from 37.9% to 82.7% of wet mass (mean ± SD, 63.1 ± 17.2%), with triacylglycerols being the dominant lipids (96.9%-99.2% of total lipids). The lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents were systematically stratified throughout the depth of the blubber layers; contents of the dominant monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), including 18:1ω9 and 16:1ω7, increased from the innermost layer to the outermost layer, whereas contents of saturated FAs (SFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were higher in the innermost layer than in the outermost layer. This stratification is related to the different physiological roles of the blubber layers; e.g., thermoregulation, streaming, and buoyancy. A comparison of the FA compositions of the innermost layer of minke whales with those of potential prey indicates that FA compositions in the whales are similar to those of Pacific herring. In addition, stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) suggest that minke whale and Pacific herring have the same or similar diets. Therefore, the diets of minke whale from the East Sea (Japan Sea) could be inferred from information on the diet of the Pacific herring, although FA compositions and stable isotope ratios for Pacific herring would not exactly reflect the whale's diet. Although the very limited number of samples was used in this study, our preliminary findings are very promising to help understand the feeding ecology of minke whales in the East Sea (Japan Sea).

  2. Comparative ultrastructural and functional studies of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae flagellin mutants: both flagellin subunits, FlaA and FlaB, are necessary for full motility in Helicobacter species.

    OpenAIRE

    Josenhans, C; Labigne, A; Suerbaum, S

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter mustelae causes chronic gastritis and ulcer disease in ferrets. It is therefore considered an important animal model of human Helicobacter pylori infection. High motility even in a viscous environment is one of the common virulence determinants of Helicobacter species. Their sheathed flagella contain a complex filament that is composed of two distinctly different flagellin subunits, FlaA and FlaB, that are coexpressed in different amounts. Here, we report the cloning and sequence...

  3. An outline of the Antarctic minke whale assessment cruise (IWC/IDCR) in 1978/79 to 1980/81

    OpenAIRE

    Hidehiro, Kato

    1982-01-01

    Since the 1978/79 Antarctic whaling season, extensive and systematic whale sightings and marking cruises on the Antarctic minke whales have been carried out under the International Whaling Commission/International Decade of Cetacean Research (IWC/IDCR) programme. The programme was carried out in the Southern Hemisphere Whaling Areas (for baleen whales) IV (70°-130°E), III (0°-70°E) and V (130°E-170°W) during the Antarctic summer season in 1978/79,1979/80 and 1980/81,respectively. The total nu...

  4. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...... proteins formed hollow intranuclear shells around the inclusions. Later, nuclei had irregular outlines and were virtually free of ADV products. In these cells, inclusions of viral DNA with or without associated NS protein were embedded in cytoplasmic VP protein. These findings implied that ADV replication...

  5. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors acting...

  6. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    dying and kits growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors...

  7. A re-assigned American mink (Neovison vison) map optimal for genome-wide studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Nielsen, Vivi; Markakis, Marios Nektarius;

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library, have been genotyped in a two generation population composed of 1200 individuals. The outcome reassigns the position of some markers on the chromosomes and it produces a more reliable map with a convenient distance between markers. A total of 104 markers mapped......M and an average inter-marker interval of 13.3cM. The study is complemented with additional anchorage for most of the chromosomes of the map by BAC in situ hybridization with clones containing microsatellites strategically selected from the various parts of the genome. This map provides an improved tool...

  8. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  9. Genetic parameters and effect of selection for body weight in lines of mink (Neovion vison) on ad libitum and restricted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Bente Krog;

    2012-01-01

    .60 in females in the FF-, AL-, and RF-line). The results indicate that selection on AL feeding increased appetite and thereby improved feed conversion ratio while selection on RF improved feed utilization. Furthermore, the results suggest that selection for August weight produces lean mink while selection...

  10. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, Tina

    2014-01-01

    that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal...

  11. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exp...

  12. Comparison of histological lesions in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.;

    2013-01-01

    culture of E. coli were examined. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue obtained from the mink was examined by histology and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). It was possible to detect a slight histological difference between hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and by E. coli...

  13. Effects of cryodevice type and donors' sexual maturity on vitrification of minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Megumi; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Kuwayama, Masashige; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka

    2004-11-01

    Germinal-vesicle-stage oocytes enclosed with compact cumulus cell layers (COCs) were recovered from adult or prepubertal minke whale ovaries, and were vitrified in a solution containing 15% ethylene glycol, 15% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose using either a Cryotop or an open-pulled straw (OPS) as the cryodevice. The post-warm COCs with normal morphology were cultured for 40 h in a 390 mosmol in vitro maturation medium, and oocytes extruding the first polar body were considered to be matured. The proportion of morphologically normal COCs after vitrification and warming was higher when the COCs were cryopreserved by Cryotop (adult origin, 88.4%; prepubertal origin, 80.8%) compared with the OPS (adult origin, 67.7%; prepubertal origin, 64.2%). The oocyte maturation rate was higher in the adult/Cryotop group (29.1%) compared with those of the prepubertal/Cryotop group (14.4%), the adult/OPS group (14.3%) and the prepubertal/OPS group (10.6%). These results indicate that the Cryotop is a better device than the OPS for vitrification of immature oocytes from adult minke whales.

  14. Morphology of the tracheobronchial tree and the route of the pulmonary artery in the fetal minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, M Y

    1998-12-01

    Molecular and statistical studies support the close phylogenetic relation between Cetacea and Artiodactyla. The presence of the tracheal bronchus has been pointed out as one of the common traits between only these groups. Nakakuki (1980) has investigated the mammalian tracheobronchial trees in 50 species based on his new nomenclature, and his study has consequently demonstrated the above-mentioned indication. Therefore, comparative anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree based on the nomenclature seems to be useful for investigations of the cetacean phylogeny. Three pairs of fetal lungs of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were supplied from the Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo (1991) to observe their tracheobronchial trees and the ramification of the pulmonary artery. The fetal tracheobronchial tree consisted of one tracheal, four lateral, four dorsal and one medial secondary bronchi in the right lung, and five or six lateral and four or five dorsal secondary bronchi in the left, using the new nomenclature. The right pulmonary artery crossed the right axial bronchus from the ventral side to the dorsal over the third lateral bronchus. The tracheal bronchus in the fetal minke whale seems to belong to the type II of Nakakuki's nomenclature, and this type is seen in one species of the river dolphins. The other conspicuous traits of the fetal lungs are the defect of the second lateral broncus and the route of the pulmonary artery in the right side. This route is very different from that of many other mammals.

  15. Phenotypic similarity of transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Bessen, Richard A

    2007-12-01

    Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.

  16. Identification Method of Commercially Available Imitation Mink Fur%市售仿水貂毛皮的鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 袁玉平; 姜苏杰

    2014-01-01

    As mink fur has high economic value, it is often appeared that commercially available fur is counterfeited with weasel , beaver (Castor) and muskrat (Qing Gendiao) fur, which is very difficult for consumers even professionals to distinguish through the senses. In this paper, by means of modern analysis instruments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe scale characteristics of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur;the fiber fineness instrument (FFI) was used to observe internal ultrastructure of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur. The results showed that: scanning electron microscope analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and beaver fur, mink and muskrat fur;but as the weasel and mink belong to the same carnivores Mustelidae, the downy flake morphology were basically the same, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. The fiber fineness instrument analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and weasel fur, mink and beaver fur;but the mink and muskrat villous morphology were partly consistent, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. Therefore, in the actual identification process, the two kinds of methods are corroborated each other, which can be used as the material basis for the identification of mink fur.%水貂毛皮具有很高的经济价值,市售毛皮产品中经常出现以黄狼(黄鼠狼)、河狸(海狸)、麝鼠(青根貂)毛皮来仿冒水貂毛皮的现象,令普通消费者甚至专业人士很难通过感官区分。本文借助现代分析仪器,利用扫描电镜法(SEM)观察水貂、黄狼、河狸、麝鼠毛皮绒毛的鳞片层特征;利用纤维细度仪法(FFI)观察这四种动物毛皮绒毛的内部超微结构。结果表明:通过扫描电镜分析可以有效区分水貂与河狸、水貂与麝鼠的毛皮,但由于黄狼和水貂均属于食肉目鼬科,其绒毛的鳞片形态基本一致,无法被有效区分;通过纤维细度仪分析可

  17. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C

    2014-09-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor agreement and correlation with the laboratory analyzer (bias, -0.13 mmol/L; level of agreement, -2.0 to 3.6 mmol/L, concordance correlation coefficient 0.665). The relative sensitivity and specificity of the portable blood glucometer for detection of hypoglycemia were 100% (95% CI: 66% to 100%) and 50% (95% CI: 20% to 80%), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 67% (95% CI: 39% to 87%) and 100% (95% CI: 46% to 100%), respectively. Based on these results, clinicians are advised to be cautious when considering the results from this handheld glucometer in pet ferrets, and blood glucose concentrations should be determined with a laboratory analyzer validated for this species.

  18. Vaccination with F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against plague upon oral challenge with Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.; Marinari, Paul E.; Kreeger, J.; Enama, J.T.; Powell, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have established that vaccination of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) with F1-V fusion protein by subcutaneous (SC) injection protects the animals against plague upon injection of the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This study demonstrates that the F1-V antigen can also protect ferrets against plague contracted via ingestion of a Y. pestis-infected mouse, a probable route for natural infection. Eight black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated with F1-V protein by SC injection at approximately 60 days-of-age. A booster vaccination was administered 3 mo later via SC injection. Four additional ferret kits received placebos. The animals were challenged 6 wk after the boost by feeding each one a Y. pestis-infected mouse. All eight vaccinates survived challenge, while the four controls succumbed to plague within 3 days after exposure. To determine the duration of antibody postvaccination, 18 additional black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated and boosted with F1-V by SC injection at 60 and 120 days-of-age. High titers to both F1 and V (mean reciprocal titers of 18,552 and 99,862, respectively) were found in all vaccinates up to 2 yr postvaccination, whereas seven control animals remained antibody negative throughout the same time period. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  19. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, D.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2012-01-01

    protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits...... (P restriction leads to changes in post-weaning protein metabolism through lower protein oxidation of male mink kits....

  20. Report on Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event UMESE0501Sp: Multispecies Mass Stranding of Pilot Whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and Dwarf Sperm Whales (Kogia sima) in North Carolina on 15-16 January 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta A. Hohn; Rotstein, David S.; Harms, Craig A.; Southall, Brandon L.

    2006-01-01

    On 15-16 January 2005, three offshore species of cetaceans (33 short-finned pilot whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus, one minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, and two dwarf sperm whales, Kogia sima) stranded alive on the beaches of North Carolina. The pilot whales stranded near Oregon Inlet, the minke whale in northern North Carolina, and the dwarf sperm whales near Cape Hatteras. Live strandings of three species in one weekend was unique in North Carolina and qualified as an Unusual Mort...

  1. Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdorf, Kristine Høvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbo- hydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance...... experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate......, P birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit...

  2. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...... blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies...... originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus....

  3. Identification of biosecurity measures and spatial variables as potential risk factors for Aleutian disease in Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Houe, Hans; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup

    2012-01-01

    for the infection in this region based on logistic regression of spatial (environmental, neighbourhood) variables and biosecurity measures. Information on potential biosecurity (management) risk factors in the region was obtained from interviews in 342 registered farms in the region using a structured questionnaire......Eradication of Aleutian disease was initiated in Denmark in 1976. The prevalence of positive farms has since then been reduced from 100% to only being continuously present in the region of Vendsyssel, Northern Denmark since 2004. In this study, we attempted to identify risk factors....... A total of 279 questionnaires were completed (response rate 82%). Additional spatial variables were included in the analysis. The study shows that farm size (the number of animals in the farm) and proportion of infected neighbouring farms were significant risk factors for infection with Aleutian Mink...

  4. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  5. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, D N; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H. C.; Hartley, J W

    1991-01-01

    LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus, contains a mixture of replication-competent B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses and a defective genome that is the proximal cause of a syndrome, murine AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. The defective (BM5d) and ecotropic components of this mixture were molecularly cloned, and complete (BM5d) or partial (ecotropic) nucleotide sequences were determined. BM5d clos...

  6. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    OpenAIRE

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer , Anne S.; Clausen, Tove; Jakobsen, Anabelle; Skov, Søren; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times ...

  7. Establishment of Stably Transfected Cells Constitutively Expressing the Full-Length and Truncated Antigenic Proteins of Two Genetically Distinct Mink Astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidokhti, Mehdi R. M.; Ullman, Karin; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Astroviruses are becoming a growing concern in veterinary and public health. To date there are no registered vaccines against astrovirus-induced disease, mostly due to the difficulty to cultivate astroviruses to high titer for vaccine development using conventional techniques. As means to circumv......Astroviruses are becoming a growing concern in veterinary and public health. To date there are no registered vaccines against astrovirus-induced disease, mostly due to the difficulty to cultivate astroviruses to high titer for vaccine development using conventional techniques. As means...... to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals...... shedding was observed in mink kits born from immunized females. The gene integration and protein expression were sustained through cell passage, showing that the used approach is robust and reliable for expression of functional capsid proteins for vaccine and diagnostic applications....

  8. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

    2010-11-24

    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula.

  9. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie F.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned......Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  10. Yearling mink dams fed restricted in early lactation have less mammary gland tissue six weeks after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Pinkalski, Mariann Nakano

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... around the time of separation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of separating the dam from the litter, using brown first-parity dams (N=374) randomly assigned within each date of delivery to two treatment groups: The dam was taken away from the litter either at day 49 ±1 (7w, N=185) or at day 56 ±1...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment...

  11. The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, L D; Dwulet, F E; Bogardt, R A; Jones, B N; Gurd, F R

    1977-02-22

    The complete primary structure of the major component myoglobin from the Arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. Over 80% of the amino acid sequence was established from the three peptides resulting from the cleavage of the apomyoglobin at the two methionine residues with cyanogen bromide along with the four peptides resulting from the cleavage of the methylacetimidated apomyoglobin at the three arginine residues with trypsin. The further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide peptide with trypsin and S. aureus strain V8 protease enabled the determining of the remainder of the covalent structure. This myoglobin differs from that of the dwarf sperm whale, Kogia simus, at 16 positions, and the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, at 14 positions, from that of the common porpoise, Phocaena phocaena, and the bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus at 13 positions, from that of the Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis, at 10 positions, and from that of California gray whale, Eschrichtius gibbosus, at 3 positions- All of the substitutions observed in this sequence fit easily into the three-dimensional structure of the sperm whale myoglobin.

  12. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé.

  13. The mitochondrial genome and ribosomal operon of Brachycladium goliath (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) recovered from a stranded minke whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Bray, Rodney A; Brabec, Jan; Littlewood, D T J

    2016-06-01

    Members of the Brachycladiidae are known to cause pathologies implicated in cetacean strandings and it is important to develop accurate diagnostic markers to differentiate these and other helminths found in cetaceans. Brachycladium goliath (van Beneden, 1858) is a large trematode found, as adults, usually in the hepatic (bile) and pancreatic ducts of various cetaceans. Complete sequences were determined for the entire mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetically informative nuclear genes contained within the ribosomal operon, from a small piece of an individual worm taken from a common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. Genomic DNA was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. The mtDNA is 15,229 bp in length consisting of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions of which the larger is comprised of 4 tandemly repeated units (260 bp each). The ribosomal RNA operon is 9297 bp long. These data provide a rich resource of molecular markers for diagnostics, phylogenetics and population genetics in order to better understand the role, and associated pathology of helminth infections in cetaceans.

  14. On the olfactory anatomy in an archaic whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephen J; Geisler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding.

  15. Attempt at intracytoplasmic sperm injection of in vitro matured oocytes in common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) captured during the Kushiro Coast Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yutaka; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Taiki; Nagai, Hiroki; Koma, Noriko; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Hidehiro; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted during the Kushiro Coast Survey in an attempt to produce common minke whale embryos. In Experiment 1, we attempted to determine the appropriate culture duration (30 or 40 h) for in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes using the Well of the Well method. In Experiment 2, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was applied to matured oocytes from prepubertal and adult common minke whales after IVM culture (40 or 48 h), and then their embryonic development was assessed. In Experiment 1, the maturation rate of oocytes cultured for 40 h (30.4%) was significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 30 h (6.8%; Pwhales, respectively, were cultured for 40 or 48 h. The maturation rate in the oocytes from the adult whales (34.2%) tended to be higher than that of the oocytes from the prepubertal whales (19.6%), but there was no significant difference. Following ICSI, 3 out of the 10 inseminated and cultured oocytes from the adult whales cleaved (2-, 8-, and 16-cell stages); all of these oocytes had been matured for 40 in culture. However, these oocytes did not develop to further stages. Only one of the 6 oocytes derived from the prepubertal whales, IVM cultured for 40 h and inseminated, developed to the 4-cell stage. The present results indicate that a 40 h IVM culture produces significantly higher rates of in vitro maturation than a 30 h IVM culture for common minke whale oocytes. Following ICSI, some oocytes cleaved to the 16-cell stage, but no further development was observed.

  16. Observations on Hippocampal Mossy Cells in Mink (Neovison vison) with Special Reference to Dendrites Ascending to the Granular and Molecular Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstad, Jan Sigurd; Osen, Kirsten K.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Blackstad, Theodor W.; Leergaard, Trygve B.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed knowledge about the neural circuitry connecting the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex is necessary to understand how this system contributes to spatial navigation and episodic memory. The two principal cell types of the dentate gyrus, mossy cells and granule cells, are interconnected in a positive feedback loop, by which mossy cells can influence information passing from the entorhinal cortex via granule cells to hippocampal pyramidal cells. Mossy cells, like CA3 pyramidal cells, are characterized by thorny excrescences on their proximal dendrites, postsynaptic to giant terminals of granule cell axons. In addition to disynaptic input from the entorhinal cortex and perforant path via granule cells, mossy cells may also receive monosynaptic input from the perforant path via special dendrites ascending to the molecular layer. We here report qualitative and quantitative descriptions of Golgi-stained hippocampal mossy cells in mink, based on light microscopic observations and three-dimensional reconstructions. The main focus is on the location, branching pattern, and length of dendrites, particularly those ascending to the granular and molecular layers. In mink, the latter dendrites are more numerous than in rat, but fewer than in primates. They form on average 12% (and up to 29%) of the total dendritic length, and appear to cover the terminal fields of both the lateral and medial perforant paths. In further contrast to rat, the main mossy cell dendrites in mink branch more extensively with distal dendrites encroaching upon the CA3 field. The dendritic arbors extend both along and across the septotemporal axis of the dentate gyrus, not conforming to the lamellar pattern of the hippocampus. The findings suggest that the afferent input to the mossy cells becomes more complex in species closer to primates. PMID:26286893

  17. Detection of Neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, P M; Wright, S E; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2013-02-18

    Samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (Mustela furo), 83 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 70 European polecats (Mustela putorius), 65 American mink (Neovison vison), 64 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and 9 stoats (Mustela erminea), from around Great Britain. DNA was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested ITS1 PCR for Neospora caninum. The results from the PCR demonstrated that Neospora specific DNA was detected in all species of wild carnivorans with the exception of the stoats (0/9). Neospora DNA positive samples were detected in: polecats 18.6% (13/70), badgers 10.9% (7/64), ferrets 10.1% (10/99), foxes 4.8% (4/83) and mink 4.6% (3/65). In the badgers N. caninum DNA positive samples were found in brain (n=2), liver (n=2) and neck muscle (n=3). Selected positive ITS1 DNA sequences were submitted to Genbank. Sequence UKwildlife1 (accession number JX857862) was found in two badgers, whilst UKwildlife2 and UKwildlife3 (accession numbers JX857863 and JX857864 respectively) were found in ferrets, all three sequences demonstrated point mutations at a single base, while sequence UKwildlife4 (accession number JX857865) was found in all the species that tested positive and showed complete identity when compared against published reference sequences for: N. caninum (Nc Liverpool isolate, EU564166). Our data shows that almost all the wild carnivoran mammal species tested are intermediate hosts for N. caninum and are therefore capable of acting as reservoirs of infection for other species. These species could also act as useful sentinel species, demonstrating the presence of the parasite in particular geographical and environmental locations.

  18. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fusion VP2332-452 Antigen for Detecting Antibodies against Aleutian Mink Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Song, Cailing; Liu, Yun; Qu, Liandong; Liu, Dafei; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV.

  19. The Mink Model Establishment of Canine Distemper Virus%水貂犬瘟热动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜乐; 王铮; 郑学星; 杨松涛; 黄耕; 赵永坤; 高玉伟; 夏咸柱; 王铁成; 冯娜; 李元果; 于志君; 丁洁; 许薇薇; 忻悦; 岳秀芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立水貂犬瘟热动物模型,并利用水貂犬瘟热模型评价不同犬瘟热强毒株的毒力,为水貂犬瘟热病毒疫苗的研究奠定基础.方法 从猴、藏獒、犬的病料中分离犬瘟热病毒,测定犬瘟热病毒的毒力,并进行传代培养.利用犬的犬瘟热动物模型筛选稳定的犬瘟热强毒株,进行水貂犬瘟热动物模型的建立及其毒力评估.结果 筛选出了稳定的犬瘟热强毒株并进行了家犬动物实验,同时表现出了强烈的临床症状,并利用不同的代次毒进行了犬瘟热动物模型的建立.结论 成功建立了犬瘟热动物模型并对不同来源的犬瘟热病毒毒力进行了评估.%Objective To establish a mink model of canine distemper virus , and different canine distemper virulent strain virulence was evaluated by the mink animal model for laying the foundation for the study of the canine distemper virus. Methods Different canine distemper viruses were separated from specimens , cell-cultured, passaged and determined virulence of CDV. And we compared the virulence of different generation virulent strains , stable virulent strains were used for establishing mink canine distemper animal model and evaluated their virulence . Results We screened 3 canine distemper virulent strains and made dog animal experiments , the three viruses infected dogs and they showed a strong clinical symptoms , and mink animal model was established using different generations . Conclusion we successfully established the canine distemper animal model and evaluated virulence of CDV .

  20. Primi dati sull'uso dello spazio e sui ritmi di attività della donnola Mustela nivalis in Italia centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magrini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La donnola Mustela nivalis, è il più piccolo carnivoro conosciuto. È distribuita in Italia su tutta la penisola fino ai 2000 m di quota e sulle isole maggiori, e, benché sia una specie largamente diffusa anche in ambienti antropizzati, pochi sono gli studi di campo condotti in Italia, che ne mettano in luce presenza, densità, ecologia di base (dieta, uso dello spazio e dell'habitat, e genetica. La presente ricerca avviata nel gennaio 2003, prevede una raccolta di dati mensile con una presenza costante nell'area di studio, e interessa un territorio, all'interno della Riserva Regionale Parziale dei Laghi Lungo e Ripasottile, in provincia di Rieti (Lazio, caratterizzato da colture estensive e dalla presenza di una fitta rete di canali e di aree lacustri. La metodologia di studio si basa su sessioni di trappolaggio di durata variabile e a scadenza mensile. Vengono utilizzate trappole di legno incruente (in media n = 30 con esca morta (Mus musculus; gli animali catturati vengono marcati con trasponder sottocutaneo per il riconoscimento individuale, e provvisti di trasmittente radio (del peso di 1,5 g posizionata tramite collare o zainetto. La radiolocalizzazione avviene tramite "homing", il segnale viene ricevuto a una distanza massima di 200 m, ma in media molto inferiore a causa degli ostacoli naturali e delle abitudini fossorie della donnola che diminuiscono notevolmente la capacità di ricezione del segnale. Sono stati catturati e seguiti 4 animali maschi adulti per un totale di 318 localizzazioni, 184 durante le ore diurne, 108 nelle ore notturne, e 18 durante le ore crepuscolari, prese con un intervallo di 15 minuti l'una dall'altra, e distribuite in maniera non omogenea tra gli individui. Il massimo periodo di telemetria continuativa per un animale corrisponde a 5 giorni, questo a causa della frequente perdita della radio trasmittente nelle prime 48 ore dopo il posizionamento (62,5% dei casi, perdita dovuta da un lato

  1. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. ...

  2. Predictive habitat modelling of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Antarctic minke (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) whales in the Southern Ocean as a planning tool for seismic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombosch, Annette; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Burkhardt, Elke; Wisz, Mary S.; Boebel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Seismic surveys are frequently a matter of concern regarding their potentially negative impacts on marine mammals. In the Southern Ocean, which provides a critical habitat for several endangered cetacean species, seismic research activities are undertaken at a circumpolar scale. In order to minimize impacts of these surveys, pre-cruise planning requires detailed, spatio-temporally resolved knowledge on the likelihood of encountering these species in the survey area. In this publication we present predictive habitat modelling as a potential tool to support decisions for survey planning. We associated opportunistic sightings (2005-2011) of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae, N=93) and Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N=139) with a range of static and dynamic environmental variables. A maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent) was used to develop habitat models and to calculate daily basinwide/circumpolar prediction maps to evaluate how species-specific habitat conditions evolved throughout the spring and summer months. For both species, prediction maps revealed considerable changes in habitat suitability throughout the season. Suitable humpback whale habitat occurred predominantly in ice-free areas, expanding southwards with the retreating sea ice edge, whereas suitable Antarctic minke whale habitat was consistently predicted within sea ice covered areas. Daily, large-scale prediction maps provide a valuable tool to design layout and timing of seismic surveys as they allow the identification and consideration of potential spatio-temporal hotspots to minimize potential impacts of seismic surveys on Antarctic cetacean species.

  3. MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 diversify Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anthony; McCrossan, Zoe A; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2004-02-27

    High frequency firing in mammalian neurons requires ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents generated by homomeric or heteromeric assemblies of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel alpha subunits. Kv3.1 alpha subunits can also form slower activating channels by coassembling with MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2), a single transmembrane domain potassium channel ancillary subunit. Here, using channel subunits cloned from rat and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we show that modulation by MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 is a general mechanism for slowing of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation and deactivation and acceleration of inactivation, creating a functionally diverse range of channel complexes. MiRP1 also negatively shifts the voltage dependence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation. Furthermore, MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 each form channels with Kv3.1-Kv3.2 heteromers that are kinetically distinct from one another and from MiRP/homomeric Kv3 channels. The findings illustrate a mechanism for dynamic expansion of the functional repertoire of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium currents and suggest roles for these alpha subunits outside the scope of sustained rapid neuronal firing.

  4. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Martin I; Hammer, Anne S; Clausen, Tove; Jakobsen, Anabelle; Skov, Søren; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-16

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr. In this study, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies that a resident and stable microbiota is hosted by these animals.

  5. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-zeng Sun

    Full Text Available Mink enteritis virus (MEV is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81 cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 messenger RNA (mRNA coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  6. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  7. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  8. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  9. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  10. 白鼬和黄鼬直针毛的扫描电镜分析%A morphological analysis of guard hairs of Mustela erminea and M.sibirica by scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯森林; 薛晓明; 宋庆双

    2012-01-01

    应用扫描电镜对白鼬(Mustela erminea)和黄鼬(M.sibirica)背部和腹部直针毛的鳞片花纹类型进行了研究.结果表明,白鼬和黄鼬同一部位直针毛鳞片花纹的排列顺序、主要鳞片类型、鳞片高度、密度以及同种类型鳞片的外部形态均存在一定差异,即种间均存在差异,而在种内则表现出较高的相似性和一致性.白鼬背毛和腹毛主要鳞片类型均为长瓣型,杂波型次之;黄鼬背毛和腹毛的主要鳞片类型均为杂波型,长瓣型次之.背毛和腹毛杂波型鳞片的密度在2种动物间差异均极显著(P<0.01),背毛长瓣型鳞片的密度和高度在2种动物间差异均显著(P<0.05).据此,笔者分析了利用鼬科动物毛鳞片花纹进行物种鉴定的可行性及需要注意的问题.%We analyzed the morphology of guard hairs sampled from the back and abdomen of the white weasel ( Mustela erminea) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica) by using the scanning electron microscope technique. Statistics analysis indicated significant differences were found between the two species in morphological parameters such as the order of scale types along the hair, dominant scale types, scale height, density and shapes. The results showed that the order of dominant scale type of guard hairs from both the back and the abdomen of the white weasel was the elongated petal followed by irregular wave, while the dominance of scale types in the Siberian weasel was irregular wave followed by elongated petal. The differences of density of the back and abdomen irregular wave were very significant(p < 0. 01) between the two species, while the density and the height of the back elongated petal were significant different between the two species. Some noteworthy questions for such application were also discussed based on this study.

  11. Albinism in the american mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud;

    2008-01-01

    region of the TYR gene. Genotypes at the markers Mvi6025 and Mvi6034 were found to be associated with the albino phenotype within an extended half-sib family. A BAC clone containing Mvi6034 was mapped to chromosome 7q1.1-q1.3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Subsequent analysis of genomic TYR...

  12. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models....... Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social...... interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family...

  13. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer, Anne S.; Clausen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    -throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large......Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short...... interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies...

  14. A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in mink using a modified agglutination test, a Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Zedong; Cai, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Wei, Feng; Shang, Limin; Li, Jiping; Liu, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, and many serological methods have been developed to detect T. gondii infection in a variety of animal species. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in farmed mink in northeast China was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT), a Western blot (WB), and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with protein A/G conjugate, using either of 2 recombinant dense granule antigens, GRA1 and GRA7, or Toxoplasma soluble antigens (TSA). There was no significant difference between the detection results of the GRA1-, GRA7-, and TSA-ELISAs and WB (McNemar chi-square, P > 0.05), but a significant difference was observed between MAT and WB (P < 0.05). A near perfect agreement (97.0%) was found between the GRA7-ELISA and WB (κ = 0.83), and a substantial agreement (92.4-93.1%) was observed in the TSA- and GRA1-ELISAs (κ = 0.68-0.73). The GRA7-ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, and the lowest false-positive and negative rates, while the MAT gave both a low sensitivity and frequent false positives in comparison to the WB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the largest area under curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96), and the highest relative sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (99.0%) for a cutoff value of 0.19 in the GRA7-ELISA. These results indicate that the GRA7-ELISA is suitable for detection of T. gondii infection in mink and that MAT should be used with caution.

  15. Lack of Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Divergence between Two Subspecies of the Siberian Weasel from Korea: Mustela sibirica coreanus from the Korean Peninsula and M. s. quelpartis from Jeju Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Sun Koh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the degree of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA divergence between two subspecies of Mustela sibirica from Korea (M. s. coreanus on the Korean Peninsula and M. s. quelpartis on Jeju Island and to examine the taxonomic status of M. s. quelpartis. Thus, we obtained complete sequences of mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp from the two subspecies, and these sequences were compared to a corresponding haplotype of M. s. coreanus, downloaded from GenBank. From this analysis, it was observed that the sequences from monogenic M. s. quelpartis on Jeju Island were identical to the sequences of four M. s. coreanus from four locations across the Korean Peninsula, and that the two subspecies formed a single clade; the average nucleotide distance between the two subspecies was 0.26% (range, 0.00 to 0.53%. We found that the subspecies quelpartis is not genetically distinct from the subspecies coreanus, and that this cytochrome b sequencing result does not support the current classification, distinguishing these two subspecies by pelage color. Further systematic analyses using morphometric characters and other DNA markers are necessary to confirm the taxonomic status of M. s. quelpartis.

  16. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Mink Enteritis Virus MEV-ZJ1 Strain%致病性水貂肠炎病毒MEV-ZJ1株的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭斌; 陈微晶; 武华

    2011-01-01

    自临床疑似水貂病毒性肠炎发病貂的粪便中分离出1株病毒,经病毒形态观察、理化特性检测、血清学、聚合酶链式反应(PCR)和动物试验鉴定表明,该分离毒为水貂肠炎病毒(mink enteritis virus,MEV),命名为MEV-ZJ1株.用分离毒接种水貂,试验动物均表现出典型水貂病毒性肠炎临床症状.研究表明,MEV-ZJ1分离株对水貂具有致病性,是1株强毒,为进一步开展该病毒流行病学、致病机理、疫苗免疫与诊断检测的研究奠定了基础.%A virus strain was isolated from feces of a mink suspected MEV infection. It was demonstrated to be MEV by morphology, physical and chemical properties, serum test, PCR and animal test,and it was named MEV-ZJ1. Minks were artificially infected by MEV-ZJ1 developed obvious symptoms of enteritis post-inoculation. The MEV-ZJ1 strain was virulent for minks. The successful isolation of MEV-ZJ1 provided a basis for further search on epidemiology, pathogenesis, vaccination and diagnostic.

  17. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  18. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  19. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. 水貂出血性肺炎的诊断与防治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Hemorrhagic Pneumonia of Mink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵贤; 项方; 王殿永; 李国华

    2012-01-01

    【目的]对水貂出血性肺炎进行诊断和防治。[方法]以秦皇岛市昌黎县荒田庄某养殖户饲养的水貂中发病水貂为试验材料,对其进行剖检,无菌取肝、肾、脾、肺等组织分别接种于普通营养琼脂和血液琼脂,分离、纯化细菌,并对获得的菌株进行动物接种试验和药敏试验。最后,提出相关治疗和预防措施。[结果]分离得到的细菌经革兰染色镜检为阴性;在血液琼脂上形成溶血环;该菌能发酵葡萄糖和木糖;不发酵蔗糖、乳糖、麦芽糖和七叶苷;过氧化氧酶和氧化酶试验阳性;尿素酶试验和硫化氢试验阴性.故确定该菌株为绿脓杆菌。药敏试验结果显示,该菌对环丙沙星等高敏,对头孢噻吩等耐药。[结论]该试验结果为水貂出仇性肺炎的诊治和预防奠定了基础。%[Objective] The paper was to diagnose and treat hemorrhagic pneumonia of mink. [Method] The diseased minks bred by one raiser in Huangtian Village of Changli County in Qinhuangdao City were used as experimental materials. It was necropsied, and its tissues such as liver, kidney, spleen and lung were taken under aseptic condition, then inoculated into general nutrition agar and blood agar. The bacteria were isolated and purified, and the strains obtained were carried out animal inoculation test and drug sensitivity test. Finally, the relevant treatment and preven- tive measures were put forward. [Conclusion] The bacteria isolated were detected to be negative by Gram staining; it formed hemolysis ring in blood agar; the bacteria could ferment glucose and xylose, which could not ferment sucrose, lactose, maltose and esculin; it was positive in catalase and oxidase test, and negative in urease test and hydrogen sulfide test; so the strain was indentified to be Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa. Drug sensitivity test showed that the bacteria were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, which had tolerance to cefoxitin

  2. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  3. Garbage in the diet of carnivores in an agricultural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowiak Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human food waste is considered to be richer in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins than most natural food supplies; however, it is very well digested in scats. So, as an indication of this kind of food in the diet, we have used each indigestible, anthropogenic origin element found in faeces (e.g., glass, plastic, rubber, etc.. There are few studies discussing the importance of garbage in the diet of mammalian predators living in farmland; definitely, most focus on this issue in urban areas. We studied the contribution of garbage in the diet of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, red fox (Vulpes vulpes, marten (Martes sp., polecat (Mustela putorius, stoat (Mustela erminea, American mink (Neovison vison and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in the agricultural areas of western Poland in 2006-2010. In addition, we examined the spatial changes in the diet of red fox and polecat. The largest contribution of garbage was found in scats of raccoon dog (8.8%, red fox (4.8% and marten (4.3%. The diet of polecat, stoat and Eurasian otter contained 2.5%, 1.7% and 0.2% garbage items respectively. The most frequent item was plastic. Our analysis showed that garbage consumption by red fox and polecat was greater closer to human settlements. The results reveal a continuous gradient in the garbage consumption that corresponds with the degree of synanthropization of particular species.

  4. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, D N; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H C; Hartley, J W

    1991-08-01

    LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus, contains a mixture of replication-competent B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses and a defective genome that is the proximal cause of a syndrome, murine AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. The defective (BM5d) and ecotropic components of this mixture were molecularly cloned, and complete (BM5d) or partial (ecotropic) nucleotide sequences were determined. BM5d closely resembled the Du5H genome cloned from the Duplan virus, featuring a highly divergent p12 sequence in the gag open reading frame. In MAIDS-sensitive C57BL/6 mice, BM5d was detected in tissues within 2 weeks of infection but was absent from tissues of the MAIDS-resistant strain, A/J, 12 weeks after infection. B-cell-lineage tumors from mice with MAIDS contained and expressed BM5d, and clonal integrations of this genome were variably associated with clonal expansions of B cells in infected mice. Finally, mRNA crosshybridizing with a probe for BM5d was present in spleen but not kidney cells of uninfected B6 mice.

  5. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model for dietary protein quality assessment of protein meals used in extruded dog foods. Three foods with similar CP content but of different protein quality were produced using different protein meals. The protein meals varied...... with respect to CP digestibility and AA composition and included lamb meal (LBM), poultry meal (PM), and fish meal (FM) with low, intermediate, and high protein quality, respectively. Nitrogen balance, BW gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were used as measures.......001) in ATTD of CP and all AA, except for hydroxyproline. Retention of N was 0.66, 1.04, and 1.18 g·kg−0.75·d−1; BW gain was 8.2, 26.8, and 35.3 g/d; PER was 0.38, 1.39, and 1.71; and ATTD of CP was 66.8, 73.8, and 82.1% for the LBM, PM, and FM diets, respectively. In dogs, SID of CP and AA differed (P ≤ 0...

  6. Long QT syndrome-associated mutations in the S4-S5 linker of KvLQT1 potassium channels modify gating and interaction with minK subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franqueza, L; Lin, M; Shen, J; Splawski, I; Keating, M T; Sanguinetti, M C

    1999-07-23

    Long QT syndrome is an inherited disorder of cardiac repolarization caused by mutations in cardiac ion channel genes, including KVLQT1. In this study, the functional consequences of three long QT-associated missense mutations in KvLQT1 (R243C, W248R, E261K) were characterized using the Xenopus oocyte heterologous expression system and two-microelectrode voltage clamp techniques. These mutations are located in or near the intracellular linker between the S4 and S5 transmembrane domains, a region implicated in activation gating of potassium channels. The E261K mutation caused loss of function and did not interact with wild-type KvLQT1 subunits. R243C or W248R KvLQT1 subunits formed functional channels, but compared with wild-type KvLQT1 current, the rate of activation was slower, and the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation was shifted to more positive potentials. Co expression of minK and KvLQT1 channel subunits induces a slow delayed rectifier K(+) current, I(Ks), characterized by slow activation and a markedly increased magnitude compared with current induced by KvLQT1 subunits alone. Coexpression of minK with R243C or W248R KvLQT1 subunits suppressed current, suggesting that coassembly of mutant subunits with minK prevented normal channel gating. The decrease in I(Ks) caused by loss of function or altered gating properties explains the prolonged QT interval and increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden death associated with these mutations in KVLQT1.

  7. Detection of pathogenicity islands of Yersinia enterocolitica HPI from Escherich- ia coli strains in diarrheic minks%腹泻水貂检出携带耶尔森菌HPI毒力岛的大肠杆菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秋梅; 张艳英; 房海; 陈翠珍; 刘杰

    2012-01-01

    To understand the Escherichia. coli cause diarrhea mechanism of minks diarrheic, the isolated E. coli were detected for HPI pathogenicity island of Yersinia enterocolitica. Pathogenicity islands gene irp2 and fyua were de- tected by PCR amplification, and the virulence of E. coli strains was determined with mice by intraperitoneal injec- tion. E. coli strains were separated from organ and feces of diarrhea minks,which serotypes were 078,029 and 038. Three serotypes of E. coli were detected pathogenicity islands gene irp2 and fyua,which further resulted in the oc- currence of serious illness and death for experimental mice after intraperitoneal injection . The results showed that minks diarrhea were caused by E. coli strains carrying pathogenicity islands gene irp2 and fyua of Yersinia entero colitica HPI,which will bring putative threats to the health of minks.%为了解大肠杆菌引起水貂腹泻的机理,进行了小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌HPI毒力岛基因的检测,并对其菌株做毒力试验。用PCR扩增法检测毒力岛基因irp2和fyua,小鼠腹腔注射检测菌株毒力。结果:从3个貂场腹泻病死水貂脏器以及粪便中分离出血清型分别为078、029和038的大肠杆菌,对3个血清型大肠杆菌进行毒力岛检测,均检出携带小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌HPI毒力岛基因irp2和fyua。3个血清型078、029和038的大肠杆菌均使小鼠发病死亡。结果表明水貂腹泻是由携带小肠结肠炎耶尔森茵HPI毒力岛基因irp2和fyua的大肠杆菌引起,该茵对水貂的健康具有潜在的威胁。

  8. 水貂肠炎病毒双抗体夹心ELISA检测方法的建立%Establishment of double antibody sandwich ELISA for detection of mink enteritis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建科; 程世鹏; 易立; 杨莘; 罗彬; 许红丽; 闫喜军; 武华

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(DAS-ELISA) for detection of mink enteritis virus(MEV),anti-MEV monoclonal antibody and rabbit anti-MEV polyclonal antibody were used as the capture antibody and detecting antibody,respectively. The optimal dilution of the capture antibody and the detecting antibody capable of detecting MEV antigens were 1: 20 and 1: 3 200 in the check-board titration respectively. Positive samples with MEV,Aleutian mink disease virus and canine distemper virus were examined by the established ELISA respectively. In result,the developed DAS-ELISA had good specificity. A total of 158 samples were tested both by the developed DAS-ELISA and by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). 40 of the tested samples were positive by the developed ADS-ELISA and 44 by PCR. The specificity and sensitivity of the developed DAS-ELISA were 95.6 %and 79.5 %, respectively. The coincidental rate between the developed DAS-ELISA and PCR was 91.1%. These results indicated that the developed DAS-ELISA was suitable for rapid detection and epidemiological investigation of MEV infection in mink.%以抗水貂肠炎病毒(mink enteritis virus,MEV)单克隆抗体为捕获抗体、兔抗MEV多克隆抗体为检测抗体,建立了MEV双抗体夹心ELISA检测方法.该方法用于MEV抗原的检测.经过试验,单克隆抗体的最适稀释度为1:20,兔抗MEV多克隆抗体的最适稀释度为1:3200.用该ELISA方法分别检测MEV、水貂阿留中病痛毒、犬瘟热病毒样品.结果表明,ELISA方法具有良好的特异性.用该ELISA和PCR同时检测158份临床样品,其中ELISA检测40份为阳性,PCR检测44份为阳性,该ELISA的特异性和敏感性分别为95.6%和79.5%,这2种方法的符合率为91.1%.该方法的建立为MEV的检测及水貂病毒性肠炎的流行病学调查提供了工具.

  9. Steroid hormones in blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen polluted minke whalte (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J.;

    2014-01-01

    conducted in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as a sentinel species for adverse effects on steroid homeostasis. The control and exposed groups were composed of four sister-bitches all fed pork fat (Suis suis) and organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber......Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are known to disrupt steroidogenesis and subsequent concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones. This is also suspected to occur in Arctic predatory species, such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and a study was therefore...

  10. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, C F; Blache, D; Thomsen, P D; Tauson, A-H

    2012-01-01

    Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison) because of their higher protein requirement than in other domestic mammals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low protein provision during foetal life to male mink kits on their protein metabolism during the early post-weaning period of rapid growth and to investigate whether foetal life protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low - FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate - FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal treatment group were fed an AP diet (32% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) and the other half were fed a LP diet (18% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) until 9.5 weeks of age, yielding four treatment groups (i.e. FA-AP, FA-LP, FL-AP and FL-LP). Low protein provision in foetal life lowered the protein oxidation post-weaning compared with the controls (P = 0.006), indicating metabolic flexibility and a better ability to conserve protein. This could not, however, be supported by

  11. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation 2017 AVRF Calendars Order your calendar with ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  12. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  13. American Hospice Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Hospice Foundation Skip to content Home Caregiving Learning About Hospice Grief Grieving Children Grief at School Grief at ... for all who come after us. The American Hospice Foundation (AHF) closed its doors in June 2014. ...

  14. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  17. American Urogynecologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2014, 2.1 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  19. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  20. Lipids rich in phosphatidylethanolamine from natural gas-utilizing bacteria reduce plasma cholesterol and classes of phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H.; Hellgren, Lars; Olsen, E.;

    2004-01-01

    We compared the effects of three different high-lipid diets on plasma lipoproteins and phospholipids in mink (Mustela vison). The 18 mink studied were fed one of the three diets during a 25-d period in a parallel group design. The compared diets had 0, 17, and 67% extracted lipids from natural gas...... phospholipids, lysoPC, and PI were lowered significantly compared with the mink fed a SB-diet. Plasma total cholesterol was correlated with total phospholipids as well as with PC (R = 0.8, P ... was observed in the 67LNGB-fed mink compared with the SB-fed mink. We conclude that phospholipids from the 67LNGB-diet decreased plasma lipoprotein levels, the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio, and plasma phospholipid levels, especially lysoPC and PC, compared with the highly unsaturated soybean oil. Our findings...

  1. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  2. Distichiasis in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, CAPM; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S.C.; Kitslaar, W.J.P.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Schoemaker, N.J.; Boevé, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year-old intact male ferret was presented to the Ophthalmology Service of the Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals of Utrecht University with chronic blepharospasm, epiphora, and conjunctivitis of the right eye. Examination of the eye revealed mild conjunctivitis and three hairs

  3. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  4. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  5. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  6. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  7. The Japanese American Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  8. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  9. 植酸酶对水貂氮、磷等营养物质利用及生长发育的影响%Effects of Microbial Phytase Levels on Availability of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Utilized and Performance in Growing Minks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯英; 徐超; 鲍坤; 刘晗璐; 李光玉; 纪银玲

    2013-01-01

    研究鲜料中添加植酸酶水平对生长发育期水貂氮、磷利用及生长发育性能的影响。配制Ⅰ~Ⅳ组日粮,Ⅰ组为对照组(基础日粮),Ⅱ~Ⅳ组在基础日粮中分别添加450IU/kg、900IU/kg、4500IU/kg的植酸酶,进行各组日粮干物质、蛋白质、脂肪、钙、磷消化代谢试验和生长发育期饲养试验。结果表明,水貂鲜料添加植酸酶可显著提高干物质、脂肪、粗蛋白、P消化率及N代谢率( P<0.01),N、P环境排放量降低极显著( P<0.01);可显著提高其体增重和平均日增重( P<0.05),其中添加900IU/kg的Ⅳ组生长发育性能最好。%Effects of microbial phytase levels on the availabitility of nutriments and growth performance in Growing Mink were studied .Sixty black male minks were randomly divided into 4 groups ,15 minks per each .The control was fed conventional fresh diet ,the testing groups were applied phytase ,respectively ,phytase 450IU/kg (Ⅱ) ,900IU/kg (Ⅲ) and 4 500IU/kg (Ⅳ) .The results showed that there were significant dif-ference among groups ,the values of DMD、CPD、EED、PD were significant higher than the control ( P0.05) .There was clearly trend that phytase could significantly reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion of growing minks ( P<0.01) ,and increase dietary nitrogen metablic rates in minks ,the 900IU/kg phytase was the best in all groups .There were a significantly increase in the in-dex of body weight gain and average daily gain the groups of phytase than control group ( P<0.05) .The results showed that it could significant-ly improve the growth performance and availabitility of DM、CP、EE、Ca、P ,applied 900IU/kg of phytase during growing period in mink diets .

  10. 阿留申病细小病毒的分离及VP2基因遗传衍生分析%Isolation of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus and Genetic Variation Analysis of VP2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华育平; 马建

    2005-01-01

    水貂阿留申病(Aleutian disease of mink,AD)是水貂的一种慢性传染病,病原为阿留申病细小病毒(Aleutian mink disease parvovirus,AMDV),属细小病毒科、细小病毒属。AD自1940年发现以来至今60年里,已经普遍存在于世界各地人工养殖的水貂种群中。对水貂养殖业造成了不可估量的经济损失。

  11. Investigation on Virus and Bacteria Infection in a Scale Mink Farm by PCR Assay%规模化水貂场中多种病毒和细菌感染状况的PCR调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易立; 曹智刚; 仝明薇; 程悦宁; 王建科; 赵航; 林鹏; 程世鹏

    2016-01-01

    当前水貂场存在多种病毒、细菌感染的情况,导致众多病原体混合感染、潜伏感染,临床上往往呈现慢性经过,并不表现出典型症状,给水貂养殖产业带来巨大经济损失。为了了解目前规模化水貂养殖场疫病感染情况,研究人员从2015年6月~2015年9月,对内蒙古的某个规模化貂场的所有仔貂进行了随机采样,通过PCR方法,分别对诺如病毒( Norovirus )、轮状病毒(Rotavirus )、腺病毒( Adenovirus )、细小病毒( Parvovirus )、沙门氏菌属( Salmonella )、志贺氏菌属( Shigella )、小肠耶尔森氏菌(Yersinia enterocolitica)、气单胞菌属(Aeromonas )、铜绿假单胞菌( Pseudomonas aeruginosa)和产气荚膜梭菌( Clostridium perfringens )进行检测。结果显示,在192个粪便样品DNA中,气单胞菌属阳性样本16个(8.30%)、产气荚膜梭菌阳性样本11个(5.73%)、沙门氏菌属阳性样本38个(19.79%)、志贺氏菌属阳性样本6个(3.13%)、铜绿假单胞阳性样本1个(0.52%)、轮状病毒阳性样本2个(1.04%)。对疫病防控意义较大的铜绿假单胞菌PCR产物进行了序列测定和系统发育树分析,结果显示,该菌株与GenBank其他铜绿假单胞菌距离较远,显示以水貂为宿主的铜绿假单胞菌有着独特的拓扑分类地位。%Mixed infection of many kinds of virals and bacterials or latent infection of many pathogens that does not show clinical signs of dis-easeusually leads to considerable economic loss for mink breeder .clinical manifestation of chronic disease ,.In order to understand the current situation of mixed infection in farmed mink ,we tested Norovirus ,Rotavirus ,Adenovirus ,Parvovirus ,Salmonella ,Shigella ,Y .ent ,Aeromonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringen random sampling PCR in Inner Mongolia mink farm .The data showed that the pathogen'positive rates are

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  13. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  14. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  15. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    OpenAIRE

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-01-01

    The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discove...

  16. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses' Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic ... Activities CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education ...

  17. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools Publications Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures Multimedia Guidelines and Standards ... INVEST IN YOUR FUTURE Registration and housing for Academy members is OPEN NOW. SUBMIT YOUR POSTER IDEA ...

  18. American Behcet's Disease Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Behcet's Awareness Day Behcet's Disease Awareness Share your story and educate others about Behcet's: www.rareconnect.org/en/community/behcet-s-syndrome Upcoming Events American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI ...

  19. American Migraine Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YouTube Follow us on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY About Migraine Patient Registry Corporate Roundtable ... YouTube Follow us on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Freedom From Pain The American Migraine ...

  20. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latest News American Lung Association Pledges to Fight Trump Administration Assault on Clean Air and Climate Protections March 28, 2017 In response to President Trump's announcement on climate change, Harold P. Wimmer, National ...

  1. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  2. American Sleep Apnea Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  3. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay safe! – @ASNKidney on Twitter ASN News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube ... Podcast ASN Communities Share ASN User Login © American Society of Nephrology top Text Size + - Translate Sitemap Terms ...

  4. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travel Award for Research Symposium on Pharmacotherapy and Older Adults with CVD November 10th, 2016 Need Help Understanding MACRA? Check Out this Free Toolkit ... © 2016 The American Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy . Copyright & Permissions . Disclaimer .

  5. General American: An Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  6. American Samoa Longline Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test the...

  7. Pan American Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Google Tag Pan American Health Organization | Organización Panamericana de la Salud Skip to content English Español Menu Home Health Topics Programs Media Center Publications Data Countries and Centers About PAHO question  ...

  8. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  9. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  10. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谷雨

    2016-01-01

    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  11. The Formation of American Hegemonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦灵

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, American culture permeates in our life. It seems that all the things in the world are in relation to the United States. This thesis discusses hegemonism in America from three aspects: the definition of hegemony, the origin of American hegemony and the interaction between American values. The purpose of this thesis is to get a comprehensive understanding of American hegemonism,

  12. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  13. American Outlaws in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  14. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  15. 黄粉虫对冬毛期水貂体重变化、营养物质消化率、氮代谢及毛皮质量的影响%Effects of Tenebrio molitor L. on Body Weight Change, Hutrient Digestibility, Hitrogen Metabolism and Fur Quality of Minks during Winter Hair Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 张海华; 刘志; 郭强; 吴学壮; 杨福合; 李光玉; 王海宏

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究黄粉虫对冬毛期水貂体重变化、营养物质消化率、氮代谢及毛皮质量的影响。采用单因子试验设计,选取125日龄健康雄性水貂60只,随机分成5组。Ⅰ组饲喂基础饲粮(不含黄粉虫);Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组、Ⅴ组水貂的饲粮中分别添加2%、4%、8%和16%的黄粉虫。预试期7 d,试验期80 d。结果表明:1)2013-11-17时,Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组水貂的体重显著高于Ⅲ组(P<0.05);各组平均日增重差异不显著(P>0.05)。2)Ⅳ组水貂的采食量极显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组( P<0.01);Ⅱ组和Ⅴ组水貂粗蛋白质消化率极显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.01);各组粗脂肪消化率和粗灰分消化率差异不显著( P>0.05)。3)Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组水貂的食入氮显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组(P<0.05);Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组水貂的粪氮极显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组(P<0.01);Ⅴ组水貂的尿氮极显著高于Ⅱ组和Ⅳ组( P<0.01),Ⅳ组水貂的氮沉积、净蛋白质利用率和蛋白质生物学价值显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05)。4)Ⅴ组水貂的皮长显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05);Ⅴ组水貂的鲜皮重显著高于Ⅲ组( P<0.05);Ⅲ组水貂的针毛长显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.05)。由此可见,饲粮中添加黄粉虫能够减少鱼粉、肉骨粉和豆油的添加量,饲粮中添加8%~16%的黄粉虫能够改善毛皮质量。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Tenebrio molitor L. on body weight change, nutrient digestibility,nitrogen metabolism and fur quality of minks during winter hair period. The single factor method was taken in the trial,and sixty minks were randomly assigned into 5 groups. Minks in group Ⅰ were fed a basal diet(without Tenebrio molitor L.),and the others in groupsⅡtoⅤwere fed the experimental di-ets supplemented with 2%,4%,8% and 16% Tenebrio molitor L.,respectively. The pre

  16. 准备配种期雌性水貂适宜日粮蛋白质水平的研究%Evaluation of Different Dietary Protein Levels on Preparative Mating Minks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋清奎; 张志强; 李光玉; 高秀华; 邢秀梅; 杨福合

    2012-01-01

    X The experiment was conducted to evaluate the regularity of digestibility and metabolism of diets with different levels in female minks on preparative mating period. 180 healthy female minks of one year and a half old were randomly assigned into six groups with 30 replicates and each replicate had 1 mink. The treatments were individually fed with 28. 59% (group I),32.31%(group Ⅱ),36. 21%(group Ⅲ),40. 35%(group Ⅳ) protein levels in fresh feed diets and with 32. 66% (group V ) ,40.47% (groupⅥ) protein levels in mixed feed diets. The period of trial lasted for 51 days,including 7 days preset period and 44 days test period. The results showed that the food intake of the fresh feed diets groups was higher than that of the mixed feed diets group,some had significantly difference(P<0. 05), On the item of the digestibility of dry mater, protein and fat,some had significantly difference (P<0. 05). The nitrogen intake, fecal nitrogen, urine nitrogen increased with the protein level in different groups. There was no significantly difference in nitrogen retention, the biology value of protein, net protein usage ratio. However, all of the three indexes tended to decrease when the dietary protein level reached 36. 21%. Of all the indexes, the mixed feed diets group were significantly or extremely lower than the fresh feed diets group(P<0.05 or P< 0.01). In conclusion, the minks had almost equally best nutrient digestibility and availability when the dietary protein level reached 32. 31% and 36. 21% , but in consideration of the feed expense and the particular characteristics of the preparative mating minks, 32. 31% protein level of diet would be the best choice in the preparative mating period, and the mixed feed diets were not recommended for this particular period.%本试验以准备配种期日粮蛋白质水平对水貂营养物质消化率及氮代谢的影响为研究目的.选择经产适龄母貂180只,随机分成6组,每组30个重复,每个重复1只水貂.6

  17. The American Armies: 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    terrorism and crime that accompany it. The dynamic of the U.S. relationship with Latin American countries has also changed. This is most evident in...have already found it.... The inter-American order was not built by hatred and terror . It has been paved by the endless and effective work of men of...Peru’s armed forces." They also discuss the collapsed talks between former President Bush and Mr. Fujimori over attempts to get coca farmers to grow other

  18. MODERN AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    With China’s open door policy advocating that Chinese people study abroad, primarily in English-speaking countries, a text tailored to preparing these students is needed. Modern American English, (MAE) composed jointly by Chinese and American linguists, attempts to fill the void. The book’s introduction states a twofold purpose: to help Chinese students learn situational English and to introduce Western culture and society. By assessing MAE’s strength’s and weaknesses it is my intention to provide the publisher with some feedback that may be of some help for forthcoming revisions.

  19. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  20. Sequence Analysis of the Hemagglutinin Gene of Canine distemper virus from Vaccinated Dogs,Minks and Foxes%犬瘟热病毒疫苗免疫逃逸株的血凝素基因变异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 隋晓梅; 王怡男; 单虎

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand whether new genotype emerged,we detected Canine distemper virus(CDV)in immunized dogs,breeding foxes and minks in different regions by amplification of nucleocapsid(N)and hemaggluti-nin(H)gene.13 strains from CDV-positive cases(8 minks,2 foxes and 3 dogs)were sequenced.The results showed that the 13 Chinese strains shared 99.1 %-100.0% nucleotide identity.Compared with those of other Chinese CDV strains isolated before 2012,four consistent amino acid changes,P200S,M263I,I542N and Y549H,were observed in the H coding sequence of CDV isolated from vaccinated animals,which contribute to an additional N-glycosylation site and antigenic epitope.All of the strains obtained from 13 samples were characterized as genotype Asia-1 accord-ing to the sequence analysis of the complete H gene,which was the sole genotype in minks in China.These findings provide a comprehensive understanding of current immune failure and the molecular epidemiology of CDV in China.%为了弄清是否有新基因型犬瘟热病毒出现,对山东省不同地区的免疫水貂、狐狸和犬进行了犬瘟热病毒检测,扩增了病毒核衣壳基因和血凝素基因(H),并对13个犬瘟热病毒山东株(8株貂源,2株狐狸源,3株犬源)血凝素基因进行了测序。结果表明,13个犬瘟热病毒山东株之间 H 基因核苷酸同源性为99.1%~100.0%,均为 Asia-1型,这也是我国目前水貂犬瘟热病毒唯一的基因型。与2012年之前的犬瘟热病毒中国分离株及疫苗株相比,13个毒株H 基因有4个氨基酸的一致性变异,即 P200S、M263I、I542N 和 Y549H,N-糖基化位点比 Onderstepoort 株多6或7个,比 CDV3株多3或4个。抗原性分析表明,与疫苗株相比,13株山东株在540-549位氨基酸出现一个新的抗原区域,210-230,327-347位的抗原区域也与疫苗株不同,这些变异可能是我国貂狐犬瘟热免疫失败的原因。

  1. 饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化代谢的影响%Effects of Dietary Fat Sources on Hutrient Digestion and Metabolism of Short-Haired Black Minks(Mustelidae vison)in Furring Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 吴琼; 荣敏; 吴学壮; 邢秀梅

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化代谢的影响。选择96只120日龄、体重相近、健康的短毛黑水貂,随机分成4组,每组24只。4组水貂分别饲喂油脂为豆油(Ⅰ组)、鸡油(Ⅱ组)、鱼油(Ⅲ组)、猪油(Ⅳ组)的试验饲粮,试验期80 d。结果表明:1)各组公貂的干物质消化率、粗蛋白质消化率、粗脂肪消化率均无显著差异( P>0.05),各组母貂的干物质采食量、干物质消化率、粗蛋白质消化率均无显著差异( P>0.05)。2)各组公貂和母貂的粪氮、氮沉积、蛋白质生物学价值均无显著差异( P>0.05)。Ⅰ组母貂净蛋白质利用率显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.05)。3)Ⅱ组公貂总能、尿能、消化能、代谢能显著高于Ⅲ组( P<0.05),各组公貂的粪能、总能消化率、总能代谢率和消化能代谢率无显著差异( P>0.05)。各组母貂的总能、消化能、代谢能、总能消化率无显著差异(P>0.05),Ⅳ组母貂的粪能、尿能显著高于Ⅲ组(P<0.05)。由此可知,饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化率代谢没有明显影响。%This study was conducted to study the effects of dietary fat sources on nutrient digestion and metabo-lism of short-haired black minks in furring period. Ninety six 120-day-old healthy short-haired black minks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 24 minks in each group. Minks in the four groups were fed the experimental diets with fat sources of soybean oil( group Ⅰ),chicken fat( group Ⅱ),fish oil ( group Ⅲ)and lard( group Ⅳ),respectively. The experiment lasted for 80 days. The results showed as fol-lows:1)there were no significant difference on the digestibility of dry matter,crude protein and ether extract of male minks among all groups( P>0.05). There were no significant difference on dry matter

  2. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the field of sleep medicine. Join the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to further your career and ... MD Sept. 21 - As president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, I am keenly aware of ...

  3. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  4. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  5. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  6. American Academy of Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  7. Delusion of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云芳

    2014-01-01

    Martin Eden by Jack London and The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzergald are both stories describing the delusion of American dream. They share much in common for they are discussing the same themes actually. By analyzing the two protagonists’life experience and deaths respectively,we try to explore the profound meaning hidden under the surface.

  8. Arab American Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  9. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  10. Saga of American Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; Smith, Ronald A.

    This history of sports and athletic activities in America covers a time span from the close of the sixteenth century to the present time. It is divided into three major sections. The first, "Colonial and Early American Sport," narrates the early moral and ethical attitudes of the Puritans and follows the changes in attitudes and introduction of…

  11. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and ... their eyebrows, widening their eyes, and tilting their bodies forward. Just as with other languages, specific ways of expressing ideas in ASL vary ...

  12. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  13. American Board of Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suite 860 Philadelphia, PA 19103 215.568.4000 Facebook Twitter Site Map © 2003-2017 American Board of Surgery, Inc. All rights reserved. Training & Certification Toggle navigation arrow Becoming Certified Dates & Fees Taking a Computer Exam International Training & Visas For Residency & Fellowship Programs ...

  14. American Society of Neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASNR American Society of Neuroradiology Forgot username or password ? .: International Day Of Radiology :. Tues, Nov 8 is International Day of Radiology. ... you celebrate, #neurorad? #IDoR2016 Once again, the European Society of Radiology has created a wonderful ... Tues, Nov ...

  15. Cultural Vignette: Vietnamese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This booklet, developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, presents the findings of a nine-member research team on various aspects of the history and culture of Vietnamese Americans. The areas covered are: (1) the Vietnamese as immigrant, which includes a discussion of the trauma and…

  16. The American Oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  17. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  18. English for American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  19. Latin American cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  20. BYD's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native ... among American Indians: The mythical and real properties. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 18(2):121-143. www. ...

  2. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  3. Demythologizing the Mexican American Father

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This review presents recent studies on Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood of Mexican American individuals. It describes the myths that create methodological and conceptual problems in conducting research studies to characterize Mexican American fathers. It also…

  4. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic…

  5. Native American Loyalists and Patriots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsh, Russel Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    Many American Indians experienced the American Revolution differently; Western tribes fearful of American expansionism tended to become loyalists, while east coast tribes already submerged in English society generally saw the rebellion as an opportunity to prove themselves deserving of full political equality via loyalty to their patriot…

  6. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  7. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  8. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  9. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size.

  10. Remarks on American Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Language serves as the tool of communication between people.In any language persons,things and activities that are ta⁃boos should not be talked about or should be mentioned in a roundabout way. it is not only a linguistic phenomenon but also a social phenomenon.The origin of taboo is deeply rooted in the social and cultural background. Today in the increasingly frequent cross-cultural communication, if you do not understand the language taboos, it will hinder the smooth communication. This pa⁃per will talk about American taboos from two aspects.It is designed to help English learners understand American culture and im⁃prove competence of cross-cultural communication.

  11. American Scholars Visited SCUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuChengfa

    2004-01-01

    On October 18, South-Central University for Nationalities (SCUN)welcomed an American academic delegation headed by Professor David Van Buren, vice chancellor of Platteville Campus of University of Wisconsin(UW-P). At the reception ceremony,Professor Li Buhai, Party Chairman of SCUN, and Professor Chen Dayun,president of the university made a brief introduction to the school, and then both parties reached a preliminary agreement on the cooperative education.

  12. Baseball and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    byJillMoss; 朱汉昌

    2004-01-01

    棒球在传统上被称之为美国的国家娱乐活动。那私,农业经济是如何起源和发展的呢?为什么美国人对棒球的兴趣没有以前浓了呢?Basball and American Culture一支将告诉你这一切。

  13. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  14. Latin American Insurgencies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    poses one of the great ironies of recent military history. In an era when rapid technological development can render state- of-the- art prototypes...linked to Sali a- dor-ati terrorist operat ik s m orking through lhe Re’ olutionar\\ [) art \\ of’ Central American Workers-1.1dOUNteL11 \\\\fillh Cuban- N...Revolutionary Army Frente Urbano Zapatista (FUZ). See Zapatista Urban Front FAR. See Rebel Armed Forces FSLN. See Sandinista National Farabundo Marti

  15. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  16. Introduction: Latin American gentrifications

    OpenAIRE

    López-Morales, E.; Shin, H.B; Lees, L.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Latin American cities are seeing simultaneous processes of reinvestment and redevelopment in their historic central areas. These are not just mega-scale interventions like Porto Maravilha in Rio or Puerto Madero in Buenos Aires or the luxury renovations seen in Santa Fé or Nueva Polanco in Mexico City, they also include state-led, piecemeal, high-rise interventions in Santiago, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Panamá and Bogotá, all of which are causing the displacement of original po...

  17. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  18. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  19. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  20. History Descending a Staircase: American Historians and American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pells, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that the vast majority of American historians no longer regard American culture--whether high culture or mainstream popular culture--as an essential area of study. The much-vaunted culture turn in the humanities has run its course in one of the first disciplines it influenced. Indeed, most of the books today…

  1. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  2. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  3. Isolation, Identification and Biological Characteristics of Lactobacillus from Health Minks%一株水貂源乳杆菌的分离鉴定及生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚松; 刘坤; 温建新; 邹玲

    2013-01-01

    为研究适用于水貂的专用菌制剂,试验采集健康成年母貂的新鲜肠粘膜和粪便,用改良MRS培养基,对肠道与粪便中的微生物进行分离培养,筛选优势菌株,观察其菌落形态,并进行生化试验和16S rRNA分子生物学鉴定,并对其生长情况和安全性等生物特性进行了研究.结果表明,优势菌株(RSJ)为乳酸杆菌;生长6h进入对数期,前18 h菌株繁殖较快,pH急速下降;18~36 h,菌株维持在稳定期;pH 2.0和3.0时菌株不生长,pH 5.0和6.0时生长良好;对青霉素和环丙沙星的耐药性较强,对其余的抗生素则表现为敏感;菌株RSJ对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌均有抑菌作用.安全性试验显示,RSJ对小鼠无毒性.RSJ菌株具备了益生菌的基本条件,为进一步研究与开发微生态制剂奠定了基础.%In order to investigate the mink special beneficial bacteria,fresh intestinal mucosa and feces were taken by sterile from a healthy adult female mink in this test.Its intestinal and fecal microbes were isolated and cultured through improved MRS medium,a predominant strain was screened and named RSJ,Its colony morphology,microscopic characteristics,biochemical test were detected and was identified by 16S rRNA molecular biological experiments.Also the biological characteristics of the growth and security were studied.The results show that:the RSJ strain is Lactobacillus.The growth situation results showed that:the strain growed into logarithmic phase by liquid culture 6h,by 18h strain breeding faster.The value of pH was the rapid decline; 18-36 h,strains grew into a stable period.Acid-resistant test results showed that:the strain didn't grow at pH values of 2.0 and 3.0,strains grew well at the pH values of 5.0 and 6.0.Susceptibility testing and antibacterial test results showed that:the RSJ strain had strong resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin,not sensitive to the rest of the antibiotics; RSJ strain had significant inhibitory

  4. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  5. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  6. The American Montessori Society, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Gilbert E.

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a brief history of the establishment of the American Montessori Society (AMS) and takes a closer look at its structure. The history of AMS has essentially been a search for standards and a search for community in its efforts to further the welfare of children in America. It has been an indigenous effort by American parents, and…

  7. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  8. Canadian Literature in American Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  9. Native American College Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…

  10. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  11. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  12. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  13. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  14. Making American Literatures: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a summer institute that examined the shifting shape of American Literature, and teaching American Literature. Includes ways in which students help "make" literature with their own writing. Discusses the contributions of new technologies, pairing unlikely combinations of texts, and including middle school teachers who teach individual…

  15. American Higher Education in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at…

  16. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  17. Human Behavior and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Eisenbise, Margaret DeOcampo

    Divided into five sections, the monograph is intended to make students aware that the practices customary to social work agencies are not relevant to the needs of most American Indian clientele. The first section provides an overview of the following historical, geographical, and cultural areas of American Indian tribes: California, Plateau, Great…

  18. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  19. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Education This Fall Membership Join the American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine as a member and ... Henry Schein Dental Myerson/Frantz Design Copyright © American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, All Rights Reserved. American ...

  20. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...

  1. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  2. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  3. 饲粮锌添加水平对繁殖期雄性水貂繁殖性能、营养物质消化率及氮代谢的影响%Effects of Dietary Zinc Supplemental Level on Reproductive Performance,Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Metabolism of Reproducing Male Minks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学壮; 张铁涛; 杨颖; 刘志; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2013-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮锌添加水平对繁殖期雄性水貂繁殖性能、营养物质消化率及氮代谢的影响.选择健康后备种雄性水貂60只,随机分成5组,每组12个重复,每个重复1只貂.各组水貂分别饲喂锌添加水平为0(Ⅰ组)、50(Ⅱ组)、100(Ⅲ组)、200(Ⅳ组)、400 mg/kg(Ⅴ组)的试验饲粮.预试期7d,正试期120 d.结果表明:1)Ⅰ组精子活力极显著低于Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组(P<0.01),显著低于Ⅴ组(P<0.05);Ⅰ组睾丸直径极显著小于Ⅱ组(P<0.01),显著小于Ⅲ组(P<0.05);Ⅰ组公貂成功配种次数极显著小于Ⅲ组(P<0.01),显著小于Ⅱ组和Ⅳ组(P<0.05). 2)各组干物质采食量、脂肪消化率差异不显著(P>0.05);Ⅲ组干物质排出量显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05);Ⅱ组干物质消化率极显著高于Ⅴ组(P<0.01),显著高于Ⅳ组(P<0.05);Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组蛋白质消化率显著高于Ⅴ组(P<0.05).3)各组食入氮、尿氮、氮沉积、净蛋白质利用率、蛋白质生物学价值均差异不显著(P>0.05).由此可见,饲粮锌添加水平为50 ~ 100 mg/kg(总锌水平140~190 mg/kg)时,水貂的繁殖性能较为理想.饲粮锌添加水平为100 mg/kg(总锌水平190 mg/kg)时,水貂的干物质采食量较高.饲粮锌添加水平对水貂的干物质采食量、脂肪消化率、氮沉积、净蛋白质利用率及蛋白质生物学价值影响不显著.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary zinc supplemental level on reproductive performance,nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of reproducing male minks.Sixty healthy male minks were randomly divided into 5 groups with 12 replicates per group and 1 mink per replicate.The minks in the 5 groups were fed experimental diets with zinc supplemental levels of 0 (group Ⅰ),50 (group Ⅱ),100 (group Ⅲ),200 (group Ⅳ) and 400 mg/kg (group Ⅴ),respectively.The pre-test period lasted for 7 days and the trial period lasted for 120 days.The results showed as

  4. Estrutura populacional da Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae nas áreas de reprodução do Oceano Atlântico Sul Minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae population structure in the breeding grounds off South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alineide Lucena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo da composição dos grupos de baleias minke, Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister, 1867, capturadas nas águas de Costinha, Paraíba, Brasil, na época da caça comercial, foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a dinâmica dos principais parâmetros biológicos, assim como aspectos do comportamento reprodutivo desta espécie. Foram analisados dados da caça coletados pela Superintendência para o Desenvolvimento da Pesca e Companhia de Pesca Norte do Brasil acerca do tamanho e composição dos grupos, proporções sexuais e grau de maturidade das baleias capturadas entre os anos de 1975 a 1985. Os grupos encontrados nas águas de Costinha foram em geral de pequeno tamanho e compostos de animais de ambos os sexos, com predominância de fêmeas e animais maturos sexualmente. Os filhotes, as fêmeas lactantes e prenhes foram raramente encontrados. Esta população de baleias encontrava-se em maior número na costa da Paraíba entre os meses de setembro e outubro, principal período de concepção para a espécie, devendo ocorrer grande número de fecundações nesta área e período. A ausência de fêmeas prenhes ou lactantes e filhotes nesta população demonstra que os nascimentos não ocorrem nesta área. O encalhe e a avistagem de filhotes da baleia minke na costa leste da América do Sul (entre 25ºS e 40ºS sugere o nascimento dos filhotes em médias latitudes desta região, onde a temperatura da água é inferior à encontrada na costa do nordeste brasileiro. Desta forma há indícios de que existam distintas áreas para o nascimento de filhotes e o acasalamento da baleia minke nas águas do Oceano Atlântico Sul Ocidental. A poligamia é um comportamento reprodutivo apresentado pela baleia minke, tendo sido observado através da proporção sexual das capturas e da composição dos grupos formados apenas por animais maturos sexualmente nesta área de acasalamento.A group composition study of the minke whale, Balaenoptera

  5. 检测动物产品中水貂阿留申病毒和犬细小病毒复合PCR方法的建立和应用%Establishment and Application of Multi-PCR Detective Methods for the Detection of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus and Canine Parvovirus in Animal Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟; 李叶; 胡传伟

    2012-01-01

      水貂阿留申病(AD)和犬细小病毒病(CP)是危害经济动物健康的重要疫病,可造成巨大的经济损失。本研究建立了水貂阿留申病毒(ADV)、犬细小病毒(CPV)复合PCR检测方法,并对临床样品进行了大量检测,结果表明本方法特异、敏感、简便、快速,非常适宜临床样品的大量筛选检测,对经济动物疫情的快速诊断与控制、加强经济动物及其产品进出境的检验检疫工作,御疫情于国门之外有重要的意义。%  Aleutian mink disease and canine parvovirus disease are two important diseases causing great economic loss to fur animal industry. In the study,a multi-PCR assay was developed for detection of Aleutian mink disease and canine parvovirus and the assay was applied in testing a lot of clinical samples. The results showed that the assay was specific,sensitive and rapid,and suitable for screening test.

  6. Bilingualism (Ancestral Language Maintenance) among Native American, Vietnamese American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharry, Cheryl

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 21 Hispanic, 22 Native American, and 10 Vietnamese American college students found that adoption or maintenance of ancestral language was related to attitudes toward ancestral language, beliefs about parental attitudes, and integrative motivation (toward family and ancestral ethnic group). There were significant differences by gender…

  7. Gothic roots: Brockden Brown's Wieland, American identity, and American literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. Mautner Wasserman

    2012-11-01

    Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.

  8. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  9. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  10. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  11. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  12. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  13. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  14. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  15. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  16. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work in your practice Promote your practice with marketing tools from the ASDS Branding Campaign. Free and ... new clinical research projects through its Cutting Edge Research Grant program. Learn ... methods. Copyright © 1971–2016. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery ( ...

  17. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  18. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... College & University Listings FEPAC Accredited Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What ... Legislative Corner Forensic Sciences Foundation American Society of Forensic Odontology Research Grants Academy Standards Board (ASB) Account Portal ...

  19. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  20. American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Interest Mobile App Privacy Policy Privacy Policy Social Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use American Society of Clinical Oncology ASCO Annual Meeting Register and Reserve Your Hotel June 2-6, 2017 | Chicago, Illinois Hotel Reservation & ...

  1. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  2. American Health Information Management Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2017 by The American Health ...

  3. Japanese Management: An American Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Robert R.

    1979-01-01

    In contrast to the American system of management, Japanese management motivates its employees by challenging them with high goals and by providing inhouse training and development opportunities to meet their self-fulfillment needs. (Author/LD)

  4. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  5. Medical Research for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... information that is based on the very best medical research conducted by and for the National Institutes of ...

  6. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travels. Hakim performs here her own approach to Arab American womanhood. In this essay Koegeler-Abdi contextualizes...... herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  7. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  8. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  9. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  10. Purchasing The American Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Afalling giant is still huge There are reports that American Big Three are going to shut down 59 plants in this January to hold more cash for a supporting hand from the government. From the viewpoint of accountant practice and investment bank,it is the best time for local car producers to go abroad."Trapped American auto industry is much devalued and it is the best time for local producers

  11. Vietnam, Four American Perspectives: Lectures

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, George S.; Westmoreland, William C.; Luttwak, Edward N.; McCormick, Thomas J.; Hearden, Patrick F.

    1990-01-01

    This collection of speeches delivered in 1987 presents the widely diverging opinions of four men: an eminent politician, a professional soldier, a government consultant, and a distinguished scholar. The first contributor, Senator George S. McGovern, ran as the Democratic candidate for president in 1972 on a platform that called for the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam. The second speaker, General William C. Westmoreland, commanded American military forces in Vietnam until growing ba...

  12. Individualistic Heroism in American Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽茜

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the features of heroes and individualistic heroism in different kinds of American films. The former examines the commons of heroes through illustration. The latter categories the typical types of American films and explores individualistic heroism in them. This article shows that individualistic heroism is taken into people's heart and influence their mindsets, and points out that America advertises its value through films to affect the whole world.

  13. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  14. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  15. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  16. The Violence Factors in American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2015-01-01

    Violence symbolized the dark side of America culture. The theme of this article is to explore the causes of the violence factors in American culture. American violence exists as a result of a complex network of elements from American history, American value, various social factors such as economic inequality, racial discrimination, mass media, wide spread of guns as well as drug abuse. Besides, the governmental policy plays an essential role in American violence to some extent.

  17. THE AMERICAN CULTURE WARS AND AMERICAN LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJingqiong

    2004-01-01

    The American Culture Wars have had a great impact on gender and racial relations in the US and have triggered the transformation of its literary canon. American literature textbooks in China. however, are not reaping the fruits of the US cultural debates, a conclusion based on a survey of eight popular textbooks recently published by prestigious publishing houses.Given the significance of the US sociopolitical base in shaping the canon and the lecturers' dependence on the textbooks, they need immediate and drastic improvement. The paper is rounded off with some cues on what to improve.

  18. 美国话语与美国文化%American Words and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏

    2003-01-01

    Language is a key component part of culture. It reflects culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words reflect American culture, including their custom, their view of value, their character traits. Being a melting pot, American words melt a lot of loanwords. The exaggerated use of words shows Americans are self-confidence. They also use beautified words to show their wish to life, to future. They can use common words, usually slang to express special ideas. By doing so, they create something new and original. Learning American English, especially studying American words, we can see some typical traits of American culture.

  19. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  20. 日粮锌源与添加水平对冬毛期母貂体重和养分消化代谢的影响%Effects of Zinc Resources and Levels in Ration on Body Weight and Digestibility and Metabolism of Nutrients of Female Mink in Furring Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进军; 刘洁; 任二军; 李亚青; 李晓华

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sources and levels of zinc on body weight ,nutrient digestibility and nitro-gen balance of female mink in furring period .Eighty four female minks were randomly allocated into 7 groups ,each with 12 replicates .The diets were supplemented with zinc methionine at levels of 0mg/kg(group A) ,15mg/kg(group B) ,30mg/kg(group C) ,45mg/kg(group D) ,60mg/kg (group E) ,75mg/kg(group F) and with Zinc sulfate at the level of 60mg/kg(group G) ,respectively .The results showed that ,there were no significant difference between group E and group G on body weight ,nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of female mink ( P>0.05 ) ,but fat digestibility was significantly higher than that of group G .Body weight(160d) and average daily gain of group E were the highest ,significant-ly higher than that of group D ( P<0.05 ) .Protein digestibility of group D was the highest ,markedly higher than that of group C ( P<0.05 ) .Fat digestibility of group B was evidently higher ( P<0.05 ) than those of other groups having different Zinc levels ( P<0.05 ) .In conclusion ,body weight and digestibility could be improved by using zinc methionine in diet for female minks in furring period .%本试验旨在研究不同锌源与水平对冬毛期母貂体重、养分消化率及氮代谢的影响。选择84只母貂作为试验动物,随机分为7组,每组12只,日粮中分别添加蛋氨酸螯合锌0mg/kg (A组)、15mg/kg (B组)、30mg/kg (C组)、45mg/kg (D组)、60mg/kg (E组)、75mg/kg (F组)和硫酸锌60mg/kg (G组)。结果表明,E组与G组母貂的体重、养分消化率和氮平衡没有显著差异( P>0.05),但B组脂肪消化率显著高于G组;E组母貂的体重(160d)和平均日增重最高,显著高于D组( P<0.05);D组母貂蛋白质消化率最高,与C组差异显著( P<0.05);B组母貂脂肪消化率显著地高于其他各水平组( P<0

  1. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War......—or China—policy (creating acceptance of this policy was never a university aim). On the other hand, the universities have—despite proselytizing and later US foreign policy—been academically very successful and held great attraction to Lebanese and Middle Eastern—as Chinese—students. These students have...

  2. Dove Stewed with American Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; MIN

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:Three doves, 10g American ginseng, 5g salt, 10g cookingwine, 30g scallion and ginger, 3g MSG, 2g white pepperpowder, 5g sesame oil arid 700g broth.Method:1. Cook the doves in boiling water for a short while, softenthe American ginseng in lukewarm water, then cut it intopieces;, mince the scallion and ginger.2. Put the doves into a clay pot, add broth, sliced Americanginseng and flavorings. Bring to the boil, then reduce heatand stew gently until the doves are tender. Remove fromheat and place on a flat plate. Sprinkle the sesame oil andserve

  3. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  4. Effects of Dietary Protein Levels on Selected Serum Biochemical Indices of Minks during the Winter Hair Period%饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂部分血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 张志强; 刘汇涛; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂血清含氮物质、氮代谢和抗氧化能力的影响.选择90日龄健康雄性水貂60只,随机分成6组(每组10个重复,每个重复1只水貂).分别饲喂蛋白质水平为28%(Ⅰ组)、30%(Ⅱ组)、32%(Ⅲ组)、34%(Ⅳ组)、36%(Ⅴ组)、38%(Ⅵ组)的试验饲粮.预试期7 d,正式期90 d,饲养试验结束后进行屠宰,制备血清并测定相关生化指标.结果表明,Ⅲ组水貂的血清总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白含量显著或极显著高于其他各试验组(P0.05);Ⅳ组水貂血清总氨基酸含量极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ组(P0.05);Ⅳ组水貂的血清谷丙转氨酶活性显著高于Ⅲ组(P0.015);Ⅳ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组水貂的血清超氧化物歧化酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅱ和Ⅲ组(P0.05).由此得出,冬毛期水貂饲粮蛋白质水平达到34%时,机体的蛋白质合成效率相对较高,抗氧化能力相对较强.%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary protein levels on serum nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant capacity of minks during the winter hair period. Sixty healthy 90-day-old male minks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 replicates per group and 1 mink per replicate. The minks were fed the experimental diets with 28% ( group Ⅰ ), 30% ( group Ⅱ ), 32%(group Ⅲ), 34% ( group Ⅳ), 36% (group Ⅴ ) and 38% (group Ⅵ) protein levels, respectively. The trial lasted for 97 d with 7 d of pretrial, and then the minks were slaughtered. The serum was centrifuged and the relative biochemical indices were determined. The results showed as follows: the contents of serum total protein, albumin and globulin in group Ⅲ were significantly higher than those in other groups ( P < 0.05 or P <0.01 ), and no significant difference was found among other groups ( P > 0.05 ); serum total amino acid content in group Ⅳ was significantly higher than that in groups Ⅰ ,

  5. Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Gastrointestinal Digestive Enzyme Activity and Jejunal Morphology in Minks during Winter Hair Period%饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂胃肠道消化酶活性以及空肠形态结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 崔虎; 岳志刚; 杨颖; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2012-01-01

    本文旨在研究饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂胃肠道消化酶活性以及空肠形态结构的影响.选择90日龄的健康公貂60只,随机分成6组(每组10个重复,每个重复1只),分别饲喂蛋白质水平为28%(Ⅰ组)、30%(Ⅱ组)、32%(Ⅲ组)、34%(Ⅳ组)、36%(Ⅴ组)和38%(Ⅵ组)的试验饲粮.预试期7d,正试期115 d.饲养试验结束后进行屠宰,制备胃肠道内容物上清液,用于测定消化酶活性;制备空肠组织切片,用于观察空肠的形态结构.结果表明:Ⅴ组水貂的胃蛋白酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ组(P<0.01),与Ⅳ和Ⅵ组差异不显著(P>0.05).Ⅳ组水貂的十二指肠和空肠胰淀粉酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01).Ⅳ和Ⅴ组水貂的回肠胰淀粉酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅰ和Ⅱ组(P<0.05或P<0.01).Ⅳ组水貂的十二指肠胰蛋白酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01),空肠胰蛋白酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01).Ⅲ组水貂的回肠胰蛋白酶活性显著高于Ⅵ组(P<0.05),与其他各组差异不显著(P>0.05).Ⅵ组水貂的十二指肠胰脂肪酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅱ、Ⅳ和Ⅴ组(P<0.05或P<0.01),空肠胰脂肪酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ和Ⅴ组(P <0.05或P<0.01).Ⅰ、Ⅲ和Ⅴ组水貂的回肠胰脂肪酶活性极显著高于Ⅱ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01),与Ⅳ组差异不显著(P>0.05).饲粮蛋白质水平为36%时,水貂空肠绒毛高度、隐窝深度、绒毛高度与隐窝深度比值、黏膜厚度以及肠壁厚度均处在较高水平.由此得出,饲粮蛋白质水平可影响冬毛期水貂胃肠道消化酶活性,并可调节其空肠形态结构.%The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of dietary protein level on gastrointestinal digestive enzyme activity and jejunal morphology in minks during winter hair period. Sixty healthy male minks at 90 days of age

  6. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  7. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

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    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  8. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

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    ... The Research Foundation of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) and the Society of American ... W. OIympic Blvd Suite 600 Los Angeles, CA 90064 USA webmaster@sages.org Tel: (310) 437- ...

  9. Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication

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    ... fullstory_162979.html Native Americans Make Progress Against Diabetes Complication Kidney failure down by 54 percent over 2 ... Failure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Complications Kidney Failure Native American Health About MedlinePlus Site ...

  10. Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160985.html Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans Rates accelerate especially ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study finds widespread hearing loss among elderly Americans, with an especially high rate ...

  11. Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll

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    ... gov/news/fullstory_162314.html Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll Their opinions aren't driven by politics ... News) -- Americans are split on the value of organic foods and concerns about genetically modified (GM) foods, a ...

  12. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

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    ... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...

  13. Guide to Sources: American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas H., Comp.

    Designed to introduce students to some of the basic bibliographic tools in American history available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine, this guide begins by listing examples of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings and providing brief explanations of the call numbers and classification systems (Library of Congress and Dewey…

  14. Eisenhower and the American Sublime

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    O'Gorman, Ned

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential rhetoric as an iteration of an American synecdochal sublime. Eisenhower's rhetoric sought to re-aim civic sight beyond corporeal objects to the nation's transcendental essence. This rhetoric is intimately connected to prevailing political anxieties and exigencies, especially the problem of…

  15. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  16. Arab American Experiences in Education

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    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  17. Counseling Considerations among Arab Americans.

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    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a focus group interview conducted with a group of therapists in a large-scale, comprehensive family service agency in an Arab American community. The interview format was semistructured, and the results confirmed what little was already known about the population and supplemented that body of knowledge with updated…

  18. Ending Discrimination Against Arab Americans.

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    Abourezk, James G.; Revell, Oliver B.

    1983-01-01

    Abourezk holds that Arab Americans are victims of much racial hatred and stereotyping and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been the primary governmental agency abusing the civil rights of this group. Revell, an official of the FBI, counters Abourezk's contentions. (GC)

  19. The Evil that Americans Did

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    Smith, John David

    2007-01-01

    Slavery's unequivocal evil lies at the heart of debates over apologizing for America's "peculiar institution" and awarding reparations. In The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform, a provocative collection of original essays, the editors Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, along with 23 contributors,…

  20. On Being a Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Joe I.

    1994-01-01

    A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…