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Sample records for american lobster homarus

  1. Nutritional quality of the edible tissues of European lobster Homarus gammarus and American lobster Homarus americanus.

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    Barrento, Sara; Marques, António; Teixeira, Bárbara; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2009-05-13

    The clawed lobsters Homarus gammarus and Homarus americanus are high-priced and appreciated food items in southern Europe. From a nutritional point of view there is still limited information on the chemical composition of edible tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, and gonads) of both species. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to study the proximate chemical composition, energy, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and cholesterol content in each edible tissue of both species and to evaluate their nutritional quality. Differences were observed between tissues, sexes, and species. Muscle and gonads were rich in protein, whereas hepatopancreas had high fat, cholesterol, and energy contents. All edible tissues were valuable sources of essential amino acids. Contrary to the common belief that shellfish consumption should be reduced in a low-fat and -cholesterol diet, all edible tissues of clawed lobsters have a nutritious value perfectly compatible with nutritious and healthy diets. PMID:19334784

  2. A comparison of the structure of American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobster cuticle with particular reference to shell disease susceptibility.

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    Davies, Charlotte E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kim, Anita; Wootton, Emma C; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Tlusty, Michael; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-03-01

    The integument of arthropods is an important first-line defence against the invasion of parasites and pathogens. Once damaged, this can be subject to colonisation by microbial agents from the surrounding environment, which in crustaceans can lead to a condition termed shell disease syndrome. This condition has been reported in several crustacean species, including crabs and lobsters. The syndrome is a progressive condition where the outer cuticle becomes pitted and eroded, and in extreme cases is compromised, leaving animals susceptible to septicaemia. This study examined the susceptibility of juvenile American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobsters to shell disease, as a result of mechanical damage. Scanning electron microscopy was used as a method to identify differences in the cuticle structure and consequences of mechanical damage. Claw regions were aseptically punctured, whilst carapaces were abraded using sterile sandpaper, to mimic natural damage. After a period of between 10 and 12 weeks, lobsters were sacrificed, fixed and stored for later examination. The carapace and claws of juvenile American lobsters were shown to be thinner and more vulnerable to abrasion damage than their European counterparts. In addition, the number and distribution of setal pits and pore canal openings also differed between the two species of lobster. Mechanical damage resulted in the formation of shell disease lesions on the claw and carapace of both lobster species. However, American lobsters, unlike their European counterparts, had extensive bacterial colonisation on the margins of these lesions. Overall, it is concluded that the cuticle of the American lobster is more susceptible to damage and resulting microbial colonisation. This may have implications for susceptibility of both species of lobster to shell disease syndrome. PMID:24468664

  3. Aroma components of cooked tail meat of American lobster (Homarus americanus).

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    Lee, G H; Suriyaphan, O; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-09-01

    Key aroma components of cooked tail meat of American lobster (Homarus americanus) were studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) techniques. Components of low and intermediate volatility were evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis of solvent extracts prepared by direct solvent extraction-high vacuum distillation and vacuum steam distillation-solvent extraction, whereas headspace volatile components were assessed by GCO of decreasing headspace (static and dynamic modes) samples. Forty-seven odorants were detected by all techniques. 3-Methylbutanal (chocolate, malty), 2,3-butanedione (buttery), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 1-octen-3-one (mushroom), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber), were identified as predominant odorants by all four isolation methods. The highly volatile compounds methanethiol (rotten, sulfurous) and dimethyl sulfide (canned corn) were detected by headspace methods only. These eight odorants along with three unknown compounds with crabby, amine, fishy odors were found to predominate in the overall aroma of cooked lobster tail meat. PMID:11559132

  4. Effect of confinement and starvation on stress parameters in the American lobster (Homarus americanus

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    Edo D'Agaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The American lobster (Homarus americanus is one of the most important crustacean resources in North America. In Italy and Europe, this fishery product is available throughout the year and it has a high and increasing commercial demand. American lobsters are traditionally marketed live and stocked, without feed, in temperature controlled recirculating systems for several weeks before being sold in the market places. The current Italian legislation does not fix a maximum length of time for the crustacean confinement and specific welfare requirements. In the present research, a 4-week experiment was carried out using 42 adult H. americanus reared in 4 recirculating aquaculture tanks. After one month of confinement, mean glucose, protein and total haemocyte count levels in the hemolymph of H. americanus were stable and similar (P>0.05 to the values observed at the beginning of the experiment. Results of the proximate analysis of the abdominal muscles of H. americanus showed no significant differences in concentrations of crude protein, lipid and ash during the trial. At the end of the experiment, the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis revealed a marked degradation of the muscle myofibrillar proteins. A number of fragments, possibly from myosin, were evident in the range between 50 and 220 kDa between time t0 and t28. Results of this study show that the main hemolymphatic variables and degradation analysis of the muscle myofibrillar proteins can be used as sensitive indicators of the crustacean stress response to confinement and starvation.

  5. Aerococcus viridans expression of Cpn60 is associated with virulence during infection of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne Edwards.

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    Clark, K F; Greenwood, S J

    2011-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Aerococcus viridans var. homari is a well-documented causative agent of the lethal systemic disease gaffkemia in both the American lobster, Homarus americanus, and the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Previous phenotypic characterization has been unsuccessful at differentiating avirulent from virulent strains without performing lethal animal infection trials. Recent genetic characterization of A. viridans strains through 16S rRNA sequencing and random amplification of polymorphic DNA fingerprinting has revealed the presence of two subtypes. However, subtype 1 contains both virulent and avirulent strains which are genetically identical. The purpose of this study was to determine the proteomic mediators of virulence in A. viridans. Quantitative proteomic mapping of these two strains has revealed 29 differentially expressed protein spots, seven of which are only expressed in the virulent strain and could act as virulence factors. One protein, chaperonin 60 (Cpn60), is uniquely expressed in the virulent strain and has been shown to act as a virulence factor in many other bacteria. The proteomic mapping strategy employed in this study is the first to show phenotypic differences between virulent and avirulent strains. Cpn60 expression represents a potentially useful tool for identifying the virulent strains of A. viridans in epidemiological studies. PMID:21988355

  6. Development, characterisation, inheritance, and cross-species utility of American lobster (Homarus americanus) microsatellite and mtDNA PCR-RFLP markers.

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    Jones, Matthew W; O'Reilly, Patrick T; McPherson, Arran A; McParland, Tara L; Armstrong, Dawn E; Cox, Andrea J; Spence, Koren R; Kenchington, Ellen L; Taggart, Chris T; Bentzen, Paul

    2003-02-01

    Effective management of exploited species demands contemporary knowledge of population structure and mating patterns. Genetic markers can prove useful in providing this knowledge. Despite its commercial importance, genetic markers for American lobster (Homarus americanus) are limited. We developed 12 tetra- and 1 trinucleotide microsatellite loci for American lobster that exhibit little stuttering after PCR amplification. Gene diversity of these loci ranged from 0.516 to 0.929. A four-locus multiplex permits rapid genotyping of progeny in parentage experiments with a paternity exclusion probability over the four loci of 97.8%. We examined the loci for conformity to Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) and linkage using individuals from one location and found that four loci deviated from HWE. We also tested inheritance and pairwise linkage using 48 embryos from each of two females. With the exception of two loci that were derived from the same clone and separated by 72 bp, no evidence of linkage was found. We, for the first time, demonstrate the occurrence of multiple paternity in American lobster. We also observed an apparent occurrence of dispermic androgenesis, possibly the first documentation of such an event within a species. Ten of the loci amplified in European lobster (Homarus gammarus), although two were monomorphic and one deviated significantly from HWE. We quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation through the use of PCR amplification of two DNA fragments, followed by digestion with restriction enzymes; eight haplotypes were detected. One of the two fragments amplified in European lobster. Both sets of markers should prove useful for population discrimination purposes, and the microsatellites, in particular the four-locus multiplex, should prove highly amenable to rapidly addressing questions about mating patterns. PMID:12669797

  7. Low-salinity stress in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, after chronic sublethal exposure to cadmium: Biochemical effects

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    Gould, E.

    1980-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to cadmium (6 ..mu..g 1sup(-1), 30 days) in flowing seawater, then held for 7 days in aerated 'clean' seawater at either ambient (27 per mill) or low (17 per mill) salinity. Cadmium exposure alone (ambient salinity) induced a general elevation of enzyme activity (heart, antennal gland, and muscle MDH; heart LDH and GPI), despite the probability of some clearance of cadmium from body tissues during the 'clean' seawater holding period. Low-salinity alone (non-exposed lobsters) caused a decrease of enzyme activity (AAT, LDH, GPI, PK) in most tissues examined, except for tail muscle IDH, the activity of which was increased, and MDH, which was significantly elevated above ambient controls in all tissues except heart. Most low-salinity effects were observed in tail muscle, and most cadmium effects, in heart; low-salinity effects outnumbered cadmium stress by nine to four. In heart and tail muscle of cadmium-exposed lobsters held at low salinity, each of the two stresses apparently operated to nullify the other's effects. The most prominent single biochemical response to these sublethal stresses was the elevation of MDH activity. The ratio MDH:LDH gave the clearest indication of overall relative stress.

  8. Identification and characterization of a cDNA encoding a crustin-like, putative antibacterial protein from the American lobster Homarus americanus.

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    Christie, Andrew E; Rus, Szymon; Goiney, Christopher C; Smith, Christine M; Towle, David W; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2007-07-01

    Pathogenic challenges in decapod crustaceans are combated by innate immune responses, including the production and secretion of soluble antibacterial proteins into the hemolymph. Among the antibacterials that have been identified in decapod species are the crustins, a group of four-disulfide core/whey-acidic-protein (WAP) domain-containing proteins, which target marine/salt tolerant Gram-positive bacteria. To begin to assess the possible role of crustins in combating bacterial invasion in the American lobster Homarus americanus, we identified and sequenced a 744 base pair cDNA that encodes a novel 96 amino acid crustin-like protein. Comparison of H. americanus crustin (Hoa-crustin) with crustins from other decapod species showed that it is most similar to an isoform predicted from the European lobster Homarus gammarus ( approximately 86% identity). With our identification of the Hoa-crustin cDNA, we are positioned to begin molecular and physiological investigations of the regulation and function of this putative antibacterial protein in H. americanus. PMID:17418897

  9. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

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    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence.

  10. Field Grow-out of Juvenile American Lobsters in Long Island Sound

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Early benthic stage American lobsters, Homarus americanus, were held in a pilot nursery system in Long Island Sound (LIS) to test field grow-out, as a step toward...

  11. Aspartic cathepsin D endopeptidase contributes to extracellular digestion in clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus.

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    Rojo, Liliana; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Saborowski, Reinhard; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Acid digestive proteinases were studied in the gastric fluids of two species of clawed lobster (Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus). An active protein was identified in both species as aspartic proteinase by specific inhibition with pepstatin A. It was confirmed as cathepsin D by mass mapping, N-terminal, and full-length cDNA sequencing. Both lobster species transcribed two cathepsin D mRNAs: cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2. Cathepsin D1 mRNA was detected only in the midgut gland, suggesting its function as a digestive enzyme. Cathepsin D2 mRNA was found in the midgut gland, gonads, and muscle. The deduced amino acid sequence of cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2 possesses two catalytic DTG active-site motifs, the hallmark of aspartic proteinases. The putatively active cathepsin D1 has a molecular mass of 36.4 kDa and a calculated pI of 4.14 and possesses three potential glycosylation sites. The sequences showed highest similarities with cathepsin D from insects but also with another crustacean cathepsin D. Cathepsin D1 transcripts were quantified during a starvation period using real-time qPCR. In H. americanus, 15 days of starvation did not cause significant changes, but subsequent feeding caused a 2.5-fold increase. In H. gammarus, starvation caused a 40% reduction in cathepsin D1 mRNA, and no effect was observed with subsequent feeding. PMID:20169386

  12. Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus.

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    Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S; Rössle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

    2012-08-01

    Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H(1) and H(2) from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H(1) and H(2) with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85-95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotype-phenotype linkage. PMID:22869108

  13. Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus.

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    Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S; Rössle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

    2012-08-01

    Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H(1) and H(2) from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H(1) and H(2) with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85-95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotype-phenotype linkage.

  14. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

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    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass

  15. Behavioral Thermoregulation and Trade-Offs in Juvenile Lobster Homarus americanus.

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    Nielsen, Travis V; McGaw, Iain J

    2016-02-01

    Water temperature influences the behavior and distribution patterns of both larval and adult American lobster Homarus americanus. However, very little is known about the responses of juvenile lobsters. The juvenile life stage is a critical period; high levels of mortality, combined with specific behavioral responses, can disconnect larval settlement from patterns of abundance of adults. We assessed behavioral thermoregulation in juvenile lobsters, and determined how thermal preferences can be altered by the presence of shelter and food. Juvenile lobsters avoided temperatures higher than 20 °C and lower than 8 °C, and had a mean temperature preference of 16.2 ± 1 °C. This preference was unaffected by prior acclimation, origin (laboratory-raised or wild), or size. When the animals were subjected to a temperature change (5-20 °C), activity rates peaked at 15 °C, and remained stable thereafter. Activity rates did not change when a shelter was added. The addition of food resulted in an increase in activity associated with food handling. When juvenile lobsters were offered a choice between temperature, shelter, and food, they always chose the environment with a shelter, even when it was in a thermally unfavorable temperature. Juveniles also spent more time in a thermally unfavorable environment when food was present; however, acquisition of a shelter was prioritized over food. Although juveniles had a similar thermal preference to adults, they are more vulnerable to predation; the innate shelter-seeking behavior of juveniles overrode their thermal preference. While temperature is an important environmental factor affecting the physiology, distribution, and growth of aquatic ectotherms, our findings suggest that trade-off behaviors occur in order to maintain optimal fitness and survival of the individual. PMID:26896176

  16. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

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    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  17. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

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    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  18. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

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    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  19. Cold-adapted digestive aspartic protease of the clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus: biochemical characterization.

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    Rojo, Liliana; García-Carreño, Fernando; de Los Angeles Navarrete del Toro, Maria

    2013-02-01

    Aspartic proteinases in the gastric fluid of clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus were isolated to homogeneity by single-step pepstatin-A affinity chromatography; such enzymes have been previously identified as cathepsin D-like enzymes based on their deduced amino acid sequence. Here, we describe their biochemical characteristics; the properties of the lobster enzymes were compared with those of its homolog, bovine cathepsin D, and found to be unique in a number of ways. The lobster enzymes demonstrated hydrolytic activity against synthetic and natural substrates at a wider range of pH; they were more temperature-sensitive, showed no changes in the K(M) value at 4°C, 10°C, and 25°C, and had 20-fold higher k(cat)/K(M) values than bovine enzyme. The bovine enzyme was temperature-dependent. We propose that both properties arose from an increase in molecular flexibility required to compensate for the reduction of reaction rates at low habitat temperatures. This is supported by the fast denaturation rates induced by temperature. PMID:22648335

  20. Limited prevalence of gaffkaemia (Aerococcus viridans var. homari) isolated from wild-caught European lobsters Homarus gammarus in England and Wales.

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    Stebbing, P D; Pond, M J; Peeler, E; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J; Verner-Jeffreys, D

    2012-08-27

    Gaffkaemia, caused by Aerococcus viridans var. homari, causes fatal infections in Homarus spp. (clawed lobsters). Despite its high economic significance to the lobster fisheries in the USA and northern Europe, data on its prevalence in captured and wild populations, particularly in Europe, is scarce. Following an outbreak of gaffkaemia in a European lobster holding facility in South Wales (UK), a base-line survey was conducted for gaffkaemia in wild populations of European lobster Homarus gammarus around the coast of England and Wales. In addition, isolates recovered from the original outbreak and the survey were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with previously characterised isolates from the USA, UK and Canada. Locally caught H. gammarus were sampled at 30 sites from around the coast of England and Wales between March 2006 and October 2008. Results confirmed that the prevalence of gaffkaemia in populations of H. gammarus was low, with only 9 positive isolates recovered from 952 samples examined. PFGE analysis showed that the isolates from the outbreak investigation shared the same pulsotype as A. viridans var. homari isolates from the USA, Norway and Canada, as well as an isolate (NCIMB 1119) reportedly recovered from an outbreak of European lobsters in England in the 1960s. This confirms earlier studies that suggest virulent strains of A. viridans var. homari show very limited geographical or temporal genetic variation and were introduced into the UK with American lobsters H. americanus. PMID:23186703

  1. Chemosensitivity of walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus: neurophysiological response spectrum and thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1982-01-01

    Responses of chemoreceptors in the walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus to 35 individual compounds and 3 mixtures (prey odours and extracts) were studied using extracellular recording techniques. Compared against a standard mussel (Mytilus edulis) extract, these receptors were most sensitive to the amino acids L-glutamate, hydroxy-L-proline, L-aspartate, L-arginine, glycine, taurine, and L-alanine, as well as such other compounds as ammonium chloride, betaine, and the tripeptide glutathione. Most of these excitants are among those compounds most prevalent in the prey of lobsters.

  2. Thallium, uranium, and 235U/238U ratios in the digestive gland of American lobster (Homarus americanus) from an industrialized harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only a few studies have concentrated on elements such as thallium (TI). Uranium (U) has been studied as a radionuclide of concern in food and the environment. Foodstuffs contain 10-100 ng U·-1 with vegetables and cereals contributing most heavily to the daily intake of ca 1.5 ug U. Between 10-30% of ingested U is absorbed, with most being stored in bone. Rainbow trout (onchorynchus mykiss) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) from a lake with naturally high radioactivity contained -1 in the flesh. Trout bone contained 40 ng U·g-1. Higher tissue U concentrations occurred in fish from areas receiving U mining wastes. Bioconcentration factors for bone and flesh were estimated to be low, 118 and 14.7, respectively. This paper describes the Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination of Tl and U in digestive gland tissue from lobsters captured in the vicinity of Belledune Harbor, New Brunswick, Canada. The harbor is the site of a lead smelter, a fertilizer plant, and a coal-fired power station (the latter due to enter production in late 1993) and thus has the potential of adding significant amounts of Tl to the local marine environment. The accumulation of Tl from water by marine shellfish is low, at least for bivalves, and the accumulated Tl is eliminated in a number of days when the animals are transferred to clean water. Bioconcentration factors for U in finfish ranged from 0.4-17 for larger species. However, because of the high concentrations of various trace elements in lobster digestive gland, its desirability as a foodstuff, and its relatively large size (approximately 20% of the edible tissue yield), we have investigated Tl and U concentrations and 235U/238U ratios in it. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Thallium, uranium, and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios in the digestive gland of American lobster (Homarus americanus) from an industrialized harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C.L.; Uthe, J.F. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have concentrated on elements such as thallium (TI). Uranium (U) has been studied as a radionuclide of concern in food and the environment. Foodstuffs contain 10-100 ng U{center_dot}{sup -1} with vegetables and cereals contributing most heavily to the daily intake of ca 1.5 ug U. Between 10-30% of ingested U is absorbed, with most being stored in bone. Rainbow trout (onchorynchus mykiss) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) from a lake with naturally high radioactivity contained < 5 ng U{center_dot}g{sup -1} in the flesh. Trout bone contained 40 ng U{center_dot}g{sup -1}. Higher tissue U concentrations occurred in fish from areas receiving U mining wastes. Bioconcentration factors for bone and flesh were estimated to be low, 118 and 14.7, respectively. This paper describes the Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination of Tl and U in digestive gland tissue from lobsters captured in the vicinity of Belledune Harbor, New Brunswick, Canada. The harbor is the site of a lead smelter, a fertilizer plant, and a coal-fired power station (the latter due to enter production in late 1993) and thus has the potential of adding significant amounts of Tl to the local marine environment. The accumulation of Tl from water by marine shellfish is low, at least for bivalves, and the accumulated Tl is eliminated in a number of days when the animals are transferred to clean water. Bioconcentration factors for U in finfish ranged from 0.4-17 for larger species. However, because of the high concentrations of various trace elements in lobster digestive gland, its desirability as a foodstuff, and its relatively large size (approximately 20% of the edible tissue yield), we have investigated Tl and U concentrations and {sup 235U}/{sup 238U} ratios in it. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host. PMID:21756425

  5. Are European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) susceptible to infection by a temperate Hematodinium sp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-05-01

    Hematodinium spp. infect over 40 species of crustaceans worldwide, but have not been reported to infect the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. In this study, Hematodinium parasites (a mixture of uni- and multinucleate trophont-like stages) were taken from donor crabs (Cancer pagurus) and injected into juvenile H. gammarus. Juvenile C. pagurus were also injected with the same inoculum. Haemolymph was taken at regular intervals and examined for the presence of Hematodinium using light microscopy and PCR, in two separate experiments of duration 4 and 8months. All lobsters were negative for Hematodinium whilst the C. pagurus challenged became infected. It is concluded that European lobsters are not susceptible to infection with a clade of Hematodinium that infects C. pagurus. PMID:25721169

  6. A long-term mesocosm study on the settlement and survival of juvenile European lobster Homarus gammarus L. in four natural substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnane; Mazzoni; Mercer

    2000-06-01

    To date, the natural substratum preferences of early benthic phase (EBP) European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) remain largely unknown. This study utilised a large scale mesocosm experiment to determine if the animal favours cobble ground, similar to its American counterpart (Homarus americanus), or has other substratum preferences. Postlarvae were provided with the choice of settling on four natural substrata: sand, coralline algae, mussel shell and cobble. Over a nine month period, the number and size of juveniles on each substratum was recorded, with loss of chelipeds used as an indication of social interaction. After a 30 day period, a non-random distribution of lobsters was observed on the four substrata. Juveniles were more abundant in substrata which provided pre-existing shelter in the form of interstitial spaces, i.e. cobble and mussel shell, than in sand or coralline algae. The survival of individuals from postlarvae to 30 day old juveniles ranged from 5 to 14% with surviving benthic recruits showing a clear mode at 6-8 mm carapace length (CL) in size distribution. The density of lobsters per m(2) of cobble remained relatively constant (18/m(2)) throughout the study period while the density of juveniles on mussel shell decreased significantly (35 to 5/m(2)). The size distribution of lobsters on each substratum also varied with time. By the conclusion of the trial, lobsters found in mussel shell had a mode of 8-10 mm CL within a range of 6-14 mm CL while those in cobble had a mode of 10-12 mm CL within a range of 8-24 mm CL. Overall, the results underline the importance of shelter-providing habitat such as cobble or crevice-type substrata to EBP European lobsters. They also confirm that for a shelter-dwelling animal such as a lobster, the physical structure of the habitat is a key factor in determining both the size and number of its inhabitants. PMID:10817827

  7. Transcriptional responses to teflubenzuron exposure in European lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Samuelsen, Ole B; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth; Lunestad, Bjørn T

    2015-10-01

    Increasing use of pharmaceutical drugs to delouse farmed salmon raises environmental concerns. This study describes an experiment carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron on a non-target species, the European lobster. Juvenile lobsters (10.3±0.9 mm carapace length) were fed two environmentally relevant doses of teflubenzuron, corresponding to 5 and 20% of a standard salmon medication (10 mg/kg day), termed low and high dose in this study. After 114 days of dietary exposure, whole-animal accumulation of teflubenzuron was determined. One claw from each animal was collected for transcriptional analysis. Overall, exposed animals showed low cumulative mortality. Six animals, two from the low dose treatment and four from the high dose, showed exoskeletal abnormalities (claw deformities or stiff walking legs). Residual levels of teflubenzuron in juvenile lobster were 2.7-fold higher in the high dose (282 ng/g) compared to the low dose treatment (103 ng/g). The transcriptional examination showed significant effects of teflubenzuron on 21 out of 39 studied genes. At the transcriptional level, environmentally relevant levels of the anti-salmon lice drug impacted genes linked to drug detoxification (cyp3a, cyp6a2, cyp302a, sult1b1, abcc4), cellular stress (hsp70, hsp90, chh), oxidative stress (cat, gpx3) and DNA damage (p53), as well as molting and exoskeleton regulation (chi3l1, ecr, jhl1, chs1, ctbs, gap65, jhel-ces1) in claw tissue (muscle and exoskeleton). In conclusion, teflubenzuron at sub-lethal levels can affect many molecular mechanisms in European lobster claws. PMID:26318677

  8. Growth, feeding frequency, protein turnover, and amino acid metabolism in European lobster Homarus gammarus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, E; Houlihan, D F; Smith, K

    2001-06-01

    The effect of feeding frequency on growth and protein metabolism in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, was investigated. Fourth (IV) stage lobsters H. gammarus were fed individually a marine animal meal (herring/mussels meal) for 56 days. Feeding a daily ration equivalent to 10% of their body weight gave better growth than feeding daily rations of 5% and 20%. Protein synthesis rates were similar for the three food rations but protein growth rates were significantly lower and protein degradation rates highest in the 5% body weight per day ration group. The efficiency with which synthesised protein was retained as growth was found to be 38% in the in the 10% ratio group. Protein synthesis rates of lobsters were found to be lower than those for shrimps (Penaeus vannamei). The amino acid flux also suggests a lower protein conversion efficiency than shrimps P. vannamei. The results suggests that lobsters are slow, periodic feeders and that growth can be readily increased by manipulation of particular environmental factors such as feeding frequency. PMID:11351329

  9. Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Lavery

    Full Text Available Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region and nuclear (18S, ITS-1 DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI, and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI, but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus.

  10. Ontogeny of intracellular isosmotic regulation in the european lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haond, C; Bonnal, L; Sandeaux, R; Charmantier, G; Trilles, J P

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular free amino acids were measured in the abdominal muscle of the three larval instars, postlarvae, and juveniles of the lobster Homarus gammarus, acclimated to seawater (35 per thousand) and to a dilute medium (22 per thousand), to study intracellular isosmotic regulation throughout the development of this species. Transfer to low salinity was followed by a highly significant drop of free amino acids level in all developmental stages. The main regulated amino acids were glycine, proline, and alanine. The level of regulation of total free amino acids changed at metamorphosis: the decrease in total free amino acids at low salinity was 46% in the three larval instars, but it was only 29% in postlarvae and 20% in juveniles. These results suggest that free amino acids, mainly glycine, proline, and alanine, are involved in intracellular isosmotic regulation in the lobster, with different levels of involvement in pre- and postmetamorphic stages. The ontogenetic changes in intracellular isosmotic regulation are discussed in relation to the changes in extracellular regulation (osmoregulation) in the lobster. PMID:10521321

  11. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-06-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. 'homaria' (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  12. 75 FR 23245 - American Lobster Fishery Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-AT31 American Lobster Fishery Management AGENCY... impact statement (DEIS) that identifies several proposed management actions and alternatives for the American lobster fishery in Federal waters. The management actions are based on recommendations to NMFS...

  13. A model for the bioaccumulation of (99)Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Y S; Vives i Batlle, J

    2003-01-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of (99)Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for (99)Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged (99)Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of (99)Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of (99)Tc in lobsters. PMID:12691720

  14. A model for the bioaccumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J. E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of {sup 99}Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for {sup 99}Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged {sup 99}Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of {sup 99}Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters.

  15. Effect of the copepod parasite Nicothoë astaci on haemolymph chemistry of the European lobster Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-03-01

    The gills of the European lobster Homarus gammarus (L.) are susceptible to parasitization by the copepod Nicothoë astaci, the lobster louse. This copepod feeds on haemolymph of the host and can damage the gills, potentially affecting gaseous exchange capabilities. To investigate the host response to the parasite, haemolymph levels of total protein, haemocyanin, glucose and ammonia were quantified in adult lobsters carrying varying parasite loads. Parasite loads correlated positively with total haemolymph protein and haemocyanin concentrations but not with glucose or ammonia concentrations. The data suggest that lobsters with gills damaged by the feeding activities of N. astaci respond by producing higher levels of haemocyanin, which is both a key defence response and may compensate for their decreased respiratory functioning. PMID:25751860

  16. Effect of an insect juvenile hormone analogue, Fenoxycarb on development and oxygen uptake by larval lobsters Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Katie E; Wells, Colin; Spicer, John I

    2009-04-01

    Little attention has been focused on the effect of anthropogenic compounds that disrupt the endocrine systems in crustaceans. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of the juvenile hormone analogue (JHA), Fenoxycarb on selected physiological and developmental processes of the zoeal stages in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Chronic exposure to Fenoxycarb (50microg L(-1)) resulted in a significant (p gammarus (albeit with little clear, demonstrable effect on metabolism) a finding that could have important ecological and commercial implications. PMID:18835588

  17. Crustacean hyperglycemic and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones in the lobster Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivaux, Céline; Vinh, Joëlle; Soyez, Daniel; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), produced by the X organ-sinus gland neurosecretory complex, belong to a peptide group referred to as the CHH family, which is widely distributed in arthropods. In this study, genetic variants and post-translationally modified isoforms of CHH and VIH were characterized in the European lobster Homarus gammarus. With the use of RP-HPLC and ELISA with specific antibodies that discriminate between stereoisomers of CHH and VIH, two groups of CHH-immunoreactive peaks were characterized from HPLC fractions of sinus gland extract (CHH A and CHH B); each group contained two variants (CHH and D-Phe3CHH). In the same way, two VIH-immunoreactive peaks (VIH and D-Trp4VIH) were demonstrated in HPLC fractions from sinus gland extract. The masses of these different neuropeptides were determined by FT-ICR MS: CHH A and CHH B spectra exhibited monoisotopic ions at 8557.05 Da and 8527.04 Da, respectively, and both VIH isomers displayed an m/z value of 9129.19 Da. Two full-length cDNAs encoding preprohomones of CHH A and CHH B and only one cDNA for VIH precursor were cloned and sequenced from X organ RNA. Comparison of CHH sequences between European lobster and other Astacoidea suggests that the most hydrophobic form appeared first during crustacean evolution. PMID:16649992

  18. Male but not female olfaction is crucial for intermolt mating in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, Malin

    2009-02-01

    Chemical signals are common in most crustacean social interactions and are often perceived via chemosensory (olfactory) organs on the first antenna. Intermolt courtship behaviors and mating were investigated in size-matched pairs of intermolt European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) where the olfactory receptors of either the male or the female were lesioned with distilled water (olfactory ablation) or seawater (control). Matings or advanced male courtship behaviors (mounting and turning) were common in seawater controls and olfactory-ablated females. In contrast, when male olfaction was ablated with distilled water, there was not a single mating, and the only male courtship behaviors seen were a few very brief and unsuccessful mounting attempts. Individual females mated up to 5 times with different males, showing that previously inseminated females were still attractive to males. Thus, male but not female olfaction is crucial for intermolt mating in H. gammarus, indicating the presence of a female sex pheromone during the entire female molt cycle, not only at the time of molting. Female sex discrimination may be based on other cues from the male in combination with typical male behaviors. PMID:19073950

  19. Proteasomal activities in the claw muscle tissue of European lobster, Homarus gammarus, during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Sandra; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans grow discontinuously and gain size through complex molt processes. The molt comprises the loss of the old cuticle and, moreover, substantial reduction and re-organization of muscles and connective tissues. In adult lobsters, the muscle tissue of the massive claws undergoes significant atrophy of 40-75% before ecdysis. The degradation of this tissue is facilitated by calcium-dependent proteases and by the proteasome, an intra-cellular proteolytic multi-enzyme complex. In contrast to the adults, the involvement of the proteasome during the larval development is yet not validated. Therefore, we developed micro-methods to measure the 20S and the 26S proteasomal activities within mg- and sub-mg-quantities of the larval claw tissue of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Within the three larval stages (Z1-3) we distinguished between sub-stages of freshly molted/hatched (post-molt), inter-molt, and ready to molt (pre-molt) larvae. Juveniles were analyzed in the post-molt and in the inter-molt stage. The trypsin-like, the chymotrypsin-like, and the peptidyl-glutamyl peptide hydrolase activity (PGPH) of the 20S proteasome increased distinctly from freshly hatched larvae to pre-molt Z1. During the Z2 stage, the activities were highest in the post-molt animals, decreased in the inter-molt animals and increased again in the pre-molt animals. A similar but less distinct trend was evident in the Z3 stages. In the juveniles, the proteasomal activities decreased toward the lowest values. A similar pattern was present for the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 26S proteasome. The results show that the proteasome plays a significant role during the larval development of lobsters. This is not only reflected by the elevated activities, but also by the continuous change of the trypsin/chymotrypsin-ratio which may indicate a shift in the subunit composition of the proteasome and, thus, a biochemical adjustment to better cope with elevated protein turnover rates

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of crustacean immunostimulants for lobster (Homarus gammarus) granulocytes demonstrated using the neutral red uptake assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, Chris; Smith, Valerie J

    2004-07-01

    The neutral red uptake (NRU) cell viability assay was adapted for use with lobster Homarus gammarus (Linnaeus, 1758) granulocytes cultured in vitro. The assay was more sensitive than the conventional trypan blue exclusion assay and facilitated a higher sample throughput than subjective microscope-based assessments of cell viability. The NRU assay was demonstrated to have a linear response from 470 to at least 126000 cells cm(-2). It was used to investigate the acute cytotoxicity of three commercial and two candidate crustacean aquaculture immunostimulants on lobster granulocytes. All five stimulants had a cytotoxic action on the granulocytes and the toxic dose for some of these stimulants was found to be below their commercially prescribed dose. The long term energetic cost of the use of these stimulants and the concomitant potential for a reduction in growth rate of cultured decapod crustaceans, which is fundamental to the success of commercial aquaculture, is identified and discussed. PMID:15145418

  1. Sequential developmental acquisition of cotransmitters in identified sensory neurons of the stomatogastric nervous system of the lobsters, Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilman, V; Fénelon, V S; Richards, K S; Thirumalai, V; Meyrand, P; Marder, E

    1999-06-01

    We studied the developmental acquisition of three of the cotransmitters found in the gastropyloric receptor (GPR) neurons of the stomatogastric nervous systems of the lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus. By using wholemount immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, we examined the distribution of serotonin-like, allatostatin-like, and FLRF(NH2)-like immunoreactivities within the stomatogastric nervous system of embryonic, larval, juvenile, and adult animals. The GPR neurons are peripheral sensory neurons that send proprioceptive information to the stomatogastric and commissural ganglia. In H. americanus, GPR neurons of the adult contain serotonin-like, allatostatin-like, and Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-amide (FLRF(NH2))-like immunoreactivities. In the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the adult H. americanus and H. gammarus, all of the serotonin-like and allatostatin-like immunoreactivity colocalizes in neuropil processes that are derived exclusively from ramifications of the GPR neurons. In both species, FLRF(NH2)-like immunoreactivity was detected in the STG neuropil by 50% of embryonic development (E50). Allatostatin-like immunoreactivity was visible first in the STG at approximately E70-E80. In contrast, serotonin staining was not clearly visible until larval stage I (LI) in H. gammarus and until LII or LIII in H. americanus. These data indicate that there is a sequential acquisition of the cotransmitters of the GPR neurons. PMID:10340509

  2. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (<1μm in diameter) teeth-like structures, which presumably pierce through, and grip, the cuticle lining of the host's gill. Overall, these structures are thought to provide a 'vacuum seal' to assist in pumping of blood, via peristalsis, into the alimentary canal of the copepod host. PMID:25196471

  3. An approach to the assessment of risk from chronic radiation to populations of European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Wilson, R C; Watts, S J; McDonald, P; Jones, S R; Vives-Lynch, S M; Craze, A

    2010-03-01

    The basic principles underlying a four-discrete age group, logistic, growth model for the European lobster Homarus gammarus are presented and discussed at proof-of-concept level. The model considers reproduction, removal by predation, natural death, fishing, radiation and migration. Non-stochastic effects of chronic low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are modelled with emphasis on (99)Tc, using three endpoints: repairable radiation damage, impairment of reproductive ability and, at higher dose rates, mortality. An allometric approach for the calculation of LD(50/30) as a function of the mass of each life stage is used in model calibration. The model predicts that at a dose rate of 1 Gy day(-1), lobster population reproduction and survival become severely compromised, leading eventually to population extinction. At 0.01 Gy day(-1), the survival rate of an isolated population is reduced by 10%, mainly through loss of fecundity, comparable to natural migration losses. Fishing is the main ecological stress and only dose rates in the range 0.03-0.1 Gy day(-1) can achieve discernible effects above it. On the balance of radiation and other ecological stresses, a benchmark value of 0.01 Gy day(-1) is proposed for the protection of lobster populations. This value appears consistent with available information on radiation effects in wildlife. PMID:19855992

  4. Histological intersex (ovotestis) in the European lobster Homarus gammarus and a commentary on its potential mechanistic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D

    2012-08-27

    This paper provides the first report of the intersex (ovotestis) condition in the European lobster Homarus gammarus. A single specimen (10% of males sampled) presenting the condition was discovered as part of routine sampling, from the Weymouth Bay region of the English Channel, UK. The lobster presented externally as a male, but upon histological examination was seen to contain an ovotestis, containing elements of both male and female gonadal tissue. Previtellogenic oocytes were present in several otherwise normal seminiferous tubules throughout the testis. The seminiferous tubules were also engaged in the production of apparently normal sperm lineages, and mature spermatozoa were present within the tubule lumens. In some cases, oocytes were in direct contact with mature spermatozoa within the same seminiferous tubules. The significance of this finding is placed into context with a previous observation of elevated intersexuality in the congeneric species H. americanus collected from specific sites in Canadian waters. The potential mechanism for development of intersex in lobsters, which is probably related to a disrupted signalling to the germinal component of the testis from the decapod androgenic gland, may be an effect of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the marine environment. PMID:23186705

  5. Mortality and deformities in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles exposed to the anti-parasitic drug teflubenzuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjørn T; Farestveit, Eva; Grefsrud, Ellen S; Hannisdal, Rita; Holmelid, Bjarte; Tjensvoll, Tore; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2014-04-01

    This study describes experiments carried out to examine effects of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron, used in delousing farmed salmon, on a non-target species, the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Juvenile lobsters were fed two doses of teflubenzuron, 10 and 20mg/kg successively for 7 days corresponding to a standard medication of the fish (10mg/kg day) and twice the standard dose (20mg/kg day). Monitoring lasted 3 months to include at least one moulting period for all individuals. Cumulative mortality was higher in all replicates given medicated feed compared with the control group. Mean cumulative mortality for each dosing was 41 ± 13% for 10mg/kg and 38 ± 8% for 20mg/kg, i.e. no difference. Drug residue was analysed in all juveniles that died, in addition to 12 juveniles at day 8 and the first 12 surviving lobsters. A decline in concentration of teflubenzuron from over 8,000 ng/g (day 5) to 14 ng/g (day 70) was observed in the juveniles that died during the experiment. Twelve individuals that died contained 82 ng/g or less whereas the mean concentration in the first 12 lobsters that survived moulting was 152 ng/g. Following a single oral administration, the half-life of teflubenzuron in lobster was estimated to 3.4 days and the initial concentration (C0) to 515 ng/g at time t0. At the end of the study a considerable number of juvenile lobsters were observed with deformities in various organs; carapace, walking legs, cheliped, tail fan, abdomen and antenna. The occurrence of observed deformities varied from 0 to 15% in treated replicates and will most likely affect ability to locate and consume food (antenna, claw and walking legs), respiration (carapace) and ability to move/swim (walking legs, tail fan and abdomen). In total, the mortality and senescent damages were close to 50% in all replicates. Juveniles that survived medication without deformities however, moulted and increased in size at each moult equally well as the unmedicated controls. PMID

  6. Mortality and deformities in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles exposed to the anti-parasitic drug teflubenzuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjørn T; Farestveit, Eva; Grefsrud, Ellen S; Hannisdal, Rita; Holmelid, Bjarte; Tjensvoll, Tore; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2014-04-01

    This study describes experiments carried out to examine effects of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron, used in delousing farmed salmon, on a non-target species, the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Juvenile lobsters were fed two doses of teflubenzuron, 10 and 20mg/kg successively for 7 days corresponding to a standard medication of the fish (10mg/kg day) and twice the standard dose (20mg/kg day). Monitoring lasted 3 months to include at least one moulting period for all individuals. Cumulative mortality was higher in all replicates given medicated feed compared with the control group. Mean cumulative mortality for each dosing was 41 ± 13% for 10mg/kg and 38 ± 8% for 20mg/kg, i.e. no difference. Drug residue was analysed in all juveniles that died, in addition to 12 juveniles at day 8 and the first 12 surviving lobsters. A decline in concentration of teflubenzuron from over 8,000 ng/g (day 5) to 14 ng/g (day 70) was observed in the juveniles that died during the experiment. Twelve individuals that died contained 82 ng/g or less whereas the mean concentration in the first 12 lobsters that survived moulting was 152 ng/g. Following a single oral administration, the half-life of teflubenzuron in lobster was estimated to 3.4 days and the initial concentration (C0) to 515 ng/g at time t0. At the end of the study a considerable number of juvenile lobsters were observed with deformities in various organs; carapace, walking legs, cheliped, tail fan, abdomen and antenna. The occurrence of observed deformities varied from 0 to 15% in treated replicates and will most likely affect ability to locate and consume food (antenna, claw and walking legs), respiration (carapace) and ability to move/swim (walking legs, tail fan and abdomen). In total, the mortality and senescent damages were close to 50% in all replicates. Juveniles that survived medication without deformities however, moulted and increased in size at each moult equally well as the unmedicated controls.

  7. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boothroyd

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA. Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100 on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  8. Transfer across the human gut of environmental technetium in lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Young, A K; Bonfield, R A

    2001-03-01

    Few data are available on the uptake by the human gut of the element technetium. Of current radiological interest in connection with discharges of technetium-99 in liquid discharges from BNFL, Sellafield, is uptake from European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), whose edible parts are known to concentrate technetium. In this study, a group of eight adult volunteers (six males and two females) ate samples of edible flesh from lobsters caught off the west Cumbrian coast and provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces for analysis. Detection of uptake from the gut by difference between intake and faecal measurements proved insensitive, suggesting a low value of the gut transfer factor (f1 value) of up to 0.1 with a maximum (two standard deviations) level of about 0.3. In urine, technetium was detectable at a relatively low level compared with the intakes, consistent with a low absorption across the gut. Values for f1 were derived with the aid of literature data for excretion following intravenous administration of technetium-95 m as pertechnetate, and gave averaged data for f1 in the range 0.046 to 0.23. These results are in broad conformity with those derived from the faecal measurements, and suggest a lower value than the 0.5 used by ICRP. PMID:11281526

  9. Confocal laser scanning and electron microscopical studies on osmoregulatory epithelia in the branchial cavity of the lobster homarus gammarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haond; Flik; Charmantier

    1998-06-01

    The adult lobster Homarus gammarus is a weak hyper-regulator at low salinity. The objective of this study was to locate the ion-transporting tissues in the branchial chamber of this species, using electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy with a fluorescent vital stain for mitochondria, DASPMI, which is widely used to locate mitochondria-rich cells in ion-transporting epithelia of fish. A thick mitochondria-rich epithelium is present on the inner side of the branchiostegite and over the entire surface of the epipodites. Ultrastructural observations confirm that this tissue has features typical of an ion-transporting epithelium. When the lobster is transferred to low salinity, these epithelia undergo marked ultrastructural changes, such as an increase in thickness related to the development of basolateral infoldings, the appearance of numerous vesicles and an increase in height of the apical microvilli. In the gills, the branchial filaments are lined by a thin and poorly differentiated epithelium, containing numerous mitochondria; no significant ultrastructural changes were observed in the gills of animals acclimated to low salinity. In summary, in H. gammarus, no evidence of osmoregulatory structures was found in the gills. Differentiated ion-transporting epithelia are present in the branchial cavity, on the inner side of the branchiostegite and on the epipodites; these organs are probably involved in osmoregulation. PMID:9576892

  10. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boothroyd

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA. Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100 on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length or development of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  11. Transfer across the human gut of environmental technetium in lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: g.j.hunt@cefas.co.uk; Young, A.K.; Bonfield, R.A. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Few data are available on the uptake by the human gut of the element technetium. Of current radiological interest in connection with discharges of technetium-99 in liquid discharges from BNFL, Sellafield, is uptake from European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), whose edible parts are known to concentrate technetium. In this study, a group of eight adult volunteers (six males and two females) ate samples of edible flesh from lobsters caught off the west Cumbrian coast and provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces for analysis. Detection of uptake from the gut by difference between intake and faecal measurements proved insensitive, suggesting a low value of the gut transfer factor (f{sub 1} value) of up to 0.1 with a maximum (two standard deviations) level of about 0.3. In urine, technetium was detectable at a relatively low level compared with the intakes, consistent with a low absorption across the gut. Values for f{sub 1} were derived with the aid of literature data for excretion following intravenous administration of technetium-95m as pertechnetate, and gave averaged data for f{sub 1} in the range 0.046 to 0.23. These results are in broad conformity with those derived from the faecal measurements, and suggest a lower value than the 0.5 used by ICRP. (author)

  12. Ultrastructural studies and Na+,K+-ATPase immunolocalization in the antennal urinary glands of the lobster Homarus gammarus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, Saber; Charmantier, Guy; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2005-10-01

    Unlike in crustacean freshwater species, the structure and ultrastructure of the excretory antennal gland is poorly documented in marine species. The general organization and ultrastructure of the cells and the localization of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were examined in the antennal gland of the adult lobster Homarus gammarus. Each gland is composed of a centrally located coelomosac surrounded ventrally by a labyrinth divided into two parts (I and II) and dorsally by a voluminous bladder. There is no differentiated nephridal tubule between them. The labyrinth and bladder cells have in common a number of ultrastructural cytological features, including basal membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, apical microvilli, and cytoplasmic extrusions, and a cytoplasm packed with numerous vacuoles, vesicles, lysosome-like bodies, and swollen mitochondria. Each type of cell also presents distinctive characters. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was detected through immunofluorescence in the basal part of the cells of the labyrinth and in the bladder cells with an increasing immunostaining from labyrinth I to the bladder. No immunoreactivity was detected in the coelomosac. The cells of the labyrinth and of the bladder present morphological and enzymatic features of ionocytes. The antennal glands of the lobster thus possess active ion exchanges capabilities. PMID:15879578

  13. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  14. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  15. Influence of drilling muds on the primary chemosensory neurons in walking legs of the lobster, Homarus americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of whole drilling muds on the normal activity of walking leg chemosensory neurons of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were examined using extracellular neurophysiological recording techniques. Exposure of legs for 3-5 min to 10 mg/L drilling mud suspended in seawater altered responses to food odors of 29% of the chemoreceptors examined (data pooled for the two drilling muds tested); similar exposure to 100 mg/L drilling mud resulted in interference with 44% of all receptors studied. The effects of both of these concentrations are statistically significant, although they are not different from each other. Interference was usually manifested as a marked reduction in the number of action potentials in a response. In one preparation, the exposure to drilling mud caused a change in the temporal pattern of the spikes without affecting the total number of spikes. Other chemosensory neurons were excited by 10 mg/L drilling mud itself. However, not all chemoreceptors are inhibited by these drilling muds since responses to feeding stimuli were recorded from the legs of lobsters that had been exposed to drilling mud for 4-8 d before the neurophysiological experiments. Antennular and leg chemoreceptors are important in eliciting normal feeding behavior in lobsters. Although behavioral assays have demonstrated that feeding behavior is altered following exposure to drilling muds and petroleum fractions, there is no conclusive proof for a causal relationship between chemoreceptor interference and behavior deficits. The two techniques complement each other as pollution detection assays, perhaps reflecting a common interference mechanism. 42 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Function of chemoreceptor organs in spatial orientation of the lobster, Homarus americanus: differences and overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, D.V.; Atema, J.

    1982-08-01

    Three of the lobster's main chemoreceptor organs, the lateral and medial antennules (representing smell) and the dactylus-propodus segments of the walking legs (representing taste), are physiologically quite similar. The authors examined their role in spatial orientation in a food-odor stimulus field. Control animals almost always oriented correctly and immediately to an odor plume. Lobsters with unilateral ablations of lateral antennules lost this ability, but did not show preferential turning toward the intact side. Unilateral medial antennule ablation did not affect orientation. Removal of all aesthetasc hairs from one lateral antennule caused loss of orientation ability less severe than unilateral ablation of the entire lateral antennule. Lobsters with unilaterally ablated lateral antennules and blocked walking leg receptors turned preferentially toward the side of the intact antennule. Thus, it appears that intact lobsters orient in odor space by tropotaxis principally using aesthetasc receptor input. Since loss of appendages is relatively common in lobsters, this partial overlap of organ function may serve the animal well in nature.

  17. The accumulation of plutonium by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (United Kingdom). Directorate of Fisheries Research)

    1992-01-01

    For {sup 237}Pu accumulation from seawater, the whole body concentration factors (CFs) for juvenile lobsters at 18{sup o}C did not exceed 250 over the 49 days of the study. Most {sup 237}Pu was accumulated by the gills and exoskeleton. Since homarid lobsters eat their exuviae after ecdysis, the whole body {sup 237}Pu content of recently moulted lobsters was also a function of the amount of {sup 237}Pu ingested with the exuviae. Consequently, organ/tissue content and CF values for individual lobsters reflected both the time since their last moult and their exposure time to {sup 237}Pu. These factors precluded the calculation of mean whole body CF values or the accurate estimate of a mean steady state (C{sub ss}) CF value. Juvenile lobsters retained significantly more {sup 237}Pu from labelled food at 7-10{sup o}C than at 18{sup o}C. At 7{sup o}C, the biological half time for assimilated {sup 237}Pu was about 28 days, at 10{sup o}C about 15 days and at 18{sup o}C about 8 days. Very little {sup 237}Pu was transported from the gut to the internal tissues (about 1%); most was retained in the hepatopancreas. (author).

  18. Methyl mercury inhibits short-circuit current and Cl- influx across isolated epipodite of European lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucu, Cedomil; Dupcić-Radić, Iris; Tomsić, Sanja

    2009-05-01

    The effect of methyl mercuric chloride (MeHg) on short-circuit current (I(SC)) was studied in the isolated perfused epipodite preparation from the branchial chamber of European lobster (Homarus gammarus) acclimated to dilute seawater. When applied at the apical surface, 0.2, 1.0 and 3.0 microM MeHg depressed I(SC) by a 26%, 81% and 98%, respectively. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of apically applied MeHg was 0.6 microM. Basolaterally added MeHg (3.0 microM) had no effect on I(SC), whereas addition of the specific Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain (1.5 mM) reduced I(SC) by approximately 90%. Ouabain effects were reversible, and I(SC) fully recovered upon removal of ouabain. The MeHg-induced block of I(SC) was partially reversed by the reducing agent, 1,4-dithiothreitol, suggesting that the formation of S-Hg-S bridges is important in the inhibitory mechanism. A significant reduction of I(SC) and conductance occurred when low Na(+) and Cl(-) salines were substituted. Furthermore, in the low Na(+) saline, J(Cl)(A-->B) fluxes were reduced by about 50%. In the highly conductive epipodite epithelium, coupling of Na(+) and Cl(-) fluxes was suggested. The effects of MeHg on I(SC) in the lobster epipodite are attributed to inhibition of an apical Cl(-) influx. PMID:19038364

  19. Accumulation of sup(95m)Tc from sea water by juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research)

    1985-01-01

    The uptake and retention of technetium from sea water by juvenile lobsters, and the effects of moulting on these processes, has been studied using sup(95m)Tc as a tracer. Accumulation was rapid with whole body concentration factors of over 2000 being measured in some lobsters. Uptake was highest immediately before a moult; post-moult there was a fall in accumulation. No simple mathematical equation for technetium accumulation with time was found. The technetium concentration in the moulted exoskeleton increased with time of exposure of the lobsters but never exceeded 2% of the whole body value. The highest percentage of the whole body activity was found in the digestive gland; the green gland had the highest concentration factor. Technetium excretion, following 64 d of accumulation, could be expressed as an exponential rate of loss. The biological half-time was calculated as 53 d. Moulted exoskeletons from these lobsters contained approximately 0.6% of the day zero whole body activity.

  20. The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

    2014-02-01

    Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth. PMID:24072442

  1. Narrow-spectrum chemoreceptor cells in the walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus: taste specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1982-01-01

    The chemoreceptors in the legs of lobsters function in the localization and handling of food. By single-unit extracellular recording techniques, the specificity of single primary chemoreceptor cells is described here in detail. In contrast to what is known in vertebrates, narrow-spectrum chemoreceptors of several different types were found, each type responding with maximal sensitivity to only one of the following compounds: L-glutamate, L-glutamine, L-arginine, taurine, betaine, and ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride sensitive cells were also highly specific. Other groups of narrow-spectrum cells - L-arginine, L-glutamine, taurine, and betaine sensitive chemoreceptors - showed equally strong specificity. These results indicate that the peripheral coding system in the legs of lobsters is based largely but perhaps not exclusively on narrow-spectrum chemoreceptor cells.

  2. Function of chemo- and mechanoreceptors in lobster (Homarus americanus) feeding behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of lobsters preying on live mussels (Mytilus edulis) was observed before and after chemosensory-mechanosensory deafferentation of different sensory appendages. Deafferentation of the antennules, leg tips, or maxillipeds (but not the carapace or proximal leg segments) interfered with feeding performance by causing an increase in the time necessary to crush a mussel after search initiation. In addition, deafferentation of the leg tips or the maxillipeds caused a decline in number of mussels crushed but for different reasons. Deafferentation of leg chemoreceptors resulted in the same behavioural deficiencies as deafferentation of leg chemo- and mechanoreceptors, demonstrating that it is the leg chemoreceptors that are essential in releasing this grasping response. Chemoreceptors on different appendages of lobsters therefore fulfill different functional roles in their feeding behavior.

  3. Changes in amino acids and lipids during embryogenesis of European lobster, Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R; Calado, R; Andrade, A M; Narciso, L; Nunes, M L

    2005-02-01

    We studied the amino acid and lipid dynamics during embryogenesis of Homarus gammarus. Major essential amino acids (EAA) in the last stage of embryonic development were arginine, lysine and leucine; major nonessential amino acids (NEAA) were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, valine and glycine. The highest percent of utilization occurred in respect to EAA (27.8%), mainly due to a significant decrease (p80% of utilization). Major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Unsaturated (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were used up at similar rates (76.5% and 76.3%, respectively). Within UFA, monounsaturates (MUFA) were consumed more than polyunsaturates (PUFA) (82.9% and 67.5%, respectively). PMID:15649771

  4. Multi-annual fluctuations in reconstructed historical time-series of a European lobster (Homarus gammarus) population disappear at increased exploitation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelöf, Andreas; Bartolino, Valerio; Ulmestrand, Mats; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series. PMID:23573187

  5. Multi-annual fluctuations in reconstructed historical time-series of a European lobster (Homarus gammarus population disappear at increased exploitation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundelöf

    Full Text Available Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series.

  6. Deformities in larvae and juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus exposed to lower pH at two different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-L. Agnalt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Trends of increasing temperatures and ocean acidification are expected to influence benthic marine resources, especially calcifying organisms. The European lobster (Homarus gammarus is among those species at risk. A project was initiated in 2011 aiming to investigate long-term synergistic effects of temperature and projected increases in ocean acidification on the life cycle of lobster. Larvae were exposed to pCO2 levels of ambient water (water intake at 90 m depth, tentatively of 380 μatm pCO2, 727 and 1217 μatm pCO2, at temperatures 10 and 18 °C. Long-term exposure lasted until 5 months of age. Thereafter the surviving juveniles were transferred to ambient water at 14 °C. At 18 °C the development from Stage 1 to 4 lasted from 14 to 16 days, as predicted under normal pH values. Growth was very slow at 10 °C and resulted in only two larvae reaching Stage 4 in the ambient treatment. There were no significant differences in carapace length at the various larval stages between the different treatments, but there were differences in total length and dry weight at Stage 1 at 10 °C, Stage 2 at both temperatures, producing larvae slightly larger in size and lighter by dry weight in the exposed treatments. Stage 3 larvae raised in 18 °C and 1217 μatm pCO2 were also larger in size and heavier by dry weight compared with 727 μatm. Unfortunate circumstances precluded a full comparison across stages and treatment. Deformities were however observed in both larvae and juveniles. At 10 °C, about 20% of the larvae exposed to elevated pCO2were deformed, compared with 0% in larvae raised in pH above 8.0. At 18 °C and in high pCO2 treatment, 31.5% of the larvae were deformed. Occurrence of deformities after 5 months of exposure was 33 and 44% in juveniles raised in ambient and low pCO2, respectively, and 20% in juveniles exposed to high pCO2. Some of the deformities will possibly affect the ability to find food, sexual partner (walking legs, claw and

  7. The proteasomes of two marine decapod crustaceans, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Edible crab (Cancer pagurus), are differently impaired by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Sandra; Bose, Aneesh; Sokolova, Inna M; Abele, Doris; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the controlled degradation of short-living or malfunctioning proteins. Certain diseases and cellular dysfunctions are known to arise from the disruption of proteasome pathways. Trace metals are recognized stressors of the proteasome system in vertebrates and plants, but their effects on the proteasome of invertebrates are not well understood. Since marine invertebrates, and particularly benthic crustaceans, can be exposed to high metal levels, we studied the effects of in vitro exposure to Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) on the activities of the proteasome from the claw muscles of lobsters (Homarus gammarus) and crabs (Cancer pagurus). The chymotrypsin like activity of the proteasome of these two species showed different sensitivity to metals. In lobsters the activity was significantly inhibited by all metals to a similar extent. In crabs the activities were severely suppressed only by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) while Zn(2+) had only a moderate effect and Cd(2+) caused almost no inhibition of the crab proteasome. This indicates that the proteasomes of both species possess structural characteristics that determine different susceptibility to metals. Consequently, the proteasome-mediated protein degradation in crab C. pagurus may be less affected by metal pollution than that of the lobster H. gammarus. PMID:24721378

  8. Na(+) and Ca(2+) pumps in the gills, epipodites and branchiostegites of the european lobster Homarus gammarus: effects of dilute sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flik, G; Haond, C

    2000-01-01

    Crude homogenates and plasma-membrane-enriched fractions were prepared from the epithelium of the gills, epipodites and branchiostegites of intermoult European lobsters Homarus gammarus, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange activities were quantified in these tissues. Lobsters were kept in sea water (salinity 35 ) or were adapted to dilute sea water (22.1 ). The lobster hyperregulates haemolymph osmolarity and Ca(2+) levels in both media. Homogenates of the podobranchs, arthrobranchs and pleurobranchs had comparable Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase specific activities, and mean activities increased significantly for all three types of gills when the animals were kept in dilute sea water. In the epipodites and branchiostegites, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase specific activities exceeded those in the gills, and exposure to dilute sea water greatly enhanced these activities. In sea water, 80 % of the total Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is associated with the gills and epipodites (each tissue containing 40 %) and 20 % with the branchiostegites; in dilute sea water, the gills contained approximately 25 %, the epipodites 40 % and the branchiostegites approximately 35 % of the total activity, indicating the relative importance of the epipodites and branchiostegites for ionic hyperregulation in dilute media. In plasma membrane vesicles isolated from the gills, epipodites and branchiostegites, Ca(2+) transport driven by ATP and by a Na(+ )gradient was demonstrated. Exposure to dilute sea water enhanced Na(+)/Ca(2+ )exchange and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in the epipodites and branchiostegites; in the gills, however, Ca(2+) transport activities decreased. The role of these tissues and enzymes in Na(+) and Ca(2+) handling by the lobster is discussed. PMID:10607531

  9. Susceptibility of juvenile European lobster Homarus gammarus to shrimp products infected with high and low doses of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Munro, J; Uglow, B; Small, H J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-08-27

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen known to affect the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in warm waters, WSSV is also able to infect, cause disease in and kill a wide range of other decapod crustaceans, including lobsters, from temperate regions. In 2005, the European Union imported US$500 million worth of raw frozen or cooked frozen commodity products, much of which originated in regions positive for white spot disease (WSD). The presence of WSSV within the UK food market was verified by means of nested PCR performed on samples collected from a small-scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp. Passage trials using inoculum derived from commodity shrimp from supermarkets and delivered by injection to specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei led to rapid mortality and pathognomonic signs of WSD in the shrimp, demonstrating that WSSV present within commodity shrimp was viable. We exposed a representative European decapod crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus, to a single feeding of WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp, and to positive control material (L. vannamei infected with a high dose of WSSV). These trials demonstrated that lobsters fed positive control (high dose) frozen raw products succumbed to WSD and displayed pathognomonic signs associated with the disease as determined by means of histology and transmission electron microscopy. Lobsters fed WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp (low dose) did not succumb to WSD (no mortality or pathognomonic signs of WSD) but demonstrated a low level or latent infection via PCR. This study confirms susceptibility of H. gammarus to WSSV via single feedings of previously frozen raw shrimp products obtained directly from supermarkets. PMID:23186704

  10. Real-time PCR quantification of the in vitro effects of crustacean immunostimulants on gene expression in lobster (Homarus gammarus) granular haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, Chris; Hammond, John A; Smith, Valerie J

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents data from an investigation of the mode of action of five different crustacean immunostimulants presented to European lobster (Homarus gammarus) granulocytes cultured in vitro. The experiments were designed to test whether or not the immunostimulants could cause the short-term up-regulation of genes coding for immune proteins without causing the cells to degranulate. Quantitative measurements of mRNA transcript abundance were made using real-time PCR and it was first necessary to isolate the complete gene sequences coding for the proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO), beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (betaGBP) and beta-actin (beta-act) in the lobster. These sequences were used to design TaqMan primer and fluorescent probe sets. The presented data indicated that the majority of the tested immunostimulants did not induce the up-regulation of immune-related gene expression in the granulocytes in isolation. Alternative modes of action, including the in vivo up-regulation of gene expression in haemopoetic tissues, are discussed. PMID:15325521

  11. Stage-Specific Changes in Physiological and Life-History Responses to Elevated Temperature and Pco2 during the Larval Development of the European Lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Daniel P; Calosi, Piero; Boothroyd, Dominic; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John I

    2015-01-01

    An organism's physiological processes form the link between its life-history traits and the prevailing environmental conditions, especially in species with complex life cycles. Understanding how these processes respond to changing environmental conditions, thereby affecting organismal development, is critical if we are to predict the biological implications of current and future global climate change. However, much of our knowledge is derived from adults or single developmental stages. Consequently, we investigated the metabolic rate, organic content, carapace mineralization, growth, and survival across each larval stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus, reared under current and predicted future ocean warming and acidification scenarios. Larvae exhibited stage-specific changes in the temperature sensitivity of their metabolic rate. Elevated Pco2 increased C∶N ratios and interacted with elevated temperature to affect carapace mineralization. These changes were linked to concomitant changes in survivorship and growth, from which it was concluded that bottlenecks were evident during H. gammarus larval development in stages I and IV, the transition phases between the embryonic and pelagic larval stages and between the larval and megalopa stages, respectively. We therefore suggest that natural changes in optimum temperature during ontogeny will be key to larvae survival in a future warmer ocean. The interactions of these natural changes with elevated temperature and Pco2 significantly alter physiological condition and body size of the last larval stage before the transition from a planktonic to a benthic life style. Thus, living and growing in warm, hypercapnic waters could compromise larval lobster growth, development, and recruitment. PMID:26658247

  12. Immunolocalization of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the organs of the branchial cavity of the European lobster Homarus gammarus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignot, J H; Charmantier-Daures, M; Charmantier, G

    1999-05-01

    The localization of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in epithelia of the organs of the branchial cavity of Homarus gammarus exposed to seawater and dilute seawater was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy with a monoclonal antibody IgG alpha 5 raised against the avian alpha-subunit of the Na-,K(+)-ATPase. In juveniles held in seawater, fluorescent staining was observed only in the epithelial cells of epipodites. In juveniles held in dilute seawater, heavier immunoreactivity was observed in the epithelial cells of epipodites, and positive immunostaining was also observed along the inner-side epithelial layer of the branchiostegites. No fluorescent staining was observed in the gill epithelia. At the ultrastructural level, the Na+,K(+)-ATPase was localized in the basolateral infolding systems of the epipodite and inner-side branchiostegite epithelia of juveniles held in dilute seawater, mostly along the basal lamina. The expression of Na+,K(+)-ATPase therefore differs within tissues of the branchial cavity and according to the external salinity. These and previous ultrastructural observations suggest that the epipodites, and to a lesser extent the inner-side epithelium of the branchiostegites, are involved in the slight hyper-regulation displayed by lobsters at low salinity. Enhanced Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity and de novo synthesis of Na+,K(+)-ATPase within the epipodite and branchiostegite epithelia may be key points enabling lobsters to adapt to low salinity environments. PMID:10382282

  13. A Comparative Study of the Uptake, Clearance and Metabolism of Technetium in Lobster (Homarus Gammarus) and Edible Crab (Cancer Paguras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, J.F.; Smith, D.L.; Winpenny, K

    1998-07-01

    Lobsters and edible crabs have been exposed to {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in their sea water or in their food, and the uptake, retention and distribution of the isotope in their bodies examined. The steady-state concentration factor C{sub ss} for uptake of {sup 95}Tc{sup m} from sea water was significantly greater for female crabs (C{sub ss}=17.9) than for males (C{sub ss}=14.4). There was no such sex difference in lobsters and they took up {sup 95}Tc{sup m} to much higher levels with a C{sub ss} of 1160. Retention of the isotope was similar for crabs and lobsters and for animals of both sexes. However the route of uptake was important with more rapid clearance after uptake from sea water (t{sub b1/2} = 51 days) than after uptake from food (t{sub b1/2} = 108 days). Technetium was found predominantly in the hepatopancreas of all crabs and most male lobsters. In a few male lobsters and all females it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. At the subcellular level {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in hepatopancreas cells of both lobster and crab occurred mainly in the cytosol. Results of initial studies into the relationships between technetium and cytosol proteins are given and the possible basis for the much greater accumulation of the element by lobsters than crabs discussed. (author)

  14. Changes in immune gene expression and resistance to bacterial infection in lobster (Homarus gammarus) post-larval stage VI following acute or chronic exposure to immune stimulating compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, C; Brockton, V; Smith, V J

    2007-01-01

    Real-time PCR was used to measure changes in transcript abundance of genes encoding important immune proteins, namely prophenoloxidase (proPO gene), beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (betaGBP gene) and a 12.2 kDa antimicrobial peptide (amp gene) in post-larval stage VI (PLVI) juveniles of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Gene expression was studied in both healthy PLVI and following single or repeat exposure to a range of compounds claimed to induce immune reactivity. A single acute (3-h) exposure to any of the tested stimulants did not produce a significant increase in expression of either the proPO or betaGBP genes, measured 6h after stimulation. However, there were a small sub-group of positive responders, identified mainly from betaGBP expression, within the experimental groups stimulated with either a beta-1,3-glucan or an alginate. There was also no significant increase in the expression of any of the three genes tested 24 h after repeated weekly (3-h) exposures to a either the beta-1,3-glucan or the alginate over the longer (36-day) period. The results do show that amp is expressed at an extremely high level compared to proPO or betaGBP in healthy animals and a significant correlation was found between the expression of proPO and both betaGBP and amp, irrespective of whether or not the larvae were stimulated. None of the immune stimulated compounds improved survival of PLVI challenged with the opportunistic pathogen, Listonella anguillarum, or the lobster pathogen, Aerococcus viridans var. homari. Thus, we found no evidence to support recent claims that immunity and disease resistance can be primed or promoted within a given population of crustaceans or that these animals exhibit functional immune memory to some soluble immune elicitors. PMID:16569431

  15. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  16. Effects of seawater alkalinity on calcium and acid-base regulation in juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Karen L; Urbina, Mauricio A; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-03-01

    Fluxes of NH4(+) (acid) and HCO3(-) (base), and whole body calcium content were measured in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during intermoult (megalopae stage), and during the first 24h for postmoult juveniles under control (~2000 μeq/L) and low seawater alkalinity (~830 μeq/L). Immediately after moulting, animals lost 45% of the total body calcium via the shed exoskeleton (exuvia), and only 11% was retained in the uncalcified body. At 24h postmoult, exoskeleton calcium increased to ~46% of the intermoult stage. Ammonia excretion was not affected by seawater alkalinity. After moulting, bicarbonate excretion was immediately reversed from excretion to uptake (~4-6 fold higher rates than intermoult) over the whole 24h postmoult period, peaking at 3-6h. These data suggest that exoskeleton calcification is not completed by 24h postmoult. Low seawater alkalinity reduced postmoult bicarbonate uptake by 29% on average. Net acid-base flux (equivalent to net base uptake) followed the same pattern as HCO3(-) fluxes, and was 22% lower in low alkalinity seawater over the whole 24h postmoult period. The common occurrence of low alkalinity in intensive aquaculture systems may slow postmoult calcification in juvenile H. gammarus, increasing the risk of mortalities through cannibalism. PMID:26691956

  17. Immunolocalization of NA(+),K(+)-ATPase in the branchial cavity during the early development of the European lobster Homarus gammarus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignot, J H; Charmantier, G

    2001-08-01

    We examined the ontogeny of the osmoregulatory sites of the branchial cavity in embryonic and early postembryonic stages of the European lobster Homarus gammarus through transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold electron microscopy using a monoclonal antibody IgGalpha(5) raised against the avian alpha-subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. In mid-late embryos, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was located along the pleurites and within the epipodite buds. In late embryos just before hatching, the enzyme was confined to the epipodite epithelia. After hatching, slight differentiations of ionocytes occured in the epipodites of larval stages. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was also located in the ionocytes of the epipodites of larvae exposed to seawater (35.%o) and to dilute seawater (22.1 %o). After metamorphosis, the inner-side branchiostegite epithelium appeared as an additional site of enzyme location in postlarvae held in dilute seawater. Within the ionocytes, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was mostly located along the basolateral infoldings. These observations are discussed in relation to the physiological shift from osmoconforming larvae to slightly hyper-regulating (in dilute seawater) postmetamorphic stages. The acquisition of the ability to hyper-osmoregulate probably originates from the differentiation, on the epipodites and mainly along the branchiostegites, of ionocytes that are the site of ion pumping as evidenced by the location of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. PMID:11457929

  18. Effects of seawater alkalinity on calcium and acid-base regulation in juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Karen L; Urbina, Mauricio A; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-03-01

    Fluxes of NH4(+) (acid) and HCO3(-) (base), and whole body calcium content were measured in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during intermoult (megalopae stage), and during the first 24h for postmoult juveniles under control (~2000 μeq/L) and low seawater alkalinity (~830 μeq/L). Immediately after moulting, animals lost 45% of the total body calcium via the shed exoskeleton (exuvia), and only 11% was retained in the uncalcified body. At 24h postmoult, exoskeleton calcium increased to ~46% of the intermoult stage. Ammonia excretion was not affected by seawater alkalinity. After moulting, bicarbonate excretion was immediately reversed from excretion to uptake (~4-6 fold higher rates than intermoult) over the whole 24h postmoult period, peaking at 3-6h. These data suggest that exoskeleton calcification is not completed by 24h postmoult. Low seawater alkalinity reduced postmoult bicarbonate uptake by 29% on average. Net acid-base flux (equivalent to net base uptake) followed the same pattern as HCO3(-) fluxes, and was 22% lower in low alkalinity seawater over the whole 24h postmoult period. The common occurrence of low alkalinity in intensive aquaculture systems may slow postmoult calcification in juvenile H. gammarus, increasing the risk of mortalities through cannibalism.

  19. Resonance raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical modeling studies of protein-astaxanthin interactions in alpha-crustacyanin (major blue carotenoprotein complex in carapace of lobster, Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weesie, R J; Merlin, J C; de Groot, H J; Britton, G; Lugtenburg, J; Jansen, F J; Cornard, J P

    1999-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations were used to investigate the molecular origin of the large redshift assumed by the electronic absorption spectrum of astaxanthin in alpha-crustacyanin, the major blue carotenoprotein from the carapace of the lobster, Homarus gammarus. Resonance Raman spectra of alpha-crustacyanin reconstituted with specifically 13C-labeled astaxanthins at the positions 15, 15,15', 14,14', 13,13', 12,12', or 20,20' were recorded. This approach enabled us to obtain information about the effect of the ligand-protein interactions on the geometry of the astaxanthin chromophore in the ground electronic state. The magnitude of the downshifts of the C==C stretching modes for each labeled compound indicate that the main perturbation on the central part of the polyene chain is not homogeneous. In addition, changes in the 1250-1400 cm(-1) spectral range indicate that the geometry of the astaxanthin polyene chain is moderately changed upon binding to the protein. Semiempirical quantum chemical modeling studies (Austin method 1) show that the geometry change cannot be solely responsible for the bathochromic shift from 480 to 632 nm of protein-bound astaxanthin. The calculations are consistent with a polarization mechanism that involves the protonation or another interaction with a positive ionic species of comparable magnitude with both ketofunctionalities of the astaxanthin-chromophore and support the changes observed in the resonance Raman and visible absorption spectra. The results are in good agreement with the conclusions that were drawn on the basis of a study of the charge densities in the chromophore in alpha-crustacyanin by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. From the results the dramatic bathochromic shift can be explained not only from a change in the ground electronic state conformation but also from an interaction in the excited electronic state that significantly decreases the energy of the pi-antibonding C==O orbitals and

  20. Hatchery production of European lobster (Homarus gammarus, L.: broodstock management and effects of different holding systems on larval survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biometry of wild berried females was collected during an entire reproductive season at the South-Wexford Lobster Co-op hatchery in Nethertown, Ireland. Second degree regressions between total body weight (TW, g and carapace length (CL, mm (TW=CL2 -36.675CL+1793.2, R2=0.9022 and number of “weaned” larvae and carapace length (Larvae number=1.217CL2–21.777CL-5281.1, R2 =0.743 were observed. Afterwards, berried females were divided according to two variables: 1. holding system: recirculating system (Rs vs barrel (Bar; 2. CL size: 120 mm (C. The total weight of larvae (212.5 vs 92.4 g and their numbers (7788 vs 5679 were significantly higher for the largest females than for the smaller sizes (P<0.01. The maximum survival rate of larvae (77.86% was noted for initial stocking density <1000 individuals/hopper, but the optimal stocking density for management purposes in the hatchery is higher (2001-3000 individuals/hopper.

  1. Cloning of a crustin-like, single whey-acidic-domain, antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, and its response to infection with bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, C; Brockton, V; Smith, V J

    2006-03-01

    Degenerate PCR was used to isolate a 221-base pair nucleotide sequence of a new crustin-like antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to extend the sequence to determine the complete open reading frame and un-translated regions. The inferred amino acid sequence of this peptide was found to be similar to crustin-like peptides isolated for several species of shrimp as well as the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The sequence also contains a single-whey-acidic protein (WAP) domain, similar to novel antibacterial single-whey-acidic domain (SWD) peptides that have been recently described in the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Real-time PCR was used to analyse the expression of the gene coding for this peptide. The gene is up regulated after inoculation with the Gram-positive lobster pathogen Aerococcus viridans var. homari but down regulated after inoculation with the Gram-negative bacteria Listonella anguillarum. Phylogenetic analysis of this new peptide shows that it is most related to other antimicrobial crustin peptides and that the crustins are only distantly related to the antibacterial SWD peptides recently described. PMID:16144710

  2. The accumulation, retention and distribution of {sup 95m}Tc in crab (Cancer pagurus L.) and lobster (Homarus gammarus L.). A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Knowles, J.F.; Winpenny, K. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    1988-08-01

    The accumulation, retention and distribution of {sup 95m}Tc has been compared in lobsters and edible crabs kept under identical experimental conditions. The steady-state concentration factor (C{sub ss}) for the uptake of {sup 95m}Tc from seawater was significantly greater for female crabs (C{sub ss}=17{center_dot}9) than for males (C{sub ss}=14{center_dot}4), whereas in lobsters there was no such sex difference and the C{sub ss} of 1161 was much greater than in crabs. The uptake of technetium from food (as indicated by whole body counts) was only moderately greater in lobsters than crabs. Retention of {sup 95m}Tc was similar for crabs and lobsters of both sexes but the clearance rate was greater after the nuclide had been taken up from seawater (t{sub b1/2}=51 days) than from food (t{sub b1/2}=108 days). In all crabs and most male lobsters {sup 95m}Tc was predominantly in the hepatopancreas while in a few male and all female lobsters it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. In hepatopancreas cells of both species {sup 95m}Tc occurred mainly in the cytosol and some initial steps were taken to determine the relationship between technetium and cytosol proteins. The results for crab and lobster are compared with those from previous studies on these and other crustacean species. The possible basis for the much higher concentrations of technetium in lobsters than crabs is discussed and further research suggested. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. 77 FR 32420 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-BA56 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... section 803(b) of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act) 16...

  4. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AT31 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... measures in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the authority of section 803(b) of the Atlantic...

  5. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of {sup 241} Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention.

  6. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  7. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Grabowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  8. Biokinetics of a transuranic (238PU) and a rare earth element (152Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element (238Pu and 152Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of 238Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of 152Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. 238Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). 152Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well as the cellular and molecular levels

  9. 13C Magic angle spinning NMR analysis and quantum chemical modeling of the bathochromic shift of astaxanthin in alpha-crustacyanin, the blue carotenoprotein complex in the carapace of the lobster Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weesie, R J; Jansen, F J; Merlin, J C; Lugtenburg, J; Britton, G; de Groot, H J

    1997-06-17

    Selective isotope enrichment, 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, and semiempirical quantum chemical modeling, have been used to analyze ligand-protein interactions associated with the bathochromic shift of astaxanthin in alpha-crustacyanin, the blue carotenoprotein complex from the carapace of the lobster Homarus gammarus. Spectra of alpha-crustacyanin were obtained after reconstitution with astaxanthins labeled with 13C at positions 4,4', 12,12', 13,13', or 20,20'. The data reveal substantial downfield shifts of 4.9 and 7.0 ppm at positions 12 and 12' in the complex, respectively. In contrast, at the 13 and 13' positions, small upfield shifts of 1.9 ppm were observed upon binding to the protein. These data are in line with previously obtained results for positions 14,14' (3.9 and 6.8 ppm downfield) and 15,15' (0.6 ppm upfield) and confirm the unequal perturbation of both halves after binding of the chromophore. However, these results also show that the main perturbation is of symmetrical origin, since the chemical shift differences exhibit a similar pattern in both halves of the astaxanthin molecule. A small downfield shift of 2.4 ppm was detected for the 4 and 4' positions. Finally, the 20,20' methyl groups are shifted 0.4 ppm upfield by the protein. The full data set provides convincing evidence that charge polarization is of importance for the bathochromic shift. The NMR shifts are compared with calculated charge densities for astaxanthin subjected to variations in protonation states of the ring-functional groups, as models of ligand-protein interactions. Taking into account the color shift and other available optical data, the current model for the mechanisms of interaction with the protein was refined. The results point toward a mechanism in which the astaxanthin is charged and subject to strong electrostatic polarizations originating from both keto groups, most likely a double protonation. PMID:9200677

  10. SIFamide peptides in clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacidea): a combined molecular, mass spectrometric and electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Cashman, Christopher R; Brennan, Henry R; Dennison, Bobbi; Huber, Kristen E; Peguero, Braulio; Rabacal, Whitney; Goiney, Christopher C; Smith, Christine M; Towle, David W; Christie, Andrew E

    2008-04-01

    Recently, we identified the peptide VYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Val(1)-SIFamide) in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the American lobster Homarus americanus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS). Given that H. americanus is the only species thus far shown to possess this peptide, and that a second SIFamide isoform, Gly(1)-SIFamide, is broadly conserved in other decapods, including another astacidean, the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, we became interested both in confirming our identification of Val(1)-SIFamide via molecular methods and in determining the extent to which this isoform is conserved within other members of the infraorder Astacidea. Here, we present the identification and characterization of an H. americanus prepro-SIFamide cDNA that encodes the Val(1) isoform. Moreover, we demonstrate via MALDI-FTMS the presence of Val(1)-SIFamide in a second Homarus species, Homarus gammarus. In contrast, only the Gly(1) isoform was detected in the other astacideans investigated, including the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, a member of the same family as Homarus, and the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, P. clarkii and Pacifastacus leniusculus, which represent members of each of the extant families of freshwater astacideans. These results suggest that Val(1)-SIFamide may be a genus (Homarus)-specific isoform. Interestingly, both Val(1)- and Gly(1)-SIFamide possess an internal dibasic site, Arg(3)-Lys(4), raising the possibility of the ubiquitously conserved isoform PPFNGSIFamide. However, this octapeptide was not detected via MALDI-FTMS in any of the investigated species, and when applied to the isolated STNS of H. americanus possessed little bioactivity relative to the full-length Val(1) isoform. Thus, it appears that the dodeca-variants Val(1)- and Gly(1)-SIFamide are the sole bioactive isoforms of this peptide family in clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish. PMID:18308319

  11. Biokinetics of a transuranic ({sup 238}PU) and a rare earth element ({sup 152}Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level; Biocinetiques d'un element transuranien, le {sup 238}PU, et d'une terre rare, le {sup 152}EU, chez le homard homarus gammarus (organes et niveau cellulaire) modalites des transferts (accumulation et detoxication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocquet, N

    1995-07-01

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 152}Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of {sup 238}Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of {sup 152}Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. {sup 238}Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). {sup 152}Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well

  12. Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine lobster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneck, R S; Hughes, T P; Cinner, J E; Adger, W N; Arnold, S N; Berkes, F; Boudreau, S A; Brown, K; Folke, C; Gunderson, L; Olsson, P; Scheffer, M; Stephenson, E; Walker, B; Wilson, J; Worm, B

    2011-10-01

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies. PMID:21797925

  13. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTURING BIG SEA CRABS (LOBSTERS, SPINY LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19 th century an experimental work on culturing big sea crabs began in Europe and North America. Great demand for their flesh as well as their high price urged many institutions to explore the possibilities of a commercial production in varios parts of the world. Lobsters (Homarus sp. were mainly used for experimenting, so that the most data available refer to them. Because of the complicated larva stage spiny lobster culturing is mainly being carried out in experimental circumstances. Despite the promissing results this aquacultural activity faces many problems (long time until they achieve a commercial size, loss of eggs due to stress sensitivity during the process of moulting, canibalism. In order to minimize these problems various researches are being carried out, like temperature influence, influence of light, way of feeding, hormonal regulation of moulting frequency. Although both lobster and spiny lobsters live in the Adriatic Sea, there are no data on their culturing in our contry. Concernig conditions in our sea there are realistic possibilities for crabs production development. In this way this delicacy would be more affordable to broader population and could be a highly rated export product.

  14. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref.

  15. Larval Development of the European Lobster and How Small Heterochronic Shifts Lead to a More Pronounced Metamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A. I. N. Rötzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We redescribe the larval stages of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, based on autofluorescence composite imaging. We focus on larval stages (II to (IV. Compared to the American lobster, Homarus americanus, differences are most apparent in stage (III. This stage appears more mature in H. gammarus; for example, the rostrum is already curved and bears spines, and the appendages are better developed and longer and more differentiated. In H. americanus stage (III shows a stronger resemblance to stage (II. As a result of the morphology of stage (III, the “metamorphic” moult between stage (III and stage (IV in H. gammarus is less drastic than in H. americanus. Metamorphosis is characterised by two criteria. It involves (1 a drastic change in morphology in (2 a short amount of time. It has hence been suggested that a more pronounced metamorphosis evolves by two factors affecting these criteria, namely, (1 the evolution of specialised larval features, which increase the morphological disparity between larva and adult that makes the change of morphology more drastic, and (2 the skipping of entire stages. This means larval forms ancestrally moult over several intermediate forms into the definite adult morphology. Yet, in more derived forms the stages with intermediate morphologies are no longer expressed; highly specialized larvae moult into the adult within a single moult (in the most extreme case hence bridging the morphologies of larvae and adult in a shorter amount of time. The example of the two Homarus species demonstrates that this explanation is not the only possible one. Additionally, differences of a single larval stage (in this case larval stage (III can lead to a more or less metamorphic-appearing ontogenetic sequence.

  16. Identification and expression of mRNAs encoding bursicon in the plesiomorphic central nervous system of Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jasmine H; Wilcockson, David C; Webster, Simon G

    2010-10-01

    Ecdysis in arthropods is a complex process, regulated by many neurohormones, which must be released in a precisely coordinated manner. In insects, the ultimate hormone involved in this process is the cuticle tanning hormone, bursicon. Recently, this hormone has been identified in crustaceans. To further define the distribution of bursicon in crustacean nervous systems, and to compare hormone structures within the sub-phylum, cDNAs encoding both bursicon subunits were cloned and sequenced from the nervous system of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, and expression patterns including those for CCAP determined using in-situ hybridisation, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Full-length cDNAs encoded bursicon subunits of 121 amino acids (Average M(r): 13365.48) for Burs α, 115 amino acids (Average M(r): 12928.54) for Burs β. Amino acid sequences were most closely related to those of crabs, and for Burs β the sequence was identical to that of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Complete co-localisation with CCAP in the VNC was seen. Copy numbers burs α, burs β and CCAP mRNAs were between 0.5 and 1.5 × 10(5) for both bursicon subunits, 0.5-6 × 10(5) per cdn neurone for CCAP. The terminal abdominal ganglia (AG 6-8) contained about 52 cdn-type neurons, making it the largest bursicon producing region in the CNS. Double labelling IHC using recombinant Carcinus Burs α and CCAP antisera demonstrated complete co-localisation in the VNC. On the basis of the results obtained, it is proposed that CCAP and bursicon release occur simultaneously during ecdysis in crustaceans. PMID:20691691

  17. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor. PMID:27486834

  18. Effect of a synthetic drilling fluid (IPAR) on antioxidant enzymes and peroxisome proliferation in the American lobster, Homarsus americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Payne, J.F.; Andrews, C.; Wells, J.; Guiney, J.

    2004-07-01

    The acute, sublethal toxicity of a synthetic paraffinic drilling fluid (IPAR) was examined in this study which exposed 2 sets of 14 lobsters to the substance. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) make up the fluid component of drilling muds along with water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs). Although SBMs are proposed to replace OBMs, little is known about their environmental impact. IPAR, an ultra-pure isoalkane with no aromatics or sulphur compounds, is currently used in the Newfoundland offshore. This study examined the effect of IPAR on benthic crustacean because most of the wastes discharged from drilling platforms sediment quickly and the impact is greatest on benthic animals. The lobsters were injected with 1 mL of IPAR every 3 days, to a maximum of 5 mL. They were also exposed to very high levels of the fluid, which would not be expected under field conditions. Different aspects of lipid and protein metabolism were monitored along with the effect of IPAR on peroxisome proliferations and various serum and organ enzymes. The study showed that even at the high dose administered to the lobsters, the isoalkane mixture had no influence on peroxisome proliferation. Increased amounts of protein was found in claw muscles, but no increase was observed in gills, hepatopancreas or heart, suggesting no adverse impact of IPAR. A slight increase was also noted in serum aminotransferases. The study results are in agreement with the hypothesis that IPAR has little or no ecotoxicological potential. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Lobster Logbook Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NWHI lobster trap fishery, which commenced in the mid-1970s, is a multispecies fishery and primarily targets the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panuliris marginatus)...

  20. Comparative toxicity of dissolved metals to early larval stages of Palaemon serratus, Maja squinado, and Homarus gammarus (Crustacea:Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Balsa, J C; Poza, E; Vázquez, E; Beiras, R

    2000-10-01

    The acute lethal toxicities of mercury, copper, and cadmium to the first larval stage of the prawn (Palaemon serratus), spider crab (Maja squinado), and lobster (Homarus gammarus) were tested. Chromium was also tested with the prawn. Mortality was recorded after 48 h (for lobster) or 72 h (for other species) incubation at 18 degrees C, and the median lethal concentrations (LC(50) +/- 95% confidence intervals) per individual and per mass unit were calculated. The LC(50) values were, 74 microg Hg/L, 3,304 microg Cu/L, 1,686 microg Cd/L, 12,486 microg Cr/L for prawn; 72 microg Hg/L, 50 microg Cu/L, 158 microg Cd/L for spider crab; and 48 microg Hg/L, 46 microg Cu/L, 34 microg Cd/L for lobster. Therefore, larvae of spider crab and lobster were markedly more sensitive than prawn to heavy metals and thus more suitable to use in seawater quality bioassays. Of these two species, spider crab is recommended due to its abundance, easier maintenance, and higher fecundity. The mercury LC(50) values for different larval stages of P. serratus (zoea I, II, V, and VI) were obtained, and no ontogenetic change in sensitivity to the metal could be detected. PMID:10948285

  1. Lobster claw deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  2. Lobster claw deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form. In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient.

  3. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity. PMID:22442696

  4. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina L Schoo

    Full Text Available The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  5. Lobster claw deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Agrawal; Rahul Agrawal; Rajat Singh; Romi Agrawal; Seema Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-...

  6. Quaternary structure of alpha-crustacyanin from lobster as seen by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellisanti, Cosma D; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Findlay, John B C; Zagalsky, Peter F; Finet, Stéphanie; Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique

    2003-06-01

    The structure of alpha-crustacyanin, the blue carotenoprotein of lobster (Homarus gammarus) carapace, has been investigated for the first time using small-angle X-ray scattering. In this paper, we have determined the dimensions of this protein composed of eight heterodimeric subunits of beta-crustacyanin. Analysis of the scattering spectra and estimation of the shape of alpha-crustacyanin show that the protein fits into a cylinder with an axial length of 238 A and a radius of 47.5 A, in which the eight beta-crustacyanin molecules are probably arranged in a helical manner. PMID:12782314

  7. Caribbean lobster reproduction: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ayra, L.; Cruz, R.

    2010-01-01

    This review of the reproduction of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus aims to provide information that will improve the management decisions, the study in population dynamics and on spiny lobsters aquaculture research. We update the reader on this topic with studies carried out by decades in Cuban archipelago, Florida, Bermuda, Mexico and Brazil. In particular, it was discussed the results of fieldwork studies on reproductive cycle, fecundity, brood size and population egg prod...

  8. CALCIUM UPTAKE BY MITOCHONDRIA OF ATLANTIC LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS). (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid. PMID:14749060

  10. Activation of a lobster motor rhythm-generating network by disinhibition of permissive modulatory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faumont, S; Simmers, J; Meyrand, P

    1998-11-01

    Rhythm generation by the gastric motor network in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the lobster Homarus gammarus is controlled by modulatory projection neurons from rostral commissural ganglia (CoGs); blocking action potential conduction in these inputs to the STG of a stomatogastric nervous system in vitro rapidly renders the gastric network silent. However, exposure of the CoGs to low Ca2+ saline to block chemical synapses activates a spontaneously silent gastric network or enhances an ongoing gastric rhythm. A similar permissive effect was observed when picrotoxin was also superfused on these ganglia. We conclude that in the CoGs continuous synaptic inhibition is exerted on modulatory projection neuron(s) and that release from this inhibition allows strong activation of the gastric network. PMID:9819280

  11. Feeding-induced changes in temporal patterning of muscle activity in the lobster stomatogastric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, S; Meyrand, P; Simmers, J

    1998-09-25

    In the lobster Homarus gammarus, rhythmic masticatory movements of the foregut gastric mill are generated by a small neural network in the stomatogastric ganglion. We have used EMG recordings from intact animals to analyse gastric network output in relation to cycle period before and after feeding. In pre-prandial conditions, muscles controlling lateral teeth closure and medial tooth protraction (driven by MG and GM motor neurons, respectively) express relatively constant, return stroke-like burst durations, but change to a variable-duration power stroke-like phenotype after feeding. In contrast, the LPG neuron-innervated lateral teeth opener muscle switches from power stroke to return stroke-like behavior. Thus alternate phases within a single motor program may invert their temporal properties according to the behavioral situation. PMID:9779921

  12. Motor pattern specification by dual descending pathways to a lobster rhythm-generating network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, D; Meyrand, P; Simmers, J

    1999-05-01

    In the European lobster Homarus gammarus, rhythmic masticatory movements of the three foregut gastric mill teeth are generated by antagonistic sets of striated muscles that are driven by a neural network in the stomatogastric ganglion. In vitro, this circuit can spontaneously generate a single (type I) motor program, unlike in vivo in which gastric mill patterns with different phase relationships are found. By using paired intrasomatic recordings, all elements of the gastric mill network, which consists mainly of motoneurons, have been identified and their synaptic relationships established. The gastric mill circuit of Homarus is similar to that of other decapod crustaceans, although some differences in neuron number and synaptic connectivity were found. Moreover, specific members of the lobster network receive input from two identified interneurons, one excitatory and one inhibitory, that project from each rostral commissural ganglion. Integration of input from these projection elements is mediated by synaptic interactions within the gastric mill network itself. In arrhythmic preparations, direct phasic stimulation of the previously identified commissural gastric (CG) interneuron evokes gastric mill output similar to the type I pattern spontaneously expressed in vitro and in vivo. The newly identified gastric inhibitor interneuron makes inhibitory synapses onto a different subset of gastric mill neurons and, when activated with the CG neuron, drives gastric mill output similar to the type II pattern that is only observed in the intact animal. Thus, two distinct phenotypes of gastric mill network activity can be specified by the concerted actions of parallel input pathways and synaptic connectivity within a target central pattern generator. PMID:10212319

  13. The distribution and size composition of finfish, American lobster, and long-finned squid in Long Island Sound based on the Connecticut Fisheries Division Bottom Trawl Survey, 1984–1994

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschall, Kurt F.; Johnson, Mark W.; Simpson, David G.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution, abundance, and length composition of marine finfish, lobster, and squid in Long Island Sound were examined relative to season and physical features of the Sound, using Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection trawl survey data collected from 1984 to 1994. The following are presented: seasonal distribution maps for 59 species, abundance indices for 41 species, and length frequencies for 26 species. In addition, a broader view of habitat utilization in the Sound w...

  14. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before–after control-impact study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before–after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  15. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before-after control-impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before-after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  16. Variability in the edible fraction content of 60Co, 99Tc, 110mAg, 137Cs and 241Am between individual crabs and lobsters from Sellafield (north eastern Irish Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, D J; Nicholson, M D

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the variability of anthropogenic radionuclide content of the edible fractions of individual edible crabs (Cancer pagurus L.) and European lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) caught commercially in the Sellafield offshore area. Sixteen female and 18 male crabs and 20 female and 17 male lobsters were selected from commercial catches made between 25 May and 5 June 1997. Each gender group was selected to be within the known weight range for commercially caught crustacea from the area. Four artificial radionuclides (60Co, 110mAg, 137Cs or 241Am) were detected by gamma-spectrometry. The edible fraction content of these radionuclides between males and females for either species were not statistically significantly different. 99Tc was analysed by chemical separation and beta-counting. 99Tc concentrations in female crabs tended to be higher (172 +/- 205 (16) Bq kg-1(wet); mean +/- standard deviation (n samples)) than those in males (85 +/- 58 (18) Bq kg-1 (wet)), although this was not a statistically significant difference. For both male and female crabs, 99Tc concentrations tended to decrease with increasing whole live weights. For 99Tc in lobsters the picture is less clear. Female lobsters contained more activity (14800 +/- 7400 (20) Bq kg-1 (wet)) than males (7100 +/- 3900 (17) Bq kg-1 (wet)). The results were used to discuss the implications for sampling and monitoring. PMID:11381940

  17. Lobster Processing and Sales Trip Report Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated log which is required to be mailed in to NMFS after a fishing trip. This data set includes lobster processing and sales information...

  18. The effects of sex ratio on sexual competition in the European lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuse; Addison; Reynolds

    1999-11-01

    During the breeding season an individual's access to mates may be affected by operational sex ratios, causing strong variation in mating success. We manipulated adult sex ratios of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, to test the predictions of models that relate sexual competition to (1) the sex ratio, (2) the time that an individual is not available to mate and (3) 'collateral investment', whereby two males contribute to a single clutch. The model predictions proved to be relatively insensitive to collateral investment. Male-male competition predominated in the male-biased but not in the female-biased sex ratio. This matches the predictions of one model that incorporates an extended period of female receptivity because the time that a male was unavailable to mate was small compared to the time spent by females in cohabitation and parental care. Although females increased their competitiveness when males were in the minority, male competition remained high. The insensitivity of male-male competition to sex ratios may be due to an upper limit to the costs that males can afford when there is a serious risk of injury, preventing males from increasing their aggression when females are in short supply. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10564599

  19. Dynamic restructuring of a rhythmic motor program by a single mechanoreceptor neuron in lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, D; Meyrand, P; Simmers, J

    1999-05-01

    We have explored the synaptic and cellular mechanisms by which a single primary mechanosensory neuron, the anterior gastric receptor (AGR), reconfigures motor output of the gastric mill central pattern generator (CPG) in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the lobster Homarus gammarus. AGR is activated in vivo by contraction of the medial tooth protractor muscle gm1 and accesses the gastric CPG via excitation of two in-parallel interneurons, the excitatory commissural gastric (CG) and the inhibitory gastric inhibitor (GI). In the spontaneously active STNS in vitro, weak firing of AGR in time with gastric mill motoneurons (GM) reinforces an ongoing type I gastric mill rhythm in which all gastric teeth power-stroke motoneurons are synchronously active. With strong AGR firing, these phase relationships switch abruptly to a type II pattern in which lateral and medial teeth power-stroke motoneurons fire in antiphase. Our results suggest that these bimodal actions on the gastric mill rhythm depend on the balance of firing of the CG and GI interneurons and that selection of the pathway resides in their different postsynaptic sensitivities to AGR. Whereas high intrinsic firing rates of the CG neuron ensure that the excitatory pathway predominates during low levels of sensory input, strong synaptic facilitation in the GI neuron favors the inhibitory pathway during high levels of receptor activity. Feedback from a single mechanosensory neuron is thus able, in an activity-dependent manner, to specify different motor programs from a single central pattern-generating network. PMID:10212320

  20. Sublethal effects of petroleum fractions on the behavior of the lobster, Homarus americanus, and the mud snail, Nassarius obsoletus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J.

    1976-01-01

    Studies by our laboratory on sublethal effects of petroleum fractions on behavior of H. americanus and N. obsoletus are summarized in an attempt to clarify contradictory results and to gain an understanding of the underlying principles. There appear a surprising number of similarities in the way specific petroleum fractions affect the behavior of a crustacean arthropod and a gastropod mollusc. Acute toxicity, caused perhaps by the branched-cyclic fraction, was evident in short term exposures to whole No. 2 fuel oil at 50 ppM and kerosene in ..mu..l/100 l quantities. Feeding attraction, caused perhaps by the branched-cyclic fraction in lower concentrations, was seen after exposure to 1 ppM No. 2 fuel oil, and to kerosene and its branched-cyclic and polar-aromatic fractions in ..mu..l/100 l quantities. Repulsion and feeding inhibition, caused perhaps by the polar-aromatic fraction which contains most of the soluble materials, was observed in response to many concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil and kerosene, and their soluble fractions down to 1 ppB levels. No effect was apparent in exposures to the lower concentrations of solubles of .1 and .01 ppM No. 2 fuel oil and to solubles of La Rosa crude at 10 ppB. The hypothesis is advanced that specific hydrocarbon fractions in specific amounts are responsible for distinct behavioral changes; these fractions are present in varying quantities in different oils; and the changes in behavior are general enough to affect a large number of marine invertebrates in a similar manner.

  1. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  2. Innexins in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system: cloning, phylogenetic analysis, developmental changes and expression within adult identified dye and electrically coupled neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret, E; Alexopoulos, H; Le Feuvre, Y; Davies, J A; Meyrand, P; Bacon, J P; Fénelon, V S

    2006-12-01

    Gap junctions play a key role in the operation of neuronal networks by enabling direct electrical and metabolic communication between neurons. Suitable models to investigate their role in network operation and plasticity are invertebrate motor networks, which are built of comparatively few identified neurons, and can be examined throughout development; an excellent example is the lobster stomatogastric nervous system. In invertebrates, gap junctions are formed by proteins that belong to the innexin family. Here, we report the first molecular characterization of two crustacean innexins: the lobster Homarus gammarus innexin 1 (Hg-inx1) and 2 (Hg-inx2). Phylogenetic analysis reveals that innexin gene duplication occurred within the arthropod clade before the separation of insect and crustacean lineages. Using in situ hybridization, we find that each innexin is expressed within the adult and developing lobster stomatogastric nervous system and undergoes a marked down-regulation throughout development within the stomatogastric ganglion (STG). The number of innexin expressing neurons is significantly higher in the embryo than in the adult. By combining in situ hybridization, dye and electrical coupling experiments on identified neurons, we demonstrate that adult neurons that express at least one innexin are dye and electrically coupled with at least one other STG neuron. Finally, two STG neurons display no detectable amount of either innexin mRNAs but may express weak electrical coupling with other STG neurons, suggesting the existence of other forms of innexins. Altogether, we provide evidence that innexins are expressed within small neuronal networks built of dye and electrically coupled neurons and may be developmentally regulated. PMID:17156373

  3. Ontogenetic alteration in peptidergic expression within a stable neuronal population in lobster stomatogastric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénelon, V S; Casasnovas, B; Faumont, S; Meyrand, P

    1998-09-28

    In the adult lobster, Homarus gammarus, the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) contains two well-defined motor pattern generating networks that receive numerous modulatory peptidergic inputs from anterior ganglia. We are studying the appearance of extrinsic peptidergic inputs to these networks during ontogenesis. Neuron counts indicate that as early as 20% of development (E20) the STG neuronal population is quantitatively established. By using immunocytochemical detection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, we found no immunopositive cells in the STG by E70. We concluded that the STG neuronal population remains quantitatively stable from mid-embryonic life until adulthood. We then investigated the ontogeny of FLRFamide- and proctolin-like peptides in the stomatogastric nervous system, from their first appearance until adulthood by using whole mount immunocytochemistry. Numerous FLRFamide-like-immunoreactive STG neuropilar ramifications were observable as early as E45 and remain thereafter. From E50 to the first larval stage, one to three STG somata stained, while somatic staining was not observed in larval stage II and subsequent stages. From E50 and thereafter, the STG neuropilar area was immunopositive for proctolin. One to two proctolinergic somata were detected in the STG of the three larval stages but were not seen in embryos, the post-larval stage or in adults. Thus, peptidergic inputs to the STG are present from mid-embryonic life. Moreover, whereas in the adult, STG neurons only contain glutamate or acetylcholine, some neurons transiently express peptidergic phenotypes during development. Although this system expresses an ontogenetic peptidergic plasticity, the STG neurons produce a single stable embryonic-larval motor output (Casasnovas and Meyrand [1995] J. Neurosci. 15:5703-5718). PMID:9733079

  4. Long-term expression of two interacting motor pattern-generating networks in the stomatogastric system of freely behaving lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, S; Combes, D; Meyrand, P; Simmers, J

    1998-03-01

    Rhythmic movements of the gastric mill and pyloric regions of the crustacean foregut are controlled by two stomatogastric neuronal networks that have been intensively studied in vitro. By using electromyographic recordings from the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, we have monitored simultaneously the motor activity of pyloric and gastric mill muscles for 300% of their mean duration. However, the duration of activity in the lateral pyloric constrictor muscle, innervated by the unique lateral pyloric (LP) motor neuron, remains unaffected by this perturbation. During this period after gastric perturbation, LP neuron and PY neurons thus express opposite burst-to-period relationships in that LP neuron burst duration is independent of the ongoing cycle period, whereas PY neuron burst duration changes with period length. In vitro the same type of gastro-pyloric interaction is observed, indicating that it is not dependent on sensory inputs. Moreover, this interaction is intrinsic to the stomatogastric ganglion itself because the relationship between the two networks persists after suppression of descending inputs to the ganglion. Intracellular recordings reveal that this gastro-pyloric interaction originates from the gastric MG and LG neurons of the gastric network, which inhibit the pyloric pacemaker ensemble. As a consequence, the pyloric PY neurons, which are inhibited by the pyloric dilator (PD) neurons of the pyloric pacemaker group, extend their activity during the time that PD neuron is held silent. Moreover, there is evidence for a pyloro-gastric interaction, apparently rectifying, from the pyloric pacemakers back to the gastric MG/LG neuron group. PMID:9497420

  5. Changes in motor network expression related to moulting behaviour in lobster: role of moult-induced deep hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens; Massabuau; Meyrand; Simmers

    1999-04-01

    The well known rhythmically active pyloric neural network in intact and freely behaving lobsters Homarus gammarus was monitored prior to and following ecdysis. Despite long-lasting hormonal and metabolic alterations associated with this process, spontaneous pyloric network activity remained largely unaltered until the last 12-48 h before exuviation. At this time, the most notable change was a progressive lengthening of pyloric cycle period, which eventually attained 500-600 % of control values. It was only in the very last minutes before ecdysis that burst patterning became irregular and the otherwise strictly alternating motor sequence broke down. After the moult, coordinated rhythmicity was re-established within 10 min. Concomitant with these final changes in motor network expression at ecdysis was a drastic reduction in blood oxygen levels which led to a temporary near-anoxia. By imposing similarly deep hypoxic conditions both on intermoult animals and on the pyloric network in vitro, we mimicked to a large extent the moult-induced changes in pyloric network performance. Our data suggest that, despite major surrounding physiological perturbations, the pyloric network in vivo retains stable pattern-generating properties throughout much of the moulting process. Moreover, some of the most significant modifications in motor expression just prior to ecdysis can be related to a substantial reduction in oxygen levels in the blood. PMID:10069971

  6. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  7. Unravelling the structural chemistry of the colouration mechanism in lobster shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayen, Naomi E; Cianci, Michele; Grossmann, J Günter; Habash, Jarjis; Helliwell, John R; Nneji, Gwen A; Raftery, James; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Zagalsky, Peter F

    2003-12-01

    Biochemistry, biological crystallography, spectroscopy, solution X-ray scattering and microscopy have been applied to study the molecular basis of the colouration in lobster shell. This article presents a review of progress concentrating on recent results but set in the context of more than 50 years of work. The blue colouration of the carapace of the lobster Homarus gammarus is provided by a multimolecular carotenoprotein, alpha-crustacyanin. The complex is a 16-mer of five different subunits each binding the carotenoid, astaxanthin (AXT). A breakthrough in the structural studies came from the determination of the structure of beta-crustacyanin (protein subunits A1 with A3 with two shared bound astaxanthins). This was solved by molecular replacement using apocrustacyanin A1 as the search motif. A molecular movie has now been calculated by linear interpolation based on these two 'end-point' protein structures, i.e. apocrustacyanin A1 and A1 associated with the two astaxanthins in beta-crustacyanin, and is presented with this paper. This movie highlights the structural changes forced upon the carotenoid on complexation. In contrast, the protein-binding site remains relatively unchanged in the binding region, but there is a large conformational change occurring in a more remote surface-loop region. It is suggested here that this loop could be important in complexation of AXT and contributes to the spectral properties. Also presented here is the first observation of single-crystal diffraction of the full 'alpha-crustacyanin' complex comprising 16 protein subunits and 16 bound AXT molecules (i.e eight beta-crustacyanins) at 5 A resolution. Optimization of crystallization conditions is still necessary as these patterns show multiple crystallite character, however, 10 A resolution single-crystal diffraction has now been achieved. Provision of the new SRS MPW 10 and SRS MPW 14 beamline robotic systems will greatly assist in the surveying of the many alpha

  8. 不同饵料对波纹龙虾生长影响的研究%Effect of Different Food Resources on the Growth Rate of Lobster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈铭辉; 符芳霞; 范薇

    2011-01-01

    Different sources of food were used to raise lobster Panulirus homarus,and different growth rate were studied.Ten experimental groups were carried out.There were five lobsters in each group and each lobster was separated by a plastic cage.Ten experimental groups were set as following: four groups of single resource of food,e.g.mixed fish,mixed shrimps,mixed crabs and mixed mollusk.Six groups of mixture food resource,e.g.mixture of fish and shrimps,mixture of fish and crabs,mixture of fish and mollusk,mixture of shrimps and crabs,mixture of shrimps and mollusk,mixture of crabs and mollusk.Feeding scalar was decided by the taken up rate of the day before feeding.Weight and length were measured every 15 days.The results indicated that mixture of food resource had higher growth rate than single food resource.Within the single food resource experiments,mollusk had the top growth rate,and crabs,shrimps,fish in decline gradient.Within mixed food resource experiments,mixture of shrimp and crab had the best feeding effect.Considering with food price and resource stability,we concluded that lobster fed with mixture of crabs and fish would have the largest benefits.%运用比较饲养法研究不同饵料对波纹龙虾(Panulirus homarus)生长的影响,试验设投喂杂鱼、杂虾、杂蟹、杂贝四个单一饵料组和混合投喂杂鱼+杂虾、杂鱼+杂蟹、杂鱼+杂贝、杂虾+杂蟹、杂虾+杂贝、杂蟹+杂贝6个混合饵料组。结果表明,混合投喂的效果好于单一投喂效果。单一投喂的饵料中杂贝、杂蟹的效果较好,其次是杂虾,杂鱼的效果最差;混合投喂的饵料组合中杂虾+杂蟹的投喂效果最好。结合饵料获得的难易程度、价格高低等因素,笔者认为投喂杂蟹+杂鱼的投入产出比最佳。

  9. Solitary electromechanical pulses in Lobster neurons

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo; Budvytyte, Rima; Villagran-Vargas, Edgar; Jackson, Andrew D; Heimburg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. In the past, experiments by Iwasa & Tasaki demonstrated small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 0.2 - 1.2 nm in the giant axons of the lobster. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse.

  10. In vivo modulation of interacting central pattern generators in lobster stomatogastric ganglion: influence of feeding and partial pressure of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, S; Massabuau, J C; Legeay, A; Meyrand, P; Simmers, J

    1998-04-01

    The stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the European lobster Homarus gammarus contains two rhythm-generating networks (the gastric and pyloric circuits) that in resting, unfed animals produce two distinct, yet strongly interacting, motor patterns. By using simultaneous EMG recordings from the gastric and pyloric muscles in vivo, we found that after feeding, the gastropyloric interaction disappears as the two networks express accelerated motor rhythms. The return to control levels of network activity occurs progressively over the following 1-2 d and is associated with a gradual reappearance of the gastropyloric interaction. In parallel with this change in network activity is an alteration of oxygen levels in the blood. In resting, unfed animals, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is most often between 1 and 2 kPa and then doubles within 1 hr after feeding, before returning to control values some 24 hr later. In vivo, experimental prevention of the arterial PO2 increase after feeding leads to a slowing of pyloric rhythmicity toward control values and a reappearance of the gastropyloric interaction, without apparent effect on gastric network operation. Using in vitro preparations of the stomatogastric nervous system and by changing oxygen levels uniquely at the level of the STG within the range observed in the intact animal, we were able to mimic most of the effects observed in vivo. Our data indicate that the gastropyloric interaction appears only during a "free run" mode of foregut activity and that the coordinated operation of multiple neural networks may be modulated by local changes in oxygenation. PMID:9502835

  11. Inhibition of multidrug/xenobiotic resistance transporter by MK571 improves dye (Fura 2) accumulation in crustacean tissues from lobster, shrimp, and isopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, Ann-Katrin; Saborowski, Reinhard; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2009-09-01

    Multidrug/xenobiotic resistance transporters are present in living organisms as a first line defence system against small, potentially harmful molecules from the environment or from internal metabolic reactions. Multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP) are one type of ATP-Binding-Cassette (ABC) transporters, which also transport dyes such as Fura 2, a calcium chelating fluorescence indicator. The specific MRP inhibitor MK571 was used to investigate the fluorescence intensity of cells in tissues of the brain and the midgut gland of the crustaceans Homarus gammarus (lobster), Crangon crangon (brown shrimp) and Idotea emarginata (isopod) during incubation with Fura 2AM (1 microM). In the presence of the inhibitor MK571 (50 microM), the fluorescence of brain tissue significantly increased in all of the three species. The midgut gland of H. gammarus showed a significant increase of fluorescence, whereas there was no effect in the midgut glands of C. crangon and I. baltica. The half maximal concentration of MK571 was 50 microM as measured in the midgut gland of H. gammarus. In conclusion, MRP transporters are present in the three investigated crustacean nervous systems. Using the midgut glands of the three species, only in H. gammarus MK571 inhibited dye extrusion, indicating species-specific differences of transporter systems, their specificity, or tissue specific expression. PMID:19501673

  12. 76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Spiny Lobster Tail-Separation Permit Requirements Spiny Lobster Amendment 1 (July 15, 1987, 52 FR 22659... simply be the purchase of additional ice chests to store harvested lobster. However, while this proposed.... * * * * * (g) Fail to return immediately to the water a berried spiny lobster; strip eggs from or...

  13. Solitary electromechanical pulses in lobster neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Budvytyte, R; Villagran-Vargas, E; Jackson, A D; Heimburg, T

    2016-09-01

    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. First experiments in the 1980s suggested small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. However, there have been no modern attempts to study mechanical phenomena in nerves. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 2-12Å in the giant axons of the lobster. We show that the nerve thickness changes in phase with voltage changes. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse. PMID:27448851

  14. Revisiting Maine’s lobster commons: rescaling political subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Calls for cross-scalar theoretical and methodological approaches are not new to commons scholarship. Such efforts might be hastened by channelling poststructuralist and critical theory perspectives through the geographic subfield of political ecology, including attention to political scales and subjects. Toward this end, this paper reconsiders Maine’s lobster fishery. This case has provided rich material for watershed commons scholarship, demonstrating the ability of social groups to conserve resources independent of government or markets, and it continues to offer new findings. Recent fieldwork shows that as lobster boat captains advance collective interests through state-supported co-management governance arrangements, concerns of crew and non-fishing community members may be marginalized. Regulatory exclusion prevents broader distribution of resource benefits at a time when employment alternatives are scarce. More pluralistic approaches to commons theory and its policy application have utility well beyond the lobster case.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the musculature of various life cycle stages of the cycliophoran Symbion americanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso Neves, Ricardo; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2009-01-01

    Cycliophora is a very recently described phylum of acoelomate metazoans with a complex life cycle and a phylogenetic position that has been under debate ever since its discovery in 1995. Symbion americanus, which lives attached to the mouthparts of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, repres...

  16. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are…

  17. 33 CFR 100.110 - World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME. 100.110 Section 100.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.110 World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME....

  18. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  19. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  20. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  1. Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-06-15

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth's magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how these lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e. toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e. toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. PMID:27045095

  2. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M Guenther

    Full Text Available Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus landings to evaluate whether: (1 patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator, sea urchins (grazer, and macroalgae (primary producer in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2 lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1 lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2 sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled. We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp

  4. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Carla M; Lenihan, Hunter S; Grant, Laura E; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  5. ISS Leak Detection and Astrophysics with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate angular resolution and sensitivity. Successful lab demonstration of ISS leak checking, using nitrogen, electron beam, and Lobster x-ray optic. 

  6. ISS Leak Detection and Astrophysics with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lobster X-Ray Imaging technology gives high sensitivity and source localization.The project consist of the following:Demonstrate angular resolution and sensitivity....

  7. Inventory and Extraction of Taurine from Deep Sea Fishes: Escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum and Lobster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Heri Suseno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today the utilization of deep sea fishes for consumption as food supplements and pharmaceuticals is being developed. Escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum and deep sea lobster, originating from South Sea of Java- Indonesia can be used for product development as a source of taurine. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of escolar and lobster as raw materials and to determine the best extraction treatment to produce crude taurine powder. Analysis of taurine level in fresh samples indicated that taurine level of escolar flesh was higher than the lobster. Escolar and lobster had yield of flesh at 59.81 and 20.47%. The yield of escolar and lobster viscera were 11.41 and 4.62%, respectively. Protein level which was calculated as the sum of free nitrogen in escolar was higher than the lobster. Highest amino acid content in escolar flesh was glutamic acid (2.04% for non-essential amino acid and lysine (1.21% for essential amino acid. Highest taurine level in escolar crude taurine powder produced from the extraction treatment at 30°C for 60 min with taurine levels of 83.71 mg/100 g.

  8. Driving a Fishery along the Bumpy Ride of Today's Globalisation: The Case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Lu, J.; English, F.; McBride, R.

    2012-01-01

    The case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association describes real issues faced by the Market Development Manager of a collective agri-food organization (SRL) representing all the southern rock lobster fishermen in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. The case deals with recent globaliza

  9. 77 FR 25116 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Lobster Trap Line Markings As described in Amendment 11, trap lines or rope are consistently found as... Wildlife Conservation Commission is currently conducting a study of various methods ] for marking lobster... gear marking issue when the results of that study are available. The biological opinion, as...

  10. Alternatif penambahan suplemen hayati untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan udang lobster air tawar (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDI PRIYONO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available meningkatkan pertumbuhan udang lobster air tawar (Cherax quadricarinatus. Bioteknologi 7: 27-34. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian suplemen hayati sehingga dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan lobster air tawar pada stadia post larva (PL 60 pada masa pertumbuhan 3 bulan. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 4 macam perlakuan, masing- masing dengan 3 kali ulangan. Perlakuan yang diberikan meliputi, kelompok K hewan uji diberikan pakan pabrik 100% dengan kadar protein 30%, kelompok A hewan uji diberikan pakan pabrik ditambah suplemen hayati dengan kadar protein13,34%, kelompok B hewan uji diberikan pakan pabrik dicampur dengan suplemen hayati kadar protein 10,7%, sedangkan kelompok C hewan uji diberikan pakan pabrik ditambah suplemen hayati dengan kadar protein 13,58% masing-masing dengan perbandingan 3:1. Variabel yang diamati adalah panjang cephalothorax, abdomen, panjang total, dan bobot basah. Analisis data dengan menggunakan ANAVA taraf uji 95% dengan bantuan SPSS versi 13. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan yang diberikan berpengaruh sama terhadap petumbuhan lobster air tawar. Komposisi suplemen hayati dengan kadar protein antara 10,7%, 13,34%, dan 13,58% memberikan pengaruh yang sama terhadap pertumbuhan lobster stadia post larva 60. Terdapat korelasi yang sangat erat antara cephalothorax dengan abdomen, dan antara panjang total dan berat lobster.

  11. Solar energy system design for a lobster aquaculture facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    In aquaculture, as in most manufacturing processes, the operating cost is greatly dependent upon the cost of energy. The objectives were to: (a) analyze the power requirements for a lobster aquaculture plant, and (b) to evaluate the use of solar energy as a cost reduction measure in plant operation. A flat plate collector system capable of supplying heat alone was compared with a total energy system in which both electrical power and heat were supplied. The flat plate collector was not cost effective because when heat was needed in December, the least amount of heat was available from solar radiation. Therefore, the collector area and cost were prohibitive. However, the total energy system was cost effective when the capital investment was amortized over ten or more years. The optimum solar power plant was designed to provide 100% of the average yearly power demands, or 60% of the December power requirement. This plant would consist of 60,000 square feet of mirror surface (3.5 acres of land for 40% packing density) which would concentrate 1500 to 2000 suns on a receiver mounted on an 85 foot tower. In the tower would be the three storage stoves which would contain the heat required to operate a 343 KWe Brayton gas turbine engine and alternator for 27 hours. Equipment to generate 3 million kw-hr annually will cost an estimated $1.3 million.

  12. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Andreza S. Costa; Luis C. Nogueira; Venézio F. dos Santos; Terezinha R. Camara; Vivian Loges; Lilia Willadino

    2011-01-01

    The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C) was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment). Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b*) were determined. The visual quality of the...

  13. Adaptive behaviour of fishers to external perturbations: simulation of the Tasmanian rock lobster fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamon, K.G.; Frusher, S.D.; Little, L.R.; Thebaud, O.; Punt, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, lies on a global "hotspot" for climate change in the southeastern Australian state of Tasmania. The short-term effects of climate change are predicted to lead to an increasing exploitable biomass in the south and declining biomass in the north of the state. The fut

  14. Staring/focusing lobster-eye hard x-ray imaging for non-astronomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsenshteyn, Michael; Jannson, Tomasz; Savant, Gajendra

    2005-08-01

    A new approach to hard X-ray imaging is proposed, based on staring optics consisting of a lobster-eye lens. This new Staring Imaging Lobster-Eye X-Ray approach is especially suited to X-ray lobster-eye imaging of non-astronomical objects at finite distances, because the staring optics replacing the standard scanning optics, result in an extremely efficient power budget, making possible not only the use of low-efficiency Compton backscattering but also operation with low-flux X-ray beams, increasing operator safety. The lobster-eye optics, consisting of square-cross-section microchannels, transmit an X-ray beam by total external reflection. This mode of operation has already been verified for viewing astronomical objects. Its major challenge is minimizing image defocusing by apodization. For this purpose, a new lens imaging equation is derived, and a new local optical axis concept is defined. Applications include medical imaging, cargo inspection, non-destructive testing, industrial and security safeguards, and surveillance.

  15. Alternative supplementary biochemic food for growing up the fresh water lobster (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Priyono E, Astirin OP, Setyono P. 2009. Alternative supplementary biochemic food for growing up the fresh water lobster (Cherax quadricarinatus. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 123-130. This research denotes to know the influence of biochemic composition to the rapid grow of fresh water lobster on the stadium of post larva (PL of 60 within three months. This research used the complete random planning dealing with 4 treatments and each treatment would get 3 times cycle. The treatments cover, group K tested animal was treted with 100% mill food containing 30% of protein. Group A is given with food and biochemic food containing 13,34% of protein. Group B is the treated with mill food which is mixed with biochemic food containing 10,7% of protein. While group C was tested by treating them with mill food and biochemic food containing 13,58%. After all the above mentioned would be set up within 3:1 comparation. The variable of this research were the length of the abdomen, cephalothorax, total length, and the wet weight. The data analysis is using ANOVA system on 95% power test completed by of SPSS version 13. The result of the research shows that mentioned treatments give us the same influence toward the growth of fresh water lobster. The composition of biochemic food with the containing protein around 10,7%,13.34% and 13,38% has given the same effect to the lobster growth on post larva 60 level. There is strong correlation between abdomen and cephalothorax and between the total length and the lobsters weight.Key words: Cherax quadricarinatus, suplementary food, water quality.Abstrak. Priyono E, Astirin OP, Setyono P. 2009. Alternatif penambahan suplemen hayati untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan udang lobster air tawar (Cherax quadricarinatus. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 123-130. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian suplemen hayati sehingga dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan lobster air tawar pada stadia post larva (PL 60 pada masa pertumbuhan 3

  16. Spectroscopy and quantum chemical modeling reveal a predominant contribution of excitonic interactions to the bathochromic shift in alpha-crustacyanin, the blue carotenoprotein in the carapace of the lobster Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Arjan A C; Spaans, Arnold; Uzunbajakava, Natallia; Otto, Cees; de Groot, Huub J M; Lugtenburg, Johan; Buda, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    To resolve the molecular basis of the coloration mechanism of alpha-crustacyanin, we used (13)C-labeled astaxanthins as chromophores for solid-state (13)C NMR and resonance Raman spectroscopy of [6,6',7,7']-(13)C(4) alpha-crustacyanin and [8,8',9,9',10,10',11,11',20,20']-(13)C(10) alpha-crustacyanin. We complement the experimental data with time-dependent density functional theory calculations on several models based on the structural information available for beta-crustacyanin. The data rule out major changes and strong polarization effects in the ground-state electron density of astaxanthin upon binding to the protein. Conformational changes in the chromophore and hydrogen-bond interactions between the astaxanthin and the protein can account only for about one-third of the total bathochromic shift in alpha-crustacyanin. The exciton coupling due to the proximity of two astaxanthin chromophores is found to be large, suggesting that aggregation effects in the protein represent the primary source of the color change. PMID:15686376

  17. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... ``submit a comment'' icon, then enter NOAA-NMFS-2011- 0234 in the keyword search. Locate the document you... published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) in the Federal Register (74 FR 67) to notify the... documentary proof to show that the permit meets the eligibility criteria. Specifically, to show that...

  18. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza S. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment. Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b* were determined. The visual quality of the inflorescences and fresh weight decreased with time in all treatments. Symptoms of chilling injury were observed on the inflorescences stored at 12 °C for six and eight days. Bract color was not affected by temperature, storage time or the senescence process. The results indicate that a temperature of 12 °C is not recommended for a storage time longer than four days, whereas 19 °C can be used for a storage time of up to eight days for cut inflorescences of H. bihai cv. Lobster Claw.A conservação pós-colheita de flores de corte de Heliconia é fator relevante para o sucesso da comercialização, principalmente para a exportação. Neste estudo, o período máximo de armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw, foi avaliado em duas diferentes temperaturas (12 e 19 °C e comparado com as condições de laboratório (25 °C, tratamento controle. As variáveis avaliadas foram: qualidade visual, massa de matéria fresca e a coloração das inflorescências (L*, a* e b*. A qualidade visual das inflorescências e a massa de matéria fresca de todos os tratamentos reduziram ao longo do tempo. Sintomas de injúria por frio foram observados nas inflorescências armazenadas a 12 °C, durante seis e oito dias. A coloração das brácteas não foi afetada pela temperatura, período de armazenamento nem pelo processo de senescência. Os resultados indicam que a temperatura de 12 °C não é recomendada para armazenar hastes florais de

  19. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René;

    2010-01-01

    particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......—where a 300 mm window is placed at the top section at about 3–6 m from the codline. Acoustic release technology was used to avoid catch loss during gear retrieval. Sea trials were conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat from a commercial trawler. The sorting box yielded a high reduction of the cod catch......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...

  20. Tests of lobster eye optics for small space X-ray telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, Vladimir, E-mail: tichyvl1@fel.cvut.cz [Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo namesti 13, CZ-12135, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Barbera, Marco [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ad Astronomiche, Via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, IT-90134 Palermo (Italy); Collura, Alfonso [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, IT-90134 Palermo (Italy); Hromcik, Martin [Centre for Applied Cybernbetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo namesti 13, CZ-12135, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hudec, Rene [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov, Czech Repubic (Czech Republic); Department of Radioelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prahue, Technicka 4, CZ-16607, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Inneman, Adolf [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe s.r.o., Novodvorska 994, CZ-14221, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Marsik, Jiri [Division of Precision Mechanics and Optics, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, CZ-16607, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Marsikova, Veronika [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe s.r.o., Novodvorska 994, CZ-14221, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Pina, Ladislav [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-11519, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Varisco, Salvatore [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, IT-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    The Lobster eye design for a grazing incidence X-ray optics provides wide field of view of the order of many degrees, for this reason it can be a convenient approach for the construction of space all-sky X-ray monitors. We present preliminary results of tests of prototype lobster eye X-ray optics in quasi parallel beam full imaging mode conducted using the 35 m long X-ray beam-line of INAF-OAPA in Palermo (Italy). X-ray images at the focal plane have been taken with a microchannel plate (MCP) detector at several energy values from 0.3 to 8 keV. The gain, the field of view and the angular resolution have been measured and compared with theoretical values.

  1. Tests of Imaging with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Optics and MEDIPIX2 Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, V.; Švéda, L.; Maršík, J.; Jakubek, J.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Hudec, R.; Hromčík, M.

    The lobster-eye type of reflective X-ray optics provides a wide field of view and for this reason it can be a convenient approach for the construction of space all-sky X-ray monitors. The hybrid semiconductor pixel device Medipix2 is a single-particle counting detector of ionizing radiation with the photon energy above 3.5 keV. It has small dimensions (256 × 256 square pixels with a pitch of 55 μ m) and low power consumption. The results of preliminary experiments with the Medipix2 detector and the lobster-eye optics are presented and discussed. Tests are performed with X-rays having a photon energy of about 8 keV. The field of view and the spatial resolution are determined. The dependence of the image distortion and the intensity on the source position is investigated.

  2. Genetic parentage in the squat lobsters Munida rugosa and M. sarsi (Crustacea, Anomura, Galatheidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bailie, Deborah; Hynes, Rosaleen; Prodohl, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Munida is the most diverse and cosmopolitan genus of the galatheid squat lobsters. The group has attracted much attention in recent years from both systematic and evolutionary perspectives, yet information on the biology, ecology, and evolution of this genus is very limited. We investigated the genetic parentage of two North Atlantic species; Munida rugosa and M. sarsi sampled from the Clyde Sea on the west coast of Scotland. Microsatellite markers were used to establish the parental contribu...

  3. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  4. The fishery for Norway lobster off the portuguese coast: a biological and economic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Leocádio, Ana Maria Colaço

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de mest., Aquacultura e Pescas, Faculdade de Ciências do Mar e Ambiente, Universidade do Algarve, 2009 Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) is mainly caught off the South and Southwest coasts of Portugal, using two different types of gear, bottom trawling and creels. Trawling is the traditional fishing method, where Nephrops can be either a target species or by-catch of shrimp trawling. Creels are only used in areas unavailable to trawlers, either due to legislativ...

  5. Lobster and Conch Fisheries of Belize: a History of Sequential Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Huitric

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a historical review of the lobster and conch fisheries in Belize, Central America. In terms of yield and value, these are the main wild-caught targets of the national fisheries, a small-scale commercial fishery of around 3000 fishermen. Data were collected during interviews with key informants involved with the fisheries and through literature and archive research. The goal was to study how the fishing industry has responded to environmental signals from these resources ...

  6. Economic and ecological implications of interactions between lobsters and invasive lionfish in the Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Evan Basil

    2012-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans and P. miles) threaten Caribbean coral reefs, yet there has been little examination of possible economic effects of this invasion. In this thesis I explore interactions between lionfish and Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) in natural reef environments and in Bahamian ‘condo’ fishing gear. In both settings I found circumstantial evidence for competition for space between the two species but it is unclear who is displacing whom. Deter...

  7. Strengthened currents override the effect of warming on lobster larval dispersal and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Feng, Ming; Coleman, Melinda A

    2015-12-01

    Human-induced climate change is projected to increase ocean temperature and modify circulation patterns, with potential widespread implications for the transport and survival of planktonic larvae of marine organisms. Circulation affects the dispersal of larvae, whereas temperature impacts larval development and survival. However, the combined effect of changes in circulation and temperature on larval dispersal and survival has rarely been studied in a future climate scenario. Such understanding is crucial to predict future species distributions, anticipate ecosystem shifts and design effective management strategies. We simulate contemporary (1990s) and future (2060s) dispersal of lobster larvae using an eddy-resolving ocean model in south-eastern Australia, a region of rapid ocean warming. Here we show that the effects of changes in circulation and temperature can counter each other: ocean warming favours the survival of lobster larvae, whereas a strengthened western boundary current diminishes the supply of larvae to the coast by restricting cross-current larval dispersal. Furthermore, we find that changes in circulation have a stronger effect on connectivity patterns of lobster larvae along south-eastern Australia than ocean warming in the future climate so that the supply of larvae to the coast reduces by ~4% and the settlement peak shifts poleward by ~270 km in the model simulation. Thus, ocean circulation may be one of the dominant factors contributing to climate-induced changes of species ranges.

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of EEC Syndrome with "Lobster Claw" Anomaly by 3D Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia T Rios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EEC syndrome is a genetic anomaly characterized by the triad: ectodermal dysplasia (development of anomalies of the structures derived from the embryonic ectodermal layer, ectrodactyly (extremities, hands and feet malformations and cleft lip and/or palate; these malformations can be seen together or in isolation. The prenatal diagnosis can be made by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS that identifies the facial and/or limb anomalies, most characteristic being the "lobster-claw" hands. The three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS provides a better analysis of the malformations than the 2DUS. A 25-year-old primigravida, had her first transvaginal ultrasonography that showed an unique fetus with crow-rump length of 47 mm with poorly defined hands and feet,. She was suspected of having sporadic form of EEC syndrome. The 2DUS performed at 19 weeks confirmed the EEC syndrome, showing a fetus with lobster-claw hands (absence of the 2 nd and 3 rd fingers, left foot with the absence of the 3rd toe and the right foot with syndactyly, and presence of cleft lip/palate. The 3DUS defined the anomalies much better than 2DUS including the lobster-claw hands.

  9. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase. PMID:27391425

  10. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase. PMID:27391425

  11. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  12. Bacteriostatic suppression in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) exposed to manganese or hypoxia under pressure of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, Bodil; Krång, Anna-Sara; Baden, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming following climate change elicit pervasive stressors to the inhabitants of the sea. Previous experimental exposure to OA for 16 weeks at pH levels predicted for 2100 has shown to result in serious immune suppression of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. The lobsters are currently affected by stressors such as periodical hypoxia inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn). Here, we aimed to investigate possible effects of interactions between OA and these stressors on total hemocyte counts (THCs) and on recovery of inoculated bacteria in the lobsters, measured as a proxy for bacteriostatic response. The effects were judged by following numbers of culturable Vibrio parahaemolyticus in hepatopancreas, 4 and 24h post inoculation in lobsters kept in replicate tanks with six different treatments: either ambient (pCO2∼500 μatm/pH∼8.1 U) or CO2-manipulated seawater (OA; pCO2∼1550 μatm/pH∼7.6 U) for 8 weeks. During the last 2 weeks, additional stress of either hypoxia (∼23% oxygen saturation) or Mn (∼9 mg L(-1)) was added except in control treatments. Our results showed clear effect on bacteriostatic response in Norway lobsters exposed to these stressors. In lobsters kept in ambient seawater without additional stressors, the number of culturable bacteria in hepatopancreas was reduced by ∼34%. In combined treatment of ambient seawater and hypoxia, the reduction was ∼23%, while in the Mn-exposed animals, there was no reduction at all. This was also the case in all OA treatments where mean numbers of culturable V. parahaemolyticus tended to increase. In lobsters from ambient seawater with or without hypoxia, the THC was not significantly different as was also the case in OA without additional stressors. However, in OA treatments combined with either hypoxia or Mn, THC was reduced by ∼35%. While the reduction of culturable V. parahaemolyticus in lobsters was clearly affected by these stressors, we

  13. Hygienic-sanitary working practices and implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in lobster processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Farias da Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the hygienic-sanitary working practices and to create and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP in two lobster processing industries in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The industries studied process frozen whole lobsters, frozen whole cooked lobsters, and frozen lobster tails for exportation. The application of the hygienic-sanitary checklist in the industries analyzed achieved conformity rates over 96% to the aspects evaluated. The use of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan resulted in the detection of two critical control points (CCPs including the receiving and classification steps in the processing of frozen lobster and frozen lobster tails, and an additional critical control point (CCP was detected during the cooking step of processing of the whole frozen cooked lobster. The proper implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in the lobster processing industries studied proved to be the safest and most cost-effective method to monitor each critical control point (CCP hazards.

  14. A novel lobster-eye imaging system based on Schmidt-type objective for X-ray-backscattering inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Xin; Zhan, Qi; Huang, Shengling; Chen, Yifan; Mu, Baozhong

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel lobster-eye imaging system for X-ray-backscattering inspection. The system was designed by modifying the Schmidt geometry into a treble-lens structure in order to reduce the resolution difference between the vertical and horizontal directions, as indicated by ray-tracing simulations. The lobster-eye X-ray imaging system is capable of operating over a wide range of photon energies up to 100 keV. In addition, the optics of the lobster-eye X-ray imaging system was tested to verify that they meet the requirements. X-ray-backscattering imaging experiments were performed in which T-shaped polymethyl-methacrylate objects were imaged by the lobster-eye X-ray imaging system based on both the double-lens and treble-lens Schmidt objectives. The results show similar resolution of the treble-lens Schmidt objective in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Moreover, imaging experiments were performed using a second treble-lens Schmidt objective with higher resolution. The results show that for a field of view of over 200 mm and with a 500 mm object distance, this lobster-eye X-ray imaging system based on a treble-lens Schmidt objective offers a spatial resolution of approximately 3 mm.

  15. Modelling deep water habitats to develop a spatially explicit, fine scale understanding of the distribution of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae K Hovey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae within a 40 km(2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D(2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. CONCLUSIONS: Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical

  16. Effect of astaxanthin and cholesterol on growth, survival, and pigmentation of adult spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus (Decapoda, Palinuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai V. Hung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on the spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 determined thatintermediate levels of cholesterol are important in diets, but astaxanthin may not be. Here we examinedhow the growth, survival and coloration of spiny lobster were influenced by the inclusion of bothastaxanthin (50, 60 and 70 mg.kg-1 and cholesterol (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % in a two factor experiment.Overall, survival was 84.8% with no significant difference among dietary treatments. Lobsters grew thebest when fed the diet containing the lowest cholesterol and greatest astaxanthin of the levels presented.The results of this study point out the need to examine the effects of dietary component addition acrossa range of inclusion levels simultaneously for multiple nutrients.

  17. Effect of cooking on total mercury content in Norway lobster and European hake and public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Zezza, Daniela; Tulini, Serena Maria Rita; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Monaco, Gabriella; Conte, Annamaria; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2016-08-15

    The risk of Hg poisoning by eating seafood is considered real from the several international agencies that recommended, by fish consumption advisories, to pregnant women and young children to avoid or severely limit the consumption of the fish and shellfish with a high-range mercury levels. The analyses of two common species, European hake and Norway lobster, collected from an area of Central Adriatic Sea, reported high mercury levels in crustaceans. For Norway lobster total mercury exceeded, in six out of ten analysed pools, the recommended 0.5mg/kg wet weight European limit. Moreover the increased amount of Hg concentrations in Norway lobster cooked samples suggests the necessity to review current procedures of Hg control in food, considering also consumption habits of consumers. The Hg values found in all European hake samples are below the legal limits and, in this species, the boiling did not modify the concentrations in fish tissues. PMID:27209123

  18. Lobster and Conch Fisheries of Belize: a History of Sequential Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Huitric

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historical review of the lobster and conch fisheries in Belize, Central America. In terms of yield and value, these are the main wild-caught targets of the national fisheries, a small-scale commercial fishery of around 3000 fishermen. Data were collected during interviews with key informants involved with the fisheries and through literature and archive research. The goal was to study how the fishing industry has responded to environmental signals from these resources and from their ecosystems and ecosystem dynamics. National yields for both lobster and conch have been relatively stable, however, individuals’ yields have been declining despite increased effort since the 1980s. This study concludes that the use of fossil fuel-based technology and organizational change, with the establishment of fishermen's cooperatives, have masked environmental signals. This masking, together with economic incentives, has led to the “pathology of resource use.” As a symptom of this pathology, four forms of sequential exploitation in these fisheries were identified. A major conclusion is that social resilience may not confer ecological resilience. The development of the cooperatives was needed in order to improve equity in the industry. Before their impacts could be assessed, this organizational change, together with new technology, led to very important and rapid changes in the industry. Together with existing regulations that allow de facto open access to lobster and conch, these changes resulted in a short-term boom that has resulted in the pathology of resource use, with over-capitalization and dependence on maintained yields, regardless of environmental feedback.

  19. Panulirus argus virus 1 detected in oceanic postlarvae of Caribbean spiny lobster: implications for disease dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Segura-García, Iris; Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Améndola-Pimenta, Mónica; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2015-12-01

    Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), a pathogenic virus that specifically attacks Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus, was recently detected in newly settled postlarvae of P. argus. As PaV1 appears not to be vertically transmitted, infected postlarvae likely acquire PaV1 from the water, but whether this can occur in oceanic waters where the planktonic larvae (phyllosomata) metamorphose into nektonic postlarvae remains unknown. Late-stage phyllosomata and postlarvae of P. argus were collected at distances of 2 to 100 km from the Caribbean coast of Mexico in 2 oceanographic cruises. Most postlarvae were caught in the upper meter of water, usually along with masses of floating Sargassum algae. A PaV1-PCR assay was used to test 169 phyllosomata (stages VI-X) and 239 postlarvae. All phyllosomata tested negative, but 2 postlarvae, 1 from each cruise, tested positive for PaV1. These postlarvae were collected at 55 and 48 km offshore over depths of 850 and 1800 m, respectively, suggesting that postlarvae can acquire PaV1 in offshore waters. We hypothesize that floating Sargassum may be an environmental reservoir for PaV1. The PaV1 allele (460 pb) found in an infected postlarva was more closely related to PaV1 alleles found in lobsters from Puerto Rico than in lobsters from any other location (including Mexico), suggesting high gene flow and long-distance dispersal of PaV1, consistent with previous studies of high genetic connectivity across the Caribbean. PMID:26648108

  20. Cyclic nucleotide- and inositol phosphate-gated ion channels in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatt, H; Ache, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    The idea of having two second messenger pathways in olfaction, one mediated by cAMP and the other by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, is supported by evidence that both second messengers directly activate distinct ion channels in the outer dendrite of lobster olfactory receptor neurons. Evidence that both types of second messenger-gated channels can occur in the same patch of membrane suggests that channels of both types can be expressed in one neuron. Evidence of more than one type of inositol ...

  1. Effective algorithm for ray-tracing simulations of lobster eye and similar reflective optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, Vladimír; Hudec, René; Němcová, Šárka

    2016-06-01

    The algorithm presented is intended mainly for lobster eye optics. This type of optics (and some similar types) allows for a simplification of the classical ray-tracing procedure that requires great many rays to simulate. The method presented performs the simulation of a only few rays; therefore it is extremely effective. Moreover, to simplify the equations, a specific mathematical formalism is used. Only a few simple equations are used, therefore the program code can be simple as well. The paper also outlines how to apply the method to some other reflective optical systems.

  2. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  3. Variability in prevalence of Cymatocarpus solearis (Trematoda, Brachycoeliidae) in Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) from Bahía de la Ascensión (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Muñoz de Cote-Hernández, Rubén; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Cymatocarpus solearis, a brachycoeliid trematode that parasitizes sea turtles, uses spiny lobsters Panulirus argus as second intermediate hosts. We examined variability in infection by C. solearis in Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico, a tropical bay with a highly productive fishery for P. argus that is based on the extensive use of casitas (large artificial shelters), which can harbor multiple juveniles and adults of this gregarious lobster species. We sampled 3956 lobsters from 466 casitas distributed over three bay zones within two closed seasons and one fishing season. In these lobsters (9.5-115.2mm carapace length, CL), the average infection prevalence was 11.7% but the probability of infection increased significantly with size. Prevalence varied with season but was consistently higher in one zone than in the other two zones. Infection with C. solearis was negatively related with clinical infection with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). We also sampled 405 lobsters from the commercial catch obtained throughout the bay at the onset of the fishing season. In these relatively larger lobsters (70.3-168.0mm CL), average prevalence of C. solearis was higher (23.5%) but was not affected by lobster size or sex. Encysted metacercariae occurred in both abdominal and cephalothoracic muscles. The effects of C. solearis on phenotypic traits of P. argus that may potentially impact the host population dynamics and fisheries remain to be investigated. PMID:27216231

  4. Study on halotolerance of phyllosoma larva of Chinese spiny lobster (Panulirus stimpsoni Holthuis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The halotolerance of phyllosoma larva of Chinese spiny lobster (Panulirus stimpsoni Holthuis) was experimentally studied in a man-made seawater of 13, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 39,43, 47 and 49 salinity. The experimental results showed that phyllosoma lame survived for 4~6 d with a rate of 25.0% to 47.5% if seawater salinity was increased or decreased gradually from 31 to 49 or to 13 respectively. In a range of 23 to 39 salinity, the phyllosoma larva grew, developed and metamor phosed normally, the metamorphosis rate of which in Stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ being 85% and 48%, respec tively, when cultured in seawater of 31 salinity. It seems that some regular dispersion of larvae ap peared in various salinities of seawater; In lower salinity, they mainly dispersed in the lower layer and in higher salinity, almost stayed in the upper and middle layers. Also, the results indicated that the phyllo soma larva of Chinese spiny lobster had a strong halotolerance to various salinities of seawater ranging from 15 to 47,in which 27 to 35 salinities were appropriate for larva growth and development.

  5. 76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... identified by the Secretary as not undergoing overfishing; allocate ACLs for island management areas and for... prevent overfishing of reef fish, spiny lobster and aquarium trade species while maintaining catch levels... overfishing, ACLs must be established at a level that prevents overfishing and helps to achieve OY within...

  6. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O'Rorke

    Full Text Available The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  7. Temperature-dependent developmental variation in lobster muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnay, J L; Holmes, J M; Neil, D M; El Haj, A J

    2003-10-16

    The temperature- and developmental-regulation of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression and primary sequence was investigated in the abdominal musculature of developing Homarus gammarus larvae acclimated to 10, 14 and 19+/-1 degrees C. MyHC loop 1 (ATP binding) and loop 2 (actin binding) regions were sequenced and compared. The deduced amino acid sequence of MyHC loop 1 showed a development-related increase in net charge from +1 to +2 between larval stages 1 and 2, which was not temperature-dependent. In post-settled stage 9 larvae, minor shifts in amino acid sequence occurred at 19 degrees C, and corresponded to a significant up-regulation of fast myosin mRNA expression. However, no temperature-specific loop 1 isoforms were detected. The deduced amino acid sequence of MyHC loop 2 was not affected by temperature, and the net charge remained +4 throughout development. These findings contrast to previous studies using the common carp, in which temperature-specific MyHC isoform genes were expressed in response to disparate thermal regimes. This raises the question as to whether arthropods do not express specific temperature isoforms but instead rely on shifts in fibre type to accommodate alterations in thermal environment. PMID:14563558

  8. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  9. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  10. Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

  11. Investigate the frequency of virulence genes Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fish, lobsters and crabs caught from Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Safarpourdehkordi; Sahar Hosseini; Ebrahim Rahimi; Manouchehr Momeni; Emad Yahaghi; Ebrahim Khodaverdi Darian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Annually, many reports of occurrence of food poisoning due to the consumption of sea-foods contaminated with Vibrio species have been published. The present study was carried out to study the prevalence rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholera and evaluation of presence of virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus in sea-food products caught from Persian Gulf. Materials and Methods: In total, 200 samples of fish, lobster and crab caught from Persian Gulf collected in...

  12. Study on the Processing Technology of Lobster Mince Sauce%淡水小龙虾肉酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕艳红; 高海林; 王朝宇; 赵希荣; 赵立

    2012-01-01

    The seafood flavor sauce was prepared using lobster mince, peanut butter and fermented soya beans as the main raw material and adding pepper, salt, sugar, vinegar as the basic seasonings. Orthogonal test was employed to optimize the dosages of the ingredients and the processing conditions for lobster mince sauce. The best formula of the seasoning liquid contains salt 3% and pepper 1% with the ratio of the sugar to vinegar being of 5:3 (m/m),. And the optimal processing conditions for lobster mince sauce preparation were as follows: lobster mince 11%, seasoning liquid 27% and the ratio of peanut butter to fermented soya beans 2:8 {m/m).%以淡水小龙虾加工后产生的龙虾碎肉、鳌内肉为原料,辅以胡椒、食盐、糖、醋等基本调味料,生产具有水产海鲜风味特色的龙虾肉酱产品.采用正交试验筛选最佳配方,以确定龙虾肉酱的最佳工艺条件.经优化,调味液的最佳配比为:食盐3%,糖醋比5∶3(m/m),胡椒1%;最佳龙虾肉酱工艺条件为:龙虾肉11%,调味液27%,花生酱和豆豉的配比为2∶8(m/m).

  13. Inter-cohort growth for three tropical resources: tilapia, octopus and lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Abunader, Iván; Gómez-Muñoz, Victor Manuel; Salas, Silvia; Ruiz-Velazco, Javier M J

    2015-09-01

    Growth parameters are an important component for the stock assessment of exploited aquatic species. However, it is often difficult to apply direct methods to estimate growth and to analyse the differences between males and females, particularly in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to analyse the inter-cohort growth of three tropical resources and discuss the possible fisheries management implications. A simple method was used to compare individual growth curves obtained from length frequency distribution analysis, illustrated by case studies of three tropical species from different aquatic environments: tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), red octopus (Octopus maya) and the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus). The analysis undertaken compared the size distribution of males and females of a given cohort through modal progression analysis. The technique used proved to be useful for highlighting the differences in growth between females and males of a specific cohort. The potential effect of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the organism's development as reflected in the size distribution of the cohorts is discussed.

  14. Exogenous ecdysteroids elicit low-threshold sensory responses in spiny lobsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, M.; Case, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from chemoreceptors in the lateral antennule of Panulirus interruptus reveal low threshold detection of 10/sup -13/ M ..beta..-ecdysone or 10/sup -12/ M ..cap alpha..-ecdysone with a latency of less than 1 second. Responses to either ..cap alpha..- or ..beta..-ecdysone were recorded from juvenile, female (with and without spermatophores or bearing eggs), and male lobsters in intermolt and premolt stages. Receptors responding to ..cap alpha..-ecdysone did not respond to 2.9 X 10/sup -11/ M ..beta..-ecdysone. The behavioral function of this low threshold detection is not known, but ecdysteroids may be important in intra- or interspecific communication. The short latency of this neural response to ecdysteroids strongly implicates interaction with a membrane-associated component. Thus, the chemoreceptors in the lateral antennule of P. interruptus may provide a valuable system for the study of the affinity and specificity of membrane-bound ecdysteroid receptors for comparison to previously described cytoplasmic and nuclear ecdysteroid receptors and membrane-associated receptors specific for other steroid compounds. 25 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  15. Irreversible adsorption of atmospheric helium on olivine: A lobster pot analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protin, Marie; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Marrocchi, Yves; Mathon, François

    2016-04-01

    This study reports new experimental results that demonstrate that large amounts of atmospheric helium may be adsorbed onto the surfaces of olivine grains. This behavior is surface-area-related in that this contamination preferentially affects grains that are smaller than 125 μm in size. One of the most striking results of our study is that in vacuo heating at 900 °C for 15 min is not sufficient to completely remove the atmospheric contamination. This suggests that the adsorption of helium may involve high-energy trapping of helium through irreversible anomalous adsorption. This trapping process of helium can thus be compared to a "lobster pot" adsorption: atmospheric helium easily gets in, but hardly gets out. While this type of behavior has previously been reported for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe), this is the first time that it has been observed for helium. Adsorption of helium has, until now, generally been considered to be negligible on silicate surfaces. Our findings have significant implications for helium and noble gas analysis of natural silicate samples, such as for cosmic-ray exposure dating or noble gas characterization of extraterrestrial material. Analytical procedures in future studies should be adapted in order to avoid this contamination. The results of this study also allow us to propose an alternative explanation for previously described matrix loss of cosmogenic 3He.

  16. Inter-cohort growth for three tropical resources: tilapia, octopus and lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Abunader, Iván; Gómez-Muñoz, Victor Manuel; Salas, Silvia; Ruiz-Velazco, Javier M J

    2015-09-01

    Growth parameters are an important component for the stock assessment of exploited aquatic species. However, it is often difficult to apply direct methods to estimate growth and to analyse the differences between males and females, particularly in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to analyse the inter-cohort growth of three tropical resources and discuss the possible fisheries management implications. A simple method was used to compare individual growth curves obtained from length frequency distribution analysis, illustrated by case studies of three tropical species from different aquatic environments: tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), red octopus (Octopus maya) and the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus). The analysis undertaken compared the size distribution of males and females of a given cohort through modal progression analysis. The technique used proved to be useful for highlighting the differences in growth between females and males of a specific cohort. The potential effect of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the organism's development as reflected in the size distribution of the cohorts is discussed. PMID:26666119

  17. Lead, cadmium and chromium in raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Tarasco, Renata; Amorena, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Lead, cadmium and chromium levels were determined in different raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster caught in the central Adriatic Sea (Italy). In raw specimens, the lowest concentrations were always detected in the white meat. Lead and cadmium content in the edible portion never exceeded the maximum levels set by European legislation. The highest cadmium and chromium values (0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) were detected in the brown meat, while the highest lead concentrations were found in the exoskeleton (0.21 ± 0.01 mg/kg wet weight). Also, the boiled samples showed the lowest metal levels in the white meat, even if a significant increase (p portions. Among metals, chromium showed the highest concentrations in both raw and boiled portions, but up to now, the European legislation did not envisage any limits in seafood. PMID:24784349

  18. The Analysis of YE Tian-shi's Experience in Clinical Treatment by Using Lobster Sauce%叶天士运用豆豉经验浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪春红; 陈烨文; 陈一江

    2014-01-01

    Lobster sauce is widely used in Chinese classical prescriptions ,while now is seldom used again .For mastering the thought of using lobster sauce by Zhang Zhong -jing, the methods of researching Ye Tian -shi's works and medical cases is used , to explore lob-ster sauce's efficiency , which should be good for clinical TCM doctors'prescriptions nowadays .%豆豉在经方中应用广泛,今却已鲜为人所用。以研究叶天士的《临证指南医》中的医案为手段发掘豆豉的临床使用证候,使经方更好的运用于临床。

  19. Screening and identification of a strain for lobster sauce fermentation%一株细菌型豆豉发酵菌种的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小永; 陈伟; 程芳; 李靖

    2011-01-01

    从临沂细菌型豆豉中筛选出一株适于豆豉生产的高产蛋白酶菌种,并对此菌种进行鉴定。结果表明:采用酪蛋白平板初筛,制曲复筛,根据曲样蛋白酶酶活以及游离态含量共选出5株优良菌株用于豆豉的制作,由成品豆豉的理化指标和感官评定认为D2号菌种发酵的豆豉风味好,滋味鲜美。结合生理生化和16SrDNA序列分析初步鉴定D2号菌种为枯草芽孢杆菌,该菌株来源于豆豉,属于安全菌种,具有研究开发价值。%A bacteria producing high protease and suiting for fermenting lobster sauce from bacteria lobster sauce of Lin Yi was screened and identified.The result showed that five high-yield strains of protease were screened by casein plate and re-screened by starter making.According to the enzyme activity and free nitrogen's content of startor of lobster sauce,five superior strains were used to ferment lobster sauce respectively.According to the sensory tests,physical and chemical indexes of five products,the Lobster Sauce fermented by D2 strain had a good flavor and the product was very delicious.Combining physiological characters and the sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA,the strain D2 was preliminarily identified as Bacillus subtilis.The strain from lobster sauce was safe,therefore it was worth further studying and developing.

  20. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae) Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP) and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cult...

  1. From fishing to fish processing: Separation of fish from crustaceans in the Norway lobster-directed multispecies trawl fishery improves seafood quality

    OpenAIRE

    Junita D Karlsen; Ludvig Ahm Krag; Christoffer Moesgaard Albertsen; Rikke Petri Frandsen

    2015-01-01

    Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the e...

  2. Metabolic characteristics of muscles in the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, and responses to emersion during simulated live transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, S R; Baldwin, J; Wong, R J; Wells, R M

    2001-03-01

    The metabolic characteristics of five muscle groups in the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii were examined in order to compare their anaerobic and oxidative capacities. Enzyme activities of phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were highest in abdominal muscles supporting anaerobic burst activity. Hexokinase, citrate synthase, and HOAD activities in the leg and antennal muscles indicated higher aerobic potential. Arginine kinase activities were high in all muscle groups indicating that muscle phosphagens are an important energy reserve. Arginine phosphate concentrations in 4th periopod and abdominal flexor muscle from lobsters sampled in the field were higher than any values from captive animals, and approximately five times those for ATP. Muscle lactates were high in captive animals. Responses to emersion during simulated live transport appear to exploit the capacity for functional anaerobiosis and further differentiated the muscle groups. Abdominal muscles were especially sensitive and after 24 h showed significant increases in lactate, glucose, ADP, and AMP. ATP levels appeared to be maintained by muscle phosphagens and raised doubts about the efficacy of the adenylate energy charge in evaluating the emersion response. Haemolymph glucose, lactic acid, and ammonia peaked after 24 h emersion and were largely restored following re-immersion. We propose that arginine phosphate concentrations in the 4th periopod are an appropriate index of metabolic stress, and could lead to improved commercial handling protocols.

  3. Isolation and identification of the umani components from lobster sauce%豆豉中鲜味组分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭皖皖; 崔春; 赵谋明

    2012-01-01

    The umani components of 4 representative retail lobster sauce products were studied by ultrafiltration membranes separation, combinated taste dilution analysis with sensory evaluation. The studies showed that the umani components of Yangjiang and Guizhou water lobster sauce were prominent in samples and free amino acid was not the main umani conposition of Yangjiang lobster sauce. The molecular weight at 1- 3ku ultrafiltration components had obvious umani flavor even in 0.25g/L concentrations, which showed that the main uamni components of Yangjiang lobster sauce were between 1-3ku peptide.%采用超滤分离结合滋味稀释分析法和感官评价法研究了4种市面上常见豆豉的鲜味组分。研究表明其中阳江和贵州水豆豉的鲜味突出,游离氨基酸不是阳江豆豉鲜味的主要成份。分子量在1-3ku的超滤组分在0.25g/L的浓度下仍有明显的鲜味,这表明阳江豆豉呈鲜味的成分主要分布在1~3ku的肽段中。

  4. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  5. The use of at-sea-sampling data to dissociate environmental variability in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) catches to improve resource efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Christensen, Asbjørn; Jonsson, Patrik;

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the information collected as part of the at-sea-sampling program could be used to identify hydrographical and environmental variables that are influential on catch rates of Norway lobster. Ultimately, we wanted to know whether environmental...

  6. Fatty acid profiles of phyllosoma larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) in cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; O'Rorke, R.; Waite, A. M.; Beckley, L. E.; Thompson, P.; Jeffs, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    The recent dramatic decline in settlement in the population of the spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus, may be due to changes in the oceanographic processes that operate offshore of Western Australia. It has been suggested that this decline could be related to poor nutritional condition of the post-larvae, especially lipid which is accumulated in large quantities during the preceding extensive pelagic larval stage. The current study focused on investigations into the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profiles of lobster phyllosoma larvae from three mid to late stages of larval development (stages VI, VII, VIII) sampled from two cyclonic and two anticyclonic eddies of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia. The results showed significant accumulation of lipid and energy storage FAs with larval development regardless of location of capture, however, larvae from cyclonic eddies had more lipid and FAs associated with energy storage than larvae from anticyclonic eddies. FA food chain markers from the larvae indicated significant differences in the food webs operating in the two types of eddy, with a higher level of FA markers for production from flagellates and a lower level from copepod grazing in cyclonic versus anticyclonic eddies. The results indicate that the microbial food web operating in cyclonic eddies provides better feeding conditions for lobster larvae despite anticyclonic eddies being generally more productive and containing greater abundances of zooplankton as potential prey for lobster larvae. Gelatinous zooplankton, such as siphonophores, may play an important role in cyclonic eddies by accumulating dispersed microbial nutrients and making them available as larger prey for phyllosoma. The markedly superior nutritional condition of lobster larvae feeding in the microbial food web found in cyclonic eddies, could greatly influence their subsequent settlement and recruitment to the coastal fishery.

  7. Antenna contact and agonism in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Szu-Ying; Huang, Zachary Y; Chen, Shu-Chun; Yang, Rou-Ling; Kou, Rong

    2007-08-01

    On any given day, about 35% of 80- to 85-day-old socially naïve male (SNM) lobster cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) spontaneously adopted an aggressive posture (AP) without encountering another male [spontaneous AP (SAP)]. Although SAP SNMs showed significantly higher release of the pheromone 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) than non-SAP SNMs, there was no significant difference in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) III titer. When different body parts were tested for induction of the attack behavior, the antenna was found to be the most effective. After 1 min of contact with an antenna from another SAP SNM, attack behavior was induced in 100% of SAP and 76.2% of non-SAP SNMs, and the JH III titer was significantly increased in all responders. Among the non-SAP SNMs, the JH III titer before antenna contact was significantly lower in the non-responders than in the responders, and, although the JH III increase induced by 1 min antenna contact was similar between responders and non-responders, the final JH III titer of the non-responders was significantly lower. A similar attack response, JH III titer change, and 3H-2B release were seen when the individual's own antenna was used. After 5 min of contact with an antenna from another SAP SNM, attack behavior was induced in 100% of SAP and 82% of non-SAP SNMs; in the former, 3H-2B release was similar before and after antenna contact, but the JH III titer was significantly increased after antenna contact, while, in the latter, both 3H-2B release and JH III titer were significantly increased after antenna contact. Among the non-SAP SNMs, JH III titer in the non-responders was not elevated after 5 min antenna contact, and was significantly lower than that in the responders. A pentane-washed antenna did not induce attack behavior or increase the hemolymph JH III titer, and a pentane-washed antenna coated with 3H-2B also failed to induce attack behavior. These results indicate that N. cinerea male-male agonistic interactions, to

  8. Structure of lobster apocrustacyanin A1 using softer X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, M; Rizkallah, P J; Olczak, A; Raftery, J; Chayen, N E; Zagalsky, P F; Helliwell, J R

    2001-09-01

    The molecular basis of the camouflage colouration of marine crustacea is often provided by carotenoproteins. The blue colour of the lobster carapace, for example, is intricately associated with a multimacromolecular 16-mer complex of protein subunits each with a bound astaxanthin molecule. The protein subunits of crustacyanin fall into two distinct subfamilies, CRTC and CRTA. Here, the crystal structure solution of the A(1) protein of the CRTC subfamily is reported. The problematic nature of the structure solution of the CRTC proteins (both C(1) and A(1)) warranted consideration and the development of new approaches. Three putative disulfides per protein subunit were likely to exist based on molecular-homology modelling against known lipocalin protein structures. With two such subunits per crystallographic asymmetric unit, this direct approach was still difficult as it involved detecting a weak signal from these sulfurs and suggested the use of softer X-rays, combined with high data multiplicity, as reported previously [Chayen et al. (2000), Acta Cryst. D56, 1064-1066]. This paper now describes the structure solution of CRTC in the form of the A(1) dimer based on use of softer X-rays (2 A wavelength). The structure solution involved a xenon derivative with an optimized xenon L(I) edge f" signal and a native data set. The hand of the xenon SIROAS phases was determined by using the sulfur anomalous signal from a high-multiplicity native data set also recorded at 2 A wavelength. For refinement, a high-resolution data set was measured at short wavelength. All four data sets were collected at 100 K. The refined structure to 1.4 A resolution based on 60 276 reflections has an R factor of 17.7% and an R(free) of 22.9% (3137 reflections). The structure is that of a typical lipocalin, being closely related to insecticyanin, to bilin-binding protein and to retinol-binding protein. This A(1) monomer or dimer can now be used as a search motif in the structural studies of the

  9. Morphology of the male gonads of the spiny lobster Panulirus laevicauda (Latreille, 1817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valêsca Pinto de Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study represented a contribution to the knowledge of the cytological and histological aspects of decapods' reproductive system, describing male germ cells of the spiny lobster Panulirus laevicauda. Seventy-one specimens of different sizes were caught off Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil. Their testes were removed and fixed in Bouin solution, then, after 24 hours, dehydrated, cleared and embedded in the paraffin. Sections (4 µm thick were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The testes appeared macroscopically as a pair of long and highly convoluted tubes joined by a transversal commissure giving the organ an H-like shape. Microscopically, supporting cells and germ cells (spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa were seen in the testicular acini. Some of the acini showed signs of the spermotocytes and the spermatogonia degeneration. The spermatozoa were small cells with the peripheral nuclei and a lightly basophilic cytoplasm. They were nonmotile gametes and are characterized by the absence of a flagellum, but they had spikes radiating from the body. Three stages of follicular development in the mature individuals were observed: (a predominance of spermatogonia I and II; (b increasing numbers of spermatocytes I and II; and (c spermatocytes I and II were prevalent. All the three stages of the spermatozoa were observed in the follicular lumen. These observations agreed with the published descriptions of other palinurid and homarid lobsters. A histochemical analysis of the testes showed that the main component of the tunic was collagenous fibers, that the seminal fluid contained plenty of glycoproteins and carboxyl-glycoconjugates and that the spherical bodies and spermatozoa contained glycoproteins and mucoproteins.O presente trabalho tem como objetivo ampliar os conhecimentos na área de histologia e citologia do sistema reprodutivo dos Decapoda, descrevendo as células germinativas do macho da lagosta Panulirus

  10. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  11. Propagación in vitro de Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Salmón a partir de meristemos florales In vitro propagation of Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Salmón from flowering buds

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Leonor Marulanda-ángel; Liliana Isaza-Valencia; Lina María Londoño-Giraldo

    2011-01-01

    Se desarrolló un protocolo de propagación in vitro a partir de meristemos florales para Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón. Para el efecto se establecieron 250 yemas florales en diferentes tiempos utilizando NaClO al 1% durante 20 min. El medio de establecimiento Murashige y Skoog con mejores resultados fue BAP (2 mg/lt), AIA (1 mg/lt) y 0.1 g/lt de L-cisteína. La mayor produccion de brotes en multiplicación se obtuvo con 6 mg/lt de BAP y con un subcultivo posterior en medio con 2 mg/lt de BA...

  12. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  13. Effect of testosterone undecanoate hormone on sperm and its level in the hemolymph of male mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, S N; Safiah, J; Abol-Munafi, A B; Ikhwanuddin, M

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of testosterone undecanoate hormone on sperm quality (sperm viability) and sperm quantity (sperm counts) and its levels in the hemolymph of male mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus. Male P. polyphagus was injected laterally in fifth abdominal segment of pure hormone, Testosterone Undecanoate (TU) and ethanol at days 1, 8, 15, 22 and 29. Hemolymph of P. polyphagus was taken every two weeks and checked with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure hormone levels. The mean sperm quality and quantity were increased due to increase the TU dose and TU levels also increase. The sperm quality, quantity and hormone levels were relevance each others. These findings indicate that TU injection should be evaluated as a practical way of improving sperm quality and quantity in commercial operations. PMID:26035945

  14. Screening of marine bacteria with bacteriocin-like activities and probiotic potential for ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Duy; Pham, Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Hai Thanh; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Xuan; Hoj, Lone

    2014-09-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, which have been found in diverse bacterial species of terrestrial origins and some from the sea. New bacteriocins with new characteristics, new origins and new applications are likely still awaiting discovery. The present study screened bacteria isolated from marine animals of interest to the aquaculture industry for antimicrobial and bacteriocin-like activities in order to uncover biodiversity of bacteriocin producers, and explore the potential application in aquaculture. In total, 24 of 100 screened isolates showed antimicrobial activities and 7 of these exerted bacteriocin-like activities. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes identified the isolates as members of the six genera Proteus, Providencia, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes, Bacillus and Enterococcus. In some cases, further analysis of housekeeping genes, rpoB for Proteus and recA for Klebsiella, as well as biochemical tests was necessary for identification to species level, and some of the Proteus isolates may represent novel species. The seven bacteriocinogenic isolates showed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against foodborne and animal pathogens, which opens the way to their potential use as marine drugs and probiotics in food, aquaculture, livestock and clinical settings. As a case study, the protective effect of shortlisted bacteriocinogenic isolates were tested in aquaculture-raised spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles. A single-strain (Bacillus pumilus B3.10.2B) and a three-strain (B. pumilus B3.10.2B, Bacillus cereus D9, Lactobacillus plantarum T13) probiotic preparation were added to the feed of Panulirus ornatus juveniles, which were subsequently challenged with the pathogen Vibrio owensii DY05. Juveniles in the probiotic treatments displayed increased growth and reduced feed conversion rates after 60 days, and increased survival rate after pathogen challenge relative to the control. This study represents the first evidence of bacteriocin

  15. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  16. Cytoarchitecture and Ultrastructure of Neural Stem Cell Niches and Neurogenic Complexes Maintaining Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Midbrain of Spiny Lobsters, Panulirus argus

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a “neurogenic complex.” Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labelin...

  17. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  18. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  19. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  20. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  1. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  2. Light-dependent genetic and phenotypic differences in the squat lobster Munida tenuimana (Crustacea: Decapoda) along deep continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, J.; Costa, C.; Ketmaier, V.; Angelini, C.; Antonucci, F.; Menesatti, P.; Company, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    The levels of environmental light experienced by organisms during the behavioral activity phase deeply influence the performance of important ecological tasks. As a result, their shape and coloring may experience a light-driven selection process via the day-night rhythmic behavior. In this study, we tested the phenotypic and genetic variability of the western Mediterranean squat lobster (Munida tenuimana). We sampled at depths with different photic conditions and potentially, different burrow emergence rhythms. We performed day-night hauling at different depths, above and below the twilight zone end (i.e., 700 m, 1200 m, 1350 m, and 1500 m), to portray the occurrence of any burrow emergence rhythmicity. Collected animals were screened for shape and size (by geometric morphometry), spectrum and color variation (by photometric analysis), as well as for sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA gene encoding for the NADH dehydrogenase subunit I. We found that a weak genetic structuring and shape homogeneity occurred together with significant variations in size, with the smaller individuals living at the twilight zone inferior limit and the larger individuals above and below. The infra-red wavelengths of spectral reflectance varied significantly with depth while the blue-green ones were size-dependent and expressed in smaller animals, which has a very small spectral reflectance. The effects of solar and bioluminescence lighting are discussed as depth-dependent evolutionary forces likely influencing the behavioral rhythms and coloring of M. tenuimana.

  3. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E Davis

    Full Text Available While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs, invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  4. New High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry Method for the Detection of Lobster and Shrimp Allergens in Food Samples via Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Multiple Reaction Monitoring Cubed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Robin; Monneuse, Jean-Marc; Gemrot, Elodie; Metton, Isabelle; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2016-08-10

    Crustacean shellfish allergy ranks among the most frequent and severe food allergies for adults, demanding rugged and sensitive analytical routine methods. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a mass spectrometric approach for the detection of contamination with shrimp and lobster, two economically important types of crustaceans, in complex food matrices. Following a biomarker approach, we identified proteotypic peptides and developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method allowing for the identification and differentiation of shrimp and lobster in the food matrix at concentrations down to 0.1%. To further enhance sensitivity, we employed the MRM-cubed (MRM(3)) mode, which allowed us to detect crustaceans down to concentrations of 25 μg/g (crustacean/food, 0.0025%). We hereby present the first mass spectrometric method for the detection of shrimp and lobster in food matrices. PMID:27391354

  5. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  6. Propagación in vitro de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Salmón a partir de meristemos florales In vitro propagation of Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Salmón from flowering buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leonor Marulanda-ángel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un protocolo de propagación in vitro a partir de meristemos florales para Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón. Para el efecto se establecieron 250 yemas florales en diferentes tiempos utilizando NaClO al 1% durante 20 min. El medio de establecimiento Murashige y Skoog con mejores resultados fue BAP (2 mg/lt, AIA (1 mg/lt y 0.1 g/lt de L-cisteína. La mayor produccion de brotes en multiplicación se obtuvo con 6 mg/lt de BAP y con un subcultivo posterior en medio con 2 mg/lt de BAP y 0.5 mg/lt de AIA, alcanzando una tasa de multiplicación de tres nuevas yemas. El enraizamiento de las plántulas in vitro se logró con 1.3 mg/lt de AIA. La aclimatación en vivero fue 92% de supervivencia. Se realizó un análisis de varianza (Anova y un test de Tukey para las variables evaluadas las cuales mostraron diferencias estadísticas en cada fase. La propagación in vitro de heliconias a partir de yemas florales requiere mayor tiempo en la fase de establecimiento y multiplicación, no obstante permite mayores porcentajes de supervivencia y una menor contaminación, ofreciendo material de siembra de diferentes especies de esta planta de interés comercial.A protocol for in vitro propagation of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón was developed using flowering buds as initial explants. 250 flowering buds were established in different assays with NaClO at 1% during 20 minutes. The establishment in Murashige & Skoog's medium with BAP (2mg/L, AIA (1 mg/L and L-cystein (0.1 g/L showed the best results. Shoot multiplication was obtained with BAP (6 mg/L with a subsequent subculture in a medium with BAP (2 mg/L and AIA (0.5 mg/L, reaching multiplication rates of 3.0 new shoots. Rooting was achieved with AIA 1.3 mg/L. The survival rate during greenhouse acclimatization was 92%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Turkey's test were realized for each of the variables evaluated that showed statistical differences in all stages. The in vitro propagation of

  7. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junita D Karlsen

    Full Text Available Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus. In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i aboard the fishing vessel; ii at the Fishermen's Collection Central, and iii in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper

  8. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Junita D.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Frandsen, Rikke Petri

    2015-01-01

    Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i) aboard the fishing vessel; ii) at the Fishermen’s Collection Central, and iii) in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i) newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii) landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii) fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper codend of the

  9. Discovery of a novel insulin-like peptide and insulin binding proteins in the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer C; Aizen, Joseph; Elizur, Abigail; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Battaglene, Stephen C; Ventura, Tomer

    2015-05-01

    This study reports, for the first time in any of the commercially important decapod species, the identification of an insulin-like peptide (ILP), distinct from the androgenic gland hormone. Bioinformatics analysis of the de novo assembled spiny lobster, (Sagmariasus verreauxi) transcriptome, allowed identification of Sv-ILP1 as well as eight binding proteins. Binding proteins were termed as Sv-IGFBP, due to homology with the vertebrate insulin-like growth-factor binding protein and Sv-SIBD1-7, single insulin-binding domain protein (SIBD), similar to those identified in other invertebrate species. Sv-ILP1 was found to be expressed in the eyestalk, gonads and antennal gland of both sexes and to a lesser extent in male muscle, androgenic gland and hepatopancreas. The expression profiles of each binding protein were found to vary across tissues, with Sv-SIBD5, 6 and 7 showing higher expression in the gonad, demonstrated by PCR and digital gene expression. Further spatial investigations, using in-situ hybridisation, found Sv-ILP1 to be expressed in the neurosecretory cells of the thoracic ganglia, in keeping with the tissue expression of Drosophila ILP7 (DILP7). This correlative tissue expression, considered with the phylogenetic clustering of Sv-ILP1 and DILP7, suggests Sv-ILP1 to be a DILP7 orthologue. The broad expression of Sv-ILP1 strongly suggests that ILPs have a role beyond that of masculinisation in decapods. The function of these novel peptides may have application in enhancing aquaculture practices in the commercially important decapod species. PMID:25218129

  10. Hole-pin joining structure with fiber-round-hole distribution of lobster cuticle and biomimetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Jinghong; Gou, Jihua; Lin, Shiyun

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the cuticle of the Boston Spiny Lobster using scanning electron microscope (SEM) show that it is a natural biocomposite consisting of chitin fibers and sclerotic-protein matrix with hierarchical and helicoidal structure. The SEM images also indicate that there is a hole-pin joining structure in the cuticle. In this joining structure, the chitin fibers in the neighborhood of the joining holes continuously round the holes to form a fiber-round-hole distribution. The maximum pullout force of the fibers in the fiber-round-hole distribution, which is closely related to the fracture toughness of the cuticle, is investigated and compared with that of the fibers in non-fiber-round-hole distribution based on their representative models. It is revealed that the maximum pullout force of the fibers in the fiber-round-hole distribution is significantly larger than that of the fibers in the non-fiber-round-hole distribution, and that a larger diameter of the hole results in a larger difference in the maximum pullout forces of the fibers between the two kinds of the fiber distributions. Inspired by the fiber-round-hole distribution found in the cuticle, composite specimens with the fiber-round-hole distribution were fabricated with a special mold and process to mirror the fiber-round-hole distribution. The fracture toughness of the biomimetic composite specimens is tested and compared with that of the conventional composite specimens with the non-fiber-round-hole distribution. It is demonstrated that the fracture toughness of the biomimetic composite specimens with the fiber-round-hole distribution is significantly larger than that of the conventional composite specimens with the non-fiber-round-hole distribution.

  11. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. Natural diet of the spiny lobster, Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae), from São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, C A; Lins-Oliveira, J E

    2009-02-01

    The natural diet of the spiny lobster (Panulirus echinatus) from the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago was determined by stomach contents analysis of sixty-eight adult lobsters collected during October 2002, March, July and August 2003. Food items were grouped by gross taxa representing 11 food categories. Analysis included a qualitative (Frequency of Occurrence of item i--FOi) and a quantitative method (Volume of item i--Vi). A Feed Index (FI = FOi x Vi / 100) proposed by Lauzanne (1975) was also used to indicate the importance of each food category (> 50: dominant, 25-50: essential, 10-25: unimportant, algae, calcareous algae, and rocks. The remaining food categories contributed to less than 30% of FOi and 10% of Vi. Although the Feed Index revealed no dominant food category in the diet of P. echinatus, fish was considered essential, crustaceans unimportant, and the remaining food categories were classified as secondary. According to the analysis, P. echinatus can be properly classified as an omnivorous and a generalist species, because it consumes a great diversity of organisms in several trophic levels. This species presents an opportunistic behaviour, feeding on the prey available at substratum. Future studies should address variations in natural diet related to sex, reproductive cycle, and seasonality. PMID:19347157

  13. Studies on Boiling and Curing Processing of Lobster Recuperation Food%小龙虾调理食品加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋长兴; 熊清平; 焦云鹏

    2012-01-01

    本文对龙虾调理食品加工技术(煮制、腌制)进行研究,通过采用正交实验法优化盐水煮制、腌制技术参数,最终确定最佳煮制条件为:煮制温度75℃,煮制时间2min,食盐浓度2%.最佳腌制条件为:腌制时间1h,蔗糖添加量4%,食盐添加量2%.采用此工艺制备的龙虾调理食品色泽均匀、营养丰富、质地优良、口感细腻、风味独特.%In the present study, the processing of lobster recuperation food was investigated and the boiling and curing conditions of lobster recuperation food were optimized by using orthogonal test. The optimal boiling and curing conditions were determined as followings: boiling temperature 75 'C, boiling time 2 min, concentration of salt solution 2%, curing time 1 h, concentration of sucrose solution 2%, and concentration of salt solution 2%. Under these conditions, the product was obtained with improved qualities of color, nutrition, flavor and texutre.

  14. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  15. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  16. The use of at‐sea‐sampling data to dissociate environmental variability in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) catches to improve resource exploitation efficiency within the Skagerrak/Kattegat trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Christensen, Asbjørn; Jonsson, Patrik;

    2015-01-01

    Research into the influence of environmental variables on the behaviour of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), and hence catch rates, dates back to the 1960s (e.g., Höglund and Dybern, Diurnal and seasonal variations in the catch‐composition of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) at the Swedish west coast...

  17. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  18. New policies may call for new approaches: the case of the Swedish Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fisheries in the Kattegat and Skagerrak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornborg, Sara; Jonsson, Patrik; Sköld, Mattias;

    2016-01-01

    The European Common Fisheries Policy has in its 2013 reform increased in complexity, such as a call for coherence with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and a landing obligation, posing new requirements and challenges to managers, scientists and the fishing industry. Therefore, re......-evaluations of current practice are important as a basis for management actions. The Swedish fishery for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Kattegat–Skagerrak area provides an interesting case study of relevance to emerging policies. Sprung from an unbalance in available fish- and Nephrops quotas...... cases may be interchangeable between gears, allocating a larger quota share to creels in the Swedish fishery would therefore contribute to the integration of fisheries- and environmental management as called for in the new policies...

  19. Recovery by the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) from the physiological stresses of trawling: Influence of season and live-storage position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, H. S.; Wang, T.; Chang, E. S.;

    2009-01-01

    -base status. In winter, a potential metabolic lactic acidosis was compensated by a marked respiratory alkalosis, with significantly increased haemolymph pH and decreased CO2 total content and partial pressure. These effects disappeared gradually over 96 h. Summer lobsters showed combined metabolic...... different live-storage positions, either resting vertically on the tail or sitting horizontally. In winter, many animals were alive when brought on board and approximately 86% were still alive at the end of experimentation (96 h). In summer very few animals were alive when brought on board and, of these...... significantly at 24 h, whereas it exhibited a further significant increase at 24 h in summer. Live-storage position had no significant effect on survival or recovery from capture stresses in either season. The results demonstrate that Nephrops were much more stressed by trawling at high summer temperatures...

  20. Propagación in vitro de heliconia bihai (l.) cv. lobster salmón a partir de meristemos florales

    OpenAIRE

    Marulanda-Ángel, Marta Leonor; Isaza-Valencia, Liliana; Londoño-Giraldo, Lina María

    2012-01-01

    Se desarrolló un protocolo de propagación in vitro a partir de meristemos florales para Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón. Para el efecto se establecieron 250 yemas florales en diferentes tiempos utilizando NaClO al 1% durante 20 min. El medio de establecimiento Murashige y Skoog con mejores resultados fue BAP (2 mg/lt), AIA (1 mg/lt) y 0.1 g/lt de L-cisteína. La mayor produccion de brotes en multiplicación se obtuvo con 6 mg/lt de BAP y con un subcultivo posterior en medio con 2 mg/lt de BA...

  1. Propagación in vitro de Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Salmón a partir de meristemos florales

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Leonor Marulanda-ángel; Liliana Isaza-Valencia; Lina María Londoño-Giraldo

    2011-01-01

    Se desarrolló un protocolo de propagación in vitro a partir de meristemos florales para Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón. Para el efecto se establecieron 250 yemas florales en diferentes tiempos utilizando NaClO al 1% durante 20 min. El medio de establecimiento Murashige y Skoog con mejores resultados fue BAP (2 mg/lt), AIA (1 mg/lt) y 0.1 g/lt de L-cisteína. La mayor produccion de brotes en multiplicación se obtuvo con 6 mg/lt de BAP y con un subcultivo posterior...

  2. Weak feedbacks, governance mismatches, and the robustness of social-ecological systems: an analysis of the Southwest Nova Scotia lobster fishery with comparison to Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain J. . Barnett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The insights in Governing the Commons have provided foundational ideas for commons research in the past 23 years. However, the cases that Elinor Ostrom analyzed have been exposed to new social, economic, and ecological disturbances. What has happened to these cases since the 1980s? We reevaluated one of Ostrom's case studies, the lobster and groundfishery of Port Lameron, Southwest Nova Scotia (SWNS. Ostrom suggested that the self-governance of this fishery was fragile because the government did not recognize the rights of resource users to organize their own rules. In the Maine lobster fishery, however, the government formalized customary rules and decentralized power to fishing ports. We applied the concepts of feedback, governance mismatches, and the robustness of social-ecological systems to understand the pathway of institutional change in Port Lameron. We revisited the case of Port Lameron using marine harvesters' accounts collected from participant observation, informal interviews and surveys, and literature on fisheries policy and ecology in SWNS and Maine. We found that the government's failure to recognize the customary rights of harvesters to organize has weakened feedback between the operational level, where resource users interact with the resource, and the collective-choice level, where agents develop rules to influence the behavior of resource users. This has precipitated governance mismatches, which have led harvesters to believe that the decision-making process is detrimental to their livelihoods. Thus, harvesters rarely participate in decision making and resist regulatory change. In Maine, harvesters can influence decisions through participation, but there is a trade-off. With higher influence in decisions, captains have co-opted the decision-making process. Nevertheless, we suggest that the fisheries of SWNS are more vulnerable to social-ecological change because of weaker feedbacks than in Maine. Finally, we have discussed

  3. Application of remote sensing to the study of the pelagic spiny lobster larval transport in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aguirre Góes Rudorff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The connectivity of marine populations via larval dispersal is crucial for the maintenance of fisheries production and biodiversity. Because larval dispersion takes place on different spatial scales, global operational satellite data can be successfully used to investigate the connectivity of marine populations on different spatial and temporal scales. In fact, satellite data have long been used for the study of the large and mesoscale biological processes associated with ocean dynamics. This paper presents simulations of spiny lobster larvae transport in the Tropical Atlantic using the geostrophic currents, generated by altimetry that feeds an advection/diffusion model. Simulations were conducted over the Tropical Atlantic (20ºN to 15ºS, considering four larvae release areas: the Cape Verde Archipelago, the Ivory Coast, Ascension Island and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. We used mean geostrophic current (MGC calculated from 2001 to 2005 to represent the mean circulation of the Tropical Atlantic. We also ran the model for the El Niño geostrophic current regime (ENGC using part of the MGC data, representing the El Niño 2002/2003 event. Results suggest that the intensification of the mesoscale ocean processes associated with El Niño events promotes the connectivity between populations, increasing the chances of a genetic flux among different stocks. We concluded that the altimetry geostrophic current data together with a relatively simple advection/diffusion model can provide useful information about the physical dynamics necessary to conduct studies on larval dispersion.A conectividade de populações marinhas através da dispersão larval é crucial para a manutenção da produção pesqueira e da biodiversidade. A dispersão de larvas ocorre em diferentes escalas espaciais e temporais, de forma que o recobrimento global e escala sinóptica fazem dos dados de satélite ferramentas importantes para esses estudos. O objetivo deste artigo

  4. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  6. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation "Embracing Diversity" bracelets are available to help ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  7. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  8. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  10. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  11. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  12. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  13. Cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chi-Fong; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-01-01

    A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468

  14. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To ge

  15. The Application of HACCP in the Processing of Cans of Air Dried Lobster Sauce Dace%HACCP在豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芳; 邹文中; 潘志民

    2014-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point(HACCP)was applied in the Processing of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace to insure the quality. Potential hazard of affecting the quality of product in each processing procedure were analyzed,and the planning worksheet was established to improve the safety of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace.%为了确保豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头的安全,对豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品进行危害分析,通过确定关键控制点及控制措施等建立了危害分析和关键控制点(HACCP)计划工作表,对改善和提高豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品的安全性具有重要的推动作用。

  16. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  17. Nicothoe Audouin & H. Milne-Edwards, 1826 (Crustacea, Copepoda), a genus parasitic on Nephrops Leach, 1816 (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabata, Z.

    1967-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The genus Nicothoe has been known until recently only from its type species, N. astaci Audouin & H. Milne-Edwards, 1826. This species is parasitic on the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L., 1758), and has received a good deal of attention, in view of the economic importance of its h

  18. Absence of cholesterol synthesis as contrasted with the presence of fatty acid synthesis in some arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, D.I.

    1967-01-01

    1. 1. After administration of acetate-1-14C absence of cholesterol synthesis was demonstrated in the lobster Homarus gammarus (L.), the spider Avicularia avicularia (L.) and in the millepede Graphidostreptus tumuliporus (Karsch). 2. 2. However, the animals utilize acetate for the synthesis of fatty

  19. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  20. Male Sexual Development and the Androgenic Gland: Novel Insights through the de novo Assembled Transcriptome of the Eastern Spiny Lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer C; Aizen, Joseph; Elizur, Abigail; Battaglene, Stephen C; Ventura, Tomer

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, is commercially important in fisheries, with growing aquaculture potential, driving an interest to better understand male sexual differentiation. Amongst the Decapoda, the androgenic gland (AG) and the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) have a well-defined function in male sexual differentiation. However, IAG is not a sex determinant and therefore must be considered as part of a broader, integrated pathway. This work uses a transcriptomic, multi-tissue approach to provide an integrated description of male-biased expression as mediated through the AG. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that IAG expression is stage- and eyestalk-regulated (low in immature, high in mature and 6-times higher in hypertrophied glands), with IAG being the predominant AG-specific factor. The low expression of this key factor in immature males suggests the involvement of other tissues in male sexual differentiation. Across tissues, the gonad (87.8%) and antennal gland (73.5%) show the highest male-biased differential expression of transcripts and also express 4 sex-determination regulators, known as Dmrts, with broader expression of Sv-Sxl and Sv-TRA-2. In order to better understand male sexual differentiation, tissues other than the AG must also be considered. This research highlights the gonad and antennal gland as showing significant male-biased expression patterns, including the Sv-Dmrts. PMID:26927314

  1. American Culture Through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Clair Michael; Pulliam, William E.

    1976-01-01

    In honor of the Bicentennial, current instructional materials concerned with American lifestyles--past and present--American music, art, education, customs and traditions, and language are reviewed. The reviews are presented in a narrative format and value judgments are made where appropriate. Address and price information are found in a list at…

  2. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  3. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  4. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APRIL 21 A winning approach to comprehensive cosmetic dentistry education The Venetian Hotel & Resort 33rd Annual Scientific ... 9540 Contact Us © 2015 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2015 American ...

  5. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  6. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  7. Hygienic-sanitary working practices and implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in lobster processing industries Condições higiênico-sanitárias e implementação do plano de Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC em indústrias processadoras de lagosta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Farias da Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the hygienic-sanitary working practices and to create and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in two lobster processing industries in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The industries studied process frozen whole lobsters, frozen whole cooked lobsters, and frozen lobster tails for exportation. The application of the hygienic-sanitary checklist in the industries analyzed achieved conformity rates over 96% to the aspects evaluated. The use of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan resulted in the detection of two critical control points (CCPs) including the receiving and classification steps in the processing of frozen lobster and frozen lobster tails, and an additional critical control point (CCP) was detected during the cooking step of processing of the whole frozen cooked lobster. The proper implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan in the lobster processing industries studied proved to be the safest and most cost-effective method to monitor each critical control point (CCP) hazards.Objetivou-se com este estudo verificar as condições higiênico-sanitárias e criar um plano de Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC) para implantação em duas indústrias de processamento de lagosta no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. As indústrias estudadas processam lagosta inteira congelada, lagostas inteiras cozidas congeladas e caudas de lagosta congelada para exportação. A aplicação de um checklist de controle higiênico-sanitário nas indústrias visitadas resultou em uma classificação global de conformidades maior que 96% dos aspectos analisados. O desenvolvimento do plano APPCC resultou na detecção de dois pontos críticos de controle (PCC), incluindo o recebimento e etapas de classificação, no processamento de lagosta congelada e caudas de lagosta congelada, e um PCC adicional foi detectado no processamento de lagosta inteira cozida

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  9. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  10. Production of recombinant insulin-like androgenic gland hormones from three decapod species: In vitro testicular phosphorylation and activation of a newly identified tyrosine kinase receptor from the Eastern spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Joseph; Chandler, Jennifer C; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Sagi, Amir; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail; Ventura, Tomer

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) is responsible for male sexual differentiation. To date, the biochemical pathways through which IAG exerts its effects are poorly understood and could be elucidated through the production of a functional recombinant IAG (rIAG). We have successfully expressed glycosylated, biologically active IAG using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. We co-expressed recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of the B and A chains (the mature hormone) tethered by a flexible linker, producing rIAGs of the following commercially important species: Eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi (Sv), redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq) and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). We then tested the biological activity of each, through the ability to increase phosphorylation in the testis; both Sv and Cq rIAGs significantly elevated phosphorylation specific to their species, and in a dose-dependent manner. Mr rIAG was tested on Macrobrachium australiense (Ma), eliciting a similar response. Moreover, using bioinformatics analyses of the de novo assembled spiny lobster transcriptome, we identified a spiny lobster tyrosine kinase insulin receptor (Sv-TKIR). We validated this discovery with a receptor activation assay in COS-7 cells expressing Sv-TKIR, using a reporter SRE-LUC system designed for RTKs, with each of the rIAG proteins acting as the activation ligand. Using recombinant proteins, we aim to develop specific tools to control sexual development through the administration of IAG within the critical sexual differentiation time window. The biologically active rIAGs generated might facilitate commercially feasible solutions for the long sought techniques for sex-change induction and monosex population culture in crustaceans and shed new light on the physiological mode of action of IAG in crustaceans. PMID:26883686

  11. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  12. Invited Article: First Flight in Space of a Wide-field-of-view Soft X-Ray Imager Using Lobster-Eye Optics: Instrument Description and Initial Flight Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chomay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Galeazzi, Massiniliano; Keller, John; Koutroumpa, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development, launch into space, and initial results from a prototype wide eld-of-view (FOV) soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) is the rst instrument using this type of optics launched into space and provides proof-of-concept for future ight instruments capable of imaging structures such as the terrestrial cusp, the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere, comets, the moon, and the solar wind interaction with planetary bodies like Venus and Mars.

  13. General American: An Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  14. American Samoa Cannery Offloading

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  15. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living Conditions Caregiver ...

  16. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Let’s Teach Our Children About Sleep How ...

  17. American Diabetes Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2383) Give by Mail Close November is American Diabetes Month® Share your personal diabetes story and show ... Next » « Previous Our Mission: To prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people ...

  18. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  19. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  20. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  1. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... join the conversation today. Learn More The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) leads the fight against kidney diseases by educating health professionals, sharing new knowledge, advancing research, and advocating the highest quality care ...

  2. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  3. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  4. American Studies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jopi Nyman

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...

  5. The Formation of American Hegemonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦灵

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, American culture permeates in our life. It seems that all the things in the world are in relation to the United States. This thesis discusses hegemonism in America from three aspects: the definition of hegemony, the origin of American hegemony and the interaction between American values. The purpose of this thesis is to get a comprehensive understanding of American hegemonism,

  6. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  7. Propagación in vitro de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Salmón a partir de meristemos florales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leonor Marulanda-ángel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un protocolo de propagación in vitro a partir de meristemos florales para Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón. Para el efecto se establecieron 250 yemas florales en diferentes tiempos utilizando NaClO al 1% durante 20 min. El medio de establecimiento Murashige y Skoog con mejores resultados fue BAP (2 mg/lt, AIA (1 mg/lt y 0.1 g/lt de L-cisteína. La mayor produccion de brotes en multiplicación se obtuvo con 6 mg/lt de BAP y con un subcultivo posterior en medio con 2 mg/lt de BAP y 0.5 mg/lt de AIA, alcanzando una tasa de multiplicación de tres nuevas yemas. El enraizamiento de las plántulas in vitro se logró con 1.3 mg/lt de AIA. La aclimatación en vivero fue 92% de supervivencia. Se realizó un análisis de varianza (Anova y un test de Tukey para las variables evaluadas las cuales mostraron diferencias estadísticas en cada fase. La propagación in vitro de heliconias a partir de yemas florales requiere mayor tiempo en la fase de establecimiento y multiplicación, no obstante permite mayores porcentajes de supervivencia y una menor contaminación, ofreciendo material de siembra de diferentes especies de esta planta de interés comercial.

  8. Propagación in vitro de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Salmón a partir de meristemos florales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londoño-Giraldo Lina María

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se desarrolló un protocolo de propagación in vitro a partir de meristemos florales para Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Salmón. Para el efecto se establecieron 250 yemas florales en diferentes tiempos utilizando NaClO al 1% durante 20 min. El medio de establecimiento Murashige y Skoog con mejores resultados fue BAP (2 mg/lt, AIA (1 mg/lt y 0.1 g/lt de L-cisteína. La mayor produccion de brotes en multiplicación se obtuvo con 6 mg/lt de BAP y con un subcultivo posterior en medio con 2 mg/lt de BAP y 0.5 mg/lt de AIA, alcanzando una tasa de multiplicación de tres nuevas yemas. El enraizamiento de las plántulas in vitro se logró con 1.3 mg/lt de AIA. La aclimatación en vivero fue 92% de supervivencia. Se realizó un análisis de varianza (Anova y un test de Tukey para las variables evaluadas las cuales mostraron diferencias estadísticas en cada fase. La propagación in vitro de heliconias a partir de yemas florales requiere mayor tiempo en la fase de establecimiento y multiplicación, no obstante permite mayores porcentajes de supervivencia y una menor contaminación, ofreciendo material de siembra de diferentes especies de esta planta de interés comercial.

  9. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  10. Pan American physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in January, a unique meeting of Latin American physicists took place at Cocoyoc in Mexico. Apart from a strong summer school programme, the last time so many Latin American institutions got together was more than ten years ago. The meeting had about 50 attendees with strong representations from the US, Brazil and Mexico. The meeting was designed with two objectives — to review the substance, current status and future expectations of high energy particle physics, and to survey the state of physics research and education in Latin America and explore the possibilities of increased collaboration with the US, consistent with the idea of a host US Laboratory

  11. American Indian Perspectives of Euro-American Counseling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokken, Jayne M.; Twohey, Denise

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen American Indians participated in 17 counseling interviews with Euro-American counselors. The study analyzed interviews of American Indian participants using Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR). Counselor trustworthiness, which was increased by counselor empathy, genuineness, concern, self-disclosure, and slow pace of problem…

  12. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  13. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  14. American College of Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American College of Radiology JOIN ACR Login About Us Media Center Contact Us Follow us Shopping Cart (0) ACR Catalog Donate My ACR ... Education Center eLearning Exams & Assessments MOC Marketplace AIRP™ Radiology Leadership Institute ® Quality & Safety Accreditation Appropriateness Criteria® Practice ...

  15. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  16. Delusion of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云芳

    2014-01-01

    Martin Eden by Jack London and The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzergald are both stories describing the delusion of American dream. They share much in common for they are discussing the same themes actually. By analyzing the two protagonists’life experience and deaths respectively,we try to explore the profound meaning hidden under the surface.

  17. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  18. American Holidays and Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凌

    2002-01-01

    One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.

  19. Asian Americans in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  20. BYD's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.

  1. American Indian Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  2. American Overseas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.; Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    A compilation of articles examines the similarities and differences of educational administration in schools for American students overseas. The "Introductions and Orientations" section includes: "The Association for the Advancement of International Education" (Lewis A. Grell); "The Office of Overseas Schools of the United States Department of…

  3. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  4. Festival of American Folklife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Theodore P.

    1976-01-01

    The "Festival of American Folklife in 1976 was the largest cultural event of its kind ever held". Describes the Festival programs representing the diverse cultural groups who displayed their traditions and skills at the Mall between the Lincoln and Washington monuments during the summer of 1976. (Author/RK)

  5. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: info@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  6. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  7. American Society of Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...

  8. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  9. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  10. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  11. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  12. 75 FR 39513 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Asian American and Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Asian American and Native American Pacific... Native American Pacific Islander. Priorities: Under this competition, we are particularly interested in... average award award amount of awards amount Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-...

  13. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native Spotlight ACA Infographic for American Indians/ ... Program Circle of Life multimedia youth education program American Indian/Alaska Native Profile Great Plains Area Alaska Area ...

  14. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic epistemologies…

  15. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  16. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  17. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  18. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  19. Native American Loyalists and Patriots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsh, Russel Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    Many American Indians experienced the American Revolution differently; Western tribes fearful of American expansionism tended to become loyalists, while east coast tribes already submerged in English society generally saw the rebellion as an opportunity to prove themselves deserving of full political equality via loyalty to their patriot…

  20. Postlarval settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae, at the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica Asentamiento postlarval en la langosta espinosa, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobster fishery (Panulirus argus forms an important part of the fishing activities along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The present study provides information regarding the seasonal abundance and distribution of postlarval P. argus in Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. During the study period (March 2004-February 2005, a total of 1907 pueruli were obtained from GuSi collectors. Postlarvae were present during all months, with a pronounced peak in January-February 2005 (CPUE of 21.82 and 22.18, pueruli/collector/month, respectively, and minor peaks in May and October 2004. The abundance of postlarval P. argus in the study area was comparable to locations which support important lobster fisheries, e.g. Mexico. A majority of the postlarvae (1027 ind. was collected during the first quarter moon, the remaining pueruli (880 ind. during new moon; these results are in general agreement with similar findings for P. argus in the Caribbean area. Based upon our results, we recommend introducing a local or regional monitoring program, studying spiny lobster migration and distribution patterns, and evaluate the introduction of artificial shelters for P. argus.Las capturas de langosta (Panulirus argus son de gran importancia en la actividad pesquera a lo largo de las costas del Caribe de Centroamérica. El presente estudio proporciona información relevante de la abundancia temporal y la distribución de postlarvas de P. argus en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. Durante el periodo de estudio (Marzo 2004-Febrero 2005, un total de 1907 puérulos fueron obtenidos del colector GuSi. Las postlarvas fueron colectadas durante todos los meses, con máximos en enero-febrero 2005 (CPUE de 21.82 y 22.18, puérulos/colector/mes, respectivamente, y mínimos en mayo y octubre de 2004. La abundancia de postlarvas de P. argus en el estudio es comparada con áreas que soportan importantes pesquerías, p. ej. México. La mayoría de las postlarvas (1027 ind

  1. Study on lobster-eye X-ray optical system based on parallel Schmidt geometry%平行式Schmidt型龙虾眼X射线光学系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨夏军; 穆宝忠; 伊圣振; 王占山

    2012-01-01

    龙虾眼X射线系统是实现大视场X射线成像的有效手段.现研制了由多组平行玻璃平板构成的Schmidt型X射线龙虾眼光学系统,开展了X射线聚焦和成像的演示实验.基于掠入射反射理论,以210μm厚的超光滑平板玻璃作为光学元件,通过堆叠的方式制作了放大倍数为1的演示系统.用8 keV的X射线光源对系统进行了聚焦和实验,直径280μm的光源聚焦半高宽约为320μm,与理论模拟结果基本一致.利用X射线背光照明,得到2 mm×2 mm大小图样的成像.实验结果表明,该龙虾眼光学系统可以在几毫米视场下达到百微米分辨.%Lobster-eye X-Ray system is an effective method to achieve X-ray imaging with a large field of view. A lobster-eye X-ray optical system is designed based on Schmidt geometry using parallel glass plate and X-ray focusing and imaging demonstration experiment is carried out. Based on the principle of grazing incidence reflection, a demonstration system with a unit magnification was made through stacking the flat thin glasses of 210 μm with ultra-smooth surface. Experiment of X-ray focusing was carried out using 8 keV X-ray source and a pinhole with diameter of about 280 μm. A full-width at half-maximum of about 320 μm was achieved which is almost the same with the ray tracing result. Then, the imaging ability of the system was also tested using a pattern of about 2 mm×2 mm through X-ray backlighting. The results show that this lobster-eye system can get a resolution of hundred microns under the FOV of a few millimeters.

  2. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  3. Comentarios sobre la distribución de la langosta pinta Panulirus inflatus y la langosta roja P. interruptus (Crustacea: Palinuridae en el Pacífico mexicano Remarks on the distribution of the pinto lobster Panulirus inflatus and the red lobster P. interruptus (Crustacea: Palinuridae in the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Campos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo de campo sobre la costa oeste de la península de Baja California entre los años 2000 y 2005 dio como resultado la ampliación del ámbito geográfico norteño, desde la Bahía de Santa María hasta Punta Eugenia y sus zonas aledañas, para una población permanente de la langosta pinta Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895. Registros de esta especie para Bahía de Los Ángeles (golfo de California e isla Guadalupe, México y San Diego, California, en Estados Unidos de América están considerados extralímite y se relacionan con el incremento en la temperatura promedio en el golfo, la condición de calentamiento del agua marina en el Pacifico oriental o el evento El Niño. Adicionalmente, un análisis histórico detallado sobre la distribución de la langosta roja P. interruptus (Randall, 1893 sugiere que los registros al sur de Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur y aquellos de la parte sur del Golfo de California son extralímite. Sin embargo, los individuos de Bahía de Los Ángeles y sus áreas aledañas (incluyendo Isla Tiburón y Guaymas, Sonora parecen representar una población que quedó aislada de aquella de la costa oeste de la península de Baja California después de que el corredor marino medio-peninsular, presente en el período Terciario neógeno, se cerró al emerger completamente la península.Fieldwork along the west coast of the Baja California peninsula has resulted in a northern range extension, from Bahía Santa María to Punta Eugenia and vicinity, Baja California Sur, Mexico, for a permanent population of the pinto lobster Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895. Records of this species from Ángel de la Guarda Island (within the Gulf of California and Guadalupe Island, Mexico and San Diego, California, USA are considered extralimital and related to annual water warming in the Gulf and the Eastern Pacific warm water condition or El Niño event, respectively. In addition, an historic analysis of the red lobster

  4. Remarks on American Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Language serves as the tool of communication between people.In any language persons,things and activities that are ta⁃boos should not be talked about or should be mentioned in a roundabout way. it is not only a linguistic phenomenon but also a social phenomenon.The origin of taboo is deeply rooted in the social and cultural background. Today in the increasingly frequent cross-cultural communication, if you do not understand the language taboos, it will hinder the smooth communication. This pa⁃per will talk about American taboos from two aspects.It is designed to help English learners understand American culture and im⁃prove competence of cross-cultural communication.

  5. Modeling American Marriage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; Neil G. Bennett

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of the three-parameter, Coale-McNeil marriage model and some related hyper-parameterized specifications to data on the first marriage patterns of American women. Because the model is parametric, it can be used to estimate the parameters of the marriage process, free of censoring bias, for cohorts that have yet to complete their first marriage experience. Empirical evidence from three surveys is reported on the ability of the model to replicate and proje...

  6. American Scholars Visited SCUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuChengfa

    2004-01-01

    On October 18, South-Central University for Nationalities (SCUN)welcomed an American academic delegation headed by Professor David Van Buren, vice chancellor of Platteville Campus of University of Wisconsin(UW-P). At the reception ceremony,Professor Li Buhai, Party Chairman of SCUN, and Professor Chen Dayun,president of the university made a brief introduction to the school, and then both parties reached a preliminary agreement on the cooperative education.

  7. Quilting: An American Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    A quilt can warm a bed, decorate a wall, comfort a child in her crib or a soldier at war. A quilt also can tell a story, commemorate an event, honor the dead, unite a community, and reflect a culture. This article is an introduction to the American craft of quilting. The article describes what quilting is and the different types of quilts. It also…

  8. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  9. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  10. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  11. Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch-El Alaoui, Lalla Khadija

    2005-01-01

    Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations, explores the US mainstream discourse on the Arabs in the 1990s in different cultural texts: academic, popular and media, including Hollywood. The project investigates how these representational practices participate in the reconfiguration of American public opinion vis-à-vis the Arabs. It also focuses on the ways in which the various discourses that produce or even invent the "Other" are undeniably li...

  12. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  13. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  14. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  15. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  16. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.

    1999-03-01

    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  17. American foundations : roles and contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut K. Anheier; Hammack, David

    2010-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  18. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  19. American College of Chest Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Chest Physicians and Sunovion announce strategic initiative focused on the importance of drug delivery in the management of COPD Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Sunovion) and the ...

  20. The early larval development of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) reared in the laboratory Desenvolvimento dos estágios iniciais da lagosta de recife tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) cultivada em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa; Max W. P. Santana; Marcus A.B. Pires

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 were described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat, at a depth of about 15 meters and transported to the laboratory. The larvae were reared in a recirculation water tank for approximately 15 days and then transferred to four 10 liters aquariums. The larvae were fed on Artemia sp. nauplii. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added da...

  1. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

  2. I Am an American! The Thrills of American Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2013-01-01

    The allure of American citizenship and the function of patriotism among naturalized foreigners bring into focus questions of American national identity and the contested belief in the “whole of America.” European immigrant perspectives on the promise of the Declaration of Independence, naturalizatio

  3. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  4. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  5. Shaping the American School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Fakhri, Muhammad A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that historically, the American schools have been shaped by a myriad of social, political and economic forces. The transformation of the schools from the first, but sectarian schools of New England in 1635 to the secular alternative schools of today has reflected the desire of Americans to provide equal educational opportunities."…

  6. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  7. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  8. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  9. Native American College Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…

  10. American Values through Russian Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepina, Olga; Rodriguez, Julio

    This paper discusses impressions held by Moscow State University (Russia) students about American values. In class discussions and written assignments, students were asked to comment on thirteen values, giving their perceptions of American attitudes in each case. The values included: personal control over the environment; change; time and its…

  11. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  12. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephaney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  13. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  14. Reconceptualizing Retirement for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined subsample of nonworking older Black Americans (N=295) from the National Survey of Black Americans sample. Found four factors contributed significantly to respondents' unretired-retired status: indistinct line between lifetime and old age work patterns, view that occasional work is necessary, income from other than private pensions, and…

  15. Making American Literatures: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a summer institute that examined the shifting shape of American Literature, and teaching American Literature. Includes ways in which students help "make" literature with their own writing. Discusses the contributions of new technologies, pairing unlikely combinations of texts, and including middle school teachers who teach individual…

  16. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  17. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  18. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  19. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...

  20. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and ... share is alcohol problems and other health disparities. Native American populations experience significant health issues compared with the ...

  2. Maine——the way life should be

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏萌

    2010-01-01

    @@ Focus one:Lobster and lobster trapThe American lobster thrives in cold,shallow water where there are lots of rocks to hide.Maine's rocky,curvy coastal line of Atlantic Ocean thus offers a paradise for this deliciousspecies and has become the most famous, reliable resource across US for any dinner table dish made from these sea bugs.

  3. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  4. American Urban Star Fest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, John

    2003-12-01

    Over the last couple of decades New York City implemented, and continues to carry out, several schemes of eradicating luminous graffiti. One result has been the gradual recovery of the natural night sky. By 1994 the normal clear sky transparency over Manhattan deepened to fourth magnitude and has been slowly creeping deeper, until in 2002 it is at magnitude 4 to 4.5. In the spring of 1995, during some lazing on a Manhattan rooftop under a sky full of stars, several New York astronomers hatched the idea of letting the whole people celebrate the renewed starry sky. In due course they, through the Amateur Astronomers Association, engaged the New York City Parks Department and the Urban Park Rangers in an evening of quiet picnicking to enjoy the stars in their natural sky. Thus the Urban Star Fest was born. The event thrilled about 3,000 visitors in Central Park's Sheep Meadow on Saturday 30 September 1995. This year's Fest, the eighth in the series demonstrated the City's upper skyline of stars on Saturday 5 October 2002 to about 2,200 enthused visitors. Although the Fest is always noted as cancelable for inclement weather, so far, it has convened every year, with attendance ranging from 4,000 down to a mere 1,000, this latter being under the smoke plume of the World Trade Center in 2001. Despite this swing in attendance, the American Urban Star Fest is America's largest regularly scheduled public astronomy event. Of course, special occasions, like comets or eclipses, can and do attract far larger interest both in the city and elsewhere. The presentation shows the setup and program of the American Urban Star Fest, to illustrate how the general public can actively become aware of the night sky and see for themselves the result of their very own efforts at removing light pollution--and note where improvement is yet to come.

  5. Bilingualism (Ancestral Language Maintenance) among Native American, Vietnamese American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharry, Cheryl

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 21 Hispanic, 22 Native American, and 10 Vietnamese American college students found that adoption or maintenance of ancestral language was related to attitudes toward ancestral language, beliefs about parental attitudes, and integrative motivation (toward family and ancestral ethnic group). There were significant differences by gender…

  6. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  7. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  8. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  9. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  10. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  11. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  12. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  13. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  14. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  15. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  16. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... University Listings FEPAC Accredited Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What ... Corner Forensic Sciences Foundation American Society of Forensic Odontology Research Grants Academy Standards Board (ASB) Account Portal ...

  17. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  18. Medical Research for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... information that is based on the very best medical research conducted by and for the National Institutes of ...

  19. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Newsroom | Contact Us The American Institute of Biological Sciences is the national scientific organization that promotes the ... Education Research AIBS Education is dedicated to improving biological science literacy at all levels of formal and informal ...

  20. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  1. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  2. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Meeting — New Orleans, Louisiana 2017 Discover More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More So You Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic ...

  3. Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. According to the ... are: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, obesity, suicide, and liver disease. Other Health Concerns: Hispanics ...

  4. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  5. American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... knowledge of the universe. Stop slider Explore the museum Find out about our exhibitions, events, research, and ... Center LEARN MORE Page footer Follow @amnh American Museum of Natural History Central Park West at 79th ...

  6. American Society of Hand Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic you’d like to present? Share your knowledge by presenting a webinar Learn More Join ASHT ... ago Follow Us Who we are The American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) is a professional organization ...

  7. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  8. Individualistic Heroism in American Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽茜

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the features of heroes and individualistic heroism in different kinds of American films. The former examines the commons of heroes through illustration. The latter categories the typical types of American films and explores individualistic heroism in them. This article shows that individualistic heroism is taken into people's heart and influence their mindsets, and points out that America advertises its value through films to affect the whole world.

  9. Purchasing The American Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Afalling giant is still huge There are reports that American Big Three are going to shut down 59 plants in this January to hold more cash for a supporting hand from the government. From the viewpoint of accountant practice and investment bank,it is the best time for local car producers to go abroad."Trapped American auto industry is much devalued and it is the best time for local producers

  10. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  11. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  12. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.

    2013-05-20

    Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

  13. Comparison of a static and a dynamic in vitro model to estimate the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Pb and Hg from food reference materials Fucus sp. (IAEA-140/TM) and Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccessibility, the fraction of an element solubilized during gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption, is a factor that should be considered when evaluating the health risk of contaminants from food. Static and dynamic models that mimic human physiological conditions have been used to evaluate bioaccessibility. This preliminary study compares the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in two food certified reference materials (CRMs) (seaweed: Fucus sp., IAEA-140/TM; Lobster hepatopancreas: TORT-2), using two in vitro gastrointestinal digestion methods: a static method (SM) and a dynamic multicompartment method (TIM-1). There are significant differences (p < 0.05) between the bioaccessible values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg obtained by SM and TIM-1 in the two CRMs. The specific form in which the elements studied are present in the CRM may help to explain the bioaccessibility values obtained. - Research Highlights: →Data are reported for As, Cd, Pb and Hg bioaccessibility from food CRMs. →The static and TIM-1 methods give significantly different bioaccessibility values. →The possible influence of speciation on bioaccessibility is discussed. →To improve bioaccessibility quality data, food reference materials are needed.

  14. Comparison of a static and a dynamic in vitro model to estimate the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Pb and Hg from food reference materials Fucus sp. (IAEA-140/TM) and Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Denis, Sylvain; Blanquet-Diot, Stephanie [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Calatayud, Marta [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Barrios, Laura [Departamento de Informatica Cientifica (SGAI-CSIC), C/ Pinar 19, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Dinoraz, E-mail: deni@iata.csic.es [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Alric, Monique [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Montoro, Rosa [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccessibility, the fraction of an element solubilized during gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption, is a factor that should be considered when evaluating the health risk of contaminants from food. Static and dynamic models that mimic human physiological conditions have been used to evaluate bioaccessibility. This preliminary study compares the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in two food certified reference materials (CRMs) (seaweed: Fucus sp., IAEA-140/TM; Lobster hepatopancreas: TORT-2), using two in vitro gastrointestinal digestion methods: a static method (SM) and a dynamic multicompartment method (TIM-1). There are significant differences (p < 0.05) between the bioaccessible values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg obtained by SM and TIM-1 in the two CRMs. The specific form in which the elements studied are present in the CRM may help to explain the bioaccessibility values obtained. - Research Highlights: {yields}Data are reported for As, Cd, Pb and Hg bioaccessibility from food CRMs. {yields}The static and TIM-1 methods give significantly different bioaccessibility values. {yields}The possible influence of speciation on bioaccessibility is discussed. {yields}To improve bioaccessibility quality data, food reference materials are needed.

  15. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  16. Immigration reform, American style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status. PMID:12159575

  17. The Violence Factors in American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2015-01-01

    Violence symbolized the dark side of America culture. The theme of this article is to explore the causes of the violence factors in American culture. American violence exists as a result of a complex network of elements from American history, American value, various social factors such as economic inequality, racial discrimination, mass media, wide spread of guns as well as drug abuse. Besides, the governmental policy plays an essential role in American violence to some extent.

  18. THE AMERICAN CULTURE WARS AND AMERICAN LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJingqiong

    2004-01-01

    The American Culture Wars have had a great impact on gender and racial relations in the US and have triggered the transformation of its literary canon. American literature textbooks in China. however, are not reaping the fruits of the US cultural debates, a conclusion based on a survey of eight popular textbooks recently published by prestigious publishing houses.Given the significance of the US sociopolitical base in shaping the canon and the lecturers' dependence on the textbooks, they need immediate and drastic improvement. The paper is rounded off with some cues on what to improve.

  19. 美国话语与美国文化%American Words and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏

    2003-01-01

    Language is a key component part of culture. It reflects culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words reflect American culture, including their custom, their view of value, their character traits. Being a melting pot, American words melt a lot of loanwords. The exaggerated use of words shows Americans are self-confidence. They also use beautified words to show their wish to life, to future. They can use common words, usually slang to express special ideas. By doing so, they create something new and original. Learning American English, especially studying American words, we can see some typical traits of American culture.

  20. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  1. Dove Stewed with American Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; MIN

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:Three doves, 10g American ginseng, 5g salt, 10g cookingwine, 30g scallion and ginger, 3g MSG, 2g white pepperpowder, 5g sesame oil arid 700g broth.Method:1. Cook the doves in boiling water for a short while, softenthe American ginseng in lukewarm water, then cut it intopieces;, mince the scallion and ginger.2. Put the doves into a clay pot, add broth, sliced Americanginseng and flavorings. Bring to the boil, then reduce heatand stew gently until the doves are tender. Remove fromheat and place on a flat plate. Sprinkle the sesame oil andserve

  2. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  3. An Un-American Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Flor Christine

    2014-01-01

    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  4. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  5. Awakening Minorities: American Indians, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John R.; And Others

    As noted in the Preface, social scientists are entering a period of shared realization that the United States is in a crucial period of transition. "Trans-action" magazine, a pioneer in social programs for changing the society, has dedicated itself for 7 years to the task of reporting the strains and conflicts within the American system and has…

  6. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  7. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  8. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  9. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  11. American Overseas Research Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Overseas Research Centers Program provides grants to overseas research centers that are consortia of U.S. institutions of higher education to enable the centers to promote postgraduate research, exchanges, and area studies. Eligible applicants are those consortia of U.S. institutions of higher education centers that: (1) Receive more…

  12. The Politics of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Turning his distinctive analytical lens to the politics of American education, the author looks at contemporary educational policy issues from theoretical, practical, and historical perspectives. This comprehensive overview documents and explains who influences educational policy and how, bringing to life the realities of schooling in the 21st…

  13. The Remaking of American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Charles E.

    This paper discusses the nature of the crises in the college classroom. An identity crisis affects virtually all Americans in one way or another, but especially the college student. This crisis reflects not only an increasing awareness of the social ills affecting society, but also a growing concern about the quality of life in an affluent…

  14. Petroleum market under american peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of Usa in petroleum import is now about 50%. The question is to know if american government wants to continue this policy which privileges low prices. Low prices do not allow to increase economic development in Arab countries. An other point is the situation of Middle East able to see other conflicts and in this case are Usa able to avoid them

  15. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  16. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  17. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  18. American Folk Legend: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Wayland D., Ed.

    The proceedings of the UCLA Conference on American folk legend are the subject of these 14 papers. Areas of discussion include matters of definition, classification, structure and style, historical perspective, socio-psychological values, certain aspects of saints' legends in the Pennsylvania-German country, comparison of legendary and balladic…

  19. American College of Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Medicine® and World Congress on the Basic Science of Exercise and the Brain Dates: 30 May – 03 Jun, 2017 Denver, Colorado » More Events This short video dramatically conveys the purpose and vision of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and features the essence, role and ...

  20. The Evil that Americans Did

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John David

    2007-01-01

    Slavery's unequivocal evil lies at the heart of debates over apologizing for America's "peculiar institution" and awarding reparations. In The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform, a provocative collection of original essays, the editors Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, along with 23 contributors, admonish…

  1. Ideas That Shaped American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1981-01-01

    Briefly discusses 10 books, or series of books, that represent major turning points in American education in the last 75 years. The authors include William H. McGuffey, Abraham Flexner, Lewis M. Terman, John Dewey, George S. Counts, Jerome S. Bruner, James S. Coleman, Michael B. Katz, and B. F. Skinner. (IRT)

  2. Do American Indian Mascots = American Indian People? Examining Implicit Bias towards American Indian People and American Indian Mascots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, John; Burke, Amanda; Burkley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Empirical examinations of American Indian (AI) mascots have only recently entered into the discourse of mainstream psychology. The present studies examined implicit attitudes of non-AI people towards AI mascots and the extent to which they are related to attitudes towards AI people. Significant concordance was observed between negative bias toward…

  3. American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legal Conflict of Interest Mobile App Privacy Policy Privacy Policy Social Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use American Society ... Legal Conflict of Interest Mobile App Privacy Policy Privacy Policy Social Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use /about-asco/ ...

  4. Improvisation in Latin American Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behague, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    Improvisation implies a relative freedom to choose elements within stylistic norms of rules proper to a given culture. Improvisatory processes for music from several cultures are described. These cultures are: Indian, Spanish, African, and Afro-Cuban (rumba). A few resources focusing on improvisation in Latin American music are presented. (KC)

  5. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  6. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  7. Two Native Americans' Journey Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussia, Leah L.; Krom, Darla R.

    1998-01-01

    Recounts two personal experiences of graduate school work on Indian Reservations. For one student, it was a returning home to the culture she was familiar with but for the other, who only learned about her Native American heritage in high school, it was an awakening. Their experiences led them to consider the identity problems they observed among…

  8. The American Eider in Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American eider, Maine's only breeding sea duck, is known to have nested on 215 coastal islands of the State in 1976. In Maine, eiders seem to prefer to nest on...

  9. Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    As many linguists continue to work with and analyze First Nations/Native American languages, the consensus opinion usually direly predicts the loss of daily use for almost all of the extant Indigenous languages. Tremendous efforts are being expended for renewing, revitalizing, and restoring these languages to everyday use. The model upon which…

  10. The New American Home 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    The New American Home® is built annually as a showcase home for the International Builders’ Show® to demonstrate innovative technologies, construction techniques, products, and design trends for the homebuilding industry to use in any new or remodeled home.

  11. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  12. Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160985.html Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans Rates accelerate especially ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study finds widespread hearing loss among elderly Americans, with an especially high rate ...

  13. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  14. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  15. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays ...

  16. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  17. American Elementary School Children's Attitudes about Immigrants, Immigration, and Being an American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined 5 to 11-year-old European American children's (N = 90) attitudes regarding immigrants, immigration policy, and what it means to be an American. The majority of children in the sample (from a predominantly European American community) held strong American identities and had distinct ideas about what it means to be an…

  18. Anglo-American Jurisprudence and the Native American Tribal Quest for Religious Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that Native American tribes encounter major legal problems in the practice of traditional religions due to differences between Native and Anglo American worldviews. Examines the ideology of civilization underlying values in American jurisprudence, foundations of American Indian law, and relevant constitutional law. Contains over 200…

  19. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  20. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  1. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  2. Russians and Americans Gather to Talk Psychobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)

  3. China Can't Go American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Lundquist

    2012-01-01

    Behold the Americanization of China:fast food,plentiful portions,obesity and SUVs that eat up a whole hutong's pathway.Across several dimensions of society,the Middle Kingdom is hurtling toward the American standard-the good life promised to Chinese people by American films and television series.

  4. Greek Americanism, "New Greece," and Greek Orthodoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Lonnie

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Greek Americanism is neither based upon the wholesale assimilation of American culture nor the futile copying of Greek culture. Instead, an amalgamation of both cultures, a blending together of Greek and American cultures in a manner that produces a unique culture all its own is presented. (GR)

  5. 10 CFR 440.11 - Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Native Americans. 440.11 Section 440.11 Energy DEPARTMENT... involved as the population of all low-income Native Americans for whom a determination under paragraph (a... Americans. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the Support Office Director may...

  6. American Psychology "Is" Becoming More International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gregory D.; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors argue that while Arnett's assessment was poignant, and his call for a more inclusive, international, and cross-cultural representation in American psychology…

  7. Storytelling: The Heart of American Indian Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Recently some writers and scholars have complained that the academy, particularly American Indian Studies (AIS) programs, gives too much attention to American Indian literature while ignoring scholarly works that focus on the pressing needs of American Indian communities in the areas of economic development, social justice, and sovereignty, among…

  8. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  9. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  10. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  11. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans.

  12. American Culture Reflected In Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭连

    2008-01-01

    Friends creates a world with New York style which is the real reflection of living Stare of American youngling,and pays a tribute to toleration,faich and friendship as well as express their confusion about lives.It mirrors the reality of American society on both niceness and frightfulness,which worthstudying and using for reference.%情景喜剧讲叙的6名邻里男女的生活故事是美国年轻人现实生活的真实写照,折射出年轻人对人生价值观、世界观的迷惑与思考,真实反映出当代美国社会文化中的闪光点和阴暗面,具有强大的社会震撼力,值得研究和借鉴.

  13. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  14. American Summer and Autumn Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Just as we have autumn celebrations in China like the Mid-Autumn Festival and the National Day Golden Week holiday, America also has several autumn festivals. As the summer begins, Americans celebrate Memorial Day as a national holiday the last Monday of May to honor all of the country's war dead. As a child, my parents would drive to southern Indiana where my mother would put many bouquets of red, white,

  15. The Birth of American Football

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国清

    2002-01-01

    A hundred years ago, the game we now call football did not exist (存在). American football started during a game between two colleges. The teams had gotten together to play what called “football”, but each team played by different rules. One team played what we now call soccer.The other played what we now call rugby (橄榄球).

  16. Latin American and Comparative Literature

    OpenAIRE

    González Echevarría, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In his paper, "Latin American and Comparative Literature," Roberto González Echevarría asks whether comparative literature, a literary discipline dedicated to the proposition that linguistic boundaries must be transcended, can overcome the "cultural arrogance" of the "Eurocentrism" that he believes pervades it currently. González Echevarría argues that if it is to endure, comparative literature will have to undergo "a truly pitiless redefinition," one that effectively displaces "the hegemonic...

  17. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  18. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  19. Contributions for larval development optimization of Homarus gammarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tiago Fonseca Sá

    2014-06-01

    The seawater rising temperature resulted in a decrease of intermoult period in all larval development stages and at all tested temperatures, ranging from 4.77 (Z1 to 16.5 days (Z3 at 16°C, whereas at 23°C, ranged from 3:02 (Z1 and 9.75 days (Z3. The results obtained are an extremely useful guide for future optimization of protocols on larval development of H. gammarus.

  20. AcEST: BP915157 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available O... 31 2.8 sp|P29290|TNNCA_HOMAM Troponin C, isoform 2A OS=Homarus american... 30 3.7 sp|Q6GQS1|SCMC3_MOUS...FKRAFSQ 122 Query: 432 LG--IPSQ 449 + +PS+ Sbjct: 123 VAPKLPSR 130 >sp|P29289|TNNC1_HOMAM Troponin C, isoform 1 OS=Homarus...FSRNQIKDYQKTFNTYDTARDGFLDLQELKFMMEKLGAPQTH 107 >sp|P29290|TNNCA_HOMAM Troponin C, isoform 2A OS=Homarus amer...roponin C, isoform 1 OS=Homarus americanu... 32 1.3 sp|P06707|TNNC1_PONLE Troponi... 35 0.15 sp|Q6AXQ2|CN143_RAT EF-hand domain-containing protein C14orf143 ... 34 0.33 sp|P29289|TNNC1_HOMAM T

  1. Indução de embriões somáticos a partir de embriões zigóticos de Heliconia bihai (L. L. cv. Lobster Claw Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ulisses

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As flores tropicais têm contribuído para o aumento do mercado florístico no Brasil; dentre elas destacam-se as do gênero Heliconia. A propagação de helicônias que atinge maior número de mudas ocorre por via vegetativa, por meio da divisão de rizomas, aumentando a probabilidade de disseminação de doenças, podendo, num futuro próximo, comprometer a produção de flores. O cultivo in vitro surge como importante alternativa para proporcionar a produção de mudas de helicônia com elevado padrão de qualidade. Entretanto, a micropropagação de helicônias via ápices caulinares depara-se com problemas de contaminação endofítica, dificultando a multiplicação do explante. Diante disso, fez-se necessário avaliar alternativas que promovam a produção de mudas in vitro, por meio da utilização de outros explantes. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento, utilizando embriões zigóticos, provenientes de frutos imaturos e maduros de H. bihai (L. L. cv. Lobster Claw Two, em combinações de AIA (0; 5,70 e 11,41 µm L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 22,62; 45,24; 67,86 e 90,48 µm L-1, para induzir a formação de embriões somáticos durante 90 dias. Por meio de análise histológica, observou-se a formação de embriões somáticos apenas nos embriões zigóticos, provenientes de frutos maduros, cultivados na ausência de reguladores de crescimento.

  2. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  3. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays as the objects for laughs; gays revealing their sexual identities; sexual scenes of gays; masculine gay men; and violence in gay life. They appear in genres like drama, comedy, romance, detective, western, and horror/mystery with two images of gay people shown in American gay movies; they are the portrait of gays as a minority and the pessimism. However, it also shows that some American gay films picture good gay life, happy gay couples, gay marriage, etc.

  4. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  5. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  7. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  8. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  9. American Studies Center:An Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; HONG

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year 2012 was remarkable in the history of American Studies at Sichuan University.First,it marked the 28thAnniversary of the founding of the American Studies Center,which had its official debut in May,1984,coinciding with the establishment of the US Consulate General in Chengdu.U.S.Vice President George Bush was present at the Inauguration Ceremony of the American Studies Center,and

  10. Foucault's Reading in American Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆香花

    2011-01-01

    Peter Carey is a prominent novelist in Australia, who has won two Booker Prizes. American Dreams is one of the successful short stories, telling an anecdote in Australian small town: Mr. Gleason, the protagonist, secretly constructs an artful model of the town which later becomes a tourist attraction for Americans. The townsfolk's life and attitudes towards Americans before and after the event have great changes.

  11. Study on Chinese and American Compliments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 刘宝昌

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Americans have different cultural background. They value different principles in expressing compliments and respond to them. Chinese tend to be self-denial to show modesty. Americans have a tendency of self-praising to demonstrate their confidence. Based on Leech's politeness principle, the paper analyzes typical instances. In conclusion, as language learner, we should aware it and prepare to be bicultural instead of bilingual. As a Chinese, we should keep our own culture identity instead of Americanized.

  12. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  13. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...

  14. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  15. The Importance of American High School Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖钰敏

    2015-01-01

    Sports is an integral part of the American high school education that is very much related to the American culture.Recently there have been some voice suspecting the role of sports in high school due to its supposedly negative effect on teacher-coaches’teaching quality and the tremendous cost to operate sports teams within the school.This article will improve the importance of American high school sports.

  16. The Importance of American High School Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖钰敏

    2015-01-01

    Sports is an integral part of the American high school education that is very much related to the American culture.Recently there have been some voice suspecting the role of sports in high school due to its supposedly negative effect on teacher-coaches' teaching quality and the tremendous cost to operate sports teams within the school.This article will improve the importance of American high school sports.

  17. New Directions in (Transnational) American Literature Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Buell, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Never has there been a better moment for foreign scholars outside the English-speaking world to engage in American literature studies. American literature studies is increasingly studied worldwide and the contributions of foreign-born and foreign-based Americanists are becoming increasingly influential. This lecture will attempt to explain this turn of events, with special emphasis on analysis of selected newer transnational and comparative approaches to American literature studies. Backgroun...

  18. The Development and Significance of American Urbanization%The Development and Significance of American Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃丹

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with the European urbanization, which stretches back roughly 5500 years, the American transformation from village to city was achieved in an amazingly short space of time. From the eighteenth century on, Americans experienced the painful yet

  19. Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanfer Emin Tunc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim

  20. A Brief Analysis to Modern American Slang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖煜晨; 李洋

    2014-01-01

    Modern American slang has a unique display of feelings and ideas and a long history. It has become a language used widely in every field of work, and it continues to appear in newspapers, TVs, reports, and even election speeches. Modern American slang has gained importance over the years, During its development process, American slang has formed its own unique characteristics: it is humorous, vivid, easy to express feelings, and updates fast. Although scholars’ opinions toward slang have a wide discrepancy, it is undeniable that the emergence and development of modern American slang has conformed to the needs of the society and times.

  1. MISCONCEPTIONS OF DEPRESSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib eSohail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  2. It's All About Relationships: African-American and European-American Women's Hotel Management Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, Angela L.

    1996-01-01

    Among the 44000-plus general managers employed in United States' hotels in 1993, there were only 100 women, 15 African-Americans, and three African-American women. Additionally, less than 0.5 percent of corporate hospitality managers were women. Given this relative underrepresentation of European-American women and African-Americans, combined with the increasing diversity of hotel clientele and service p...

  3. American Indians, American Imperialism, and Defying Empire at Home and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, American Indians defended their communities by challenging the racial and moral assumptions that buttressed Euro-American claims of superiority. Native writers understood how the rhetoric of civilization and progress cast American Indians as backward, helping to justify the federal government's violation of tribal sovereignty, the division of tribal lands, and the suppression of Native cultures. American Indians were fully cognizant of the deleterious con...

  4. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  5. Extending Research on the Consequences of Parenting Style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…

  6. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  7. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  8. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  9. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Cuban-American and Anglo-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos M.; Pader, Olga F.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperative behavior of 144 children in three groups--Cuban-Americans in either private or public schools and Anglo-Americans--decreased when task instructions emphasized individual rewards. Only the Anglo-American children, who maintained a significant level of competitiveness throughout, significantly increased their competitive behavior in…

  10. Eating Disorders of White American, Racial and Ethnic Minority American, and International Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

    1993-01-01

    Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)

  11. A Psychometric Revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans Using the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…

  12. Design and Development of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Maren M.; Yang, Peggy H.; Wong, Eunice C.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces development of a scale that can be used along with the Asian Values Scale, to assess adherence to Asian cultural values. Used in combination these scales can measure Asian American acculturation to European American values. They make it possible to obtain a value and behavior assessment of Asian American acculturation. (JDM)

  13. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  14. Why American civilization? American literature and academic exchange in occupied Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Blaustein

    2012-01-01

    After 1945, many American writers and intellectuals devoted themselves to European reconstruction, tying American literature and culture to an agenda of reeducation and democratization. At the nexus of these efforts was American Studies, then a new and ideologically diffuse movement of writers, publ

  15. American shad in the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  16. Hidden diversity and host specificity in cycliophorans: a phylogeographic analysis along the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Matthias; Funch, Peter; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2005-12-01

    In order to elucidate the evolutionary history and the population structure of the members of the phylum Cycliophora, which live commensally on three species of lobsters, we studied sequence variation in the mitochondrial gene cyctochrome c oxidase subunit I. Overall 242 sequences from 16 locations on both coasts of the North Atlantic, including the North Sea and the Mediterranean, were analysed, revealing 28 haplotypes, with a maximum sequence divergence of 16.6%. Total genetic diversity was high (h = 0.8322, pi = 0.0898), as it was for the commensals on Homarus americanus (17 haplotypes, h = 0.7506, pi = 0.0504). However, it was low for commensals on Nephrops norvegicus (6 haplotypes, h = 0.3899, pi = 0.0035), and intermediate for cycliophorans on Homarus gammarus (5 haplotypes, h = 0.3020, pi = 0.0140). Although two of the host lobsters co-inhabit the coastal waters of Europe, a strong genetic structure (78.45% of the observed genetic variation) was detected among populations on all host species, indicating the existence of a reproductively isolated species on each lobster. In addition, genetic structure over long distances exists among populations on each host species. Such patterns can be explained by the limited dispersal ability of the cycliophoran chordoid larva. Demographic and phylogenetic analyses suggest old and possibly cryptic populations present on H. americanus and H. gammarus, while the latter may have experienced recent bottlenecks, perhaps during Pleistocene glaciations. Populations on N. norvegicus appear to be of recent origin. PMID:16313603

  17. Influence of Hip Pop on American Teens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕苹

    2006-01-01

    Hip pop has become the mainstream music in American right now, not only because of its multi-musical style but also because of the lyrics has a historic background. Its popularity has great impact on American teens ,especially on the fashion and the lifestyle.

  18. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  19. Influence of behaviorism to American descriptive linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the behaviorism on American descriptive linguistics through the analysis of the tenets of behaviorism and the Bloomfield’s stimulus-response theory and tries to give an fair comment on the influence of the behaviorism on American descriptive linguistics.

  20. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.