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Sample records for american kestrel falco

  1. Short-term effects of oil ingestion on American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.; Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Mexican Ixtoc oil well blowout resulted in extensive oil contamination along the Texas Gulf coast. This oil posed a potential hazard to migrating birds including the endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Laboratory tests with the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) indicated that the oil: water mixture gathered at the surface of the blowout site posed little acute hazard to falcons.

  2. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  3. Courtship behavior of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S A; Bortolotti, G R; Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Marchant, T A; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2001-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) adversely affect reproduction in birds. Captive adult male and female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were studied to investigate the potential behavioral and hormonal alterations during the courtship period resulting from clinical exposure to PCBs. American kestrels ingested 7 mg/kg/body weight/bird/day of a 1:1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260 through their diet of day-old cockerels. The dietary dosage of Aroclors resulted in environmentally relevant total PCB residues in the eggs, averaging 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean). There was no difference between treatment and control birds in the circulating levels of total androgens (p = 0.44) or in 17 beta-estradiol (p = 0.29), one week following pairing. Male kestrels exposed to dietary PCBs exhibited significantly more sexual behaviors (p = 0.034) and flight behaviors (p = 0.026) than the control males. Sexual behaviors of male kestrels included; nest-box inspections, solicitation of copulation, the offer of food to the female, and giving the female food. The flight behaviors of the male included; flying from one perch to another and aerial display. In addition, the frequency of male sexual behaviors were correlated (r = 0.605, p = 0.001) with total PCB residues in the eggs of their mates. A concurrent study found that these same PCB-exposed kestrels experienced a delay in clutch initiation as well as a greater number of completely infertile clutches. PMID:11462146

  4. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  5. Reproductive changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in relation to exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the ban of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a high-production-volume flame retardant, was announced in Europe and North America. However, the effects of HCBD remain understudied in birds. The objectives of the present comparative effects study were to determine whether exposure to an HBCD technical mixture (HBCD-TM) altered avian reproductive measures at an environmentally relevant concentration. American kestrels were exposed daily by food to HBCD-TM, i.e., 0.51 µg HBCD/g kestrel/d; exposed kestrels laid eggs that had α-HBCD concentrations (163.5 ± 75.1 ng/g wet wt) tenfold greater than β- and γ-HBCD isomers, an isomer profile and concentrations similar to those of eggs of wild peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Concentrations of HBCD were not detected in the control kestrel eggs. In comparison with controls, the kestrels exposed to HBCD began to lay their eggs 6 d earlier and laid larger clutches of smaller eggs. The size of the eggs was inversely correlated with the in ovo α-HBCD concentrations. The smaller eggs of the HBCD exposed kestrels also lost more weight by midincubation, suggesting increased eggshell porosity since eggshell thickness was comparable. Generally birds that lay more eggs and lay earlier in the breeding season gain the advantage of better hatching and fledging success, yet the kestrels exposed to HBCD failed to have better reproductive success than the control birds. These reproductive changes were a function of HBCD exposure, likely through changes in food consumption, with possible impacts on, for example, reproductive behavior and/or alterations in thyroid hormones. PMID:21898552

  6. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  7. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  8. Predation of the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1824) by the American kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, in an urban sector of Santiago city, Metropolitan region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Annia Rodríguez-San Pedro; Juan Luis Allendes

    2015-01-01

    The American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is a raptor widely distributed in America. Throughout its geographic distribution, the American kestrel feeds on a variety of animal taxa, including bats. In Chile, however, there are no reports of American kestrel feeding on bats. This note reports the first known record of predation by the American kestrel on the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

  9. Biochemical and hematological effects of lead ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Murray, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    1. One-day old American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 ?l/g of corn oil (controls), 25, 125 or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil for 10 days. 2. Forty per cent of the nestlings receiving 625 mg/kg of lead died after 6 days and growth rates were significantly depressed in the two highest lead dosed groups. At 10 days hematocrit values were significantly lower in the two highest lead treated groups, and hemoglobin content and red blood cell *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was depressed in all lead treated groups. Plasma creatine phosphokinase decreased in the two highest treatment groups. 3. Brain, liver and kidney ALAD activities, brain RNA to protein ratio and liver protein concentration decreased after lead exposure whereas liver DNA. DNA to RNA ratio and DNA to protein ratio increased. Brain monoamine oxidase and ATPase were not significantly altered. 4. Measurements of the ontogeny of hematological variants and enzymes in normal development, using additional untreated nestlings. revealed decreases in red blood cell ALAD, plasma aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase. brain DNA and RNA and liver DNA, whereas hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma alkaline phosphatase, brain monoamine oxidase, brain ALAD and liver ALAD increased during the first 10 days of posthatching development. 5. Biochemical and hematological alterations were more severe than those reported in adult kestrels or precocial young birds exposed to lead. Alterations may be due in part to delayed development.

  10. Survival, growth, and histopathological effects of paraquat ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of paraquat as a herbicide is becoming more extensive with the increasing popularity of no tillage agriculture, increasing the possibility of exposure for wildlife species. American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 ?l/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1, 1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) in distilled water from day 1 through day 10. Forty-four percent of the nestlings given 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Significant differences in growth rates occurred between controls and all paraquat-dosed groups. Reduced skeletal growth occurred in the humerus and femur in the 25 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg groups, and in the radius-ulna and tibiotarsus in the 60 mg/kg group. Skeletons were otherwise normal in appearance. Histopathological examination revealed localized focal necrosis in the liver of one nestling in the 60 mg/kg group and tubular cell degeneration and focal tubular dilation in the kidneys of another. The brain and lungs were unremarkable histologically. These findings suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  11. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune system development in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on immune system development in captive-reared nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to determine whether T cell–mediated and antibody-mediated adaptive immunity are targets for MeHg toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations. Nestlings received various diets, including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) MeHg for up to 18 d posthatch. Immunotoxicity endpoints included cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and antibody-mediated immune response via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. T cell– and B cell–dependent histological parameters in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were correlated with the functional assays. For nestlings in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups, CMI was suppressed by 73 and 62%, respectively, at 11 d of age. Results of this functional assay were correlated with T cell–dependent components of the spleen and thymus. Dose-dependent lymphoid depletion in spleen tissue directly affected the proliferation of T-lymphocyte populations, insofar as lower stimulation indexes from the PHA assay occurred in nestlings with lower proportions of splenic white pulp and higher THg concentrations. Nestlings in the 3.9 μg/g group also exhibited lymphoid depletion and a lack of macrophage activity in the thymus. Methylmercury did not have a noticeable effect on antibody-mediated immune function or B cell–dependent histological correlates. We conclude that T cell–mediated immunosuppression is the primary target of MeHg toward adaptive immunity in developing kestrels. This study provides evidence that environmentally relevant concentrations of MeHg may compromise immunocompetence in a developing terrestrial predator and raises concern regarding the long-term health effects of kestrels that were exposed to dietary MeHg during early avian development.

  12. Reproductive abnormalities, teratogenicity, and developmental problems in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

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    Fernie, Kim; Bortolotti, Gary; Smits, Judit

    2003-11-28

    This study found abnormalities in multiple reproductive stages in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) when exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through dietary and in ovo exposure. American kestrels laid eggs with environmentally relevant total PCB levels (34.1 micrograms/g whole egg wet weight) when consuming PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (5-7 micrograms/g body weight per day) for 100 d only in 1998. In 1999, the same adults laid eggs with estimated total PCBs of 23 micrograms/g. Effects of maternal (only female exposed) and paternal (only male exposed) in ovo PCB exposure were investigated. Maternal F1 eggs contained predicted total PCB concentrations of 0.34 microgram/g. Specific abnormalities occurred more frequently during dietary F0 exposure, particularly aggressive courtship interactions, clutch abandonment, occurrences of cracked eggs, and developmental effects. Multiple developmental effects were more pronounced during than after dietary PCB exposure of adults, and although these effects were limited, nevertheless they occurred in the F1 maternal and F1 paternal pairs. However, the incidence of multiple deformities throughout the breeding season increased dramatically from 1998 (13%) to 1999 (56%) in F0 PCB-exposed pairs. Developmental abnormalities were unlikely to be attributed to the extrinsic factors of disease, genetics, or nutritional (vitamin D3) deficiencies, but rather to adverse changes in parental behavior and intrinsic factors involving altered genetic material and PCB exposure. Readily cleared PCB congeners may induce specific types of behavioral and developmental abnormalities, but persistent congeners and metabolites are likely producing (1) odd laying patterns, (2) odd laying patterns, (2) developmental effects including embryonic underdevelopment and edema, and (3) increased incidences of multiple deformities within a clutch. PMID:14710594

  13. Predation of the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1824 by the American kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, in an urban sector of Santiago city, Metropolitan region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Rodríguez-San Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The American kestrel (Falco sparverius is a raptor widely distributed in America. Throughout its geographic distribution, the American kestrel feeds on a variety of animal taxa, including bats. In Chile, however, there are no reports of American kestrel feeding on bats. This note reports the first known record of predation by the American kestrel on the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

  14. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  15. Description and molecular characterization of a new Leucocytozoon parasite (Haemosporida: Leucocytozoidae), Leucocytozoon californicus sp. nov., found in American kestrels (Falco sparverius sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Erika; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Bowie, Rauri C K; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal raptors in the order Accipitriformes are commonly parasitized with Leucocytozoon spp., and the prevalence and intensity of parasitemia are often high. However, for raptors in Falconiformes, several studies have reported relatively low prevalences (1 % or less) of Leucocytozoon spp. Leucocytozoon parasite pathogenicity has been documented in falcons, but little is known about the diversity, prevalence, and phylogenetic relationships among Leucocytozoon species in these predatory birds. The research reported here combines molecular and microscopic techniques to identify and describe Leucocytozoon parasites in Falco sparverius sparverius, the American kestrel, and place those parasites into a phylogenetic context with leucocytozoids previously found in other diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes), owls (Strigiformes), passerines (Passeriformes), and other bird species. Of 35 American kestrels sampled, 13 birds (37.1 %) were found by PCR to harbor the DNA lineage of a novel species, Leucocytozoon californicus. No other Leucocytozoon parasite lineages were identified in our sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this parasite clusters more closely with leucocytozoids found in owls and passerines than it does with leucocytozoids found in birds of the genera Buteo and Accipiter of the order Accipitriformes. This is the first described species of Leucocytozoon that parasitizes diurnal raptors in which gametocytes develop exclusively in roundish host blood cells. It is also the first Leucocytozoon species that is described and named in birds of the Falconiformes, in which, for unclear reasons, leucocytozoids are significantly less prevalent and less diverse than in raptors with a similar behavioral ecology belonging to the Accipitriformes. PMID:26815037

  16. Developmental toxicity of PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

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    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Rice, C.P.; Eisemann, J.D.; Hines, R.K.; Spann, J.W.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Planar PCB congeners are embryotoxic and teratogenic to birds including American kestrels. The developmental toxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was studied in the post-hatching kestrel as a model for the eagle. Nestlings were orally dosed for 10 days with 5 ul/g body weight of corn oil (controls) or the planar PCB 126 at concentrations of 50, 250, or 1000 ng/g body weight. Dosing with 50 ng/g of PCB 126 resulted in a hepatic concentration of 156 ng/g w.w., liver enlargement and mild coagulative necrosis, and over ten-fold increases in hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), and approximately a 5-fold increase in methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MROD). At this dose, mild to moderate lymphoid depletion of the spleen was apparent, and decreased follicle size and content of the thyroid. At 250 ng/g, concentration of PCB 126 in the liver was 380 ng/g with increasing multifocal coagulative necrosis, decreased bone growth, decreased spleen weight with lymphocyte depletion of the spleen and bursa, and degenerative lesions of the thyroid. At 1000 ng/g, the liver concentration was 1098 ng/g, accompanied by decreased bursa weight, decreased hepatic thiol concentration and increased plasma enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and LDH-L) in addition to the previous effects. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between liver concentrations of PCB 126 and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathone. These findings indicate that nestling kestrels are more susceptible to PCB 126 toxicity than adults, but less sensitive than embryos, and that planar PCBs are of potential hazard to nestling birds.

  17. Multi-generational effects of polybrominated diphenylethers exposure: embryonic exposure of male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to DE-71 alters reproductive success and behaviors.

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    Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Shutt, J Laird; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2010-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are additive flame-retardants that are environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative compounds of particular concern to species at high trophic levels, including predatory birds. The developmental effects of in ovo exposure to male birds at environmentally relevant levels of the PBDE technical mixture, DE-71, on reproductive success and behaviors using captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were determined. Males were exposed in ovo by direct maternal transfer to DE-71 and unintentionally to low concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) at three mean +/- standard error DE-71 concentrations of 288.60 +/- 33.35 ng/g wet weight (low-exposure), 1130.59 +/- 95.34 ng/g wet weight (high-exposure), or background levels of 3.01 +/- 0.46 ng/g wet weight (control). One year following exposure, males were paired with unexposed females. Reproductive success was lower in the high exposure pairs: 43% failed to lay eggs while all other pairs laid complete clutches; they also laid smaller clutches and produced smaller eggs with reduced fertility, parameters that were negatively correlated with paternal in ovo concentrations of all PBDEs, as well as individual congeners and HBCD. Throughout courtship, there were fewer copulations by all in ovo exposed males, fewer mate-calls made by high-exposure males, and decreasing trends in pair-bonding and nest-box behaviors across treatments that continued during brood rearing. The reductions in clutch size and fertility were associated with the reduced frequencies of male courtship behaviors, and were associated with increasing concentrations of the PBDE congeners BDE-47, -99, -100, -53, -138, and HBCD. The results of the present study confirm effects noted in the F(0) generation and demonstrate that exposure to DE-71 affects multiple generations of this predatory avian species at environmentally relevant levels of exposure. PMID:20821627

  18. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

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    Jeffrey S Hall

    Full Text Available Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1 reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1 infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1. All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1 is introduced into North America.

  19. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J.S.; Ip, H.S.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.; Nashold, S.; Teslaa, J.L.; French, J.; Redig, P.; Brand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  20. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

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    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  1. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  2. Parental energy expenditure in relation to manipulated brood size in the European kestrel Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, Charlotte; Pen, Ido; Dijkstra, Cor; Arkies, Bart-Jan; Visser, G. Henk; Daan, Serge

    1995-01-01

    Parental daily energy expenditure (DEE(par)) of European kestrels Falco tinnunculus with manipulated brood sizes was measured with the doubly labelled water (DLW) method. The reproductive output of the experimental broods increased with brood size. DEE(par) was positively associated with the number

  3. Clinal variation in the juvenal plumage of American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, J.A.; Natale, C.; Steenhof, K.; Meetz, M.; Marti, C.D.; Melvin, R.J.; Bortolotti, G.R.; Robertson, R.; Robertson, S.; Shuford, W.R.; Lindemann, S.A.; Tornwall, B.

    1999-01-01

    The American Kestrel(Falco sparverius) is a sexually dichromatic falcon that exhibits considerable individual plumage variability. For example, the anterior extent of the black dorsal barring in juvenile males has been used throughout North America as one of several aging criteria, but recent data demonstrate that the variability among individual Southeastern American Kestrels(E S. paulus)exceeds that accounted for by age. The objective of this study was to search for geographic patterns in the variability of juvenal plumage, particularly those characteristics considered indicative of age. Nestling kestrels (n = 610) were examined prior to fledging during the 1997 breeding season at nest box programs across a large portion of the North American breeding range. From south to north (1) the crown patches of both males and females become more completely rufous, and (2) shaft streaks on forehead and crown feathers become more pronounced, especially in males. Male Southeastern American Kestrels differed from other males (E s. sparverius) in that the anterior extent of dorsal barring averaged less but was more variable. The variability observed in North America appears to be part of a cline extending across the species range in the Western Hemisphere, where tropical subspecies are small and have reduced dorsal barring. Both body size and, especially in males, dorsal barring increases with increasing north and south latitude. We suggest that this geographic pattern is adaptive in terms of thermoregulation, and that differences in the sex roles may explain why males become less barred with maturity while females do not.

  4. First evidences of sexual divergences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni

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    Marco Gustin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first description of recorded sexual differences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni. Lesser kestrel is a migratory, colonial, small falcon breeding mainly in holes and crevices in large historic buildings within towns and villages, or in abandoned farm houses across the countryside. Using accurate GPS data-loggers, we gathered data on the activities of lesser kestrels in the two of main colonies of lesser kestrels in Italy, i.e. Gravina in Puglia and Altamura (Apulia, Southern Italy and the surrounding rural areas in a 20-days monitoring during the reproductive period. We tested for sex differences in space use (home range's circularity ratio and flight attributes (5-minute flight length, instantaneous speed, distance from nest, flight altitude above ground level of 9 monitored individuals (4 males and 5 females. We found significant sexual differences for all the observed traits. Our results demonstrate that female lesser kestrels during the monitoring period employed a lower amount of energy in local movements as measured by four flight attributes that resulted significantly different (and lower than for males. Compact home ranges for females could represent a maximization of the benefit-cost ratio between prospected surface and distance from nest, i.e. the optimal trade-off between foraging requirements (explored surface and costs in terms of time and energy (distance from nest. On the contrary, males showed a significantly different space use with very elongated home ranges and mean distance from nest almost three times as elevated as females' one. We argue that the detected sexual divergence was the product of their respective ways to optimize the relationship between resource acquisition and reproductive activity.

  5. Diet and prey consumption of breeding Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Geng; Xiaojing Zhang; Wei Ou; Hanmei Sun; Fumin Lei; Wei Gao; Haitao Wang

    2009-01-01

    The diet of Common Kestrels Falco tinnunculus was studied during the breeding seasons from 2004 to 2008 in Northeast China. Diet was determined by direct observation of the prey brought to nests, and analysis of prey remains collected from nests. Fifteen vertebrate species from three classes, and two groups of insects were identified as prey items. Rodents were the main prey items, comprising 93.9% of the total prey items (TPI) and 97.0% of total prey biomass (TPB). Birds, frogs and insects were also eaten. The kestrels preferred to prey on small rodents (mean weight 20-40 g) and displayed density-dependent prey selection. Daily prey consumption of an adult and a nestling was 2.6 individual rodents or 87.6 g, and 1.7 individual vertebrates or 48.2 g, respectively. The estimated prey consumption of a breeding pair (adults and nestlings) during the breeding season was 520.1 individual vertebrates or 19.7 kg.

  6. First detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in common kestrel falcon (Falco tinnunculus) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    ElBakrey, Reham M.; Mansour, Shimaa M. G.; Ali, Haytham; Knudsen, David E. B.; Eid, Amal A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses threats to animal and human health worldwide. A common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was submitted to Avian and Rabbit Medicine Department, Zagazig University, Egypt. It exhibited torticollis, incoordination, and inability to stand. Conjunctivitis and crust formation were seen. Postmortem findings revealed congestion in internal organs and greenish content in gizzard. No avian pox virus was detected in cutaneous lesions neither in histopatho...

  7. Diet composition of Common Kestrels Falco tinnunculus and Long-eared Owls Asio otus coexisting in an urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    LÖVY, Matěj

    2011-01-01

    We studied dietary composition of urban populations of Common Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and Long-eared Owls (Asio otus) under fluctuating vole abundance. We tested hypotheses that the proportion of alternative prey in the diet increase with decreasing vole abundance throughout the years and that alternative prey differ between raptors due to different daily activities and/or hunting techniques. Finally, we tested whether the proportion of voles in the diet is influenced by the nest positio...

  8. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae), in mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Caetano, Inês; Maniero, Viviane Camara; Fonseca, Isabel Pereira da; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19%) of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus. PMID:27334821

  9. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae, in mainland Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergian Vianna Cardozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19% of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus.

  10. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae), in mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Caetano, Inês; Maniero, Viviane Camara; Fonseca, Isabel Pereira da; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19%) of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus.

  11. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  12. Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

    2001-04-01

    While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners. PMID:11345453

  13. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Spann, J.W.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Rattner, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crownrump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radiusulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crownrump, humerus, radiusulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofentreated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDHL in the 250mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50and 250mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  14. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species. PMID:1942122

  15. Cannibalism of nestling American kestrels by their parents and siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Wiebe, Karen L.; Iko, William M.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the frequency of cannibalism of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in north-central Saskatchewan. We investigated human disturbance and food shortages as possible causes of it. Cannibalism of nestlings by their parents and siblings was confirmed by observation and by the presence of partially eaten carcasses, or inferred from the sudden disappearance of a nestling between frequent nest checks. Cannibalism occurred at 8% of 48 nests in 1988, and 18% of 92 nests in 1989. Not all nestlings that died were cannibalized. Where nestling mortality occurred, carcasses were eaten in at least 20% of nests in 1988, and 63% of nests in 1989. The chicks that were cannibalized died at a significantly younger age than those that died but were not cannibalized. The mass and age of the parent and the laying date were not associated with the occurrence of cannibalism. We found no strong evidence of a causal link between human disturbance and nestling mortality or cannibalism; however, the abundance of small mammal prey was inversely related to the frequency of cannibalism between years, and there were fewer prey and lower prey delivery rates in territories where cannibalism occurred than in territories where nestling mortality did not occur. The fact that some nestlings died but were not eaten suggests that such mortality was unrelated to food shortages. The food advantage of cannibalism may not outweigh potential disadvantages such as disease transmission.

  16. Acute responses of American kestrels to methyl parathion and fenvalerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o, methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10 h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?.C) and cold (-5?.C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (LD50=3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits=2.29-4.l4 mg/kg, producing overt intoxication (abnormal posture, ataxia, paresis), dose-dependent inhibition (26-67%) of brain acetylcholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Transient but pronounced hypothermia was associated with plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% (2 h after intubation), although this response was highly variable (plasma ChE inhibition vs. A cloacal temperature, r=-0.60). Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication (irregular head movement) and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, but did not alter cloacal temperature, plasma activities of CK, U-HBDH, and LDK, or concentrations of corticosterone, glucose, triiodothyronine, and uric acid. Cold exposure intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. It would thus appear that the organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion poses far greater hazard than the pyrethroid fenvalerate to raptorial birds.

  17. Toxicity of paraquat in nestling birds: effects on plasma and tissue biochemistry in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daivd J.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.; Bunck, Christine M.; Murray, Helen C.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily for 10 days with 5 μL/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) in distilled water. Forty-four percent of the nestlings receiving 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Plasma LDH activity and total protein concentration were elevated, and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in survivors of the 60 mg/kg group at 10 days. Lung total sulfhydryl (TSH) and protein-bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) concentrations were significantly higher in the 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg groups. Lung DNA, RNA, protein, and hydroxyproline (collagen) concentrations were not significantly affected by treatment. Liver NPSH was lower in the 60 mg/kg group while liver glycogen concentration was not affected by treatment. Kidney DNA, RNA, and RNA to protein concentration ratio were higher in the 25 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg groups. These findings in combination with recently reported effects on growth and histopathology suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species. From a comparative viewpoint, lungs of nestling kestrels are less sensitive to paraquat than mammalian lungs.

  18. The T-cell-mediated immune response and return rate of fledgling American kestrels are positively correlated with parental clutch size.

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, J L; Bortolotti, G. R.; Dawson, R.D.; Forero, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parents face a trade-off between the number and viability of the progeny they produce. We found evidence for an apparent trade-off in a free-living population of American kestrels (Falco sparverius), as larger clutches produced more but lighter fledglings. However, while the body mass of fledglings has traditionally been used as a measure of survival prospect, offspring immunocompetence should also play an important role. We thus measured the T-cell-mediated ...

  19. Hunting in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, and the Adaptive Significance of Daily Habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan; Daan, Serge; Dijkstra, Cor

    1981-01-01

    1. In an attempt to evaluate the importance of individual daily habits to a freeliving animal, foraging behaviour of kestrels was observed continuously for days in sequence in open country. Data obtained in 2,942 observation hours were used. Flight-hunting was the prominent foraging technique yieldi

  20. Time Allocation in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and the Principle of Energy Minimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Daan, Serge; Dijkstra, Cor

    1988-01-01

    (1) Time allocation of the kestrel in the Netherlands was established by dawn to dusk observation of focal birds. Time budgets were analysed with respect to time of year, phase of the breeding cycle, sex and weather conditions. (2) The common vole, Microtus arvalis L., was the major food source (92%

  1. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either = 80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate <= 10% of the meatball before exhibiting acute signs of toxicity. Fenthion-exposed owls and kestrels displayed a wide spectrum of meatball consumption (<10100%). Significant brain ChE inhibition was observed in dead and surviving kestrels exposed to fenthion and carbofuran and dead owls exposed to fenthion (P < 0.0001). Brain ChE activity of owls exposed to carbofuran that survived was not different from that of controls (P = 0.25). Data suggest: (1) slow feeding on a carbamate-contaminated item may provide limited protection from the toxicity of the chemical at certain rates of exposure; (2) the degree of ChE inhibition at neuromuscular junctions may be critical in determining the sensitivity of a species to a carbamate insecticide; (3) sensitivity may be a function of the ChE affinity for the carbamate inhibitor; and (4) the importance of neuromuscular junction ChE depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  2. The annual cycle of the kestrel Falco tinnunculus: A study in behavioural energetics

    OpenAIRE

    Masman, Dirkjan

    1986-01-01

    Korte beschrijving: The kestrel research project of the Department of Zoology (University of Groningen) aims to evaluate the evolutionairy benefits endowed on individuals by the temporal order in their behaviour. In the tradition of the Animal Ecology Section of the department, founded by the late Prof. Dr. L. Tinbergen, the project has taken an ampiry - rather than theory-based approach to the problem of temporal organization. ... Zie: Epilogue

  3. Carotenoid-dependent coloration of male American kestrels predicts ability to reduce parasitic infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Russell D.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2006-12-01

    The signaling function of sexually selected traits, such as carotenoid-dependent avian plumage coloration, has received a great deal of recent attention especially with respect to parasitism and immunocompetence. We argue that parasite-mediated models of sexual selection may have an implicit temporal component that many researchers have ignored. For example, previous studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-dependent traits can signal past parasite exposure, current levels of parasitism, or the ability of individuals to manage parasitic infections in the future. We examined repeated measures of carotenoid-dependent skin color and blood parasitism in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius) to distinguish whether coloration might signal current parasitism or the potential to deal with infections in the future. We found no evidence that coloration was related to current levels of parasitism in either sex. However, coloration of males significantly predicted their response to parasitism; males with bright orange coloration during prelaying, when mate choice is occurring, were more likely than dull yellow males to reduce their levels of infection by the time incubation began. Coloration during prelaying may advertise a male’s health later in the breeding season. For kestrels, the ability to predict future health would be highly beneficial given the male’s role in providing food to his mate and offspring. Coloration of females was not a significant predictor of parasitism in the future, and we provide several possible explanations for this result.

  4. Non-random pairing in American kestrels: mate choice versus intra-sexual competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Iko, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Natural selection may influence the arrangement of individuals into mated pairs through either inter-sexual (mate choice) or intra-sexual selection (competition). A study of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, in northern Saskatchewan distinguished between these two processes using size as a measure of the bird's competitive ability, and condition (mass scaled to body size) as an index of quality. Both sexes arrive on the study area after spring migration in equal numbers and males establish territories. Males and females that moved among territories at the time of pair formation were not different in size or condition from those that did not move, suggesting that birds were not being displaced by superior competitors, and that females moved to encounter potential mates. Within mated pairs, there was no relationship between a bird's size and the condition of its mate for either sex as would be predicted if intra-sexual competitition explained mating patterns. Instead, there was positive assortative mating by condition, suggesting that both sexes used quality as the criterion in choosing mates. There was no correlation between the sizes of males and females in mated paird. Because there were no differences in size or condition of breeding and non-breeding males, factors other than physical attributes, such as prior experience with the area, may determine a male's success in obtaining a territory. Because females that did not obtain mates were in poorer condition than those that did, males may have rejected poor quality females. The results suggest that intra-sexual competition was not important for pair formation, and that kestrels chose mates on the basis of quality.

  5. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  6. Genome analysis of a novel, highly divergent picornavirus from common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus): the first non-enteroviral picornavirus with type-I-like IRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Simmonds, Peter; Pollák, Edit; Mátics, Róbert; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    Although the number of identified avian-borne picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) is continuously increasing there remains several species-rich avian host groups, such as the order Falconiformes (with 290 bird species) from which picornaviruses have not been identified. This study reports the first complete genome of a novel, highly divergent picornavirus, named as Falcovirus A1 (KP230449), from the carnivorous bird, the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, order Falconiformes). Falcovirus A1 has the longest 3D(RdRp) genome region and distant phylogenetic relationship to the Hepatitis A virus 1 (Hepatovirus) and Avian encephalomyelitis virus 1 (Tremovirus). It has a type-I (enterovirus-like) IRES in the 5'UTR - identified for the first time among avian-borne picornaviruses suggesting that type-I IRES is not restricted only to enteroviruses and providing further evidence of mosaicism of this region among different picornavirus genera. PMID:25864424

  7. Investigating endocrine and physiological parameters of captive American kestrels exposed by diet to selected organophosphate flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, KJ; Palace, V; Peters, L.; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, R.J.; Karouna, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Lazarus, Rebecca; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate triesters are high production volume additive flame retardants (OPFRs) and plasticizers. Shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, little is known about the risks they pose. Captive adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed the same dose (22 ng OPFR/g kestrel/d) daily (21 d) of tris(2- butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), or tris(1,2-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). Concentrations were undetected in tissues (renal, hepatic), suggesting rapid metabolism. There were no changes in glutathione status, indicators of hepatic oxidative status, or the cholinergic system (i.e., cerebrum, plasma cholinesterases; cerebrum muscarinic, nicotinic receptors). Modest changes occurred in hepatocyte integrity and function (clinical chemistry). Significant effects on plasma free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations occurred with exposure to TBOEP, TCEP, TCIPP, and TDCIPP; TBOEP and TCEP had additional overall effects on free thyroxine (FT4), whereas TDCIPP also influenced total thyroxine (TT4). Relative increases (32%−96%) in circulating FT3, TT3, FT4, and/or TT4 were variable with each OPFR at 7 d exposure, but limited thereafter, which was likely maintained through decreased thyroid gland activity and increased hepatic deiodinase activity. The observed physiological and endocrine effects occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations and suggest parent OPFRs or metabolites may have been present despite rapid degradation.

  8. Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Federoff, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1982, extensive waterfowl mortality due to white phosphorus (P4) has been observed at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh near Anchorage, Alaska. Ducks and swans that ingest P4 pellets become lethargic and may display severe convulsions. Intoxicated waterfowl attract raptors and gulls that feed on dead or dying birds. To determine if avian predators can be affected by secondary poisoning, we fed American kestrels (Falco sparverius) 10-day-old domestic chickens that had been dosed with white phosphorus. Eight of 15 kestrels fed intact chicks with a pellet of P4 implanted in their crops died within seven days. Three of 15 kestrels fed chicks that had their upper digestive tracts removed to eliminate any pellets of white phosphorus also died. Hematocrit and hemoglobin in kestrels decreased whereas lactate dehydrogenaseL, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma increased with exposure to contaminated chicks. Histological examination of liver and kidneys showed that the incidence and severity of lesions increased when kestrels were fed contaminated chicks. White phosphorus residues were measurable in 87% of the kestrels dying on study and 20% of the survivors. This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4 contaminated prey.

  9. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  10. Divergent hepatitis E virus in birds of prey, common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and red-footed falcon (F. vespertinus), Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has raised considerable public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the animal to animal transmissions and the natural chain of hepevirus infections in wildlife are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a novel HEV in birds of prey was serendipitously identified in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected in total of 2 (18%) of the 11 and 1 (14%) of the 7 faecal samples from common kestrels and red-footed falcons, respectively. High faecal viral load (2.03×10(8) genomic copies/ml) measured by qPCR. The complete genome of strain kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN (KU670940) HEV is 7033-nt long including a 35-nt 5'end and a 63-nt 3'end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (4920nt/639 aa), ORF2 (1989nt/662 aa) and ORF3 (360nt/119aa) proteins of kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN shared the highest identity (58.1%, 66.8% and 28.5%) to the corresponding proteins of ferret, rat and human genotype 4 Orthohepeviruses, respectively. Interestingly, the ORF3 protein is potentially initiated with leucine (L) using an alternate, non-AUG (UUG) start codon. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel Orthohepevirus species related to mammalian HEVs in birds of prey. It is important to recognize all potential hosts, reservoirs and spreaders in nature and to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of hepeviruses. PMID:27282471

  11. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.

  12. Responses of common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) to land use changes in agricultural landscapes of Western France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butet, A.; Michel, N.; Rantier, Y.; Comor, V.N.R.; Hubert-Moy, L.; Nabucet, J.; Delettre, Y.R.

    2010-01-01

    In front of land use changes, there has been a wide decline in biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the numerical response of two diurnal raptor species, the common buzzard and the Eurasian kestrel to different agricultural landscape contexts. We carried out a 3-year survey of the abundance of t

  13. Developmental effects of Arochlor 1242 in American kestrels and associated hormone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, diverse field and experimental studies have been brought together to suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife might be caused by the endocrine-like activity of pollutants acting on embryos. For example, hormonal and gonadal anomalies in juvenile alligators from Florida are associated with exposure to DDT and dicofol, experimental work on laboratory rodents has identified estrogenic and androgenic properties of several pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, and injection of gull eggs with metabolites of DDT produces intersex gonads in the male hatchlings. Very little evidence is available for birds that demonstrates a deficit in reproductive capability by this mechanism. Our breeding and egg-injection studies are investigating the potential of Aroclor 1242 and hydroxylated PCB congener 30, both with known estrogenic activity, to alter the course of embryonic development of reproductive structures and to affect later reproductive function in American kestrels. Findings from young birds whose parents were exposed indicated that gonadal morphology appeared consistent with the genetic sex of exposed birds; testes of exposed birds showed no difference in size or symmetry when compared to controls. Histological preparations showed very little intersexuality of male testes; females had ovaries that were indistinguishable from controls. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with greater dose of Aroclor; females hatchlings that resulted from injected eggs showed an opposite trend. Analyses in progress include LHRH and catecholamine concentrations in the brain.

  14. Falco peregrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Recopilación de observaciones de Halcón preregrino (Falco peregrinus) realizadas durante varias salidas de campo a diferentes enclaves de la provincia de Valladolid, entre el 28 de agosto de 1948 y el 12 de junio de 1953. Incluye morfometría y dos ilustraciones de una hembra capturada en Cótar (Burgos) el 11 de abril de 1950, entre otras. Compilation of observations of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) achieved through many field trips to different habitats of the province of Vallado...

  15. Effects of inhalation exposure to a binary mixture of benzene and toluene on vitamin a status and humoral and cell-mediated immunity in wild and captive American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsgard, Mandy L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Trask, Brenda R; Smits, Judit E G

    2008-01-01

    Benzene and toluene are representative volatile organic compounds (VOC) released during production, storage, and transportation associated with the oil and gas industry and are chemicals of concern, as they are released in greater and possibly more biologically significant concentrations than other compounds. Most studies of air pollution in high oil and gas activity areas have neglected to consider risks to birds, including top-level predators. Birds can be used as highly sensitive monitors of air quality and since the avian respiratory tract is physiologically different from a rodent respiratory tract, effects of gases cannot be safely extrapolated from rodent studies. Wild and captive male American kestrels were exposed for approximately 1 h daily for 28 d to high (rodent lowest-observed-adverse-effect level [LOAEL] of 10 ppm and 80 ppm, respectively) or environmentally relevant (0.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, respectively) levels of benzene and toluene. Altered immune responses characteristic of those seen in mammalian exposures were evident in kestrels. A decreased cell-mediated immunity, measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity testing, was evident in all exposed birds. There was no effect on humoral immunity. Plasma retinol levels as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were decreased in wild and captive kestrels exposed to the rodent LOAEL for combined benzene and toluene. This study indicates that American kestrels are sensitive to combined benzene and toluene. The study also illustrates the need for reference concentrations for airborne pollutants to be calculated, including sensitive endpoints specific to birds. Based on these findings, future studies need to include immune endpoints to determine the possible increased susceptibility of birds to inhaled toxicants.

  16. The post-fledging dependence period in the Lesser Kestrel Falcon naumanni

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Javier; Negro, Juan J.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the post-fledging dependence period of individually marked lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in southwestern Spain. Chicks fledged at a mean age of 37 d and remained at the breeding colony, depending on their parents for food, on average 5 d more. Parents declined food provisioning to offspring during the post-fledging dependence period. We did not observe play wish objects, social play, training or learning of hunting skills among the fledglings. Family group...

  17. Sources of variation for nutritional condition indices of the plasma of migratory lesser kestrels in the breeding grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Airam; Juan J Negro; Figuerola, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Although published information on reference values for biochemical parameters in birds of prey has increased during the last years, little is known on their sources of variation. We used an insectivorous and small migratory raptor species, the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni, as a model. We looked for sources of variation of nutritional biochemical parameters (i.e. triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid and urea) of both nestlings and adults. Reference values indicated that, as a rul...

  18. Nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in the province of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in Vojvodina (Serbia was done in the period from 1986 to 2004. During three specially analyzed periods, saker falcon took the nests of raven (Corvus corax in 91% of a total of 22 cases of nest occupation, and those of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in only 9%. Saker falcon regularly grabs prey from different birds that occasionally or constantly spend time around power lines [Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, hobby (Falco subbuteo, hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix, jack-daw (Corvus monedula, marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus, hen harrier (Circus cyaneus, buzzard (Buteo buteo, and raven (Corvus corax]. One year a studied pair of saker falcons on a power line in Donji Srem, Serbia grabbed prey from five different species of birds. Out of a total of 40 cases of prey grabbing in the period from January to December, as much 70% of the grabbed prey was taken from kestrel (Falco tinnunculus. During the winter and early spring, prey was grabbed predominantly by males; after May, prey was sometimes grabbed by females as well. Most of the grabbed prey was common vole (Microtus arvalis.

  19. Morphological properties of the last primaries, the tail feathers, and the alulae of Accipiter nisus, Columba livia, Falco peregrinus, and Falco tinnunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Ponitz, Benjamin; Brücker, Christoph; Schmitz, Helmut; Herweg, Jan; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). In all four species, the Young's moduli of the feathers ranged from 5.9 to 8.4 GPa. The feather shafts of F. peregrinus had the largest cross-sections and the highest specific bending stiffness. When normalized with respect to body mass, the specific bending stiffness of primary number 10 was highest in F. tinnunculus, while that of the alula was highest in A. nisus. In comparison, the specific bending stiffness, measured at the base of the tail feathers and in dorso-ventral bending direction, was much higher in F. peregrinus than in the other three species. This seems to correlate with the flight styles of the birds: F. tinnunculus hovers and its primaries might therefore withstand large mechanical forces. A. nisus has often to change its flight directions during hunting and perhaps needs its alulae for this maneuvers, and in F. peregrinus, the base of the tail feathers might need a high stiffness during breaking after diving.

  20. Seasonal variation in foraging habitat preferences in Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Emanuel Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Conhecer as preferências de habitat de uma espécie é crucial para a definição e implementação de medidas com objectivos de conservação. Neste estudo analisamos a preferência de habitat de caça de uma espécie ameaçada, e a maneira como estas preferências se alteram ao longo da época de reprodução. A disponibilidade de cada tipo de habitat varia consoante as actividades agrícolas, como sementeiras, aragem ou ceifas. Os resultados evidenciam que esta espécie selecciona diferent...

  1. Radiographic reference limits for cardiac width in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.; Shaik, S.; Ali, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association June 1, 2011, Vol. 238, No. 11, Pages 1459-1463 doi: 10.2460/javma.238.11.1459 Radiographic reference limits for cardiac width in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) Johannes T. Lumeij, DVM, PhD; Muneer A. S. Shaik, BVSc, AH; Mohammed

  2. MF magnitude does not affect body condition, pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants in Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Pylons of utility lines are commonly used by breeding birds as structures for supporting their nests. Nesting near power lines, however, exposes adult birds and their offspring to the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) produced by the current. Therefore, we searched for possible relationships betwe

  3. Trapping of Saker Falcon Falco cherrug and Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus in Saudi Arabia: Implications for biodiversity conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of Falco cherrug and Falco peregrinus trapped during their migration over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were investigated from published reports and through interviews with well-known trappers and dealers over several years (1989–2013). The number of trapped individuals increased for both species over a 23 year period, which is probably related to an enhanced trapping effort. Time series analysis suggests that the number of Saker Falcons being trapped is likely to be stable wi...

  4. Environmental Contaminants in American and Arctic Peregrine Falcon Eggs in Alaska, 1979-95

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic and American peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius and F. p. anatum) were listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Preservation Act (1969) in...

  5. Trapping of Saker Falcon Falco cherrug and Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus in Saudi Arabia: Implications for biodiversity conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of Falco cherrug and Falco peregrinus trapped during their migration over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were investigated from published reports and through interviews with well-known trappers and dealers over several years (1989–2013). The number of trapped individuals increased for both species over a 23 year period, which is probably related to an enhanced trapping effort. Time series analysis suggests that the number of Saker Falcons being trapped is likely to be stable with annual fluctuations in the coming ten-year period, whereas the number of trapped Peregrine Falcons will probably decline with a small fluctuation initially. Using the population viability analysis suggests a high extinction rate for the Saker Falcon population migrating through KSA during the coming 10 and 20 years; whereas Peregrine Falcons probably take more than 100 years to reach the extinction threshold. However, the increase in the trapping period, especially in the spring, that has been observed during the last five years could increase the number of falcons trapped in the future. As both falcon species are migratory, implementing conservation actions across all range states is important to ensure a favourable conservation status for the Saker and Peregrine Falcons. Both species will benefit through the implementation of the Global Action Plan (GAP), developed by the Saker Falcon Task Force. PMID:26150757

  6. 1980 raptor survey: The breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) population of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of the breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) population was made on Amchitka Island, Alaska, during the 1980 summer field season. The survey was...

  7. 100 Falco Vet兽用B超仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    100 Falco Vet超声系统被设计成的扫描仪成为今天繁忙的兽医诊断活动的有利助手。重量只有10.5千克(不包括电池),很容易在远距离之间移动。这种多用途、完全便携式系统是用最新的成像硬件和软件装备的。这些硬件和软件正是广大的动物健康养殖从业者所需要的。

  8. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ponitz

    Full Text Available This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  9. Migratory peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, accumulate pesticides in Latin America during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Ward, F.P.; Riddle, K.E.; Prouty, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 433 Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) during fall and spring migrations, 1976-80, indicated that most of their pesticide burden, primarily DDE, was accumulated on wintering grounds in Latin America. DDE in spring migrants returning from Latin America for the first time declined significantly from 1979 to 1980. Only about 10% of breeding-age females contained organochlorine residues likely to adversely affect reproduction. The organochlorine pesticide threat in Latin America may be diminishing.

  10. Individual recognition of territorial peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus: a key for long-term monitoring programmes.

    OpenAIRE

    ZUBEROGOITIA, I., CAMPOS, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Research on avian population dynamics necessitates significant time and effort in order to mark and control a sufficient number of individuals in the monitored population to obtain an adequate sample for analysis. Various recognition techniques which facilitate population monitoring have been documented, with photography being one of the most useful tools. We used photography, drawings and alphanumeric coloured rings in order to identify peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus Tunstall 1771). ...

  11. A COMBINED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOENERGETICS-BASED MODEL FOR METHYLMERCURY IN FEMALE AMERICAN KESTRELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this combined dose-response and modeling effort will be used to improve effects characterizations for methylmercury in avian wildlife. This information will reduce uncertainty in risk assessments for methylmercury in the environment and contribute to the developme...

  12. Kestrel's new FTVHSI instrument for hyperspectral remote sensing from light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigs, Andrew D.; Butler, Eugene W.; Jones, Bernard A.; Otten, Leonard John, III; Sellar, R. Glenn; Rafert, Bruce; O'Hair, John R.

    1996-12-01

    During the past year, Kestrel Corporation has designed and built a low cost Fourier transform visible hyperspectral imager (FTVHSI) for deployment in a light aircraft (Cessna TU-206). The instrument is an imaging spectrometer employing a Sagnac (triangle) interferometer, that operates over a range of 450 - 1050 nm with 256 spectral channels, and a 13 degree FOV with an 0.8 mrad pixel IFOV (450 spatial channels). To aid in the calibration of the instrument, calibration and downwelling signals are recorded with every frame. Installed with the optical instrument are attitude sensors and a scene camera. This auxiliary data allows us to place a hyperspectral slice to within less than 5 m of its true position (using selective availability 'on' and differential GPS). We have performed extensive testing and calibration studies, including data collection conducted synchronously with ground measurements at locations including a White Sands radiometric calibration site. This paper reports some of the calibration studies and their results.

  13. Routes and travel rates of migrating Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus and Swainson's Hawks Buteo swainsoni in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Seegar, W.S.; Schueck, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    We describe and compare the migration routes, length of migration, and duration of migration of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius and Swainson's Hawks Buteo swainsoni in the Western Hemisphere. We radio tracked migrants using the Argos satellite system. Our initial samples were 34 Swainson's Hawks from representative areas of their breeding range, and 61 Peregrine Falcons captured at nest sites across the North American boreal forest and low Arctic or on the migration routes along the mid-Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. The average distance of migration for Peregrines was 8,624 km southward, and 8,247 km northward. Peregrines travelled at an average rate of I72 km/d southward and 198 km/d going north. Peregrine Falcons used at least three broad, general routes south from the breeding areas, and individuals stopped migrating as far north as the U.S.A. mid-Atlantic coast and as far south as Central Argentina. The radiomarked Peregrine Falcons used coastal routes, mid-continental routes, and water-crossing routes: the Davis Strait and Caribbean Sea. During northward migration, Peregrines migrating through at Padre Island, Texas diverged for destinations from Central Alaska across the continent to central West Greenland. Swainson's Hawks migrated an average of about 13,504 km southward and 11,952 km northward, and travelled 188 km/d southward and 150 km/d northward. Swainson's Hawks converged in eastern Mexico on the Gulf of Mexico coast. Southward, these hawks followed a narrow, well-defined path through Central America, across the Andes Mountains in Columbia, and east of the Andes to central Argentina where they all spent the austral summer. Swainson's Hawks northward migration largely retraced their southward route.

  14. Long-term monitoring of an insular population of Barbary Falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides

    OpenAIRE

    Siverio, Manuel; Siverio, Felipe; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Rodríguez, Airam

    2012-01-01

    Territory spacing and breeding rates of an insular population (north-western Tenerife, Canary Islands) of Barbary Falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides was studied from 1993 to 2008. The population increased constantly since the outset, from two pairs in 1993 to 12 in 2008. Mean density was 5.48 pairs per 100 km² and mean nearest neighbour distance was 3 119 m. The regularity of the spatial distribution pattern of the nests, observed in most years, may be maintained in the future despite ...

  15. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...... in the average thickness of eggshells over the period of 0.19% per year, corresponding to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% in 1972 to 7.8% in 2003. Backwards extrapolation of the data, suggests that the Greenlandic Peregrine population probably was never critically affected by DDT-induced eggshell...

  16. Prey of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) in Southern Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Sabo, B.A.; Fackler, J.K.; Millsap, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) in Patagonia attracted wide interest two decades ago when there was a focus on determining the taxonomic position of the Pallid Falcon (also called Kleinschmidt's falcon and Tierra del Fuego falcon; formerly named Falco kreyenborgi). In 1981, however, the pallid falcon was confirmed to be a pale color morph of the peregrine, and since that time, little work has been conducted on this color morph. Continent-wide research has continued and has yielded a fair understanding of the breeding distribution of the Peregrine Falcon in South America. Also, two preliminary food habits studies on the peregrine have been completed in Patagonia. Together those papers provided a list of 23 species observed as prey, and McNutt listed another eight species seen pursued (but not captured) by peregrines. The purpose of this paper is to assemble all that has been published on peregrine food habits for Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego and to add to that list from our 1980 and 1981 expeditions.

  17. Ecological Energetics of the Kestrel : Daily Energy Expenditure throughout the Year Based on Time-Energy Budget, Food Intake and Doubly Labeled Water Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Daan, Serge; Beldhuis, Hans J.A.

    1988-01-01

    1. Three methods were employed to determine the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of free-living Kestrels, throughout the year in a study area in the northern Netherlands. - TEB (time budget analysis) - Food intake (observational method) - DLW (doubly labeled water method) 2. The TEB model used here re

  18. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  19. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  20. Diagnostik der Aspergillose bei Jagdfalken (Falco spp.) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Projektionsradiographie und der Serumelektrophorese

    OpenAIRE

    Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigte sich mit zwei Methoden zur Diagnostik der Aspergillose bei Greifvögeln, um neue Erkenntnisse über die Aussagekraft dieser nicht invasiven Diagnostika zu gewinnen. In der ersten Studie wurden bei ausschließlich Aspergillose-positiven Falken (Falco spp.) (n = 110) spezifische Röntgenzeichen an digital erstellten Röntgenbildern systematisch ermittelt und mit den typischen Röntgenzeichen von Papageien mit Erkrankungen des unteren Respirationstrakts verglichen. ...

  1. Distribution and behaviour of passerines around peregrine Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, R.J.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the distribution and behavior of passerine birds within 1 km of Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland. Passerine populations were censused in 1983 around six cliffs occupied by nesting Peregrines and at six sites on the open tundra, and in 1984 at two unoccupied sites suitable for Peregrine nesting. Four passerine species accounted for over 90% of birds seen. Within 400 m of Peregrine occupied cliffs, three species, Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus. Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe, and Common Redpoll Carduelisflammea, were found in lower than average abundance while the fourth, Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis, was found in increased abundance. Our indirect tests suggest that Peregrine presence, rather than direct predation, was responsible for the distributions of the first three species. The Snow Bunting, however, behaviourally adapts to Peregrine presence in order to exploit nesting habitat available at the cliff base. These results contrast strongly with those reported by other Arctic workers, where increased abundances of potential prey were observed in close proximity to nesting Peregrines.

  2. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S.L.; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.; White, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency. ?? 2011 The Authors.

  3. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  4. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method. PMID:26771318

  5. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method.

  6. Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis Associated With Staphylococcus hyicus in a Juvenile Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kristina; Fischer, Dominik; Hartmann, Antje; Kershaw, Olivia; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Pendl, Helene; Schmidt, Martin J; Lierz, Michael

    2015-09-01

    A 6-week-old, parent-reared peregrine falcon ( Falco peregrinus ) was presented with spastic hypertonus of its hind limbs of unknown origin and duration. Radiologic examination revealed smooth periosteal reactions ventrally at thoracic vertebrae 5 to 7. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography identified the swelling as inflammation; antibiotic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic treatments were initiated, and vitamins and minerals were supplemented. Because the bird's condition did not improve after 10 days, it was euthanatized and submitted for postmortem examination. On histopathologic examination, chronic, active osteomyelitis was diagnosed in thoracic vertebrae 5 to 7, and chronic, active arthritis was present in both the right shoulder and left elbow joints. Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated from these 3 locations, as well as from lungs and liver, indicating a chronic septic staphylococcosis. Although infections with Staphylococcus species are occasional causes of vertebral osteomyelitis in juvenile poultry with active growth plates, it is only sporadically reported in raptors and companion birds. This case report is the first description of the clinical features and diagnostic and pathologic findings in a juvenile peregrine falcon with hematogenous osteomyelitis and arthritis associated with septicemia caused by S hyicus.

  7. Población, distribución, y reproducción del Halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus) en gipuzkoa (2003-2004) = Population, distribution and reproduction of peregrine hawk (Falco peregrinus) in Gipuzkoa (2003-2004).

    OpenAIRE

    F. Álvarez, M. Olano, T. Aierbe, J. Vazquez, P. Izkeaga, J. Ugarte

    2005-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la población de Halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus) en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (País Vasco) durante las temporadas de reproducción del 2003 y 2004. En total se han registrado 28 territorios ocupados por la especie en el 2003 y, 33 en el 2004. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una tendencia al alza en la evolución de la población desde 1994 (17 parejas), con un crecimiento medio anual del 4,1%. El éxito reproductor (parejas con éxito/parejas controladas) se ha estim...

  8. COMPARATIVE HEMATOLOGY AND PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY OF RED-TAILED HAWKS AND AMERICAN KESTRELS WINTERING IN CALIFORNIA. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. The status of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrines) in northeastern Alaska: East fork Chandalar River drainage east to the Canadian Border, Arctic Ocean south to the Porcupine and Chandalar Rivers (including the Arctic National Wildlife Range) and the S

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Prior to 1972, little was known about the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) populations that breed in northeastern Alaska. The following is a report of peregrine...

  10. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur D'Alene river, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Mining and smelting at Kellogg-Smelterville, Idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River sediments and the floodplain downstream, where American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicotti) nested. Nestling American Kestrels contained significantly higher (P=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the CDA River (0.24 ?g/g, wet wt) than the nearby reference area (0.087 ?g/g). A 35% inhibition of blood *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in nestling Northern Harriers (P=0.0001), 55% in nestling American Kestrels (P=0.0001) and 81% in adult American Kestrels (P=0.0004) provided additional evidence of lead exposure in the CDA River population. In nestling American Kestrels and Northern Harriers, ALAD activity was negatively correlated with lead in blood. An earlier report on Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) showed slightly less inhibition of ALAD than in American Kestrels, but no significant reduction in hemoglobin or hematocrit and no negative influence on production rates. The adult and nestling American Kestrels along the CDA River contained about twice as much blood lead as Ospreys during the same years (adult 0.46 vs. 0.20 ?g/g, and nestling 0.24 vs. 0.09 ?g/g), but adults showed a 7.5% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0356) and nestlings an 8.2% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0353) and a 5.8% reduction in hematocrit (P=0.0482). We did not observe raptor deaths related to lead, and although the production rate for American Kestrels was slightly lower along the CDA River, we found no significant negative relation between productivity and lead. Limited data on the other raptors provide evidence of exposure to lead along the CDA River. Several traits of raptors apparently reduce their potential for accumulating critical levels of lead which is primarily stored in bones of prey species.

  11. Variable plumage coloration of breeding Barbary Falcons Falco (peregrinus) pelegrinoides in the Canary Islands: do other Peregrine Falcon subspecies also occur in the archipelago?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Siverio, Felipe; Siverio, Manuel; Rodríguez, Airam

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the Barbary Falcon has been controversial for many years, it being variously considered a subspecies of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides) or treated as a full species (F. pelegrinoides). Although morphological and molecular studies are still scarce, they suggest that subspecific status is more appropriate. Other subspecies of Peregrine, such as F. p. brookei, exhibit some plumage characteristics similar to Barbary Falcon. We quantitatively describe colo...

  12. Población, distribución, y reproducción del Halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus en gipuzkoa (2003-2004 = Population, distribution and reproduction of peregrine hawk (Falco peregrinus in Gipuzkoa (2003-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Álvarez, M. Olano, T. Aierbe, J. Vazquez, P. Izkeaga, J. Ugarte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la población de Halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (País Vasco durante las temporadas de reproducción del 2003 y 2004. En total se han registrado 28 territorios ocupados por la especie en el 2003 y, 33 en el 2004. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una tendencia al alza en la evolución de la población desde 1994 (17 parejas, con un crecimiento medio anual del 4,1%. El éxito reproductor (parejas con éxito/parejas controladas se ha estimado en un 64,5% con una productividad media de 1,68 (pollos/parejas controladas. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un buen estado general de conservación de las poblaciones de la especie, con parámetros reproductores elevados, si bien los resultados sugieren que las poblaciones del interior del territorio tienen un menor éxito reproductor frente a las ubicadas en áreas costeras. Actualmente se puede considerar que la población mantiene un buen estado general de conservación, si bien se continúan detectando amenazas que pueden poner en peligro la estabilidad de la misma.

  13. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    OpenAIRE

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-01-01

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those ...

  14. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  15. Autumn migration and wintering areas of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus nesting on the Kola Peninsula, northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusevich, S.A.; Maechtle, T.L.; Seegar, W.S.; Yates, M.A.; McGrady, M.J.; Fuller, M.; Schueck, L.; Dayton, J.; Henny, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Four female Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus breeding on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, were fitted with satellite-received transmitters in 1994. Their breeding home ranges averaged 1175 (sd = ??714) km2, and overlapped considerably. All left their breeding grounds in September and migrated generally south-west along the Baltic Sea. The mean travel rate for three falcons was 190 km/day. Two Falcons wintered on the coasts of France and in southern Spain, which were, respectively, 2909 and 4262 km from their breeding sites. Data on migration routes suggested that Falcons took a near-direct route to the wintering areas. No prolonged stopovers were apparent. The 90% minimum convex polygon winter range of a bird that migrated to Spain encompassed 213 km2 (n = 54). The area of the 50% minimum convex polygon was 21.5 km2 (n = 29). Data from this study agree with others from North America that show that Falcons breeding in a single area do not necessarily follow the same migratory path southward and do not necessarily use the same wintering grounds.

  16. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Salim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  17. Pesquisa de helmintes gastrointestinais em quatro espécies de aves de rapina na zona centro de Portugal : Buteo buteo, Falco tinnunculus, Tyto alba e Athene noctua

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Ana Filipa Negrão

    2016-01-01

    issertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Os helmintes gastrointestinais são parasitas comuns em aves de rapina. Estudos sobre estes parasitas em aves de rapina não são abundantes a nível nacional, mas existe cada vez mais um maior interesse. O objetivo foi aprofundar estes conhecimentos no que diz respeito às principais aves de rapina existentes em Portugal: águia-d’asa-redonda (Buteo buteo), peneireiro-vulgar (Falco tinnunculus), coruja-das-torres (Tyto alba) e...

  18. The role of fallow in habitat use by the Lesser Kestrel during the post-fledging period: inferring potential conservation implications from the abolition of obligatory set-aside

    OpenAIRE

    de Frutos, Ángel; Olea, Pedro P.; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Purroy, Francisco J., 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The maintenance of fallows has been shown to prevent the loss of farmland biodiversity caused by agricultural intensification. These are mainly introduced as part of both obligatory and voluntary set-aside schemes. However, the obligatory set-aside has recently been abolished by the Common Agricultural Policy Health Check. In this study, we examine the role of fallow in fine-grained habitat use by a threatened farmland bird (Lesser Kestrel) during summer in northwestern Sp...

  19. Warning against an unseen predator : a functional aspect of synchronous feeding in the common vole, Microtus arvalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Verhulst, Simon

    1990-01-01

    Escape responses of common voles exposed either to a kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, model 'flown' overhead or to neighbouring voles from the same family responding to such a model were investigated. The majority of voles (81%) either froze or ran for cover when exposed to the sight of the kestrel model

  20. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A., E-mail: mmora@tamu.edu [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Baxter, C. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Montoya, A.B. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States); Gallardo, J.C. [Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 {mu}g/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 {mu}g/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: > We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. > Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. > Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. > Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. > Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  2. САПСАН FALCO PEREGRINUS В КУЗНЕЦКОМ АЛАТАУ

    OpenAIRE

    Гуреев, С.; Голубятников, Ю.

    2013-01-01

    Второе издание. Первая публикация: Гуреев С.П., Голубятников Ю.Г. 1988. Сапсан (Falco peregrinus) в Кузнецком Алатау // Экология и поведение птиц. М.: 64-67.

  3. The occurrence of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum) and other raptors on the Charley River, Alaska, 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this field study was to assess the importance of the Charley River as nesting habitat for the endangered American Peregrine Falcon. Other...

  4. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners by egg injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Klein, P.N. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Environmental Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The utility of egg injection studies for predicting potential embryotoxicity of PCBs and TCDD compares favorably with feeding studies. The effects of PCB congeners 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-tetraCB (PCB 77), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentaCB (PCB 105), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCB (PCB 153) were examined on embryonic development in chickens (Gallus gallus), northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and common terns (Sterna hirundo) through hatching following air cell injections on day 4. The estimated LD{sub 50}s for these congeners in chickens were approximately 0.4 ppb, 2.6 ppb, 3326 ppb, and greater than 14,000 ppb, respectively; low effect levels (10--20% embryonic mortality) were 0.2 ppb, 1.2 ppb, 900 ppb, and 14,000 ppb respectively. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 126 was 48 ppb for bobwhite, 65 ppb for American kestrels, and 104 ppb for common terns. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 77 was 688 ppb for American kestrels. one or more hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase was assayed for each species. For PCB 126, the order of responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction was: chicken > common tern > American kestrel > bobwhite, with chicken being approximately 100 times more responsive than common tern. These values are compared to existing Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) including bioassay-derived ones.

  5. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  6. Stress response, biotransformation effort, and immunotoxicity in captive birds exposed to inhaled benzene, toluene, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Smits, Judit E G; Fernie, Kim

    2015-02-01

    In the oil sands of Alberta, Canada, toxicology research has largely neglected the effects of air contaminants on biota. Captive Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds and oxidizing agents (benzene, toluene, NO2 and SO2) in a whole-body inhalation chamber, to test for toxicological responses. Hepatic biotransformation measured through 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) tended to be increased in exposed kestrels (p=0.06) but not in quail (p=0.15). Plasma corticosterone was increased in the low dose group for quail on the final day of exposure (p=0.0001), and midway through the exposure period in exposed kestrels (p=0.04). For both species, there was no alteration of T and B-cell responses, immune organ mass, or histology of immune organs (p>0.05). This study provides baseline information valuable to complement toxicology studies and provides a better understanding of potential health effects on wild avifauna. PMID:25463874

  7. Observations of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera (Aves: Falconiformes: Falconidae nest at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a focus on post-fledging behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Foysal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A nest of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera was observed in 2009, beginning with the onset of breeding and continuing on to the next breeding of the pair.  The nest was found on 02 March 2009 in an electricity pylon in a sub-urban area at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  The incubation period was estimated at a minimum of four weeks and the nestling period was 37 days.  Fledglings remained in the nesting area up to four months after fledging.  The female almost exclusively fed the nestlings and fledglings.  The diet of adults, nestlings and fledglings consisted of 72% small birds (sparrow sized and 28% Pipistrellus bats (n = 112.  The diet of fledglings consisted of 61% birds and 39% bats (n= 72; before independence mainly birds and after independence mainly bats.  Parents delivered prey to fledglings up to 39 days after fledging (i.e., post-fledging dependence period was 39 days.  The fledgling’s flight pattern was distinguishable from the adults nearly two months after fledging.  The fledgling’s call reminiscent of a begging call was recorded up to 75 days after fledging. Food competition was observed among the fledglings; when one of the fledglings snatched prey from a parent, the other siblings tried to pilfer it.  The parents had resumed breeding eight months after the fledging stage of their offspring. 

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A., peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs: urban/rural trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Katherine E; Watts, Bryan D; La Guardia, Mark J; Harvey, Ellen P; Hale, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    A total of 23 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs were obtained between 1993 and 2002 from 13 nests, encompassing 11 locations in the Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A. When multiple eggs were available from the same clutch, average clutch contaminant concentrations were calculated. An overall median total polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) level of 201 ng/g wet weight was determined for the eggs/clutches examined. The maximum in an individual egg, from an urban highway bridge site, was 354 ng/g. This egg also exhibited the highest BDE 209 burden (48.2 ng/g). Compared to distributions reported in fish and piscivorous birds, falcon eggs were enriched in the more brominated congeners. The BDE congeners 153, 99, and 100 constituted 26.0, 24.8, and 13.1%, respectively, of total PBDEs. In most aquatic species, BDE 47 is the most abundant congener reported; however, it constituted only 4.4% of total PBDEs in the eggs of the present study. The median BDE 209 concentration was 6.3 ng/g. The sum of the octa- to nonabrominated congeners (BDEs 196, 197, 206, 207, and 208) contributed, on average, 14.0% of total PBDEs, exceeding the contribution of BDE 209 (5.9%). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE) also were determined in a subset of 16 eggs (collected in 2001-2002 from six nests) and were an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding PBDEs. Median BDE 209 concentrations were significantly correlated (p < 0.01, Spearman R = 0.690) with the human population density of the area surrounding the nest. Total PBDEs, total PCBs, and 4,4'-DDE levels were not correlated to human population density. PMID:19102579

  9. Bayesian multimodel inference for dose-response studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Albers, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical inference in dose?response studies is model-based: The analyst posits a mathematical model of the relation between exposure and response, estimates parameters of the model, and reports conclusions conditional on the model. Such analyses rarely include any accounting for the uncertainties associated with model selection. The Bayesian inferential system provides a convenient framework for model selection and multimodel inference. In this paper we briefly describe the Bayesian paradigm and Bayesian multimodel inference. We then present a family of models for multinomial dose?response data and apply Bayesian multimodel inferential methods to the analysis of data on the reproductive success of American kestrels (Falco sparveriuss) exposed to various sublethal dietary concentrations of methylmercury.

  10. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  11. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  12. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  13. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  14. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  15. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  16. Response of brown anoles Anolis sagrei to multimodal signals from a native and novel predator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar L.ELMASRI; Marcus S.MORENO; Courtney A.NEUMANN; Daniel T.BLUMSTEIN

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have focused on the importance of single modalities (visual,auditory,olfactory) in eliciting anti-predator behavior,however multiple channels are often engaged simultaneously.While examining responses to multiple cues can potentially reveal more complex behavioral responses,little is known about how multimodal processing evolves.By contrasting response to familiar and novel predators,insights can be gained into the evolution of multimodal responses.We studied brown anoles' (Anolis sagrei) response to acoustic and visual predatory cues of a common potential predator,the great-tailed grackle Quiscalus mexicanus and to the American kestrel Falco sparverius,a species found in other populations but not present in our study population.We observed anole behavior before and after a stimulus and quantified rates of looking,display,and locomotion.Anoles increased their rate of locomotion in response to grackle models,an effect modulated by grackle vocalizations.No such response or modulation was seen when anoles were presented with kestrel stimuli.This suggests that the degree of sophistication of anole response to predators is experience dependent and that relaxed selection can result in reduced anti-predator response following loss of predators

  17. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-07-22

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  18. О ДОБЫВАНИИ САПСАНОМ FALCO PEREGRINUS ГЛУХАРЯ TETRAO UROGALLUS НА ЗАПАДНОМ АЛТАЕ

    OpenAIRE

    БАЙДАВЛЕТОВ РЫСПЕК ЖАПАРКУЛОВИЧ

    2015-01-01

    Второе издание. Первая публикация: Байдавлетов Р.Ж. 2001. О добывании сапсаном (Falco peregrinus) глухаря (Tetrao urogallus) // Selevinia: 200.

  19. First detection of Bacillus anthracis in feces of free-ranging raptors from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, Miguel D; Noseda, Ramón P; Uhart, Marcela M; Deem, Sharon L; Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo C; Ferreyra-Armas, María C; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of anthrax spores in feces of raptors was determined from samples collected in November-December 2000 and April-May 2001 in an agricultural region of Santa Fé province, Argentina. Feces were tested from 48 birds of six raptor species. One of 14 chimango caracaras (Milvago chimango) and one of eight road-side hawks (Buteo magnirostris) tested positive. The prevalence of Bacillus anthracis spores in feces for the six species was 4% (n=48). The prevalence was 7% (n=14) for chimango caracaras, 13% for road-side hawks (n=8), and 0% for the remaining species (Burrowing owl [Speotyto cunicularia] [n=17], Swainson's hawk [Buteo swainsoni] [n=3], Aplomado falcon [Falco femoralis] [n=2], and American kestrel [Falco sparverius] [n=4]). Grouped by their feeding habits, prevalence for scavenger species was not significantly different than for predators (7% vs. 3%, P>0.999). This study provides evidence that in central Argentina scavenger and non-scavenger raptors may have a role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Long-term studies to determine the extent of this potential involvement in the epidemiology of anthrax in central Argentina are required.

  20. Abundance of diurnal raptors on open space grasslands in an urbanized landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M.E.; Bock, C.E.; Haire, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted point counts of diurnal raptors on Boulder, Colorado, grasslands for three winters and summers, and compared results to landscape features of the count areas. Four wintering species were scarce on plots that included significant amounts of urban habitat, with a critical landscape threshold at about 5-7% urbanization: Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). Counts of the first three species also were positively correlated with proximity of the count plots to the nearest colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Two breeding species, the Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis) and Swainson's Hawk (B. swainsoni), were more abundant on plots dominated by lowland hayfields and tallgrass prairies, as opposed to upland mixed and shortgrass prairies. They, along with the ubiquitous American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), were not sensitive to the amounts of urbanization (up to 30%) that occurred in the landscapes sampled. Results of this study suggest that urban open space grasslands can support sizable populations of most diurnal raptors, as long as prey populations persist, but that some species are highly sensitive to landscape urbanization.

  1. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  2. 猎隼肾脏的组织学观察及HGF在肾脏中的表达%Histological Observation and Expression of HGF of Falco Cherrug Kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昱

    2015-01-01

    应用组织学方法观察了猎隼肾脏的组织结构,利用免疫组织化学方法检测了肝细胞生长因子(hepatocyte growth factor,HGF)在肾脏中的表达。结果表明:与大多数鸟类的肾脏结构相似,猎隼的肾脏主要由许多肾单位、集合管和少量结缔组织构成,但猎隼的肾脏皮质与髓质分界较明显。肾单位由肾小体和与之相连的上皮样肾小管构成。肾小体由一团蟠曲的毛细血管构成。近曲小管由单层立方上皮细胞组成,上皮细胞游离面有刷状缘。远曲小管和集合管管腔较大,腔面无刷状缘。肾小管和集合管上皮细胞都呈HGF免疫反应阳性。表明HGF可能参与调节正常组织细胞的生命活动。%To provide basic data for the study on zoology, physiology and zootomy, the structural features of the kidney of Falco cherrug were studied by microscopy and expression of HGF was measured by immunohistochem-ical method. The result shows that similar to most birds’ kidney, the kidney of Falco cherrug consisted mainly of nephrons, collecting ducts and a little connective tissue, but the verge of cortex and medulla in kidney was clear. The nephron comprised renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The structure of glomerular capillary was made from convoluted capillaries. The proximal convoluted tubule was lined with a well-developed brush border. The lumen diameters of both distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct were large, and their cell apex had no a bush border. HGF appeared to be expressed in the epithelial cells of the renal tubular and collecting duct. The evidence indicates that HGF might be involved in the regulation of the normal histiocyte life activities.

  3. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  5. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  6. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  7. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Schultz, Sandra; Knowles, Susan N.; Abbo, B.G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol® bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell’s viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  8. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  9. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  10. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation "Embracing Diversity" bracelets are available to help ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  11. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  14. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  15. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  16. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  17. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  18. American Culture Through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Clair Michael; Pulliam, William E.

    1976-01-01

    In honor of the Bicentennial, current instructional materials concerned with American lifestyles--past and present--American music, art, education, customs and traditions, and language are reviewed. The reviews are presented in a narrative format and value judgments are made where appropriate. Address and price information are found in a list at…

  19. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  20. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  1. Color plumage polymorphism and predator mimicry in brood parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Trnka, Alfréd; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background Plumage polymorphism may evolve during coevolution between brood parasites and their hosts if rare morph(s), by contravening host search image, evade host recognition systems better than common variant(s). Females of the parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) are a classic example of discrete color polymorphism: gray females supposedly mimic the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), while rufous females are believed to mimic the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Despite many studies on host...

  2. Mass provisioning to different-sex eggs within the laying sequence: Consequences for adjustment of reproductive effort in a sexually dimorphic bird

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Guillermo; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Serrano, David; Viñuela, Javier

    2003-01-01

    1. In birds, the potential maternal ability to adjust resource allocation to different eggs in the clutch might have a major effect on the survival expectancies of particular nestlings or entire broods. We assessed whether sexually size-dimorphic Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus (Linnaeus) are able to adjust their reproductive effort by adopting different strategies of egg mass provisioning according to egg sex and laying order. 2. Initial eggs bearing male embryos were heavier than initia...

  3. Are predatory birds effective secondary seed dispersers?

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, Manuel; Quilis, Vicente; Medina, Félix M.; Mora, Juan L.; Trigo, Laura S.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the unusual phenomenon of secondary seed dispersal of Lycium intricatum seeds on a small oceanic Atlantic island (Alegranza, Canarian Archipelago)in which a small frugivorous lizard (Gallotia atlantica) and two different predatory birds participate, a shrike (Lanius excubitor) and a kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Endemic lizards that are common prey of both bird species consume Lycium fruits. Lizard remains were significantly matched with the presence of Lycium fruits in the reg...

  4. Food niche overlap of three sympatric raptors breeding in agricultural landscape in Western Pomerania region of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Skierczyński, Michał

    2006-01-01

    Diet of Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Eurasian Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) were investigated using a pellet analysis method in the Gryfice Plain in Western Pomerania region of Poland. Data on food composition were obtained from 26 nest localities. Using a pellet analysis, 470 individuals of insectivores, rodents, birds and insects were identified. Microtinae, especially The Common Vole (Microtus arvalis), were the most important prey of all studied raptor specie...

  5. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APRIL 21 A winning approach to comprehensive cosmetic dentistry education The Venetian Hotel & Resort 33rd Annual Scientific ... 9540 Contact Us © 2015 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2015 American ...

  6. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  7. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  9. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  10. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  11. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  12. Morphology of primary feathers in two falcon species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honisch, B.; Bleckmann, H.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, A.

    2012-04-01

    Primary feathers allow birds to fly; however, morphology and material properties of theses feathers vary in different bird species. We therefore analysed both morphology and material properties of primary feathers in two raptor species, the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) which is the fastest vertical flyer known, and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. The program AutoCAD was used for the computation of the moments of inertia. The reduced E-modulus of the cortex of the rachis of the first, fifth, and tenth primary were measured at proximal (10% of total rachis length), central (50%) and distal (75%) cross-sections. In all cross sections the kestrel showed higher E-moduli than the peregrine falcon (values varied between 6.7 and 9.1 GPa). In the primaries, values increased from proximal to central but decreased distally. Looking at the hardness, the kestrel had higher values than the peregrine falcon yet again. The main differences occurred in the first primary. Values ranged between 0.17 and 0.4 GPa. SEM studies revealed that the tenth primary was more stable in the peregrine falcon, featuring more hamuli than the kestrel at all analysed positions and longer hamuli at the distal positions. The higher moments of inertia found in the peregrine falcon caused a much higher bending stiffness in this species. Values were 4.4 to 9.1 times larger in the peregrine falcon than in the kestrel. Because the given structures are responsible for the stability of the feather face it seems that the feathers of F. peregrinus are more robust than those of F. tinnunculus. Even when considering the higher body mass of the peregrine falcon compared to the kestrel (3.4 times), the determined stability of the feather compensates for this problem.

  13. Natural Cross Chlamydial Infection between Livestock and Free-Living Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Jesús A.; Fargallo, Juan A.; Vergara, Pablo; Parejo, Deseada; Banda, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser (Falco naumanni) kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus), an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae) and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species. PMID:20976071

  14. General American: An Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  15. American Samoa Cannery Offloading

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  16. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living Conditions Caregiver ...

  17. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Let’s Teach Our Children About Sleep How ...

  18. American Diabetes Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2383) Give by Mail Close November is American Diabetes Month® Share your personal diabetes story and show ... Next » « Previous Our Mission: To prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people ...

  19. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  20. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  1. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  2. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... join the conversation today. Learn More The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) leads the fight against kidney diseases by educating health professionals, sharing new knowledge, advancing research, and advocating the highest quality care ...

  3. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  4. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  5. American Studies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jopi Nyman

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...

  6. The Formation of American Hegemonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦灵

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, American culture permeates in our life. It seems that all the things in the world are in relation to the United States. This thesis discusses hegemonism in America from three aspects: the definition of hegemony, the origin of American hegemony and the interaction between American values. The purpose of this thesis is to get a comprehensive understanding of American hegemonism,

  7. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  8. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  9. Association of wintering raptors with Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program grasslands in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Brittingham, M.; Grove, G.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation grasslands can provide valuable habitat resource for breeding songbirds, but their value for wintering raptors has received little attention. We hypothesized that increased availability of grassland habitat through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has resulted in an increase or redistribution in numbers of four species of raptors in Pennsylvania since 2001. We tested this by analyzing winter raptor counts from volunteer surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2008, for Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). During that period, numbers of wintering Northern Harriers increased by more than 20% per year. Log-linear Poisson regression models show that all four species increased in the region of Pennsylvania that had the most and longest-established conservation grasslands. At the county scale (N= 67), Bayesian spatial models showed that spatial and temporal population trends of all four species were positively correlated with the amount of conservation grassland. This relationship was particularly strong for Northern Harriers, with numbers predicted to increase by 35.7% per year for each additional 1% of farmland enrolled in CREP. Our results suggest that conservation grasslands are likely the primary cause of the increase in numbers of wintering Northern Harriers in Pennsylvania since 2001. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2010 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  10. Abundance of diurnal raptors in relation to prairie dog colonies: Implications for bird-aircraft strike hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, J.W.; Boal, C.W.; Bashore, T.L.; Zwank, P.J.; Wester, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Some diurnal raptors are frequently observed at prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) colonies. As a result, some military installations have conducted prairie dog control activities to reduce the bird-aircraft strike hazard (BASH) potential of low-flying aircraft. To evaluate the validity of this management strategy, we assessed raptor associations with prairie dog colonies at 2 short-grass prairie study areas: southern Lubbock County, Texas, USA, and Melrose Bombing and Gunnery Range in east-central New Mexico, USA. We quantified diurnal raptors (i.e., Falconiformes) at plots occupied (colony plots) and unoccupied (noncolony plots) by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at both sites throughout 2002. We compared the number of individual birds of a given species at colony and noncolony plots within each study area by season. Ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) and northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) were more abundant at colony plots, whereas Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were more abundant at noncolony plots. Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis) abundance did not differ between the 2 plot types. Our results suggest prairie dog control as a method of reducing BASH potential may be effective at some sites but may be ineffective or even increase the BASH potential at others. Thus, bird-avoidance models assessing the BASH potential should be conducted on a site-specific basis using information on relative and seasonal abundances of individual raptor species and the relative strike risks they pose to aircraft.

  11. Molecular confirmation of Trichomonas gallinae and other parabasalids from Brazil using the 5.8S and ITS-1 rRNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred S; Vilela, Daniel A R; Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Beckstead, Robert B; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Stimmelmayer, Raphaela; Gerhold, Richard W

    2012-11-23

    Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the sinuses of the skull. Histopathologically, marked necrotic and inflammatory lesions were associated with numerous round to oval, pale eosinophilic structures (6-10μm) with basophilic nuclei, consistent with trichomonads. Organisms similar to those described above also were found in the liver of the two green-winged saltators. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of trichomonosis in a striped owl and a toco toucan. Sequence analysis of the Trichomonas spp. internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region and partial 5.8S of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) disclosed significant genetic diversity. Two sequences had 100% identity to Trichomonas gallinae, whereas two sequences had a 99% and 92% identity to a Trichomonas vaginalis-like sequence, respectively. One sequence (green-winged saltator 502-08) had a 100% identity to a newly recognized genus Simplicomonas. PMID:22749289

  12. Seventeenth breeding-bird census. 34. Diked wet meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Boyer, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Several characteristics of plumage, including color and molt schedule, are influenced by hormonal signals, and hence may be modified by endocrine active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g. communication for mating or territorial defense), may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental toxins that can disrupt endocrine function in laboratory animals. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed PCBs (Aroclor 1242) at 6 and 60 ppm, thyroxine at 10 ppm, estradiol at 1.4 ppm, and a thyroid hormone blocker (propylthiouracil: PTU) at 2000 ppm, mixed in their normal diet. Plumage characteristics measured included: the width of the black subterminal band on the tail, brightness (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 - 800 nm (measured on a reflectance spectrophotometer), the pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing, and the timing of onset and the duration of molt. PCB-treated birds did not differ from controls, but birds treated with thyroxine were significantly different from those dosed with estradiol or PTU in the width of subterminal tail bands, reflectance, and duration of molt. Thus, although hormone treatments did modify some of the plumage characteristics we measured, PCB treatments at these exposure levels did not.

  13. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  14. Pan American physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in January, a unique meeting of Latin American physicists took place at Cocoyoc in Mexico. Apart from a strong summer school programme, the last time so many Latin American institutions got together was more than ten years ago. The meeting had about 50 attendees with strong representations from the US, Brazil and Mexico. The meeting was designed with two objectives — to review the substance, current status and future expectations of high energy particle physics, and to survey the state of physics research and education in Latin America and explore the possibilities of increased collaboration with the US, consistent with the idea of a host US Laboratory

  15. American Indian Perspectives of Euro-American Counseling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokken, Jayne M.; Twohey, Denise

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen American Indians participated in 17 counseling interviews with Euro-American counselors. The study analyzed interviews of American Indian participants using Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR). Counselor trustworthiness, which was increased by counselor empathy, genuineness, concern, self-disclosure, and slow pace of problem…

  16. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  17. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  18. American College of Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American College of Radiology JOIN ACR Login About Us Media Center Contact Us Follow us Shopping Cart (0) ACR Catalog Donate My ACR ... Education Center eLearning Exams & Assessments MOC Marketplace AIRP™ Radiology Leadership Institute ® Quality & Safety Accreditation Appropriateness Criteria® Practice ...

  19. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  20. Delusion of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云芳

    2014-01-01

    Martin Eden by Jack London and The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzergald are both stories describing the delusion of American dream. They share much in common for they are discussing the same themes actually. By analyzing the two protagonists’life experience and deaths respectively,we try to explore the profound meaning hidden under the surface.

  1. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  2. American Holidays and Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凌

    2002-01-01

    One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.

  3. Asian Americans in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  4. BYD's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.

  5. American Indian Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  6. American Overseas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.; Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    A compilation of articles examines the similarities and differences of educational administration in schools for American students overseas. The "Introductions and Orientations" section includes: "The Association for the Advancement of International Education" (Lewis A. Grell); "The Office of Overseas Schools of the United States Department of…

  7. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  8. Festival of American Folklife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Theodore P.

    1976-01-01

    The "Festival of American Folklife in 1976 was the largest cultural event of its kind ever held". Describes the Festival programs representing the diverse cultural groups who displayed their traditions and skills at the Mall between the Lincoln and Washington monuments during the summer of 1976. (Author/RK)

  9. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: info@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  10. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  11. American Society of Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...

  12. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  13. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  14. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  15. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  16. 75 FR 39513 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Asian American and Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Asian American and Native American Pacific... Native American Pacific Islander. Priorities: Under this competition, we are particularly interested in... average award award amount of awards amount Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-...

  17. Assessment of Trace Element Concentrations in Birds of Prey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study presents liver concentrations of trace elements of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), common buzzards (Buteo buteo), common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) collected in Korea from 2007 to 2008. Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in common kestrel juveniles were greater than in other juveniles of birds of prey. Adult cinereous vultures had greater Fe, Pb, and Cd concentrations than in those of other species, but common kestrels had greater Mn and Cu concentrations than in those of other birds of prey. Zinc concentrations in Eurasian eagle owl juveniles and adults were greater than in juveniles and adults of other species, respectively. In common kestrels, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cd concentrations were significantly greater in adults than in juveniles. In Eurasian eagle owls, only Pb concentrations were greater in adults than in juveniles. Essential elements, such as Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu concentrations, were within the range of other birds of prey studies. Seventeen individual birds of prey (30 %) were at a level considered Pb exposed (6-30 µg/g dw). This is a greater proportion than reported earlier in herons, egrets, and other birds from Korea. Elevated Pb concentration might be attributed to ingestion of Pb shot and bullet fragments for cinereous vultures and common buzzards, and urbanization for common kestrels. Cadmium concentrations in birds of prey were within the background concentrations (birds. PMID:26662578

  18. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native Spotlight ACA Infographic for American Indians/ ... Program Circle of Life multimedia youth education program American Indian/Alaska Native Profile Great Plains Area Alaska Area ...

  19. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic epistemologies…

  20. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  1. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  2. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  3. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  4. Native American Loyalists and Patriots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsh, Russel Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    Many American Indians experienced the American Revolution differently; Western tribes fearful of American expansionism tended to become loyalists, while east coast tribes already submerged in English society generally saw the rebellion as an opportunity to prove themselves deserving of full political equality via loyalty to their patriot…

  5. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  6. Remarks on American Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Language serves as the tool of communication between people.In any language persons,things and activities that are ta⁃boos should not be talked about or should be mentioned in a roundabout way. it is not only a linguistic phenomenon but also a social phenomenon.The origin of taboo is deeply rooted in the social and cultural background. Today in the increasingly frequent cross-cultural communication, if you do not understand the language taboos, it will hinder the smooth communication. This pa⁃per will talk about American taboos from two aspects.It is designed to help English learners understand American culture and im⁃prove competence of cross-cultural communication.

  7. СТО ЛЕТ ПОЛЕМИКИ О ХАРАКТЕРЕ ПРЕБЫВАНИЯ FALCO PEREGRINUS В СРЕДНЕЙ АЗИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Степанян, Л.

    2007-01-01

    Второе издание. Первая публикация в 1997 г. Степанян Л.С. 1997. Сто лет полемики о характере пребывания Falco peregrinus (Falconidae, Aves) в Средней Азии //Орнитологические исследования в России (к 90-летию профессора А.В.Михеева). М.; Улан-Удэ: 158-169.

  8. Modeling American Marriage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; Neil G. Bennett

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of the three-parameter, Coale-McNeil marriage model and some related hyper-parameterized specifications to data on the first marriage patterns of American women. Because the model is parametric, it can be used to estimate the parameters of the marriage process, free of censoring bias, for cohorts that have yet to complete their first marriage experience. Empirical evidence from three surveys is reported on the ability of the model to replicate and proje...

  9. American Scholars Visited SCUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuChengfa

    2004-01-01

    On October 18, South-Central University for Nationalities (SCUN)welcomed an American academic delegation headed by Professor David Van Buren, vice chancellor of Platteville Campus of University of Wisconsin(UW-P). At the reception ceremony,Professor Li Buhai, Party Chairman of SCUN, and Professor Chen Dayun,president of the university made a brief introduction to the school, and then both parties reached a preliminary agreement on the cooperative education.

  10. Quilting: An American Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    A quilt can warm a bed, decorate a wall, comfort a child in her crib or a soldier at war. A quilt also can tell a story, commemorate an event, honor the dead, unite a community, and reflect a culture. This article is an introduction to the American craft of quilting. The article describes what quilting is and the different types of quilts. It also…

  11. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  12. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  13. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  14. Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch-El Alaoui, Lalla Khadija

    2005-01-01

    Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations, explores the US mainstream discourse on the Arabs in the 1990s in different cultural texts: academic, popular and media, including Hollywood. The project investigates how these representational practices participate in the reconfiguration of American public opinion vis-à-vis the Arabs. It also focuses on the ways in which the various discourses that produce or even invent the "Other" are undeniably li...

  15. ГНЕЗДОВАНИЕ САПСАНА FALCO PEREGRINUS В БАССЕЙНЕ БОЛЬШОЙ РОГОВОЙ (ЮГ БОЛЬШЕЗЕМЕЛЬСКОЙ ТУНДРЫ)

    OpenAIRE

    Воронин, Рудислав

    2013-01-01

    Второе издание. Первая публикация: Воронин Р.Н. 1988. Гнездование сапсана (Falco peregrinus) в бассейне р. Большая Роговая (юг Большеземельской тундры) // Экология и поведение птиц. М.: 67-70.

  16. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  17. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  18. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  19. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  20. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.

    1999-03-01

    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  1. American foundations : roles and contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut K. Anheier; Hammack, David

    2010-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  2. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  3. American College of Chest Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Chest Physicians and Sunovion announce strategic initiative focused on the importance of drug delivery in the management of COPD Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Sunovion) and the ...

  4. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

  5. I Am an American! The Thrills of American Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2013-01-01

    The allure of American citizenship and the function of patriotism among naturalized foreigners bring into focus questions of American national identity and the contested belief in the “whole of America.” European immigrant perspectives on the promise of the Declaration of Independence, naturalizatio

  6. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  7. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  8. Shaping the American School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Fakhri, Muhammad A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that historically, the American schools have been shaped by a myriad of social, political and economic forces. The transformation of the schools from the first, but sectarian schools of New England in 1635 to the secular alternative schools of today has reflected the desire of Americans to provide equal educational opportunities."…

  9. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  10. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  11. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  12. Native American College Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosholder, Richard; Goslin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Native American students are the most likely racial/ethnic group tracked in post-secondary American education to be affected by poverty and limited access to educational opportunities. In addition, they are the most likely to be required to take remedial course work and are the least likely to graduate from college. A review of the literature was…

  13. American Values through Russian Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepina, Olga; Rodriguez, Julio

    This paper discusses impressions held by Moscow State University (Russia) students about American values. In class discussions and written assignments, students were asked to comment on thirteen values, giving their perceptions of American attitudes in each case. The values included: personal control over the environment; change; time and its…

  14. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  15. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephaney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  16. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  17. Reconceptualizing Retirement for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined subsample of nonworking older Black Americans (N=295) from the National Survey of Black Americans sample. Found four factors contributed significantly to respondents' unretired-retired status: indistinct line between lifetime and old age work patterns, view that occasional work is necessary, income from other than private pensions, and…

  18. Making American Literatures: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a summer institute that examined the shifting shape of American Literature, and teaching American Literature. Includes ways in which students help "make" literature with their own writing. Discusses the contributions of new technologies, pairing unlikely combinations of texts, and including middle school teachers who teach individual…

  19. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  20. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  1. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  2. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...

  3. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and ... share is alcohol problems and other health disparities. Native American populations experience significant health issues compared with the ...

  5. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  6. American Urban Star Fest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, John

    2003-12-01

    Over the last couple of decades New York City implemented, and continues to carry out, several schemes of eradicating luminous graffiti. One result has been the gradual recovery of the natural night sky. By 1994 the normal clear sky transparency over Manhattan deepened to fourth magnitude and has been slowly creeping deeper, until in 2002 it is at magnitude 4 to 4.5. In the spring of 1995, during some lazing on a Manhattan rooftop under a sky full of stars, several New York astronomers hatched the idea of letting the whole people celebrate the renewed starry sky. In due course they, through the Amateur Astronomers Association, engaged the New York City Parks Department and the Urban Park Rangers in an evening of quiet picnicking to enjoy the stars in their natural sky. Thus the Urban Star Fest was born. The event thrilled about 3,000 visitors in Central Park's Sheep Meadow on Saturday 30 September 1995. This year's Fest, the eighth in the series demonstrated the City's upper skyline of stars on Saturday 5 October 2002 to about 2,200 enthused visitors. Although the Fest is always noted as cancelable for inclement weather, so far, it has convened every year, with attendance ranging from 4,000 down to a mere 1,000, this latter being under the smoke plume of the World Trade Center in 2001. Despite this swing in attendance, the American Urban Star Fest is America's largest regularly scheduled public astronomy event. Of course, special occasions, like comets or eclipses, can and do attract far larger interest both in the city and elsewhere. The presentation shows the setup and program of the American Urban Star Fest, to illustrate how the general public can actively become aware of the night sky and see for themselves the result of their very own efforts at removing light pollution--and note where improvement is yet to come.

  7. Bilingualism (Ancestral Language Maintenance) among Native American, Vietnamese American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharry, Cheryl

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 21 Hispanic, 22 Native American, and 10 Vietnamese American college students found that adoption or maintenance of ancestral language was related to attitudes toward ancestral language, beliefs about parental attitudes, and integrative motivation (toward family and ancestral ethnic group). There were significant differences by gender…

  8. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  9. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  10. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  11. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  12. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  13. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  14. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  15. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  16. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  17. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  18. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... University Listings FEPAC Accredited Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What ... Corner Forensic Sciences Foundation American Society of Forensic Odontology Research Grants Academy Standards Board (ASB) Account Portal ...

  19. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  20. Medical Research for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... information that is based on the very best medical research conducted by and for the National Institutes of ...

  1. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Newsroom | Contact Us The American Institute of Biological Sciences is the national scientific organization that promotes the ... Education Research AIBS Education is dedicated to improving biological science literacy at all levels of formal and informal ...

  2. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  3. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  4. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Meeting — New Orleans, Louisiana 2017 Discover More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More So You Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic ...

  5. Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. According to the ... are: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, obesity, suicide, and liver disease. Other Health Concerns: Hispanics ...

  6. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  7. American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... knowledge of the universe. Stop slider Explore the museum Find out about our exhibitions, events, research, and ... Center LEARN MORE Page footer Follow @amnh American Museum of Natural History Central Park West at 79th ...

  8. American Society of Hand Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic you’d like to present? Share your knowledge by presenting a webinar Learn More Join ASHT ... ago Follow Us Who we are The American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) is a professional organization ...

  9. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  10. Individualistic Heroism in American Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽茜

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the features of heroes and individualistic heroism in different kinds of American films. The former examines the commons of heroes through illustration. The latter categories the typical types of American films and explores individualistic heroism in them. This article shows that individualistic heroism is taken into people's heart and influence their mindsets, and points out that America advertises its value through films to affect the whole world.

  11. Purchasing The American Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Afalling giant is still huge There are reports that American Big Three are going to shut down 59 plants in this January to hold more cash for a supporting hand from the government. From the viewpoint of accountant practice and investment bank,it is the best time for local car producers to go abroad."Trapped American auto industry is much devalued and it is the best time for local producers

  12. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  13. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  14. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  15. Immigration reform, American style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status. PMID:12159575

  16. The Violence Factors in American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2015-01-01

    Violence symbolized the dark side of America culture. The theme of this article is to explore the causes of the violence factors in American culture. American violence exists as a result of a complex network of elements from American history, American value, various social factors such as economic inequality, racial discrimination, mass media, wide spread of guns as well as drug abuse. Besides, the governmental policy plays an essential role in American violence to some extent.

  17. 意大利西西里地区地中海隼(Falco biarmicus feldeggii Schlegel)雏鸟与被捕食者体内的有机氯杀虫剂和多氯联苯化合物残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Movalli; Mario Lo Valvo; M. Gloria Pereira; Daniel Osborn; 梁虹(译)

    2008-01-01

    本文是意大利西西里地区濒危物种地中海隼(Falco biarmicus feldeggii Schlegel)污染物危险因素评估研究之一,着重探讨了有机氯(OC)杀虫剂和多氯联苯(PCBS)对濒危地中海隼种群的污染风险。选取西西里北部和中部的17个地中海隼巢址,在2005年测定了地中海隼雏鸟(6个巢址中的15只雏鸟)血液与其2种主要猎物喜鹊(Picapica)(6个地中海隼巢址的36个样本)和原鸽(Columba livia)(2个地中海隼巢址上的10个样本)体内是否含有OC杀虫剂和PCB类化合物残留。除同源物PCB153((21.8ng/g湿重)外,地中海隼雏鸟血液中的OC和PCB残留低于检出限,这表明在本研究地区这些污染物对地中海隼雏鸟无显著危害。喜鹊和原鸽几乎不受OC杀虫剂的污染,尽管实验结果表明喜鹊体内的污染物水平显著高于原鸽。在大约8%的喜鹊样本中DDE和HEOD值有异常,其中一个喜鹊样本显示新近受到DDT的污染,这可能说明一些地中海隼受到局部OC杀虫剂的污染。本研究工作还有待进一步开展。

  18. THE AMERICAN CULTURE WARS AND AMERICAN LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJingqiong

    2004-01-01

    The American Culture Wars have had a great impact on gender and racial relations in the US and have triggered the transformation of its literary canon. American literature textbooks in China. however, are not reaping the fruits of the US cultural debates, a conclusion based on a survey of eight popular textbooks recently published by prestigious publishing houses.Given the significance of the US sociopolitical base in shaping the canon and the lecturers' dependence on the textbooks, they need immediate and drastic improvement. The paper is rounded off with some cues on what to improve.

  19. 美国话语与美国文化%American Words and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏

    2003-01-01

    Language is a key component part of culture. It reflects culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words reflect American culture, including their custom, their view of value, their character traits. Being a melting pot, American words melt a lot of loanwords. The exaggerated use of words shows Americans are self-confidence. They also use beautified words to show their wish to life, to future. They can use common words, usually slang to express special ideas. By doing so, they create something new and original. Learning American English, especially studying American words, we can see some typical traits of American culture.

  20. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  1. Dove Stewed with American Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; MIN

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:Three doves, 10g American ginseng, 5g salt, 10g cookingwine, 30g scallion and ginger, 3g MSG, 2g white pepperpowder, 5g sesame oil arid 700g broth.Method:1. Cook the doves in boiling water for a short while, softenthe American ginseng in lukewarm water, then cut it intopieces;, mince the scallion and ginger.2. Put the doves into a clay pot, add broth, sliced Americanginseng and flavorings. Bring to the boil, then reduce heatand stew gently until the doves are tender. Remove fromheat and place on a flat plate. Sprinkle the sesame oil andserve

  2. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  3. An Un-American Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Flor Christine

    2014-01-01

    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  4. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  5. Awakening Minorities: American Indians, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John R.; And Others

    As noted in the Preface, social scientists are entering a period of shared realization that the United States is in a crucial period of transition. "Trans-action" magazine, a pioneer in social programs for changing the society, has dedicated itself for 7 years to the task of reporting the strains and conflicts within the American system and has…

  6. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  7. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  8. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  9. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  11. American Overseas Research Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Overseas Research Centers Program provides grants to overseas research centers that are consortia of U.S. institutions of higher education to enable the centers to promote postgraduate research, exchanges, and area studies. Eligible applicants are those consortia of U.S. institutions of higher education centers that: (1) Receive more…

  12. The Politics of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Turning his distinctive analytical lens to the politics of American education, the author looks at contemporary educational policy issues from theoretical, practical, and historical perspectives. This comprehensive overview documents and explains who influences educational policy and how, bringing to life the realities of schooling in the 21st…

  13. The Remaking of American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Charles E.

    This paper discusses the nature of the crises in the college classroom. An identity crisis affects virtually all Americans in one way or another, but especially the college student. This crisis reflects not only an increasing awareness of the social ills affecting society, but also a growing concern about the quality of life in an affluent…

  14. Petroleum market under american peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of Usa in petroleum import is now about 50%. The question is to know if american government wants to continue this policy which privileges low prices. Low prices do not allow to increase economic development in Arab countries. An other point is the situation of Middle East able to see other conflicts and in this case are Usa able to avoid them

  15. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  16. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  17. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  18. American Folk Legend: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Wayland D., Ed.

    The proceedings of the UCLA Conference on American folk legend are the subject of these 14 papers. Areas of discussion include matters of definition, classification, structure and style, historical perspective, socio-psychological values, certain aspects of saints' legends in the Pennsylvania-German country, comparison of legendary and balladic…

  19. American College of Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Medicine® and World Congress on the Basic Science of Exercise and the Brain Dates: 30 May – 03 Jun, 2017 Denver, Colorado » More Events This short video dramatically conveys the purpose and vision of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and features the essence, role and ...

  20. The Evil that Americans Did

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John David

    2007-01-01

    Slavery's unequivocal evil lies at the heart of debates over apologizing for America's "peculiar institution" and awarding reparations. In The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform, a provocative collection of original essays, the editors Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, along with 23 contributors, admonish…

  1. Ideas That Shaped American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1981-01-01

    Briefly discusses 10 books, or series of books, that represent major turning points in American education in the last 75 years. The authors include William H. McGuffey, Abraham Flexner, Lewis M. Terman, John Dewey, George S. Counts, Jerome S. Bruner, James S. Coleman, Michael B. Katz, and B. F. Skinner. (IRT)

  2. Do American Indian Mascots = American Indian People? Examining Implicit Bias towards American Indian People and American Indian Mascots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, John; Burke, Amanda; Burkley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Empirical examinations of American Indian (AI) mascots have only recently entered into the discourse of mainstream psychology. The present studies examined implicit attitudes of non-AI people towards AI mascots and the extent to which they are related to attitudes towards AI people. Significant concordance was observed between negative bias toward…

  3. American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legal Conflict of Interest Mobile App Privacy Policy Privacy Policy Social Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use American Society ... Legal Conflict of Interest Mobile App Privacy Policy Privacy Policy Social Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use /about-asco/ ...

  4. Improvisation in Latin American Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behague, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    Improvisation implies a relative freedom to choose elements within stylistic norms of rules proper to a given culture. Improvisatory processes for music from several cultures are described. These cultures are: Indian, Spanish, African, and Afro-Cuban (rumba). A few resources focusing on improvisation in Latin American music are presented. (KC)

  5. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  6. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  7. Two Native Americans' Journey Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussia, Leah L.; Krom, Darla R.

    1998-01-01

    Recounts two personal experiences of graduate school work on Indian Reservations. For one student, it was a returning home to the culture she was familiar with but for the other, who only learned about her Native American heritage in high school, it was an awakening. Their experiences led them to consider the identity problems they observed among…

  8. The American Eider in Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American eider, Maine's only breeding sea duck, is known to have nested on 215 coastal islands of the State in 1976. In Maine, eiders seem to prefer to nest on...

  9. Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    As many linguists continue to work with and analyze First Nations/Native American languages, the consensus opinion usually direly predicts the loss of daily use for almost all of the extant Indigenous languages. Tremendous efforts are being expended for renewing, revitalizing, and restoring these languages to everyday use. The model upon which…

  10. The New American Home 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    The New American Home® is built annually as a showcase home for the International Builders’ Show® to demonstrate innovative technologies, construction techniques, products, and design trends for the homebuilding industry to use in any new or remodeled home.

  11. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  12. Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160985.html Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans Rates accelerate especially ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study finds widespread hearing loss among elderly Americans, with an especially high rate ...

  13. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  14. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  15. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays ...

  16. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  17. American Elementary School Children's Attitudes about Immigrants, Immigration, and Being an American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined 5 to 11-year-old European American children's (N = 90) attitudes regarding immigrants, immigration policy, and what it means to be an American. The majority of children in the sample (from a predominantly European American community) held strong American identities and had distinct ideas about what it means to be an…

  18. Anglo-American Jurisprudence and the Native American Tribal Quest for Religious Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that Native American tribes encounter major legal problems in the practice of traditional religions due to differences between Native and Anglo American worldviews. Examines the ideology of civilization underlying values in American jurisprudence, foundations of American Indian law, and relevant constitutional law. Contains over 200…

  19. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  20. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  1. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  2. Russians and Americans Gather to Talk Psychobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)

  3. China Can't Go American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Lundquist

    2012-01-01

    Behold the Americanization of China:fast food,plentiful portions,obesity and SUVs that eat up a whole hutong's pathway.Across several dimensions of society,the Middle Kingdom is hurtling toward the American standard-the good life promised to Chinese people by American films and television series.

  4. Greek Americanism, "New Greece," and Greek Orthodoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Lonnie

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Greek Americanism is neither based upon the wholesale assimilation of American culture nor the futile copying of Greek culture. Instead, an amalgamation of both cultures, a blending together of Greek and American cultures in a manner that produces a unique culture all its own is presented. (GR)

  5. 10 CFR 440.11 - Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Native Americans. 440.11 Section 440.11 Energy DEPARTMENT... involved as the population of all low-income Native Americans for whom a determination under paragraph (a... Americans. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the Support Office Director may...

  6. American Psychology "Is" Becoming More International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gregory D.; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors argue that while Arnett's assessment was poignant, and his call for a more inclusive, international, and cross-cultural representation in American psychology…

  7. Storytelling: The Heart of American Indian Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Recently some writers and scholars have complained that the academy, particularly American Indian Studies (AIS) programs, gives too much attention to American Indian literature while ignoring scholarly works that focus on the pressing needs of American Indian communities in the areas of economic development, social justice, and sovereignty, among…

  8. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  9. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  10. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl. PMID:27243150

  11. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  12. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans.

  13. American Culture Reflected In Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭连

    2008-01-01

    Friends creates a world with New York style which is the real reflection of living Stare of American youngling,and pays a tribute to toleration,faich and friendship as well as express their confusion about lives.It mirrors the reality of American society on both niceness and frightfulness,which worthstudying and using for reference.%情景喜剧讲叙的6名邻里男女的生活故事是美国年轻人现实生活的真实写照,折射出年轻人对人生价值观、世界观的迷惑与思考,真实反映出当代美国社会文化中的闪光点和阴暗面,具有强大的社会震撼力,值得研究和借鉴.

  14. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  15. American Summer and Autumn Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Just as we have autumn celebrations in China like the Mid-Autumn Festival and the National Day Golden Week holiday, America also has several autumn festivals. As the summer begins, Americans celebrate Memorial Day as a national holiday the last Monday of May to honor all of the country's war dead. As a child, my parents would drive to southern Indiana where my mother would put many bouquets of red, white,

  16. The Birth of American Football

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国清

    2002-01-01

    A hundred years ago, the game we now call football did not exist (存在). American football started during a game between two colleges. The teams had gotten together to play what called “football”, but each team played by different rules. One team played what we now call soccer.The other played what we now call rugby (橄榄球).

  17. Latin American and Comparative Literature

    OpenAIRE

    González Echevarría, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In his paper, "Latin American and Comparative Literature," Roberto González Echevarría asks whether comparative literature, a literary discipline dedicated to the proposition that linguistic boundaries must be transcended, can overcome the "cultural arrogance" of the "Eurocentrism" that he believes pervades it currently. González Echevarría argues that if it is to endure, comparative literature will have to undergo "a truly pitiless redefinition," one that effectively displaces "the hegemonic...

  18. Retrobulbar rhabdomyosarcoma in a neotropical peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt Coello, Michelle J; Schaeffer, Lee S

    2014-01-01

    A mild swelling of the left periorbital was detected on a routine physical exam of a healthy captive adult peregrine falcon. Despite treatment, the swelling did not subside and within twenty-five days was causing significant exophthalmia and medial deviation of the left globe. A retrobulbar fusiform cell sarcoma was diagnosed with histopathology, then light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of a rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:23738770

  19. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  20. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  1. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  2. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays as the objects for laughs; gays revealing their sexual identities; sexual scenes of gays; masculine gay men; and violence in gay life. They appear in genres like drama, comedy, romance, detective, western, and horror/mystery with two images of gay people shown in American gay movies; they are the portrait of gays as a minority and the pessimism. However, it also shows that some American gay films picture good gay life, happy gay couples, gay marriage, etc.

  3. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  4. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  5. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  6. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  8. American Studies Center:An Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; HONG

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year 2012 was remarkable in the history of American Studies at Sichuan University.First,it marked the 28thAnniversary of the founding of the American Studies Center,which had its official debut in May,1984,coinciding with the establishment of the US Consulate General in Chengdu.U.S.Vice President George Bush was present at the Inauguration Ceremony of the American Studies Center,and

  9. Foucault's Reading in American Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆香花

    2011-01-01

    Peter Carey is a prominent novelist in Australia, who has won two Booker Prizes. American Dreams is one of the successful short stories, telling an anecdote in Australian small town: Mr. Gleason, the protagonist, secretly constructs an artful model of the town which later becomes a tourist attraction for Americans. The townsfolk's life and attitudes towards Americans before and after the event have great changes.

  10. Study on Chinese and American Compliments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 刘宝昌

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Americans have different cultural background. They value different principles in expressing compliments and respond to them. Chinese tend to be self-denial to show modesty. Americans have a tendency of self-praising to demonstrate their confidence. Based on Leech's politeness principle, the paper analyzes typical instances. In conclusion, as language learner, we should aware it and prepare to be bicultural instead of bilingual. As a Chinese, we should keep our own culture identity instead of Americanized.

  11. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  12. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...

  13. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  14. The Importance of American High School Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖钰敏

    2015-01-01

    Sports is an integral part of the American high school education that is very much related to the American culture.Recently there have been some voice suspecting the role of sports in high school due to its supposedly negative effect on teacher-coaches’teaching quality and the tremendous cost to operate sports teams within the school.This article will improve the importance of American high school sports.

  15. The Importance of American High School Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖钰敏

    2015-01-01

    Sports is an integral part of the American high school education that is very much related to the American culture.Recently there have been some voice suspecting the role of sports in high school due to its supposedly negative effect on teacher-coaches' teaching quality and the tremendous cost to operate sports teams within the school.This article will improve the importance of American high school sports.

  16. New Directions in (Transnational) American Literature Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Buell, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Never has there been a better moment for foreign scholars outside the English-speaking world to engage in American literature studies. American literature studies is increasingly studied worldwide and the contributions of foreign-born and foreign-based Americanists are becoming increasingly influential. This lecture will attempt to explain this turn of events, with special emphasis on analysis of selected newer transnational and comparative approaches to American literature studies. Backgroun...

  17. The Development and Significance of American Urbanization%The Development and Significance of American Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃丹

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with the European urbanization, which stretches back roughly 5500 years, the American transformation from village to city was achieved in an amazingly short space of time. From the eighteenth century on, Americans experienced the painful yet

  18. Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanfer Emin Tunc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim

  19. A Brief Analysis to Modern American Slang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖煜晨; 李洋

    2014-01-01

    Modern American slang has a unique display of feelings and ideas and a long history. It has become a language used widely in every field of work, and it continues to appear in newspapers, TVs, reports, and even election speeches. Modern American slang has gained importance over the years, During its development process, American slang has formed its own unique characteristics: it is humorous, vivid, easy to express feelings, and updates fast. Although scholars’ opinions toward slang have a wide discrepancy, it is undeniable that the emergence and development of modern American slang has conformed to the needs of the society and times.

  20. MISCONCEPTIONS OF DEPRESSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib eSohail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  1. It's All About Relationships: African-American and European-American Women's Hotel Management Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, Angela L.

    1996-01-01

    Among the 44000-plus general managers employed in United States' hotels in 1993, there were only 100 women, 15 African-Americans, and three African-American women. Additionally, less than 0.5 percent of corporate hospitality managers were women. Given this relative underrepresentation of European-American women and African-Americans, combined with the increasing diversity of hotel clientele and service p...

  2. American Indians, American Imperialism, and Defying Empire at Home and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, American Indians defended their communities by challenging the racial and moral assumptions that buttressed Euro-American claims of superiority. Native writers understood how the rhetoric of civilization and progress cast American Indians as backward, helping to justify the federal government's violation of tribal sovereignty, the division of tribal lands, and the suppression of Native cultures. American Indians were fully cognizant of the deleterious con...

  3. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  4. Extending Research on the Consequences of Parenting Style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…

  5. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  6. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  7. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  8. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Cuban-American and Anglo-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos M.; Pader, Olga F.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperative behavior of 144 children in three groups--Cuban-Americans in either private or public schools and Anglo-Americans--decreased when task instructions emphasized individual rewards. Only the Anglo-American children, who maintained a significant level of competitiveness throughout, significantly increased their competitive behavior in…

  9. Eating Disorders of White American, Racial and Ethnic Minority American, and International Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

    1993-01-01

    Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)

  10. A Psychometric Revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans Using the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…

  11. Design and Development of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Maren M.; Yang, Peggy H.; Wong, Eunice C.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces development of a scale that can be used along with the Asian Values Scale, to assess adherence to Asian cultural values. Used in combination these scales can measure Asian American acculturation to European American values. They make it possible to obtain a value and behavior assessment of Asian American acculturation. (JDM)

  12. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  13. Why American civilization? American literature and academic exchange in occupied Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Blaustein

    2012-01-01

    After 1945, many American writers and intellectuals devoted themselves to European reconstruction, tying American literature and culture to an agenda of reeducation and democratization. At the nexus of these efforts was American Studies, then a new and ideologically diffuse movement of writers, publ

  14. American shad in the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  15. Influence of Hip Pop on American Teens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕苹

    2006-01-01

    Hip pop has become the mainstream music in American right now, not only because of its multi-musical style but also because of the lyrics has a historic background. Its popularity has great impact on American teens ,especially on the fashion and the lifestyle.

  16. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  17. 75 FR 23245 - American Lobster Fishery Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-AT31 American Lobster Fishery Management AGENCY... impact statement (DEIS) that identifies several proposed management actions and alternatives for the American lobster fishery in Federal waters. The management actions are based on recommendations to NMFS...

  18. Influence of behaviorism to American descriptive linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the behaviorism on American descriptive linguistics through the analysis of the tenets of behaviorism and the Bloomfield’s stimulus-response theory and tries to give an fair comment on the influence of the behaviorism on American descriptive linguistics.

  19. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  20. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy fo

  1. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision & Mission Board of Directors Fellows What is Occupational Health Nursing Public/Legislative Affairs AAOHN Alliances AAOHN Affiliates AAOHN ... Total Worker Health ® Agenda The American Association of Occupational ... nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission ...

  2. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  3. 33 CFR 117.141 - American River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false American River. 117.141 Section 117.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.141 American River. The draw of...

  4. A Brief Introduction of American Political Cultrue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓杰

    2009-01-01

    @@ The American Constitution in 1787 After the repeated compromise, the work of drawing up a constitution was completed on September 17,1787, a day which has been designated as Constitution Day of America. The appearance of constitution was a great event in American history. It established the Federal System which was the first in the world at that time.

  5. How Race Counts for Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.

    This report assesses racial differences among Hispanic Americans. Since 1970, the U.S. Census has asked all Americans to identify their race and, separately, whether they are Hispanic. This means Hispanics can be of any race. Data come from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Censuses and from pre-tabulated summary files from Census 2000. This report…

  6. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  7. Doom of American Dream in Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛靓

    2012-01-01

    This thesis holds that the American Dreamin 1920s is impossible to attain.Gatsby's whole life can illustrate this point and make it clear that American Dream is fragile confronting with the cruel reality and the idea that money can bring people everything,which includes social status,happiness and pure love,is inordinately immature and innocent.

  8. Native American Children in Michigan. [Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Native American Children in Michigan," provides a historical context for the tenuous relationship between Michigan's 12 federally recognized tribes and the state government, paying particular attention to the erosion of Native American education programs and the disproportionate number of Native children who find themselves in both the child…

  9. Remembering Tocqueville: Reflections on the American Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Nannerl O.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the 2000 Robert H. Atwell Distinguished Lecture given at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Council on Education in Chicago (Illinois), which focuses on the ideas of Alexis de Tocqueville to find lessons for the current condition of higher education. These include American egalitarianism, homogeneity, individualism, and pragmatism.…

  10. American Indian Religion: Past, Present, Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Omer C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the basic concept of American Indian religion after briefly comparing fundamental religious concepts of several civilizations. Discusses the historical and current roles of medicine men, the belief in supernatural forces, the effect of missionary zeal on American Indian religions, and the appearance of Christian elements in traditional…

  11. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  12. Environmental History in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  13. American Indian Victims of Campus Ethnoviolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    A study examined ethnoviolence against American Indian students at Northern Arizona University. Surveys completed by 92 American Indian students indicated that while violent assaults were rare, daily harassment and verbal assaults were relatively common. Four strategies are suggested to create a more safe and welcoming college environment for…

  14. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  15. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  16. View Chinese & American Culture by VOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓芸

    2010-01-01

    The value orientation method provides a way to understand core culture differences well.Chinese culture and American culture are usually regarded as the representation of the'eastrn and western culture respectively.This paper tries to view Chinese and American Culture by Value Orientations Method to view these two cultures in details.

  17. Archipelagic American Studies and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Russell Roberts

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, as part of the “American Studies: Caribbean Edition” Special Forum, brings specific focus to the ways in which the Caribbean and the field of Caribbean Studies insists upon a version of American Studies that sheds its post-exceptionalist anti-insularity and, in the process, emerges as transregional and archipelagic.

  18. Asian Pacific American Women's Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Canta

    This paper discusses the adjustment and acculturation problems of Asian Pacific American women and how these problems relate to their health concerns. Information presented in the article is based on the observations of health service providers to the Asian community. The paper suggests that the diversity of Asian Americans (age, ethnic group, and…

  19. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sucheta

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  20. Roots of Contemporary Native American Activism. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy R.

    1996-01-01

    Traces the foundations and development of Native American activism, 1950s-90s. Discusses relocation of reservation American Indians to urban areas in the 1950s without promised aid or vocational training, changing aspirations of Indian veterans and college students, lessons of the civil rights movement, occupations of Alcatraz Island and Wounded…

  1. African Literature and the American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Richard

    While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…

  2. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  3. Guns as a Symbol of American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous gun violence, Americans' crazy love for guns has always been attacked home and abroad. Americans' passion for guns derives from individualism through the development of American history. They consider guns as a means to guarantee independence and freedom, and therefore as a symbol of American individualism.

  4. Two Native American Near-Death Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses two tales of near-death experiences from the Chippewas in Michigan during the 1820s with reference to local origin, influence of White American culture, and universality. One tale has autoscopic, specifically Native American elements while the other contains elements of the transcendental type. (Author/NRB)

  5. MADE IN CHINA:AMERICAN DREAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Made in China." It's a little tag, which, discovered within an otherwise sharp pair of shoes or leather jacket, not so long ago might have prompted sneering in America. "American." It's a powerful word with an aura further strengthened when invisibly hyphenated to "Dream." Yet as homegrown American companies like Home

  6. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  7. Congressional Social Darwinism and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)

  8. First Person Past: American Autobiographies, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic......American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic...

  9. Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    High school and college teachers interested in offering units or courses on Native American literature have often had to carve out new teaching strategies because ready resources and guides are scarce. In "Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide," Bruce A. Goebel offers innovative and practical suggestions about how to introduce…

  10. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田露

    2011-01-01

    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  11. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  12. Whitney and Bloomfield on American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Julie Tetel

    An examination of the place of American English in the research of William Dwight Whitney and Leonard Bloomfield focuses on the divergence of their approaches to language. A review of their works looks at the way in which Whitney's interest in American English complemented his other strong interests (the social and political setting for language…

  13. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  14. Asian Americans and Creative Music Legacies

    OpenAIRE

    Dessen, MJ

    2006-01-01

    This essay is an introduction to what has been called the Asian American Creative Music Movement, focusing especially on musicians based in the San Francisco Bay area. It examines the history of those musicians' networks and situates their work as both musicians and activists in relation to African American creative music legacies.

  15. The end of the American challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    PELKMANS, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    “Fifteen years hence not Europe will be the third industrial power in the world, after the United States and the USSR, but American industry in Europe” Servan-Schreiber wrote 1967 in his “The American Challenge”. Now those fifteen years are past. What has happened really?

  16. 77 FR 26651 - Older Americans Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ..., BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the... Americans Month, ``Never Too Old to Play,'' celebrates the accomplishments of older Americans and encourages... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-11021 Filed 5-3-12; 2:00 pm]...

  17. The American Turners: their past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette R. Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States has been a nation of immigrants, which is reflected by its multicultural society. Different immigrant groups helped shape the American society through their cultures and traditions. One group was the Germans; they represented a unique and forceful current in the stream of immigration to the United States. In their cultural luggage the German immigrant brought their physical culture to North America, Turnen which was organised in clubs or so-called Turnvereine. The American turner movement has its origin in the mid 19th century, and it is still organised on a national level, since the 1930s under the name American Turners. This article summarises the history of the German-American turner movement until the 1990s, and will also relate to various stages of Americanization within this movement.

  18. Asian American Evangelicals in Multiracial Church Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Garces-Foley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, evangelical efforts to create multiracial churches (MRCs have grown exponentially. This article analyzes the experiences of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs. Through interviews we explore how Asian American evangelicals came to be involved in MRC-ministry and how they approach issues of racial diversity in this context. We compare the racial attitudes of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs with those of White and Black evangelicals delineated in Emerson and Smith’s Divide by Faith. Rather than conform to the colorblind approach of many White evangelicals, the majority of our respondents utilize structural explanations for social inequality and promote a colorconscious approach to diversity. We conclude that Asian American evangelicals utilize a unique framework for MRC-ministry, what we call a ‘racialized multiculturalism,’ that has much to offer American evangelicalism.

  19. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  20. Section III: Examining American Values: Value Choices Since Revolutionary Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American values are followed by a values clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)

  1. 75 FR 68026 - Native American CDFI Assistance (NACA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Native American CDFI Assistance (NACA) Program Funding... the Native American CDFI Assistance (NACA) Program. Announcement Type: Announcement of funding... direct at least 50 percent of their activities toward serving Native American, Alaska Native,...

  2. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, ... 54. 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per ...

  3. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  4. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  5. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  6. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-07-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  7. An American hibakusha in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Kenneth E

    2011-01-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami originating off the east coast of Japan triggered the explosive release of radioactive isotopes from one of four nuclear power plants in the affected area. This event has been compared with the 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the intervening era of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The credibility of any comparison depends on the source, for which reason various specialists were invited to address an audience of media, healthcare, and disaster response professionals on July 18, 2011 in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture. This article is based on a presentation given July 18, and interprets the Fukushima nuclear crisis from the perspective of an American doctor who grew up downwind of an atomic bomb test site, and who now works at Fukushima Medical University. PMID:22353658

  8. More on South American geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    As an addendum to J. Urrutia Fucugauchi's (Eos, 63, June 8, 1982, p. 529) excellent analysis of why things go wrong in Latin American geophysics, I submit that funds in whatever form are not the only answer. In Mexico over the past decade there has been a reasonable availability of funds, yet no dramatic increase in the quality or quantity of geophysical research was detected. Graduate scholarships have even gone begging for applicants in the earth sciences!Leadership is the big problem. National plans and forecasts for science and technology continue to ignore this central fact. They want to generate hundreds, nay thousands, of middle-level scientists while providing no incentive for excellence. As others have found out long before us, this approach is doomed from the start.

  9. How to Rescue American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  10. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  11. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  12. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? The Variable Bases for African American, Asian American, and European American Adolescents' Selection of Similar Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2000-01-01

    Examined variability in adolescent-friend similarity in African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Found greatest similarity for substance use, modest for academic orientation, and low for ethnic identity. Found that compared with other groups, African Americans chose friends who were less similar in academic orientation…

  13. Take only pictures, leave only...fear? The effects of photography on the West Indian anole Anolis cristatellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian HUANG, Katie LUBARSKY, Tiffany TENG, Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism encourages an environmentally friendly exploration of the world's natural habitats. Tourists often engage in wildlife photography, an activity that is generally not considered disturbing to animals. We investigated the effects of camera-related stimuli to determine whether shutter noise and/or flash affected the immediate behavior of female crested anoles Anolis cristaellus. Anoles decreased their display rate following stimuli that included shutter noises, but did not change their behavior in response to flash or silence treatments. To determine the relative importance of this response, we observed anole behavior following playbacks of calls from kestrels Falco sparverius, a predator, and bananaquits Coereba flaveola, a non-predator. Anoles decreased display rates following kestrel calls when compared to their response to bananaquit calls. Furthermore, anoles spent a greater proportion of time displaying following bananaquit calls compared to both kestrel calls and silence. The magnitude of response to shutter noises was about the same as that to predator calls. This demonstrates that photography may not be as benign as commonly believed, and we should consider whether restrictions on camera noises should be implemented to reduce animal disturbance [Current Zoology 57 (1: 77–82, 2011].

  14. Take only pictures, leave only...fear? The effects of photography on the West Indian anole Anolis cristatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian HUANG; Katie LUBARSKY; Tiffany TENG; Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism encourages an environmentally friendly exploration of the world's natural habitats. Tourists often engage in wildlife photography, an activity that is generally not considered disturbing to animals. We investigated the effects of camera-related stimuli to determine whether shutter noise and/or flash affected the immediate behavior of female crested anoles Anolis cristaellus. Anoles decreased their display rate following stimuli that included shutter noises, but did not change their behavior in response to flash or silence treatments. To determine the relative importance of this response, we observed anole behavior following playbacks of calls from kestrels Falco sparverius, a predator, and bananaquits Coereba flaveola, a non-predator. Anoles decreased display rates following kestrel calls when compared to their response to bananaquit calls. Furthermore, anoles spent a greater proportion of time displaying following bananaquit calls compared to both kestrel calls and silence. The magnitude of response to shutter noises was about the same as that to predator calls. This demonstrates that photography may not be as benign as commonly believed, and we should consider whether restrictions on camera noises should be implemented to reduce animal disturbance.

  15. Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Christopher Sze-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation, Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing, examines the relationship between textual strategies and political imagination at work in Asian American and African American experimental writers Nathaniel Mackey, Myung Mi Kim, and Ed Roberson. Providing one of the first cross-cultural studies of contemporary Asian American and African American experimental writing, I contend that these...

  16. Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients.

  17. American Multinational Media and the Expansion of American Mass Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2011-01-01

    With the development of globalization and gradual intensification of mutual dependence of the world,"hard power" which indudes economic and military strength is no longer the primary consideration for many countries.They tend to pay more attention to the attractiveness of their "soft power",which includes values,life style,ideology and so forth.Just as Joseph S.Ny,the famous professor of Harvard who puts forward the concept of soft power,says,"only by widespread communication and diffusion can a country reinforces its soft power".This is mass media's function.Since the 1990s,tens of thousands cultural products brought in from America are exported to foreign countries,including popular music,films,TV programs,magazines,books and so forth.By making advantage of its monopoly position in media circle,the United States pursues cultural hegemonism and expands its popttlar culture all over the world.This thesis takes a general view of the great advantages of America multi-national media groups and how they push forward the American popular culture all over the world.

  18. Differences in the tumor microenvironment between African-American and European-American breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damali N Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the

  19. The ethnic context of Mexican American fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, J C; Krivo, L J

    1991-01-01

    Researchers analyzed 1980 data on 9954 ever married Mexican American 20-44 year old women living in metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) in the US with at least 50 Mexican Americans to test a multilevel model of Mexican American fertility. The model included percent Mexican American and measures of ethnic cultural integration and constraints in labor market opportunities. The index of ethnic cultural context consisted of percent of Mexican Americans in the MSA who were born in Mexico, immigrated to the US since 1970, and did not speak English well or not at all. Overall it did not have any effect on recent births (at least 1 birth in past 3 years). Yet it did increase the probability of other births among =or30 year old women who already had at least 4 children (p.05). Nevertheless only 13.4% of =or30 year old women with at least 4 children had another child in the last 3 years, thus the effect on overall Mexican American fertility was minimal. Limited economic opportunities had a significant positive effect on fertility for 30 year old women (p.05) as indicated by the unemployment ratio (unemployment rate of Mexican American females/unemployment rate of White females). The greatest effect of limited economic opportunities was that they induced these women to have a 3rd child. Further percent Mexican American also influenced recent births for 30 year old women even after the researchers included the direct measures of cultural and economic context in their analyses (p.05). Like the measure of economic context, the pattern of significance of percent Mexican American held true across age and parity. Thus economic limitations were more likely to explain the effect of group size on fertility than were cultural patterns. PMID:12317290

  20. A Tale of Two Anti-Americanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Guerlain

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is, of course no single American tradition or single American set of values. There are, and always have been, many Americas. We each of us remember and appeal to the Americas we prefer.Immanuel WallersteinWhat does the term mean? That you’re anti-jazz? Or that you’re opposed to free speech? That you don’t delight in Toni Morrison or John Updike? That you have a quarrel with giant sequoias? Does it mean that you don’t admire the hundreds of thousands of American citizens who marched agai...

  1. A Tale of Two Anti-Americanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Guerlain

    2007-01-01

    There is, of course no single American tradition or single American set of values. There are, and always have been, many Americas. We each of us remember and appeal to the Americas we prefer. Immanuel Wallerstein What does the term mean? That you’re anti-jazz? Or that you’re opposed to free speech? That you don’t delight in Toni Morrison or John Updike? That you have a quarrel with giant sequoias? Does it mean that you don’t admire the hundreds of thousands of American citizens who marched ag...

  2. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2015-01-01

    Typical American is the representative work of Gish Jen, a famous Chinese American woman writer. This novel is based on the three youth, Ralph, Theresa, and Helen who came to America to study and then became American citizens. This thesis tries to analyze the special psychological state of them from the perspective of psychoanalysis according to Freud 's psychoanalytic theo-ry. Through the writing of this thesis, the author regards that their specific psychoanalytic state is a group features. To learn these special features can help us have a good understanding of people coming from different cultural backgrounds.

  3. preliminary study of American legal culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a preliminary study of American legal culture. Nowadays more and more scholars see the importance of legal culture and do studies on it. The author selects a number of American legal TV plays and movies; analyzes their topics, main characters, and plots; then finds out why United States adopt the legal system; what kind of legal culture it has; and how the legal culture is reflected in those movies and TV plays. The author hopes this thesis can work not only as an insight into the American legal culture, but also a source of reference for china to improve its legal system.

  4. Preventive Health Services Utilization Among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of preventive health services among Korean American adults. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 212 Korean Americans in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Guided by the Andersen's behavioral model, the authors examined whether predisposing (age, gender, marital status, household size, education), enabling (income, health insurance, English proficiency, citizenship, social network), and need (health status) factors are predictive of Korean Americans' preventive health services utilization. A binomial logistic regression showed that younger age, male, noncitizen, low income, no insurance, a larger family network, and better perceived health were associated with decreased odds of using preventive health services. PMID:27171558

  5. Representations of intercourse in American literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the representation of sexual intercourse in American literature expressed via the use of fuck as a transitive verb. Its goal is to identify possible trends in the differentiation between men and women's roles and power relations in such literary representations. Drawing...... for the identification of large-scale patterns in sexual objectification of men or women in American literature....... and falls under the rubric of corpus stylistics and is based on data from the FICTION component of the Corpus of Historical American English. The analysis measures the preference of male or female passive participants in propositional scenarios denoted by transitive fuck, thus allowing...

  6. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  7. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  8. North American tidal power prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, W. W., Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are provided; five projects were considered ranging from 110-160 MW. Additional tidal power installations are examined for: Half-Moon Cove, ME (12 MW, 18 ft tide); Cook Inlet, AK, which is shown to pose severe environmental and engineering problems due to fish migration, earthquake hazards, and 300 ft deep silt deposits; and the Bay of Fundy, Canada. This last has a 17.8 MW plant under construction in a 29 ft maximum tide area. Other tidal projects of the Maritime Provinces are reviewed, and it is noted that previous economic evaluations based on an oil price of $16/barrel are in need of revision.

  9. How to Assess American Democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a framework to evaluate the functioning of American democracy and to suggest, accordingly, suitable reforms. Reform, literally, means to form again, to reshape and restructure, sometimes to return to basic values that had been lost and sometimes to pursue newly emerging ones. It implies an improvement over the status quo in pursuit of some objective, and it is the question of goals and objectives that raise problems. This article’s main findings suggest that there are seven general values or criteria by which government and the political process – and therefore reform proposals – are to be evaluated. Governmental institutions and processes above all must be (1 effective, implying that its actions must be determined by a process of (2 reasoned and fair deliberation and judgment and that its operations should be (3 efficient. At the same time, government must be controlled and limited, leading to the criteria that apply to the citizenry: (4 responsiveness, (5 representativeness, (6 accountability and (7 participation. Any government that meets these criteria is very likely to be perceived as fair and legitimate by the governed, and is likely to be safe and protect liberties.

  10. Drinker prototypes in American society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H; Pittman, D J

    1990-01-01

    Based on a national probability sample of 2,401 Americans age 21 and over (1,069 of whom were deemed "drinkers" on the basis of having consumed at least one alcoholic beverage in the past 7 days), this study develops profiles of the drinker and heavier drinking prototypes for beer, distilled spirits, wine, and wine cooler drinkers. Both beer-drinking prototypes are mainly composed of less well-educated males who drink beer in circumstances unconnected with any mealtime setting. Wine drinkers are more often women (although the heavy drinking prototype is more likely to be a man), usually with education at or beyond the "some college" level, who typically drink wine in moderation with a meal such as dinner. Both prototypes of the distilled spirits drinkers are likely to be men, age 45 or over, who are not currently married, who usually drink in a bar, before a meal, when they feel somewhat happy or calm. Wine cooler drinkers are much more heterogeneous, and hence less distinguishable than the other drinking prototypes. The heavier wine cooler drinker, however, is likely to be single, with 12 or 13 years of schooling. This person usually drinks when feeling very stimulated, very happy, very romantic, or else very bored, and often does so at bars or in friends' homes.

  11. Drug testing in American schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Russo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As the use of illegal drugs has reached epidemic proportions in schools, educational leaders in the United States have turned to drug testing in attempting to maintain learner discipline. To this end, the United States Supreme Court has addressed the issue twice in the past eight years. In 1995, the Court permitted drug testing in Acton v. Vernonia School District 47J. More recently, in Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie v. Earls (2002, the Court upheld suspicionless drug testing of learners who wished to participate in extracurricular activities. Even though drug testing has yet to emerge as an issue in South Africa, Earls is significant for educational leaders and policy makers in South Africa since it involves concerns under the National Policy on Privacy. More specifically, under Items 20 and 21 of the South African National Policy on the Management of Drug Abuse (SA, 1996b searches and drug testing should only be used where there is reasonable suspicion, the same standard applied by American courts. However, unlike the United States, the South African policy prohibits random searches and/or drug testing. Thus, due to constitutional and educational issues that drug testing raises, a timely discussion of this matter should be of interest to educational leaders and policy makers in South Africa.

  12. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  13. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  14. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  15. 78 FR 75392 - American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application December 5, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... (Jun. 25, 1996) (order). Applicants: American Beacon Funds and American Beacon Select Funds (collectively, the ``Trusts'') and American Beacon Advisors, Inc. (``American Beacon'' and...

  16. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanes...

  17. Asian American and African American masculinities : race, citizenship, and culture in post-civil rights

    OpenAIRE

    Chon-Smith, Chong

    2006-01-01

    Through the interpretation of labor department documents, journalism, and state discourses, I historicize the formation of both the construction of black "pathology" and the Asian "model minority" by analyzing the comparative racialization of African Americans and Asian Americans in the United States. Beginning with the Moynihan Report and journalistic reports about Asian Americans as "model minority," Black and Asian men were racialized together, as if "racially magnetized," in an attempt to...

  18. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...

  19. American Woodcock Singing-ground Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American Woodcock Singing-Ground Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, exploits the conspicuous courtship display of the male woodcock. The...

  20. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Specialties (ABMS) member board or osteopathic medicine equivalent. Successful completion of an on-site clinical ... American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Canadian Obesity Network Cleveland Clinic ...

  1. More Americans Can Afford Medications Under Obamacare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have difficulty, a new study finds. At the recession's height in 2009, over 25 million Americans said ... Insurance Medicines About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us ...

  2. COPD Deaths Down for Most Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160856.html COPD Deaths Down for Most Americans: CDC But rates up for ... than 6 percent. When the numbers were broken down by race, white women saw little change during ...

  3. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  4. American Express eristub teistest / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    American Ekspress ei reklaami end ainult kaardipakkujana, vaid ka pangana, sest annab klientidele omal riisikol ka laenu. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Tabelid: Majandusnäitajad; Suhtarvud; Analüütikud soovitavad

  5. American Samoa ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine, reef-associated, and terrestrial invertebrate species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in...

  6. American Samoa ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for special management areas, marine parks, marine sanctuaries, national parks, and wildlife refuges in American Samoa....

  7. Laplace transforms and the American straddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alobaidi

    2002-01-01

    partial Laplace transform techniques due to Evans et al. (1950 to derive a pair of integral equations giving the locations of the optimal exercise boundaries for an American straddle option with a constant dividend yield.

  8. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  9. The Third Era of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    1974-01-01

    Past changes are traced and future fundamental changes anticipated in our American universities and colleges. A chief reason for future change will be the difference in relationships of the adult community to post-secondary institutions. (EA)

  10. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members of AACAP. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities More... ... More... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement ...

  11. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  12. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...

  13. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  14. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  15. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46- ...

  16. American Samoa ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in American Samoa. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting...

  17. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  18. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  19. Premigratory feeding patterns in the American Avocet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study aiming to identify feeding methods of the American Avocet, characterize such method and determine the type preference and success. Relatively little is...

  20. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Certification APRN Resources Education State-of-the-art educational programs provide evidence- based knowledge, directly applicable to practice ... Policy Disclaimer © American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Learn ...

  1. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly suggest to the African-American that ... then my dad four months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be ...

  2. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  3. Newton and the American Political Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, A. B.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the historical sequence that establishes a clear line of connection from Newton and Locke through the philosophy of the Enlightenment and the evolution of deism to the American political tradition. (Author/GS)

  4. Native American/span>s: traditional healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Barbara; Broome, Rochelle

    2007-04-01

    There are an estimated 4.1 million people who are classified as American Indian and Alaska Native alone or in combination with one or more other races. This racial group composes 1.5% of the total U.S. population. The leading causes of illness and death among American Indians are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), diabetes, and stroke. American Indians also have a high prevalence of obesity, chronic renal failure, alcoholism, and are at increased risk for mental health issues and suicide. In an effort to build a trusted relationship with these patients and become an active participant in their care, the health care provider must demonstrate respect for the traditions of the American Indian. PMID:17494460

  5. American College of Nurse-Midwives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Education Caucus Midwives Teaching Midwives Midwives Teaching Nurses Preceptors Directors of Midwifery Education (DOME) Midwifery Business ... RSS Feeds | More News & Updates American College of Nurse-Midwives. 8403 Colesville Rd, Suite 1550 | Silver Spring ...

  6. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  8. Cost Earnings Data 2001 - American Samoa Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2001, 25 vessels > 50 feet in overall length joined the American Samoa longline fleet, which previously had consisted of local, small catamaran-style vessels...

  9. The New American Home 2007 Orlando, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    The New American Home demonstrates use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques, providing production homebuilders with a model for producing more energy efficient, durable homes.

  10. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans overall are at lower risk. Genes, culture, environment, and access to care play a role ... Mental health problems and suicide Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Stomach cancer Tuberculosis (TB) ...

  11. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  12. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  13. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...

  14. Latin American Mayors Delegation Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; Jiaguang

    2013-01-01

    <正>ALatin American mayoral delegation visited Beijing and Tianjin from May 19 to 26 at the invitation of the CPAFFC.Of the 55 members,23were mayors from nine countries,namely Costa Rica,Panama,Honduras,

  15. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walker: The researchers don't know exactly why. It is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our ... African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to ...

  16. The collider calamity, publ. by Scientific American

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "For decades, the big guns of American science have been the U.S. Department of Energy's particle collider, which investigate the nature of matter by accelerating subatomic particles and smashing them together." (1 page)

  17. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice Management Research American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Making effective communication, a human right, accessible and ... for focused information and more. Join a SIG ASHA Corporate Partners Become A Corporate Partner Policies  About ...

  18. American Chemical Society Annual Report 1985 (Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a section of the American Chemical Society's annual reports dealing with precollege education, college/university education, continuing education, and professional training. Includes highlights of grants, project summaries, types of financial support, instructional materials, and other areas. (JN)

  19. Parkinson's Rates Rising Among American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159464.html Parkinson's Rates Rising Among American Men Smoking is known ... MONDAY, June 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of Parkinson's disease may be on the rise for U.S. ...

  20. The persistence of American Indian health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David S

    2006-12-01

    Disparities in health status between American Indians and other groups in the United States have persisted throughout the 500 years since Europeans arrived in the Americas. Colonists, traders, missionaries, soldiers, physicians, and government officials have struggled to explain these disparities, invoking a wide range of possible causes. American Indians joined these debates, often suggesting different explanations. Europeans and Americans also struggled to respond to the disparities, sometimes working to relieve them, sometimes taking advantage of the ill health of American Indians. Economic and political interests have always affected both explanations of health disparities and responses to them, influencing which explanations were emphasized and which interventions were pursued. Tensions also appear in ongoing debates about the contributions of genetic and socioeconomic forces to the pervasive health disparities. Understanding how these economic and political forces have operated historically can explain both the persistence of the health disparities and the controversies that surround them.