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Sample records for american kestrel falco

  1. Falcon adenovirus in an American kestrel (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K; Phalen, David N

    2007-06-01

    A fatal adenovirus infection is described in a wild-caught American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Predominate lesions were a moderate to severe hepatitis with diffuse single-cell necrosis of hepatocytes and a splenitis characterized by necrosis of cells surrounding the sheathed arteries. Pan-nuclear eosinophilic to magenta inclusion bodies were abundant within hepatocytes. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a portion of the hexon gene from DNA extracted from the bird's liver and spleen. Sequence analysis showed that the adenovirus infecting this kestrel was the falcon adenovirus with a sequence homology of 99.5% to the isolate from the Northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis) variant and 98.6% homology to isolates from the taita (Falco fasciinucha) and orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus). This report expands the range of species of falcons that are susceptible to falcon adenovirus infection and disease. Given that this kestrel was recently wild caught and housed in isolation with other wild-caught kestrels, it is likely that the falcon adenovirus is present in wild populations of American kestrels.

  2. Short-term effects of oil ingestion on American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O H; Franson, J C

    1982-04-01

    The Mexican Ixtoc oil well blowout resulted in extensive oil contamination along the Texas Gulf coast. This oil posed a potential hazard to migrating birds including the endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Laboratory tests with the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) indicated that the oil: water mixture gathered at the surface of the blowout site posed little acute hazard to falcons.

  3. Short-term effects of oil ingestion on American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.; Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Mexican Ixtoc oil well blowout resulted in extensive oil contamination along the Texas Gulf coast. This oil posed a potential hazard to migrating birds including the endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Laboratory tests with the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) indicated that the oil: water mixture gathered at the surface of the blowout site posed little acute hazard to falcons.

  4. The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Matthew F; Hodos, William

    2003-09-01

    The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity was 29 c/deg. The PERG, however, underestimates behaviorally determined visual acuity by approximately 37%. When adjusted for this underestimation, the median kestrel acuity was 46 c/deg. The visual acuity of American kestrels is compared to reports in the literature of 17 other species of birds.

  5. Morphology of the antebrachial musculature of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius (aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A

    1996-01-01

    The antebrachial musculature of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is described. This fills a gap in the avian morphology literature, and provides a reference for future comparative, functional and systematic studies. A table of synonyms-homologs is provided for each muscle as a reference frame for over 100 years of avian anatomical literature.

  6. Sex-related differences in habitat selection in wintering American kestrels, Falco sparverius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardia; Bildstein

    1997-06-01

    The American kestrel, Falco sparveriushas sex-related differences in habitat use during the non-breeding season, with females occupying more open habitats than males. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: (1) males and females prefer different habitats, and (2) males and females prefer similar habitats, but larger females exclude smaller males from preferred areas. This study experimentally investigated habitat selection in wintering kestrels by temporarily removing kestrels from areas, and then observing the numbers and sex of the kestrels that occupied vacated areas. The home ranges of 20 birds (10 males and 10 females) were mapped and their occupants removed. Areas vacated in early winter (November 1994) were filled more quickly than those vacated in late winter (February 1995). Areas previously held by females were reoccupied more frequently than were those previously occupied by males. Female kestrels reoccupied vacated female areas more than vacated male areas. Male kestrels reoccupied vacated female and male areas equally. The results demonstrate that (1) high-quality kestrel habitat may be limited in the non-breeding season, (2) vacated areas are more likely to be reoccupied in the early winter than in late winter, (3) female kestrels appear at an advantage relative to males in occupying scarce and competed-for areas, and (4) male kestrels will use female areas when female occupants have been removed. It is hypothesized that open habitats are preferred over less open habitats because the former offer reduced risk of predation from bird-eating hawks.

  7. The effects of temperature and artificial rain on the metabolism of American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Glenn R; Cooper, Sheldon J; Gessaman, James A

    2004-11-01

    The effect of rainfall on the metabolism of birds is poorly understood. We measured the metabolism as rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) of four male and four female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) using open-circuit respirometry. We measured VO2 during the spring at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 5, 10, 15, and 25 degrees C in air without rainfall and with simulated rainfall of 2.5 (low rainfall) and 6.1 cm h(-1) (high rainfall). Kestrel metabolism was significantly higher when exposed to the two rainfall levels compared to no rainfall. However, kestrel metabolism was not significantly different at the two rainfall levels. Body temperature (Tb) was significantly lower under high rainfall compared to low rainfall. In addition, under both rainfall levels Tb decreased with decreasing Ta. Calculated thermal conductance was significantly higher in kestrels exposed to rain compared to no rainfall. Kestrels may use sleeking behavior at high rainfall levels to decrease water penetration of the plumage. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of kestrels exposed to rain may increase markedly, and kestrel energetics may be further exacerbated by wind that often accompanies natural rainstorms.

  8. The Role of Thyroxine on the Production of Plumage in the American Kestrel (Falco Sparterius)

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Michael J., Jr.; French, John B., Jr.; McNabb, F. M. Anne; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    In a prior study (Quinn et al. 2002), we examined the effects of Aroclor 1242 (a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]) on feather production in the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). The development of plumage is heavily influenced by the action and tinting of thyroid hormones (Owens and Short 1995, Kuenzel 2003). Although Aroclor 1242 was shown to cause decreases in plasma thyroxine (Quinn et al. 2002), no significant differences were observed in feather production or appearance betw...

  9. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Conturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E.; Kennedy, S.W.; Lorenzen, A. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), known to be PCB sensitive. In both studies, Aroclor 1254 residues accumulated in tissues of both species, but there was no significant relationship between residue levels and effects. In conclusion, adult American kestrels were relatively insensitive to the effects of PCBs, from both acute and chronic exposure, on hepatic and renal porphyrin levels. Although concentrations of a CYP1A-like protein were increased in some kestrels given PCBs, EROD activity was only marginally increased, suggesting that catalytic activity of this protein differed among the two species. 52 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Effects of chronic dietary lead in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Sileo, Louis; Pattee, Oliver H.; Moore, John F.

    1983-01-01

    American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0, 10, or 50 ppm lead (Pb) powder for at least 5 mo. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in birds receiving 50 ppm Pb was as low as 20% of controls but no significant effects were noted in packed cell volume (PCV) or hemoglobin concentration (Hb). Mean liver Pb residues in birds fed 50 ppm Pb were 1.3 and 2.4 ppm (dry wt) for males and females, respectively. Liver Pb residues in birds fed 10 ppm Pb were not significantly greater than controls. There was no significant correlation between blood ALAD activity and blood Pb concentration, no consistent histopathological lesions were noted, and body and organ weights were not affected.

  11. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  12. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  13. Immunological development in nestling American kestrels Falco sparverius: post-hatching ontogeny of the antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Judit E G; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2008-12-01

    Avian research involving examination of immune function or testing of immunocompetence in wild birds has been based upon information on Galliforms, (chicken and quail) even though they are precocial, whereas most wild species with which ecologists, biologists and toxicologists work are altricial; blind, naked and completely dependent at hatching. Here we begin to address this gap in knowledge, offering insight into the early, post-hatching, humoral immune response in an altricial bird, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Over two breeding seasons, nestling kestrels were immunized with a non-pathogenic antigen, dinitrophenol keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), between 3 and 9 days post-hatching and boostered 6 days later. Background levels, primary and secondary immune responses were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The specificity of our laboratory produced rabbit, anti-kestrel antibody was determined using a double immunodiffusion assay. Results showed the rabbit antiserum to have specific anti-kestrel IgG activity. Birds as young as three days old could successfully mount an antibody response, the magnitude of which increased with age at first vaccination. Early immunization did not compromise growth rate, nor did it affect the maximum secondary response. Comparatively, adult kestrels immunized during the same season and following the same protocol, had antibody levels four times higher than those of the nestlings.

  14. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Susanne M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Olsen, Glenn H; Beaufrère, Hugues; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). 12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels. Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and a control treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) were administered IM in a randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus. Adverse effects were monitored for 6 hours after treatment administration. Buprenorphine hydrochloride at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, increased thermal threshold for 6 hours, compared with the response for the control treatment. There were no significant differences among buprenorphine treatments. A mild sedative effect was detected at a dose of 0.6 mg of buprenorphine/kg. At the doses tested, buprenorphine hydrochloride resulted in thermal antinociception in American kestrels for at least 6 hours, which suggested that buprenorphine has analgesic effects in this species. Further studies with longer evaluation periods and additional forms of noxious stimuli, formulations, dosages, and routes of administration are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in American kestrels.

  15. Reproductive changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in relation to exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the ban of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a high-production-volume flame retardant, was announced in Europe and North America. However, the effects of HCBD remain understudied in birds. The objectives of the present comparative effects study were to determine whether exposure to an HBCD technical mixture (HBCD-TM) altered avian reproductive measures at an environmentally relevant concentration. American kestrels were exposed daily by food to HBCD-TM, i.e., 0.51 µg HBCD/g kestrel/d; exposed kestrels laid eggs that had α-HBCD concentrations (163.5 ± 75.1 ng/g wet wt) tenfold greater than β- and γ-HBCD isomers, an isomer profile and concentrations similar to those of eggs of wild peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Concentrations of HBCD were not detected in the control kestrel eggs. In comparison with controls, the kestrels exposed to HBCD began to lay their eggs 6 d earlier and laid larger clutches of smaller eggs. The size of the eggs was inversely correlated with the in ovo α-HBCD concentrations. The smaller eggs of the HBCD exposed kestrels also lost more weight by midincubation, suggesting increased eggshell porosity since eggshell thickness was comparable. Generally birds that lay more eggs and lay earlier in the breeding season gain the advantage of better hatching and fledging success, yet the kestrels exposed to HBCD failed to have better reproductive success than the control birds. These reproductive changes were a function of HBCD exposure, likely through changes in food consumption, with possible impacts on, for example, reproductive behavior and/or alterations in thyroid hormones. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  17. Evaluation of High Dosages of Oral Meloxicam in American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Larrat, Sylvain; Troncy, Eric; Bird, David M; Lair, Stéphane; Fitzgerald, Guy

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of short-term high doses of meloxicam in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 32 male captive-born, 1- to 4-year-old American kestrels were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 3 groups treated with meloxicam (n = 9 per group) and a control group (n = 5). Meloxicam was administered orally via feeding tube in the proventriculus at 2, 10, and 20 mg/kg every 12 hours for 7 days for the treatment groups, while the control group received saline solution. The birds were evaluated for the presence of clinical signs, abnormalities in the complete blood cell count and in the plasma biochemical panel for the 20-mg/kg group, and gross and histopathologic lesions. No clinical signs or mortality were observed in any group. No significant differences of clinical relevance were found in results of the packed cell volume, total solids, and biochemical panel, and no evidence of renal toxicity was found in the treatment or control groups. A significant correlation was found between hepatic lipidosis and meloxicam dose (P = .02). Two of 9 birds in the 20-mg/kg group developed gastric ulcers, although this result was not significant. None of the birds in the 2- and 10-mg/kg groups had similar lesions. Finally, meloxicam dosages up to 20 mg/kg did not result in nephrotoxicity in American kestrels. Further toxicologic studies to evaluate hepatotoxicity and gastrotoxicity of meloxicam in avian species are needed.

  18. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Petritz, Olivia A; Olsen, Glenn H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2014-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). 13 healthy 3-year-old captive-bred American kestrels. Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 9 times, ranging from 5 minutes to 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by use of tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After a washout period of 2 weeks, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered IV to all birds and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration. Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was achieved within 5 minutes after IM administration. For IM administration, bioavailability was 94.8% and elimination half-life was 92.1 minutes. For IV administration, steady-state volume of distribution was 4,023.8 mL/kg, plasma clearance was 49.2 mL/min/kg, and elimination half-life was 105.5 minutes. Buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and bioavailability was good after IM administration to American kestrels. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 9 hours after both IM and IV administration. These results, in combination with those of a pharmacodynamic study, suggested that the analgesic effects of buprenorphine could last at least 6 to 9 hours in this species. Further investigations of the duration of analgesic effects, multiple-dose protocols, and potential adverse effects of buprenorphine are warranted in American kestrels and other raptors.

  20. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L; Meteyer, Carol U; Rattner, Barnett A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18-2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  1. Effects of developmental conditions on nestling American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) corticosterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Erin H; Heath, Julie A

    2011-08-01

    How nestling birds respond to stressful situations may constitute an important survival component that has lasting developmental effects on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. As birds are exposed to increasing amounts of potential anthropogenic stressors through land use change, understanding how these factors contribute to HPA development is important. We examined whether conditions experienced during the nestling stage affected free-living American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) HPA activity prior to fledging. Kestrels experienced varying levels of human disturbance around their nest and we classified this environmental exposure as high or low environmental human disturbance based on traffic patterns and land use. We then exposed some broods from high and low disturbance areas to a standardized disturbance protocol. Prior to fledging we collected blood samples from 25-day-old nestlings immediately after capture and 15 min post-capture. Corticosterone (CORT) did not vary with environmental human disturbance levels, disturbance protocol treatment, or with an interaction between environmental human disturbance and disturbance protocol treatment suggesting that nestling kestrels may not perceive external conditions related to human disturbance as stressful or kestrels may acclimate to disturbance. We also compared the relative effects of environmental human disturbance outside the nest cavity, conditions within the nest cavity (brood size), and individual condition (nestling fat scores) on baseline and stress-induced CORT. Baseline CORT did not vary with human disturbance level, brood size or fat score. Fat scores best explained stress-induced CORT with nestlings in better condition displaying elevated CORT. These results suggest that individual variation is more likely to explain HPA development compared to nest conditions or the external environment. This study demonstrates the importance of considering the effects of developmental conditions on the stress

  2. AMERICAN KESTREL (FALCO SPARVERIUS) BREEDING PRODUCTIVITY AND DIET IN A VERNAL POOLS AND GRASSLAND HABITAT

    OpenAIRE

    McDermot, Joy Marie

    2016-01-01

    American Kestrel populations have declined since the 1960s, and the cause has yet to be identified. To further comprehend the decline of the American Kestrel, my study examined kestrel breeding productivity including occupancy, hatching success, and fledging success in nest boxes in conjunction with the identification of dietary resources. In this thesis, I monitored and documented the breeding success of the American Kestrel from nest boxes on the UC Merced’s Vernal Pools and Grassland Res...

  3. Antibody-mediated immunotoxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-02-23

    Antibody-mediated immune function in adult and recently fledged (30 to 33 d old) American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was examined in birds exposed directly, or only in ovo, to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In 1998, 9 mature male and 9 female kestrels were fed PCBs, whereas 9 females and 10 males served as controls. A mixture of Aroclors 1248:1254:1260 suspended in safflower oil was injected into the kestrels' food items, while in control diets only the same volume of oil was added. The dosage of PCBs was approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/d, beginning in March 1998 and continuing for 120 d. In 1998, the antibody-mediated immune response was stimulated by immunization and booster vaccinations of the kestrels using a nonpathogenic antigen, dinitrophenol-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). In 1999, offspring from three treatment groups based upon maternal exposure to PCBs were similarly tested for their antibody response. None of these mothers was vaccinated with DNP-KLH the previous year. The maternal groups were: (1) exposed to PCBs in 1998 for 120 d, (2) exposed in ovo in 1998 (i.e., mothers were produced by PCB-exposed parents), or (3) unexposed to PCBs. Serum antibody levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 1998, PCB-exposed adult females had a significantly higher antibody response than did controls, whereas adult males exposed to PCBs had significantly suppressed antibody production. For the nestlings produced in 1999, maternal treatment significantly affected antibody response. Generally, the antibody response in the nestlings was much lower than that seen in adult kestrels. Yet both male and female offspring from mothers that had been fed PCBs the previous year had significantly higher postbooster anti-DNP-KLH titers than control and in ovo-exposed maternal groups, thus mimicking the response seen in the adult females the previous year. These sex-specific responses in PCB-exposed birds provide further evidence of the

  4. The morphological basis of folded-wing posture in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A

    1992-04-01

    Gross dissection and histochemical analysis of the shoulder musculature of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, revealed that four muscles are specialized for slow contraction and may function in the postural control of the folded wing. Mm. latissimus dorsi pars cranialis, scapulohumeralis cranialis, and brachialis were found to contain greater than 95% tonic fibers, whereas M. deltoideus minor was found to possess a relatively even mix of fast-twitch and tonic muscle fibers. M. latissimus dorsi pars cranialis, M. scapulohumeralis cranialis, and M. deltoideus minor all cross the shoulder joint caudally to the articulation, and M. brachialis crosses the elbow joint on the ventral surface of the forearm. This paper suggests postural muscles have largely been ignored in studies of avian musculature, and the need to consider a variety of possible muscle functions when analyzing locomotor muscle functions.

  5. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, Kim J.; Mayne, Greg; Shutt, J. Laird; Pekarik, Cynthia; Grasman, Keith A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Drouillard, Ken

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 μg ΣPBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6±0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching ΣPBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1±29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73±0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and ΣPBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels

  6. Survival, growth, and histopathological effects of paraquat ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of paraquat as a herbicide is becoming more extensive with the increasing popularity of no tillage agriculture, increasing the possibility of exposure for wildlife species. American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 ?l/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1, 1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) in distilled water from day 1 through day 10. Forty-four percent of the nestlings given 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Significant differences in growth rates occurred between controls and all paraquat-dosed groups. Reduced skeletal growth occurred in the humerus and femur in the 25 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg groups, and in the radius-ulna and tibiotarsus in the 60 mg/kg group. Skeletons were otherwise normal in appearance. Histopathological examination revealed localized focal necrosis in the liver of one nestling in the 60 mg/kg group and tubular cell degeneration and focal tubular dilation in the kidneys of another. The brain and lungs were unremarkable histologically. These findings suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  7. Biochemical and hematological effects of lead ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Franson, J C; Pattee, O H; Bunck, C M; Murray, H C

    1985-01-01

    One-day old American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls), 25, 125 or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil for 10 days. Forty per cent of the nestlings receiving 625 mg/kg of lead died after 6 days and growth rates were significantly depressed in the two highest lead dosed groups. At 10 days hematocrit values were significantly lower in the two highest lead treated groups, and hemoglobin content and red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was depressed in all lead treated groups. Plasma creatine phosphokinase decreased in the two highest treatment groups. Brain, liver and kidney ALAD activities, brain RNA to protein ratio and liver protein concentration decreased after lead exposure whereas liver DNA, DNA to RNA ratio and DNA to protein ratio increased. Brain monoamine oxidase and ATPase were not significantly altered. Measurements of the ontogeny of hematological variants and enzymes in normal development, using additional untreated nestlings, revealed decreases in red blood cell ALAD, plasma aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain DNA and RNA and liver DNA, whereas hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma alkaline phosphatase, brain monoamine oxidase, brain ALAD and liver ALAD increased during the first 10 days of posthatching development. Biochemical and hematological alterations were more severe than those reported in adult kestrels or precocial young birds exposed to lead. Alterations may be due in part to delayed development.

  8. Thyroid hormone suppression and cell-mediated immunomodulation in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, J E; Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Marchant, T A

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants can induce physiological changes in animals through various mechanisms. One manifestation of subclinical toxicity from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is the disruption of normal immune function described in numerous species, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In 1998, 152 mature male and female kestrels were fed either a mixture of Aroclor 1248:1254:1260 (approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/day) through their food items, or control diets. Offspring produced by 50 breeding pairs (thus, half received in ovo PCB exposure only) were also studied. Total and differential white blood cell counts, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response, as well as thyroid hormone levels were tested in vivo in nonbreeding adults (1998 only) and nestlings (1998 and 1999). In 1999, nestlings came from three parental groups; adults exposed in 1998, birds produced by PCB-exposed parents, and unexposed birds. In 1998, directly exposed males but not females had increased total white blood cell counts driven by lymphocytosis, plus a decreased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio relative to controls. PCB-exposed birds had a significantly greater response to PHA than did controls, with sex as a significant factor and plasma triiodothyonine (T(3)) as a significant covariate. Levels of T(3) were significantly depressed in PCB-exposed birds of both sexes. The 1999 nestlings (F1 generation with respect to PCB exposure) did not show any effect of parental treatment group on the PHA skin response, yet T(3) remained as a significant covariate. Immunological effects are discussed in light of the antibody-mediated immunotoxicity found in the same birds and reported previously.

  9. Corticosterone levels during post-natal development in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Oliver P; Bird, David M; Shutt, Laird J

    2003-02-01

    We investigated post-natal development of the adrenocortical stress-response system in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) by measurements of baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone at ages 10, 16, 22, and 28 days post-hatching. Baseline levels of corticosterone increased significantly during post-natal development and although chicks aged 10- and 16-days old exhibited comparable baseline corticosterone levels, those of 22-day-old chicks were significantly higher and those of 28-day-old chicks close to fledging were higher than all younger groups. Chicks in this study exhibited low levels of stress-induced corticosterone early in development and did not exhibit adult-type stress-induced levels of corticosterone until 22 days of age post-hatching. Finally, although baseline and stress-induced levels of 28-day-old birds were significantly higher than one-year-old adults, there was no relationship between baseline corticosterone concentrations and time to nest departure. The fact that baseline levels of corticosterone are low during early development and then increase during later development may be an adaptation to the negative effects of chronically elevated corticosterone levels and as previously noted in other studies may minimize these negative effects on rapid growth and development in young birds, potentially maximizing normal growth. The ability of even young kestrel chicks to elevate corticosterone levels in response to stress suggests that they may be able to physiologically cope with food shortages associated with unpredictable food resources which wild kestrels often face.

  10. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune system development in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on immune system development in captive-reared nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to determine whether T cell–mediated and antibody-mediated adaptive immunity are targets for MeHg toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations. Nestlings received various diets, including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) MeHg for up to 18 d posthatch. Immunotoxicity endpoints included cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and antibody-mediated immune response via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. T cell– and B cell–dependent histological parameters in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were correlated with the functional assays. For nestlings in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups, CMI was suppressed by 73 and 62%, respectively, at 11 d of age. Results of this functional assay were correlated with T cell–dependent components of the spleen and thymus. Dose-dependent lymphoid depletion in spleen tissue directly affected the proliferation of T-lymphocyte populations, insofar as lower stimulation indexes from the PHA assay occurred in nestlings with lower proportions of splenic white pulp and higher THg concentrations. Nestlings in the 3.9 μg/g group also exhibited lymphoid depletion and a lack of macrophage activity in the thymus. Methylmercury did not have a noticeable effect on antibody-mediated immune function or B cell–dependent histological correlates. We conclude that T cell–mediated immunosuppression is the primary target of MeHg toward adaptive immunity in developing kestrels. This study provides evidence that environmentally relevant concentrations of MeHg may compromise immunocompetence in a developing terrestrial predator and raises concern regarding the long-term health effects of kestrels that were exposed to dietary MeHg during early avian development.

  11. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Kennedy, S W; Lorenzen, A

    1997-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), a more studied species known to be PCB sensitive. In one experiment, adult female birds were given single oral doses of either Aroclor 1254, 3,3',4,4'-TCB (PCB 77, IUPAC nomenclature), 3,3',4,4',5-PCB (PCB 126) or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HCB (PCB 153) and sacrificed after 5 d. In kestrels, neither the pure compounds nor the mixture affected hepatic or renal porphyrin levels. There was slight but significant hepatic and renal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction in birds dosed with PCBs 77 and 126. A cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in liver and kidney of kestrels given PCBs 77 and 126, but not in Aroclor 1254-dosed birds. In quail, an acute dose of Aroclor 1254 caused significant liver weight increases, hepatic and renal EROD and aminopyrine n-demethylase (APND) induction, and dose-related hepatic and renal porphyria. Quail treated with PCB 126 developed hepatic and renal porphyria; EROD and APND were also induced. Administration of PCB 77 caused only slight induction of hepatic EROD activity. PCB 153 caused some hepatic and renal porphyria and induced EROD to the same degree as PCB 126. A hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein was induced about 200-fold in all individual quail that exhibited significant EROD induction and was also induced in kidney of 1 quail given Aroclor 1254. A second experiment examined chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254 by feeding adult females of both species a daily dose of 7 mg/kg/d for 4-, 8-, and 12-wk periods. There were no effects on hepatic

  12. Survival, growth, and accumulation of ingested lead in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Anderson, A.

    1985-01-01

    One-day old American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were dosed orally daily with 5 ?l/g of corn oil (controls), 25 mg/kg, 125 mg/kg, or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil through day 10. Forty percent of the nestlings given 625 mg/kg died after six days. Growth rates became significantly different from controls in the 625 mg/kg group by day 3 and in the 125 mg/kg group by day 4. Crown-rump lengths and brain weights were significantly lower in both treatment groups. Liver and kidney weights were lower in the 625 mg/kg groups. Skeletal examination and measurement of alizarin red-S stained nestlings revealed reduced growth for the humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus in the 125 mg/kg and 625 mg/kg groups. Skeletons were otherwise normal in appearance. Greater than 2 ppm (wet weight) lead in the liver or 6 ppm in the kidney was associated with suppressed growth, while more than 5 ppm in the liver and 15 ppm in the kidney occurred in survivors in the 625 mg/kg group. The order of accumulation of lead in tissues at the end of 10 days was kidney> liver> brain. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings may be considerably more sensitive to lead exposure than adults and also more sensitive than hatchlings of many precocial species.

  13. The effects of neonatal handling on adrenocortical responsiveness, morphological development and corticosterone binding globulin in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Buddy A; Breuner, Creagh W; Dufty, Alfred M

    2011-06-01

    Early developmental experiences play an important role in development of the adult phenotype. We investigated the effects of neonatal handling on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in a free-living avian species, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). In the handled group (H), kestrel chicks were handled for 15 min/day from hatching until 26 days of age, after which time blood samples were collected for analysis of adrenal responsiveness and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) levels. The non-handled control group (NH) was left undisturbed until 26 days of age when blood samples were collected and analyzed as above. Handled and NH kestrels did not differ in body condition index. Both total corticosterone (CORT) and CBG capacity were dampened significantly in H kestrels. However, free CORT did not differ between the two groups. In addition, hormone challenges of corticotropin releasing factor and adrenocorticotropin hormone were compared to saline injections to determine if the pituitary or the adrenal glands, respectively, were rendered more or less sensitive by handling. There was no difference in the responsiveness of H and NH kestrels to either hormone challenge. It is clear from these data that handling had an affect on fledgling phenotypic development, although whether the effects are permanent or ephemeral is unknown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of incubating American kestrels (Falco sparverius) show annual, seasonal, and individual variation and explain reproductive outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, Elizabeth C.; Sevy, Christeena; Strasser, Erin H.; Anderson, Alexandra M.; Heath, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    In wild birds, the proximate and ultimate factors that affect circulating carotenoid concentrations remain poorly understood. We studied variation in plasma carotenoid concentrations across several scales: annual, seasonal, pair, territory and individual, and evaluated whether carotenoid levels explained reproductive outcome of wild American kestrels (Falco sparverius). We sampled plasma carotenoid concentrations of 99 female and 80 male incubating kestrels from April-June in 2008–2012. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were explained by an interaction between year and sex, date, and random effects for pair and individual identity. In general, plasma carotenoid concentrations of males were significantly higher than females, but this depended on year. Within a breeding season, earlier nesting kestrels had higher carotenoid concentrations than later nesting kestrels, a pattern that is coincident with seasonal trends in local fitness. Pair and individual identity explained variation in carotenoid concentrations suggesting that carotenoid concentrations of mated birds were correlated, and some individuals consistently maintained higher carotenoid levels than others. Male carotenoid concentrations were positively associated with number of young fledged per pair. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that higher quality individuals have higher carotenoid levels compared to lower quality individuals, despite annual variations in carotenoid availability. PMID:27041770

  15. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained Release Formulation of Buprenorphine After Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Administration to American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Olsen, Glenn H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with μ-receptor affinities for pain management in raptors. Buprenorphine appears to have a longer duration of action and minimal adverse effects when compared to other opioids in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius ). To determine the pharmacokinetics of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in kestrels, we administered a commercially available product (Buprenorphine SR-LAB; Wildlife Pharmaceuticals, Windsor, CO, USA) intramuscularly and subcutaneously to adult kestrels in a partial-crossover experimental design study. A total of 12 birds (6 males and 6 females) were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 4 birds each. A single dose of Buprenorphine SR-LAB (1.8 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM), and blood samples were collected at 0.25, 3, and 24 hours (n = 4); 1, 6, and 48 hours (n = 4); and 2, 12, and 72 hours (n = 4) after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After 1 year, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously (SC) to 12 birds divided into 3 groups as previously, and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration. Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was measured at 15 minutes after IM and SC administration. Mean plasma buprenorphine concentrations were >1 ng/mL for 48 hours after IM and SC administration. The elimination half-life was 13.5 and 11.1 hours for IM and SC administration, respectively. Depending on the severity and type of pain, adjunctive therapy, and the individual response, Buprenorphine SR-LAB administered at 1.8 mg/kg IM or SC to American kestrels would require administration every 12 to 72 hours to manage pain. Further pharmacodynamic and clinical evaluations are warranted in kestrels and

  16. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Heinz, Gary H; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Schultz, Sandra L; Hale, Robert C

    2013-09-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63μgg(-1) lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8μgg(-1) egg wet weight; ∼32μg(-1) lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster's terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20μgg(-1) egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20μg DE-71g(-1) egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Heinz, Gary H.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Hale, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63 μg g−1 lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8 μg g−1 egg wet weight; ∼32 μg−1 lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster’s terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20 μg g−1 egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20 μg DE-71 g−1 egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44 d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  18. Tissue lead distribution and hematologic effects in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed biologically incorporated lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0.5, 120, 212, and 448 ppm (dry wt) biologically incorporated lead (Pb) for 60 days. The diet consisted of homogenized 4-wk-old cockerels raised on feed mixed with and without lead. No kestrels died and weights did not differ among treatment groups. The control group (0.5 ppm Pb) had the lowest mean concentration of lead and the high dietary group had the highest for the following tissues: Kidney, liver, femur, brain, and blood. Concentrations of lead were significantly correlated among tissues. There were no differences among treatment groups for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, or erythrocyte count.

  19. Variation in migratory behavior influences regional genetic diversity and structure among American Kestrel populations (Falco sparverius) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P; Mullins, Thomas D; Parrish, John W; Walters, Jeffrey R; Haig, Susan M

    2012-07-01

    Birds employ numerous strategies to cope with seasonal fluctuations in high-quality habitat availability. Long distance migration is a common tactic; however, partial migration is especially common among broadly distributed species. Under partial migration systems, a portion of a species migrates, whereas the remainder inhabits breeding grounds year round. In this study, we identified effects of migratory behavior variation on genetic structure and diversity of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), a widespread partial migrant in North America. American Kestrels generally migrate; however, a resident group inhabits the southeastern United States year round. The southeastern group is designated as a separate subspecies (F. s. paulus) from the migratory group (F. s. sparverius). Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from 183 and 211 individuals, respectively, we illustrate that genetic structure is stronger among nonmigratory populations, with differentiation measures ranging from 0.060 to 0.189 depending on genetic marker and analysis approach. In contrast, measures from western North American populations ranged from 0 to 0.032. These findings suggest that seasonal migratory behavior is also associated with natal and breeding dispersal tendencies. We likewise detected significantly lower genetic diversity within nonmigratory populations, reflecting the greater influence of genetic drift in small populations. We identified the signal of population expansion among nonmigratory populations, consistent with the recent establishment of higher latitude breeding locations following Pleistocene glacial retreat. Differentiation of F. s. paulus and F. s. sparverius reflected subtle differences in allele frequencies. Because migratory behavior can evolve quickly, our analyses suggest recent origins of migratory American Kestrel populations in North America.

  20. Variation in migratory behavior influences regional genetic diversity and structure among American kestrel populations (Falco sparverius) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Parrish, John G.; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Birds employ numerous strategies to cope with seasonal fluctuations in high-quality habitat availability. Long distance migration is a common tactic; however, partial migration is especially common among broadly distributed species. Under partial migration systems, a portion of a species migrates, whereas the remainder inhabits breeding grounds year round. In this study, we identified effects of migratory behavior variation on genetic structure and diversity of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), a widespread partial migrant in North America. American Kestrels generally migrate; however, a resident group inhabits the southeastern United States year round. The southeastern group is designated as a separate subspecies (F. s. paulus) from the migratory group (F. s. sparverius). Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from 183 and 211 individuals, respectively, we illustrate that genetic structure is stronger among nonmigratory populations, with differentiation measures ranging from 0.060 to 0.189 depending on genetic marker and analysis approach. In contrast, measures from western North American populations ranged from 0 to 0.032. These findings suggest that seasonal migratory behavior is also associated with natal and breeding dispersal tendencies. We likewise detected significantly lower genetic diversity within nonmigratory populations, reflecting the greater influence of genetic drift in small populations. We identified the signal of population expansion among nonmigratory populations, consistent with the recent establishment of higher latitude breeding locations following Pleistocene glacial retreat. Differentiation of F. s. paulus and F. s. sparverius reflected subtle differences in allele frequencies. Because migratory behavior can evolve quickly, our analyses suggest recent origins of migratory American Kestrel populations in North America.

  1. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of 61 polychlorinated biphenyl and four polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in juvenile American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Ken G; Fernie, Kimberly J; Letcher, Robert J; Shutt, Laird J; Whitehead, Megan; Gebink, Wouter; Bird, David M

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the bioaccumulation and dietary retention of 61 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and four polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in juvenile American kestrels (Falco sparverius). American kestrels were exposed to contaminants via egg injection and daily gavage dosing over the posthatch-to-fledgling period. Retention factors for PCBs were dependent on chemical hydrophobicity and chlorine substitution patterns and ranged from less than 1 to 16.4% for PCBs having vicinal hydrogen substitutions at meta-, para- carbons on at least one of the phenyl rings and between 13.2 and 81.5% for congeners containing chlorine substitutions at 4,4'-, 3',4,5'-, 3,4',5-, or 3,3',5,5'-positions. These results indicate that juveniles are capable of biotransforming PCBs according to the same structure-activity rules as adults. A toxicokinetic model, initially parameterized using adult toxicokinetic parameters, was used to describe concentration trends in juveniles over time. The adult model overestimated PCB concentrations but provided an adequate fit when elimination rate constants were increased by a factor of 12.7. Retention factors for the PBDE congeners 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 100), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 99), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 153) were from 7.8 to 45.3% of the total dose. The retention of BDE 47 was similar that observed for readily cleared PCBs, whereas the remaining PBDEs exhibited retention factors consistent with those of persistent PCBs. Half-lives for PBDEs in juveniles were estimated to range from 5.6 to 44.7 d. Assuming differences in PBDE toxicokinetics between juveniles and adults similar to those measured for PCBs, adult American kestrel PBDE half-lives are expected to range from 72 to 572 d.

  2. The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael J; French, John B; McNabb, F M Anne; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius. Several characteristics of plumage, including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g., communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0, 6.0, and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 nm. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing, and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

  3. The effect of dietary sodium fluoride on internal organs, breast muscle, and bones in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D M; Carrière, D; Lacombe, D

    1992-02-01

    In 1982, 29 7-day-old American kestrel (Falco sparverius) chicks from captive stock were randomly assigned to one of three dietary regimens: (1) 10 birds were fed daily with cockerel mash (0 ppm of F-: control birds); (2) 10 birds were fed daily with cockerel mash containing 1,120 ppm of F-; (3) 9 birds were fed daily with cockerel mash containing 2,240 ppm of F-. Growth of the kestrels was not significantly affected by NaF in their diet. No significant differences were found among the 3 groups for length of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Rectum was longer as more fluoride was added to the diet. Weights of adrenals, brain, gizzard, spleen, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and pectoral muscle were not significantly affected by treatment, although kidneys, spleen and adrenals tended to become lighter. Percent bone ash was significantly (P less than 0.05) increased, while bone breaking strength was significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased by treatment.

  4. The refractive development of the eye of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius): a new avian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andison, M E; Sivak, J G; Bird, D M

    1992-06-01

    Most measures of avian visual performance are carried out on commonly available domestic species such as the chicken, and most of the data on avian induced refractive error deals with chickens. Raptors are predatory birds in which good visual resolving ability is particularly important. Behavioral studies indicate that the eyes of raptors have two to three times the resolving ability of the human eye. The domestic chicken is precocial at hatching whereas most raptors are semi-altricial. This study was an effort to determine if the effect of early visual deprivation on the refractive development of the chicken eye can be reproduced in the American kestrel, a species which is not domesticated and in which the need for acute vision is particularly important. Visual deprivation was achieved by unilaterally applying translucent plastic goggles over the eyes of kestrels two days after hatching. Refractive error was measured using a retinoscope and trial lenses. Ocular growth was monitored by A-scan ultrasonography, and frozen ocular sections of sacrificed birds. The effect of the experimental manipulation on the contralateral control eye and body weight was evaluated each day over a 42-day period. The goggles did not significantly affect the normal changes in body weight or the normal pattern of ocular growth and refractive development in the untreated eyes. An analysis of the refractive state changes as a result of form deprivation was made each week for 6 weeks after hatching on both the treated and untreated eyes in a separate group of experimental birds. Visual form deprivation caused a significant myopic shift in refractive error and a significant increase in the vitreous chamber depth in the treated eyes at 3 and 6 weeks of age. However, the amount of myopia produced is much less than that induced in chicks, and in certain cases hyperopia is produced. The kestrels recover from myopia and hyperopia within 10 days of goggle removal, after 3 to 4 weeks of deprivation

  5. Comparative toxicity of diphacinone to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Johnston, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be about 20 times greater to American kestrels (LD50=97 mg/kg) than to northern bobwhite (LD50=2,014 mg/kg). Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's Viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in these species, and this combination of assays is recommended to detect effects of diphacinone and other rodenticides on coagulation. Oral administration of diphacinone over a range of doses (sublethal to the extrapolated LD15) prolonged prothrombin time and Russell's Viper venom time within 24 to 48 hrs post-exposure. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity and was detected before or at the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. These data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to assess and predict rodenticide toxicity to non-target avian species.

  6. Diet exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) affects testes and circulating testosterone and thyroxine levels in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Kimmins, Sarah; Letcher, Robert J; Palace, Vince P; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2011-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high-production-volume, brominated flame-retardant that is used in items such as polystyrene foams. HBCD has been detected in the environment, wildlife tissues and in humans globally with some of the highest recorded levels in predatory birds. This study examined the effects of exposure to environmentally relevant levels of HBCD on the reproductive physiology of captive male American kestrels (Falco sparverius), a predatory bird. Two sets of males were used: one group not housed with females (unpaired: nc=12, nHBCD=10) and the second group housed with females (breeding: nc=10, nHBCD=20). All treatment birds were exposed to 0.51 μg HBCD/g kestrel/day technical HBCD, and controls to safflower oil only, injected into their food during seasonal testicular development. Unpaired males were exposed for 3 weeks and euthanized for testicular analysis. Breeding males were exposed for 3 weeks prior to pairing and throughout the courtship period. The HBCD-exposed unpaired males had heavier testes (p≤0.017) and a trend towards more seminiferous tubules containing elongated spermatids (p=0.052). There was also a moderate increase in plasma testosterone concentrations (p=0.056) compared to controls. In breeding males, testosterone levels increased during courtship to culminate in higher levels than controls by the time the first egg was laid (p=0.010) and circulating free and total T4 was reduced throughout. The number of sperm cells reaching the perivitelline layer of the first egg for breeding males did not differ between the two groups. This study is the first report that HBCD exposure at environmentally relevant levels alters reproductive physiology in male birds and suggests that birds may be more sensitive to HBCD than mammals. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Purkinje cell heterotopy with cerebellar hypoplasia in two free-living American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two wild fledgling kestrels exhibited lack of motor coordination, postural reaction deficits, and abnormal propioception. At necropsy, the cerebellum and brainstem were markedly underdeveloped. Microscopically, there was Purkinje cells heterotopy, abnormal circuitry, and hypoplasia with defective fo...

  8. American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling with severe bilateral periorbital swelling and infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium (Pasteurella) gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezjian, Marisa; Bezjian, Marisa

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: A female American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling was found on the ground with a suspected trauma to the right eye and open-mouth breathing. During the first 2 days of hospitalization, the bird developed severe bilateral periorbital cellulitis, blepharoedema, and sinusitis. The periocular tissues of the right globe were devitalized and communicated with a fistula at the commissure of the right side of the beak. The blepharoedema of the left eye was aspirated and yielded a dark colored malodorous fluid, which was submitted for aerobic bacterial and Mycoplasma cultures. Results showed a mixed infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, all of which are not commonly isolated from birds of prey. With antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and surgical debridement of the right periocular necrotic tissues and adhesed phthisical globe, the kestrel recovered from this severe mixed upper respiratory infection.

  9. Changes in the growth, but not the survival, of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Laird Shutt, J; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken; Bird, David M

    2006-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) concentrations are increasing exponentially in biota. We studied the growth of American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings exposed in ovo and during development to environmentally relevant PBDE congeners and concentrations. Eggs within each clutch, divided between groups by laying sequence, were injected into the air cell at 19 days of incubation with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 microg total sigmaPBDEs/egg), approximating current levels in Great Lakes herring gulls. The measured proportions of BDE congeners found in the dosing oil were 56.4% of BDE-47; 27.2% of BDE-99; 24.8% of BDE-100; and 0.6% of BDE-153. For 29 days, nestlings were orally gavaged daily with the same sigmaPBDE mixture (15.6 +/- 0.3 ng/g body weight/day). Relative congener abundances in the dosing mixture compared to the carcasses suggest biotransformation of BDE-47; BDE-183 was also detected. PBDE exposure did not affect hatching or fledging success. PBDE-exposed nestlings were larger (weight, bones, feathers) as they gained weight more quickly and ate more food, the latter in association with their SigmaPBDE body burdens. BDE-100 was most influential on nestling growth, being positively associated with size, weight gain, and food consumption. Increasing concentrations of BDE-183 and -153 were related to longer bones, and BDE-99 to longer feathers. The larger size of the PBDE-exposed birds may be detrimental to their bone structure and have excessive energetic costs. The repeated relationships with BDE-100 and growth may be important for wild Falconidae, since this is the predominant penta-BDE congener in these raptors.

  10. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (DE-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A; Rattner, Barnett A; Hale, Robert C; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2009-05-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 microg/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 microg/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 microg/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 microg total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  11. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  12. Dietary exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) alters courtship, incubation and parental behaviors in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Letcher, Robert J; Sullivan, Katrina M; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2012-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant that has been detected in the environment and wildlife at increasing concentrations. This study was designed to determine potential effects of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant levels of HBCD on behavior during reproduction in captive American kestrels. Twenty kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.51 μg technical HBCD g(-1) kestrel d(-1) from 4 weeks prior to pairing until chicks hatched (~75 d). Ten pairs of controls received the safflower oil vehicle only and were used for comparison. During the courtship period the chitter-calls were reduced in both sexes (p=0.038) and females performed fewer bonding displays (p=0.053). Both sexes showed a propensity to be less active than controls during courtship. The reduction in male courtship behavior was correlated with reduced courtship behaviors of females (p=0.008) as well as reduced egg mass (p=0.019). During incubation, nest temperatures of treatment pairs were lower at mid-incubation (p=0.038). HBCD-exposed males performed fewer key parental behaviors when rearing nestlings, including entering the nest-box, pair-bonding displays and food-retrievals. HBCD-exposed females appeared to compensate for the reduced parental behavior of their mates by performing these same behaviors more frequently than controls (p=0.004, p=0.027, p=0.025, respectively). This study demonstrates that HBCD affects breeding behavior in American kestrels throughout the reproductive season and behavioral alterations were linked to reproductive changes (egg size). This is the first study to report HBCD effects on reproductive behavior in any animal model. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Description and molecular characterization of a new Leucocytozoon parasite (Haemosporida: Leucocytozoidae), Leucocytozoon californicus sp. nov., found in American kestrels (Falco sparverius sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Erika; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Bowie, Rauri C K; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal raptors in the order Accipitriformes are commonly parasitized with Leucocytozoon spp., and the prevalence and intensity of parasitemia are often high. However, for raptors in Falconiformes, several studies have reported relatively low prevalences (1 % or less) of Leucocytozoon spp. Leucocytozoon parasite pathogenicity has been documented in falcons, but little is known about the diversity, prevalence, and phylogenetic relationships among Leucocytozoon species in these predatory birds. The research reported here combines molecular and microscopic techniques to identify and describe Leucocytozoon parasites in Falco sparverius sparverius, the American kestrel, and place those parasites into a phylogenetic context with leucocytozoids previously found in other diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes), owls (Strigiformes), passerines (Passeriformes), and other bird species. Of 35 American kestrels sampled, 13 birds (37.1 %) were found by PCR to harbor the DNA lineage of a novel species, Leucocytozoon californicus. No other Leucocytozoon parasite lineages were identified in our sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this parasite clusters more closely with leucocytozoids found in owls and passerines than it does with leucocytozoids found in birds of the genera Buteo and Accipiter of the order Accipitriformes. This is the first described species of Leucocytozoon that parasitizes diurnal raptors in which gametocytes develop exclusively in roundish host blood cells. It is also the first Leucocytozoon species that is described and named in birds of the Falconiformes, in which, for unclear reasons, leucocytozoids are significantly less prevalent and less diverse than in raptors with a similar behavioral ecology belonging to the Accipitriformes.

  14. Changes in the incubation by American kestrels (Falco sparverius) during exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Katrina M; Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Shutt, J Laird; Fernie, Kim J

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been detected in wildlife globally. American kestrels exposed to the commercial PBDE mixture DE-71 have previously demonstrated reduced reproductive success and behaviors during courtship and brood rearing; however, it remains unknown whether DE-71 affects incubation. During breeding, captive kestrels were exposed to the DE-71 mixture dissolved in safflower oil at two environmentally relevant concentrations (low: 283.5 ± 48.2, high: 1104.8 ± 124.5 ng/g wet weight [ww]) via diet for an average of 75 d. Unexpected low in ovo concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also detected (low: 3 ± 1 ng/g ww, high: 16 ± 3 ng/g ww). All comparisons are made to control pairs. Kestrel pairs in the low- and high-exposure groups experienced longer incubation periods with increasing exposure to ΣPBDE and some individual congeners. As incubation progressed, pairs exposed to DE-71 had significantly lower nest temperatures, which were on average 19% lower in low-exposure nests and 35% lower in high-exposure nests during late incubation. The DE-71 exposed pairs (low and high) also demonstrated significantly reduced incubation constancy (defined as percent of temperature readings above the maximum daily ambient temperature) during early incubation compared to controls. Nest temperatures (all pairs) and incubation constancy (high pairs) during early incubation (d 1-3) were significantly and positively associated with the proportion of eggs that hatched per pair. Higher incubation constancy and incubating nest temperatures in the low-exposure group were associated with markedly less egg weight loss by mid-incubation. These findings demonstrate that exposure to PBDE significantly affected kestrels during incubation, a critical period for embryonic development.

  15. The flame retardant β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane: fate, fertility, and reproductive success in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Graham, Laura; Kimmins, Sarah; Tomy, Gregg; Palace, Vince P; Ritchie, Ian J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Bird, David M; Fernie, Kim J

    2012-08-07

    Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed via diet during reproduction to an environmentally relevant concentration of β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (β-TBECH). The β-TBECH isomer was injected into the food source at a daily dosing concentration of 0.239 ng/g kestrel/day (22 pairs); control birds were exposed via diet to the safflower oil vehicle only (24 pairs). Eight pairs in each group were exposed for four weeks and sacrificed for tissue analysis; the remaining pairs completed their breeding cycle, with exposure ceasing at the end of incubation (82 days). α- and β-TBECH appeared to be rapidly metabolized and/or eliminated from fat, liver, and plasma; both isomers and potential hydroxylated metabolites of β-TBECH (plasma) were undetected. Notwithstanding, compared to controls, pairs exposed to β-TBECH laid fewer eggs (p = 0.019) and laid lighter eggs (successful eggs: p = 0.009). Exposed pairs also demonstrated poorer egg fertility (p = 0.035) although testis mass and histology were similar among males. Reductions in egg production and fertility resulted in decreased hatchling success (p = 0.023). The β-TBECH-exposed pairs also produced fewer males overall (p = 0.009), which occurred concurrently with increased estradiols maternally deposited in eggs (p = 0.039). These findings demonstrate that β-TBECH may be detrimental for breeding in wild birds receiving similar exposure levels.

  16. Developmental toxicity of PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Melancon, M J; Klein, P N; Rice, C P; Eisemann, J D; Hines, R K; Spann, J W; Pendleton, G W

    1996-12-01

    Planar PCB congeners are embryotoxic and teratogenic to birds including American kestrels. The developmental toxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was studied in the posthatching kestrel as a model for the eagle. Nestlings were dosed orally for 10 days with 5 microl/g body weight of corn oil (controls) or the planar PCB 126 at concentrations of 50, 250, or 1000 ng/g body weight. Dosing with 50 ng/g of PCB 126 resulted in a hepatic concentration of 156 ng/g wet weight, liver enlargement and mild coagulative necrosis, over 10-fold increases in hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, and approximately a 5-fold increase in methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase. At this dose, mild to moderate lymphoid depletion of the spleen was apparent, as were decreased follicle size and content of the thyroid. At 250 ng/g, concentration of PCB 126 in the liver was 380 ng/g with increasing multifocal coagulative necrosis, decreased bone growth, decreased spleen weight with lymphocyte depletion of the spleen and bursa, and degenerative lesions of the thyroid. At 1000 ng/g, the liver concentration was 1098 ng/g, accompanied by decreased bursa weight, decreased hepatic thiol concentration, and increased plasma enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and LDH-L) in addition to the previous effects. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between liver concentrations of PCB 126 and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathone. These findings indicate that nestling kestrels are more susceptible to PCB 126 toxicity than adults, but less sensitive than embryos, and that planar PCBs are of potential hazard to nestling birds.

  17. Dietary exposure of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) flame retardant: uptake, distribution, debromination and cytochrome P450 enzyme induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation and evidence of debromination of the flame retardant 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) have been reported for biota, including raptorial birds, based on PBDE congener residues in tissues and eggs. However, in vivo studies with BDE-209-exposed birds are rare and unknown for a raptorial species. In the present study, males (n=22) of raptorial American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed to 116,000ng of BDE-209 (high purity, >98%; in safflower oil) per day for 21days (~2,436,000ng total BDE-209 exposure over this uptake period), followed by a 25-day depuration period. Control males (n=11) received the safflower vehicle only. In the exposed birds, BDE-209 was quantifiable in all plasma (end of uptake and depuration period) as well as liver and fat (end of depuration only) samples. The mean (±SE) BDE-209 level in plasma was 1474±1145ng/g wet weight (ww) at the end of the uptake period, and was significantly (pkestrel tissues and plasma must be derived from BDE-209 debromination by the kestrels. Where quantifiable, lower brominated PBDE concentrations were significantly (0.023>p>0.001) higher in the exposed relative to the control bird samples (except for BDE-154 and -153 in fat). Additional PBDE congeners found in plasma included nona-BDEs (208, 207 and 206), followed by octa-BDEs (197, 196, 201 and 203), and in liver and/or fat, the hepta-BDEs 180 and 183 and BDE-153. Higher hepatic EROD activity (cytochrome P450 1A1 monooxygenase-mediation) in the exposed birds compared to control birds was strongly suggested to be PBDE-induced, and was consistent with BDE-209 and congener metabolism in the exposed kestrels. The mean EROD activity rate was 36.1pmol/min/mg protein relative to the (n=4) control birds whose activity was just above the detection limit (10.3pmol/min/mg protein). Overall, the results demonstrated that following diet exposure of kestrels to high purity BDE-209, uptake occurred as well as BDE-209 degradation via

  18. Observation of Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus raiding the nest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... On 31 January 2014, along the shoreline of Lake Manze in the Selous Game Reserve,. Tanzania, we heard loud and incessant screeching coming from the crown of a dead. Borassus palm Borassus aethiopum where we had been watching a pair of Dickinson's. Kestrels Falco dickinsoni nesting for the past ...

  19. Analysis of pellets from a suburban Common Kestrel Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of a Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in a suburban area of Algiers at El Harrach was determined by pellet analysis over two years. In both years, the hybrid sparrow (Passer domesticus x P. hispaniolensis) was the main prey item, based on relative frequency (22.3% and 58.7% in 1999 and 2000, respectively).

  20. Cryopreservation of American kestrel semen with dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Morrell, C.A.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.

    1993-01-01

    Semen samples from 15 male American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) were frozen in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The semen was thawed 1-14 mo later and used to inseminate six females during three breeding seasons. Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 4% DMSO produced only infertile eggs (N = 14). Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 6%, 8%, or 10% DMSO produced fertile eggs (N = 14) and live chicks (N = 6). Progressive motility of spermatozoa in thawed semen containing 10% DMSO was less (44 ? 6%) than in thawed semen containing 6% (62 ? 10%) or 8% (61 ? 1%) DMSO.

  1. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Changes in thyroid, vitamin A, glutathione homeostasis, and oxidative stress in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K.J.; Shutt, J.L.; Mayne, G.; Hoffman, D.; Letcher, R.J.; Drouillard, K.G.; Ritchie, I.J.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of additive flame retardants, are temporally increasing in wildlife tissues and capable of disrupting normal endocrine function. We determined whether in ovo and post-hatch exposure of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to environmentally relevant PBDEs alter thyroid, retinol, and oxidative stress measures. Control eggs were injected with safflower oil and subsequent nestlings fed the same vehicle; dosed eggs received PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153), which mainly comprise the Penta-BDE commercial mixture, dissolved in safflower oil at concentrations (1500 ng/g total [Sigma] PBDEs) approximating those in Great Lakes gull eggs. Nestlings hatching from dosed eggs were orally exposed for 29 days to variable Sigma PBDE concentrations that are similar to levels reported in tissues of Great Lakes trout (100 ng/g). Treatment kestrels had lower plasma thyroxine (T-4), plasma retinol, and hepatic retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations, but unaltered triiodothyronine (T-3) concentrations and thyroid glandular structure. BDE-47, -100, and -99 were negatively associated with plasma T-4, plasma retinol (BDE-100, -99) and hepatic retinol (BDE-47). Despite an antioxidant-rich diet, PBDE exposure induced hepatic oxidative stress, particularly in females, with an increased hepatic GSSG:GSH ratio, a marginal increase in lipid peroxidation, and increased oxidized glutathione. Positive associations were found between concentrations of BDE-183 and thiols and, in males, between BDE-99 and reduced GSH, but a negative association occurred between BDE-99 and TBARS. Subsequently, concentrations of PBDE congeners in wild birds may alter thyroid hormone and vitamin A concentrations, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress.

  2. Uptake, distribution, depletion, and in ovo transfer of isomers of hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant in diet-exposed American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Mattioli, Lisa C; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2015-05-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a flame retardant and a global contaminant, yet the toxicokinetics of HBCDD diastereoisomers remains unknown in wildlife species. The present study examined in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (diastereo) isomer-specific HBCDD uptake, depletion, tissue distribution, and transfer to eggs in a dietary dosing study with an HBCDD technical mixture (HBCDD-TM). Adult tissue and plasma collections were from separate cohorts of unpaired individual males (n = 10) and females (n = 10) exposed for 21 d to 800 ng/g wet weight of HBCDD-TM (in safflower oil and injected into their cockerel [brain] diet), followed by a 25-d depuration period. A separate cohort of 12 males only was used for control adult tissue and plasma collections. For egg collections, separate cohorts of 11 control pairs (n = 22 birds) and 20 HBCDD-exposed pairs (n = 40 birds) were allowed to breed, and their eggs were collected (n = 19 exposed eggs and n = 10 control eggs). The sum (Σ) HBCDD concentrations were near or below detection ( 0.05] between males and females). Arithmetic mean ΣHBCDD concentrations were highest in fat > eggs > liver > plasma. The mean ΣHBCDD depletion rate in plasma between the uptake and depuration periods was estimated to be 0.22 ng/g/d with a half-life of approximately 15 d. The γ-HBCDD diastereoisomer was >60% of the ΣHBCDD in plasma after the uptake period and similar to the HBCDD-TM (∼80%). After the depuration period, α-HBCDD was >70% of the HBCDD in plasma, fat, liver, and eggs; and this α-HBCDD domination indicated isomer-specific accumulation as a result of selective metabolism, uptake, protein binding, and/or in ovo transport. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Secondary poisoning hazard of fenthion to American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, K A; Bird, D M; Mineau, P; Shutt, L

    1991-07-01

    The possibility that fenthion, an organophosphorus pesticide, could represent a secondary poisoning hazard to birds of prey was tested, using American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) as representative models of a naturally occurring predator-prey interaction. Fourteen kestrels were presented with live sparrows exposed previously to perches containing Rid-A-Bird 1100 solution (11% fenthion active ingredient). Eleven kestrels died within twenty-four h after consuming one fenthion-exposed sparrow. Two kestrels died after consumption of a second fenthion-exposed sparrow on day 2, and a final kestrel died after partially consuming a third fenthion-exposed sparrow on day 3. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in kestrels was depressed to levels diagnostic of poisoning by a ChE-inhibiting compound. The majority of fenthion contamination of sparrows was external, with the highest amounts measured on the feet. The detection of fenthion residues in kestrel gastro-intestinal tracts confirmed secondary fenthion poisoning.

  4. Plasma protein patterns in captive American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, J; Bird, D M; Ng Kwai Hang, K F

    1983-01-01

    Plasma proteins of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) were analyzed by polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis for 3 different groups of birds: laying and non-laying females, and males. The electrophoretic patterns were homogeneous for each group and showed differences in the mobility of some proteins among the 3 groups. There was no significant difference among the 3 groups in the amount of proteins and in the standard parameter of albumin to globulin ratio.

  5. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1).

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey S Hall; Hon S Ip; J Christian Franson; Carol Meteyer; Sean Nashold; Joshua L TeSlaa; John French; Patrick Redig; Christopher Brand

    2009-01-01

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral sh...

  6. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  7. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Ip, Hon S; Franson, J Christian; Meteyer, Carol; Nashold, Sean; TeSlaa, Joshua L; French, John; Redig, Patrick; Brand, Christopher

    2009-10-22

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  8. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Ip, Hon S.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; French, J.; Redig, P.; Brand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  9. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Hall

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1 reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1 infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1. All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1 is introduced into North America.

  10. Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Shutt, John L; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, James I; Sullivan, Katrina; Bird, David M

    2008-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are increasing in biota. Here, captive adult American kestrels were exposed daily by diet to safflower oil (controls), or one of two levels of a pentaBDE technical formulation, DE-71 (0.3 or 1.6 ppm), for approximately 75 days, commencing 21 days before breeding. This exposure resulted in eggs having PBDE concentrations similar (low exposure) or within the same order of magnitude (high exposure) reported for wild American kestrels and gulls in the Great Lakes. Compared to controls, kestrels in both exposure groups copulated less, spent less time in their nest boxes, and participated in fewer pair-bonding behaviors. Furthermore, the timing of these behaviors, which is important to creating and maintaining the pair-bond, also differed significantly from the controls. The females in the low-exposure group made fewer compatible trilling calls and ate less frequently. These behavioral changes were compounded by increasing exposure to DE-71 during the 9-day courtship period immediately preceding egg laying, a standard measure of the kestrel courtship period. The birds in the high-exposure group made more food transfers, excited "klee" calls, and copulations, the latter only when compared to the low-exposure birds, whereas the low-exposure males performed fewer pair-bonding behaviors. This study demonstrates that the exposure of kestrels to environmentally relevant levels of DE-71 modifies the quality of the pair-bond, affects the reproductive behavior of both sexes, and occurs when birds are exposed for a short period as adults. In addition, these behavioral effects are consistent with the observed reproductive changes in these birds.

  11. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  12. ENERGY-REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLT IN THE KESTREL FALCO-TINNUNCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIETZ, MW; DAAN, S; MASMAN, D

    1992-01-01

    We estimated energy requirements for plumage replacement in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by comparing O2 consumption Vo2 and metabolizable energy intake during molt and nonmolt. The energy expenditure for feather synthesis (S) as derived from the regression of basal metabolic rate (BMR) on molt

  13. Energetic limitation of avian parental effort : Field experiments in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Daan, Serge; Bult, Ab

    1989-01-01

    We studied the limiting factors for brood size in the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, by measuring parental effort in natural broods of different size and parental response to manipulation of food satiation of the brood. Parental effort was quantified as total daily time spent in flight, and total daily

  14. Breeding biology and diet of Banded Kestrels Falco zoniventris on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All Banded Kestrel nests were placed inside clusters of epiphytic arboreal plants composed of Asplenium nidus, Phymatodes scolopendria and Medinilla sp. and averaged 18m above the ground. Banded Kestrel diet, derived from 188 prey items, comprised 47% chameleons, 18% other lizards, 31% insects, 3% birds, a frog ...

  15. Female American Kestrel survives double amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.

    2011-01-01

    Free-ranging raptors are susceptible to a variety of injuries, many of which are sustained while pursuing and/or capturing live prey. Injuries hindering an individual’s ability to capture prey, such as partial blindness, damage to the bill, and foot or leg injuries, are debilitating and potentially life-threatening. However, there are ample observations in the literature of free-ranging raptors with eye (Bedrosian and St.Pierre 2007), bill (Strobel and Haralson-Strobel 2009) and foot and leg injuries (Blodget et al. 1990, Murza et al. 2000, Dwyer 2006, Bedrosian and St.Pierre 2007), suggesting that some individuals are able to compensate for their injuries if only partial functionality is lost (e.g., loss of only one eye). Reports of injuries resulting in the complete loss of functionality (e.g., loss of both eyes) are rare as individuals suffering such severe trauma presumably do not survive long. Here we report the capture on a bal-chatri trap of an American Kestrel (Falco sparverius; hereafter kestrel) with previous amputation of both legs

  16. Inclusion body disease of falcons (Herpesvirus infection) in an American kestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, A A; Potgieter, L N; Kocan, K M

    1977-04-01

    Postmortem examination of a captive-bred American kestrel (Falco sparverius) showed numerous white necrotic foci 1-2 mm in diameter throughout the liver and spleen. The results of light and spleen. The results of light and electron microscopic studies and experimental transmission to a captive American kestrel and a barred owl (Strix varia) suggests a herpesvirus similar to those dsecribed for owls and other falcons in the U.S. This is the first report of a naturally occurring case of inclusion body disease of falcons in the American kestrel.

  17. Clinal variation in the juvenal plumage of American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, J.A.; Natale, C.; Steenhof, K.; Meetz, M.; Marti, C.D.; Melvin, R.J.; Bortolotti, G.R.; Robertson, R.; Robertson, S.; Shuford, W.R.; Lindemann, S.A.; Tornwall, B.

    1999-01-01

    The American Kestrel(Falco sparverius) is a sexually dichromatic falcon that exhibits considerable individual plumage variability. For example, the anterior extent of the black dorsal barring in juvenile males has been used throughout North America as one of several aging criteria, but recent data demonstrate that the variability among individual Southeastern American Kestrels(E S. paulus)exceeds that accounted for by age. The objective of this study was to search for geographic patterns in the variability of juvenal plumage, particularly those characteristics considered indicative of age. Nestling kestrels (n = 610) were examined prior to fledging during the 1997 breeding season at nest box programs across a large portion of the North American breeding range. From south to north (1) the crown patches of both males and females become more completely rufous, and (2) shaft streaks on forehead and crown feathers become more pronounced, especially in males. Male Southeastern American Kestrels differed from other males (E s. sparverius) in that the anterior extent of dorsal barring averaged less but was more variable. The variability observed in North America appears to be part of a cline extending across the species range in the Western Hemisphere, where tropical subspecies are small and have reduced dorsal barring. Both body size and, especially in males, dorsal barring increases with increasing north and south latitude. We suggest that this geographic pattern is adaptive in terms of thermoregulation, and that differences in the sex roles may explain why males become less barred with maturity while females do not.

  18. Dietary toxicity and tissue accumulation of methylmercury in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard S.; French, John B.; Rossmann, Ronald; Haebler, Romona J.

    2009-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed meat diets containing 0, 3, 6, or 12 ppm (dry weight) methylmercury chloride. Birds fed the 12-ppm diet started to show signs of neurotoxicity after 26 days and all died in 39?49 days. One male kestrel fed the 6-ppm diet died after 75 days of exposure and several others showed signs of neurotoxicity after 45 days. None of the birds fed the 3-ppm diet died or showed signs of toxicity. After 59 days of exposure, mercury concentrations in the liver, kidney, and blood of nonreproducing kestrels increased with increasing dietary concentration. Tissue concentrations of mercury also steadily increased over time in birds fed diets with 6 ppm mercury, which were necropsied at 8, 15, 29, or 59 days of exposure, reaching mean total mercury concentrations of 57, 46, and 45 ppm (wet weight) at 59 days in the liver, kidney, and whole blood, respectively. Two pairs of kestrels at each dietary concentration were allowed to breed. Eggs averaged 8.3 and 18.1 ppm (wet weight) total mercury from birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets, respectively. Feathers grown during mercury exposure contained high concentrations of mercury: Birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets contained 275 and 542 ppm total mercury, respectively.

  19. Dietary toxicity and tissue accumulation of methylmercury in American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard S; French, John B; Rossmann, Ronald; Haebler, Romona

    2009-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed meat diets containing 0, 3, 6, or 12 ppm (dry weight) methylmercury chloride. Birds fed the 12-ppm diet started to show signs of neurotoxicity after 26 days and all died in 39-49 days. One male kestrel fed the 6-ppm diet died after 75 days of exposure and several others showed signs of neurotoxicity after 45 days. None of the birds fed the 3-ppm diet died or showed signs of toxicity. After 59 days of exposure, mercury concentrations in the liver, kidney, and blood of nonreproducing kestrels increased with increasing dietary concentration. Tissue concentrations of mercury also steadily increased over time in birds fed diets with 6 ppm mercury, which were necropsied at 8, 15, 29, or 59 days of exposure, reaching mean total mercury concentrations of 57, 46, and 45 ppm (wet weight) at 59 days in the liver, kidney, and whole blood, respectively. Two pairs of kestrels at each dietary concentration were allowed to breed. Eggs averaged 8.3 and 18.1 ppm (wet weight) total mercury from birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets, respectively. Feathers grown during mercury exposure contained high concentrations of mercury: Birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets contained 275 and 542 ppm total mercury, respectively.

  20. First evidences of sexual divergences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gustin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first description of recorded sexual differences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni. Lesser kestrel is a migratory, colonial, small falcon breeding mainly in holes and crevices in large historic buildings within towns and villages, or in abandoned farm houses across the countryside. Using accurate GPS data-loggers, we gathered data on the activities of lesser kestrels in the two of main colonies of lesser kestrels in Italy, i.e. Gravina in Puglia and Altamura (Apulia, Southern Italy and the surrounding rural areas in a 20-days monitoring during the reproductive period. We tested for sex differences in space use (home range's circularity ratio and flight attributes (5-minute flight length, instantaneous speed, distance from nest, flight altitude above ground level of 9 monitored individuals (4 males and 5 females. We found significant sexual differences for all the observed traits. Our results demonstrate that female lesser kestrels during the monitoring period employed a lower amount of energy in local movements as measured by four flight attributes that resulted significantly different (and lower than for males. Compact home ranges for females could represent a maximization of the benefit-cost ratio between prospected surface and distance from nest, i.e. the optimal trade-off between foraging requirements (explored surface and costs in terms of time and energy (distance from nest. On the contrary, males showed a significantly different space use with very elongated home ranges and mean distance from nest almost three times as elevated as females' one. We argue that the detected sexual divergence was the product of their respective ways to optimize the relationship between resource acquisition and reproductive activity.

  1. Assessing the importance of High Nature Value farmlands for the conservation of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galanaki Antonia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas, such as cereal cultivations, that support species of European and/or national conservation concern are considered as ‘High Nature Value’ farmlands (HNVf and are very important for the preservation of biodiversity in Europe. The lesser kestrel Falco naumanni is a migratory falcon breeding largely in the HNVf of the Mediterranean basin. The main cause of its decline in Europe has been habitat loss and degradation as a result of agricultural intensification driven largely by the EU Common Agricultural Policies (CAP. In Greece, its population dropped by about 50% since the 1970s and its preferred habitats have shrunk. The aim of this study was to assess habitat preferences of breeding Lesser Kestrels in agro-ecosystems of Greece and relate these habitats to HNVf for conservation purposes. The study area is located in the plain of Thessaly, Central Greece, holding the main lesser kestrel breeding populations in the country, where dry cereal crops have been significantly depleted over the past decades. Species distribution models were developed with generalised additive models for the analyses. Predicted probability of lesser kestrel occurrence was found to be positively associated with farmed landscapes of dry cereal cultivations. Other important predictors were cultivated irrigated farmland and landscape heterogeneity. Main results of the statistical models agree with the findings of other habitatbased studies that highlight the importance of low-input farming systems, that is, HNVf, for safeguarding vital Lesser Kestrels habitats in their breeding grounds in the Mediterranean. A key conservation priority for conserving species dependant on HNVf is the maintenance of those low-input farming systems and the implementation of a greener CAP that would promote environmental-friendly farming practices to preserve and enhance biodiversity in the agro-ecosystems of Europe.

  2. Isolation of a herpesvirus from an American kestrel with inclusion body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, L N; Kocan, A A; Kocan, K M

    1979-01-01

    A herpesvirus was isolated from the liver of a captive-bred American kestrel (Falco sparverius) which had died of inclusion body disease. Initial isolation was achieved in chicken embryo fibroblasts after three blind passages. Cell-adapted virus produced a distinct rounding of CEF cells within 24 to 48 h. Biologic and serologic tests suggested that the kestrel virus is similar to falcon herpesvirus and pigeon herpesvirus and is at least partially related to owl herpesvirus. However, serologic tests indicated that the kestrel herpesvirus is neither related to infectious laryngotracheitis virus nor to a herpesvirus from a psittacine bird; (Eupsittula canicularis) with Pacheco's parrot disease. This is the first report on the recovery of a herpesvirus similar to falcon herpesvirus from an American kestrel with naturally-occurring inclusion body disease, and on the serologic comparison between falcon herpesvirus and a psittacine herpesvirus.

  3. Severe bill deformity of an American Kestrel wintering in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iko, William M.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    During a recent survey for West Nile virus in wild birds around the Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge, Imperial County, California (Dusek et al. 2010), we captured a female American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) with a severe bill deformity (Figure 1). The kestrel was captured on 9 March 2006, at 08:45, approximately 0.25 km south of the intersection of Wiest and Lindsey roads (33°  08' 42' N, 115° 26' 59' W) and 6 km east-northeast of Calipatria. It was caught on a bal-chatri trap baited with a domestic mouse (Berger and Mueller 1959), as were all the 208 kestrels captured during this study. The bird was initially perched on a high transmission line running along Wiest Road and was caught within 10 minutes of our setting the trap. In examining the bird, we observed that the maxilla beyond the cere was missing. The upper bill structure from the palatine process, which included part of the maxilla, the entire premaxilla, and the external rhamphotheca (the hardened keratin layer cover­ ing the premaxilla) was missing rostral to the bird's cere and nares (Threlfall 1968, Lucas and Stettenheim 1972, Proctor and Lynch 1993). The epidermal layer of the cere appeared to have fused over the remaining area between the nares where the upper bill normally would have been. The deformation did not appear to be recent or related to our trapping, as there were no obvious abrasions or open wounds in the region surrounding the nares and oropharynx or signs of recent trauma surrounding the oropharynx area. Both nares were clearly defined, and the tongue protruded from the open oropharynx area. After completing the physical examination, measurements, and obtaining a blood sample for testing for West Nile virus, we released the kestrel at the location of capture. After its release, we monitored the kestrel's behavior for approximately 30 minutes but did not observe any additional hunting.

  4. First description of malignant retrobulbar and intracranial teratoma in a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael Molina; Múrcia, Daniel Borràs

    2008-08-01

    Teratomas are defined as germ cell origin neoplasms that can be rarely found in either humans or animals. Their most common localization is the gonads, although extragonadal localization has also been observed. In avian medicine, there is scarce literature about the occurrence of teratomas and their clinical implications, and this is mainly in wildlife birds . For this reason, we report the first description of a teratoma with both retrobulbar and intracranial locations in a 10-day-old chick of a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) born in captivity. The raptor was treated in a centre of wildlife rehabilitation because of the presence of left periocular swelling and exopthalmos. The bird worsened rapidly with signs of vestibular syndrome, ataxia and depression, and euthanasia was practised for humanitarian reasons. Histological examination characterized both masses as malignant teratomas based on the presence of tissues of the three germ cell layers and the presence of both anaplastic foci and immature tissues.

  5. Changes in plasma retinol of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in response to dietary or in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a penta-brominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Katrina M; Bird, David M; Ritchie, J Ian; Shutt, J Laird; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2010-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are ubiquitous, lipophilic, and bioaccumulative brominated flame retardants. Plasma retinol concentrations of captive adult American kestrels were assessed at the beginning of the breeding season following 3 wk of daily dietary exposure to vehicle (control), low (0.3 ng/g wet weight [ww]), or high (1.6 ng/g ww) concentrations of DE-71 and in their 25-d-old nestlings following embryonic exposure by maternal deposition to environmentally relevant low (291 ± 48 ng/g ww) or high (1111 ± 160 ng/g ww) sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations. Unexpectedly, low in ovo concentrations of total-α-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were detected. Plasma retinol concentrations of adult males exposed to higher DE-71 concentrations were negatively correlated with in ovo ΣPBDE, BDE-100, and HBCD levels. Maternal (13%) and nestling (11%) retinol levels were lower in the low-exposure group compared to respective controls, and biologically significant since their retinol levels were correlated with hatching success and growth, respectively. Maternal retinol levels were also correlated with BDE-153. The underlying mechanisms may involve (1) PBDE exposure, hydroxylated (OH-) metabolites, and subsequent changes in retinol mobilization; (2) decreased maternal food consumption; and (3) reduced maternal retinol yolk deposits. The apparent lack of retinol changes in the high-exposure kestrel may reflect compensation occurring, either by increased mobilization and transportation of retinol, and/or higher food consumption in these birds. When highly mobile as evidenced during reproduction or development, retinol concentrations of adult and nestling kestrels are sensitive to environmentally relevant PBDE and HBCD levels.

  6. Observations of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni in Bulgaria during the period of post-breeding dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalova Girgina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni was considered extinct as a breeding species in Bulgaria, but recently a small breeding colony was found again in the south-eastern part of the country. Seven recent observations of flocks or solitary birds of the species in Bulgaria during the post-breeding period are presented and commented here. It is shown that the territory of the country is a regular area for post-breeding dispersal and pre-migratory feeding of lesser kestrels. The origin of these is not known, but most probably birds from the populations of the European part of Turkey, Greece, Republic of Macedonia and Albania are involved.

  7. Disruption of thyroxine and sex hormones by 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and associations with reproductive and behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Palace, Vince; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2017-04-01

    1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH - formerly TBECH) is an emerging brominated flame retardant (BFR) pollutant with androgen potentiating ability and other endocrine disrupting effects in birds and fish. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of DBE-DBCH on circulating levels of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in American kestrels, and if hormonal concentrations were related to previously reported changes in reproductive success and courtship behaviors. Sixteen kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.239ng β-DBE-DBCH/g kestrel/day by diet, based on concentrations in wild bird eggs, from 4 weeks before pairing until the chicks hatched (mean 82 d), and were compared with vehicle-only-exposed control pairs (n=15). As previously reported, DBE-DBCH concentrations were not detected in tissue or eggs of these birds, nor were any potential metabolites, despite the low method limits of detection (≤0.4ng/g wet weight), suggesting it may be rapidly metabolized and/or eliminated by the kestrels. Nevertheless, exposed kestrels demonstrated changes in reproduction and behavior, indicating an effect from exposure. During early breeding, males were sampled at multiple time points at pairing and during courtship and incubation; females were blood sampled at pairing only; both sexes were sampled at the end of the season. All comparisons are made to control males or control females, and the relative differences in hormone concentrations between treatment and control birds, calculated separately for each sex, are presented for each time point. Males exposed to β-DBE-DBCH demonstrated significantly (p=0.05) lower concentrations of total thyroxine (TT 4 ) overall, that were 11-28% lower than those of control males at the individual sampling points, yet significantly higher (p=0.03) concentrations of free thyroxine (FT 4 ), that were 5-13% higher than those of control males at the individual sampling

  8. Partial migration and wintering localities of American kestrels nesting in the Pacific northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Brady, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Based on banding recoveries, an estimated 89.5% of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) nesting in eastern Oregon, eastern Washington, and Idaho (excluding the Snake River Plain) are migratory and primarily migrate to western Mexico for the winter. Band recoveries from Mexico may be biased; however, we do not know whether the bias is toward more or fewer recoveries. The banding data imply that the remaining kestrels from the region (10.5%) are permanent residents, and we found 2.8% of a northeastern Oregon population on nesting territories in January 1981 (permanent residents). A higher percentage of the nesting population appears to be permanent residents in the valleys along the Snake River Plain than in the remainder of Idaho, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington (p = 0.02). Limited evidence shows that permanent resident kestrels in eastern Oregon nest earlier than migrants. Information available for the population west of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon and Washington was limited.

  9. Dicofol (Kelthane?)-induced eggshell thinning in captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Bunck, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Reproductive parameters of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were measured through two breeding seasons. Exposure to Kelthane? (containing no DDT-related compounds) at dietary concentrations of 0 (contro!), 1, 3, 10 and 30 ug/g (wet weight) began in late November before, and continued through, the second season. Kelthane thinned eggshells and lowered the thickness index at dietary concentrations >3 ?g/g and it reduced shell weight at >10 ?g/g when comparisons were to concurrent controls. Kelthane reduced the thickness index at >3 ug/g and it reduced shell thickness and weight at >10 ug/g when comparisons were to the same birds during the previous season. All changes were dose-related. It was not previously known that as little as 3 ug/g dicofol could cause these effects. Kestrels resembled previously studied eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) in that 10 ug/ g reduced hatchability of eggs. Both these raptors showed eggshell changes without serious effects on production of young. Available data show dicofol only equal to or less effective than DDE as a shell-thinning agent. Also, DDE may have more impact than dicofol on such critical aspects of reproduction as egg hatchability and survivability of hatchlings. Field studies of dicofol residues in food chains and of residue concentrations in eggs vs. nesting success from areas of heavy dicofol use are needed to judge this chemical's ecological impact.

  10. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

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    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  11. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, Rey C.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Stehn, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  12. The food spectrum of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. in the Chřiby Upland

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    Martin Tomešek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2008, mapping the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. occurred in the SE part of the Chřiby Upland. At the same time, the food spectrum of these birds of prey was determined during nesting periods. The area under monitoring represented about 25–30 km2.In each of the species, food was always monitored in a period from February to July at four nesting localities. The food spectrum was analysed by the direct observation of birds of prey, according to leftovers of food in the surroundings of nests and in nests of the predators. In Accipiter nisus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (85 %, mammals (3 % and other animals (12 %. Turdus merula was the most frequent prey. In Falco tinnunculus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (18 %, mammals (76 % and other animals (6 %. Microtus arvalis was unambiguously the most frequent prey.

  13. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Adrion, Marius; Gamauf, Anita

    2018-01-01

    As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus) of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests) along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner-city nestlings are

  14. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus.

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    Petra Sumasgutner

    Full Text Available As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner

  15. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American kestrels on San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian L.; Kershner, Eric L.; Finn, S.P.; Condon, Anne M.; Cooper, Douglass M.; Garcelon, David K.

    2003-01-01

    American Kestrels( Falco sparverius) are typically secondary-cavity nesters, and use of natural cliff cavities for nest sites is less-commonly reported. On San Clemente Island (SCI), California, however, American Kestrels nest primarily on cliffs in major canyons(93%), to a lesser extent on seacliffs(4%), as well as in man-made structures (3%). We located and mapped 99 American Kestrel territories on SCI, and recorded 11 nest-site characteristics at 40 cliff nests during 2001-02. Nest cliffs were typically fractured igneous rock with mean height of 16.1 m +_ 1.8 SE. Mean slope of nest cliffs was vertical (x=91 degrees). Nest cliffs and cavities were significantly oriented to the southeast, away from the prevailing wind direction(NW). In eight canyons, where we believe that we found all occupied American Kestrel territories, the mean linear abundance was 2.1 pairs/km, greater than most published estimates. Contrary to most previous studies, no American Kestrels nested in tree cavities despite their presence in SCI canyons. The absence of cavity-excavating breeding birds from the island likely restricts kestrels to nesting in naturally-formed cavities and man-made structures.

  16. Sex-related differences in habitat associations of wintering American Kestrels in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfino, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used roadside survey data collected from 19 routes over three consecutive winters from 200708 to 200910 to compare habitat associations of male and female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) in the Central Valley of California to determine if segregation by sex was evident across this region. As a species, American Kestrels showed positive associations with alfalfa and other forage crops like hay and winter wheat, as well as grassland, irrigated pasture, and rice. Habitat associations of females were similar, with female densities in all these habitats except rice significantly higher than average. Male American Kestrels showed a positive association only with grassland and were present at densities well below those of females in alfalfa, other forage crops, and grassland. Males were present in higher densities than females in most habitats with negative associations for the species, such as orchards, urbanized areas, and oak savannah. The ratio of females to males for each route was positively correlated with the overall density of American Kestrels on that route. Our findings that females seem to occupy higher quality habitats in winter are consistent with observations from elsewhere in North America. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  17. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

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    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  18. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  19. Factors influencing liver PCB concentrations in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and herons (Ardea cinerea) in Britain

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    Wienburg, Claire L.; Shore, Richard F

    2004-11-01

    Large scale temporal and spatial changes in the exposure of terrestrial vertebrates to PCBs have been monitored in the UK by measuring liver residues in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) from throughout the country. Residues in the three species are typically characterised by large intra- and inter-specific variation. Data for 306 sparrowhawks, 186 kestrels and 47 herons collected between 1992 and 1997 as part of a national Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme were examined to determine how much of this variation was explained by body condition, age and sex, rather than other factors. In all three species, body condition was the single most important factor and accounted for up to 49% of the variation in PCB liver residues; starved birds had the highest liver concentrations. Age and sex were also significant but of lesser importance. Adult sparrowhawks and kestrels had liver PCB residues that were 2 to 10-fold higher than in first-year birds. Sex did not affect residue magnitude in a consistent manner. PCB concentrations in the liver were higher in males than females in both first-year and adult kestrels and in first-year sparrowhawks, but adult female sparrowhawks had similar PCB residues to adult males. Liver residues also varied seasonally. PCB concentrations in first-year sparrowhawks increased during the first year following fledging and a similar pattern was detected in adult female sparrowhawks following egg laying. When these physiological factors were taken into account, it was evident that while kestrels with high fat scores had significantly lower PCB concentrations than either sparrowhawks or herons, liver residues were similar in all three species when birds were in a starved condition. Overall during 1992-1997, the combined influence of body condition, age and sex explained more of the variation in liver PCB concentrations than species differences or other factors, such as geographical variation

  20. Effects of electromagnetic fields on photophasic circulating melatonin levels in American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Bird, D M; Petitclerc, D

    1999-11-01

    Birds reproduce within electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from transmission lines. Melatonin influences physiologic and behavioral processes that are critical to survival, and melatonin has been equivocally suppressed by EMFs in mammalian species. We examined whether EMFs affect photophasic plasma melatonin in reproducing adult and fledgling American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and whether melatonin was correlated with body mass to explain previously reported results. Captive kestrel pairs were bred under control or EMF conditions for one (short-term) or two (long-term) breeding seasons. EMF exposure had an overall effect on plasma melatonin in male kestrels, with plasma levels suppressed at 42 days and elevated at 70 days of EMF exposure. The similarity in melatonin levels between EMF males at 42 days and controls at 70 days suggests a seasonal phase-shift of the melatonin profile caused by EMF exposure. Melatonin was also suppressed in long-term fledglings, but not in short-term fledglings or adult females. Melatonin levels in adult males were higher than in adult females, possibly explaining the sexually dimorphic response to EMFs. Melatonin and body mass were not associated in American kestrels. It is likely that the results are relevant to wild raptors nesting within EMFs.

  1. Effects of methylmercury on reproduction in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Koterba, M.T.; Rossmann, R.; Link, W.A.; French, J.B.; Bennett, R.S.; Bauer, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty breeding pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed to a range of sublethal dietary concentrations of mercury (Hg), in the form of methylmercuric chloride, and their subsequent reproduction was measured. Egg production, incubation performance, and the number and percent of eggs hatched decreased markedly between 3.3 and 4.6 mg/kg dry weight of Hg (1.2 and 1.7 mg/kg wet wt), in the diet. The number of fledglings and the percent of nestlings fledged were reduced markedly at 0.7 mg/kg dry weight (0.3 mg/kg wet wt) and declined further between 2 and 3.3 mg/kg dry weight (0.7 and 1.2 mg/kg wet wt). Dietary concentrations of ?4.6 mg/kg dry weight (1.7 mg/kg wet wt) were associated with total fledging failure. The estimated decline in fledged young per pair (24%, Bayesian regression) for kestrels consuming 0.7 mg/kg dry weight (0.3 mg/ kg wet wt) raises concerns about population maintenance in areas subject to high inputs of anthropogenic Hg. Mercury concentrations in 20 second-laid eggs collected from all groups were related to dietary concentrations of Hg, and the Hg concentrations in 19 of these eggs were related to eggs laid and young fledged. Concentrations of Hg in eggs from the highest diet group (5.9 mg/kg dry wt; 2.2 mg/kg wet wt) were higher than egg concentrations reported for either wild birds or for captive birds (nonraptors) fed dry commercial food containing 5 mg/kg methylmercury. Accumulation ratios of Hg from diets to eggs were higher than those reported for feeding studies with other species.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of progesterone, estrone, estradiol-17 beta and corticosterone in female American kestrel plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, N B; Lague, P C; Bird, D M

    1984-04-01

    Progesterone, estrone, estradiol-17 beta and corticosterone were quantified simultaneously for the first time in female American kestrel (Falco sparverius) plasma. A mean level for each hormone was determined for the laying and non-laying periods of the summer (April-September), and for February. Means were comparable to those of other wild avian species and were significantly higher for the laying period than for the other 2 periods. The mean corticosterone level for February was higher than that for the non-laying summer period. Plasma from laying kestrels, unlike that from other avian species, required lipid removal before column chromatography. Of 2 lipid removal techniques compared, i.e. the cold methanol and hexane:methanol techniques, the latter proved superior.

  3. Acute responses of American kestrels to methyl parathion and fenvalerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o, methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10 h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?.C) and cold (-5?.C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (LD50=3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits=2.29-4.l4 mg/kg, producing overt intoxication (abnormal posture, ataxia, paresis), dose-dependent inhibition (26-67%) of brain acetylcholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Transient but pronounced hypothermia was associated with plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% (2 h after intubation), although this response was highly variable (plasma ChE inhibition vs. A cloacal temperature, r=-0.60). Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication (irregular head movement) and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, but did not alter cloacal temperature, plasma activities of CK, U-HBDH, and LDK, or concentrations of corticosterone, glucose, triiodothyronine, and uric acid. Cold exposure intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. It would thus appear that the organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion poses far greater hazard than the pyrethroid fenvalerate to raptorial birds.

  4. Dicofol residues in eggs and carcasses of captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Belisle, A.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3, 10, and 30 ?g/g (wet wt) of Kelthane?. Residues of dicofol and its metabolites were then analyzed in the eggs and carcasses of females. Significant differences occurred among treatments for residues of both p,p'-dicofol and p,p'-dechlorodicofol (DCD) in both eggs and carcasses and for p,p'-dicholorbenzophenone (DCBP) in eggs. Residue concentrations increased with increasing treatment exposure. Residues of p,p'-dicofol, p,p'-DCD, and p,p'-DCBP in eggs were significantly correlated with eggshell quality parameters. Significant correlations also occurred among contaminants in eggs and for individual contaminants between eggs and carcasses. The lowest-observed-dietary-effect concentration for eggshell thinning was 3 ?g/g, whereas 1 ?g/g may be considered to be near a no-observable-adverse-effect concentration. Concentrations of dicofol in potential prey items and eggs of wild birds generally have been lower than dietary-effect concentrations or concentrations in tissues or eggs associated with eggshell thinning and reduced reproductive success.

  5. Cannibalism of nestling American kestrels by their parents and siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Wiebe, Karen L.; Iko, William M.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the frequency of cannibalism of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in north-central Saskatchewan. We investigated human disturbance and food shortages as possible causes of it. Cannibalism of nestlings by their parents and siblings was confirmed by observation and by the presence of partially eaten carcasses, or inferred from the sudden disappearance of a nestling between frequent nest checks. Cannibalism occurred at 8% of 48 nests in 1988, and 18% of 92 nests in 1989. Not all nestlings that died were cannibalized. Where nestling mortality occurred, carcasses were eaten in at least 20% of nests in 1988, and 63% of nests in 1989. The chicks that were cannibalized died at a significantly younger age than those that died but were not cannibalized. The mass and age of the parent and the laying date were not associated with the occurrence of cannibalism. We found no strong evidence of a causal link between human disturbance and nestling mortality or cannibalism; however, the abundance of small mammal prey was inversely related to the frequency of cannibalism between years, and there were fewer prey and lower prey delivery rates in territories where cannibalism occurred than in territories where nestling mortality did not occur. The fact that some nestlings died but were not eaten suggests that such mortality was unrelated to food shortages. The food advantage of cannibalism may not outweigh potential disadvantages such as disease transmission.

  6. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  7. Organochlorine and heavy metal contamination in non-viable eggs and its relation to breeding success in a Spanish population of Lesser Kestrels (Falco naumanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, J J; Donázar, J A; Hiraldo, F; Hernández, L M; Fernández, M A

    1993-01-01

    Residues of organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc) were measured in unhatched eggs of Lesser Kestrels (Falco naumanni) collected in southern Spain in 1988-1991. Although contaminants were detected in all eggs, the amounts were generally below levels known to have negative effects on reproduction. This is consistent with the relatively high hatching rate (about 80%) in the studied population. The nestling mortality was severe, however, apparently due to starvation. It cannot be discounted that pesticides had an indirect effect on the kestrel's breeding success by reducing the populations of prey.

  8. The Migration of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Eastern Europe - A Ringing Recovery and Direct Observation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounas Anastasios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined ringing recovery data of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in order to analyse its migration patterns and philopatry rates in Eastern Europe. In addition, we extracted counts of migrating birds from online databases and studied the use of the flyway as well as the phenology of both spring and autumn migrations through Greece. Birds appeared to migrate in the same mean direction in spring and autumn through the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. During spring, movements took place on a broad front from March until mid- May with a peak in mid-April; in autumn, birds migrated through Greece on a narrower front from early August to early October, with most of individuals passing through Greece in mid-September. Finally, philopatry rates were higher for adults, while juvenile birds dispersed more often and at longer distances, up to 974 km away. Our results on migration patterns generally agree with those in other studies, but we found some evidence of long-distance premigratory movements towards mainland Greece that could also shape the narrower front migration in autumn. In addition, long distance dispersal movements of juveniles in southeastern Europe, where Lesser Kestrel populations show a fragmented distribution, could facilitate gene flow between populations, thus avoiding the negative effects of mating with genetically similar individuals.

  9. Toxicity of paraquat in nestling birds: effects on plasma and tissue biochemistry in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daivd J.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.; Bunck, Christine M.; Murray, Helen C.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily for 10 days with 5 μL/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) in distilled water. Forty-four percent of the nestlings receiving 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Plasma LDH activity and total protein concentration were elevated, and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in survivors of the 60 mg/kg group at 10 days. Lung total sulfhydryl (TSH) and protein-bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) concentrations were significantly higher in the 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg groups. Lung DNA, RNA, protein, and hydroxyproline (collagen) concentrations were not significantly affected by treatment. Liver NPSH was lower in the 60 mg/kg group while liver glycogen concentration was not affected by treatment. Kidney DNA, RNA, and RNA to protein concentration ratio were higher in the 25 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg groups. These findings in combination with recently reported effects on growth and histopathology suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species. From a comparative viewpoint, lungs of nestling kestrels are less sensitive to paraquat than mammalian lungs.

  10. Endocrine, developmental and reproductive impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (Arochlor 1242) in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Diverse field and experimental studies suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife could be caused by endocrine-like action of pollutants on embryos, and that functional deficits would be evident only later in life, during breeding. We tested these hypotheses in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Aroclor 1242 is a commercial mixture of PCB congeners shown to be estrogenic in mice and the mixture approximates the environmental exposure of Common terns (Sterna hirundo) where abnormal development of gonads in male tern chicks was seen. Pairs of kestrels were exposed to high and low levels of Aroclor in food resulting in mean egg concentrations of 80.4 and 9.4 ppm respectively. The gonadal orphology of hatchlings was consistent with their genetic sex, and male testes showed only little histological intersexuality; fledglings had nomal gonadal morphology and histology. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with increased dose of Aroclor. Similarly exposed siblings were raised to breeding age and displayed some differences in incubation behavior, but no difference in reproductive output from controls. Overall, kestrels exposed to Aroclor 1242 as embryos showed some moderate disruption of normal development, but siblings showed little functional deficit at breeding age.

  11. FIELD-MEASUREMENTS OF HANGING FLIGHT AERODYNAMICS IN THE KESTREL FALCO-TINNUNCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VIDELER, J; GROENEWOLD, A

    Hunting kestrels were observed to hang, almost without wing-flapping, in fixed positions over a sea dike. The height and position with respect to the dike profile, the wind direction and velocity and the percentage of hunting time without wing beating were recorded in 429 cases. The vertical wind

  12. Predation of Lesser Nacked-backed bats by a pair of American kestrels on the Island of Marie-Galante, French West Indies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoble, Arnaud; Bochaton, Corentin; Bos, Teddy; Discamps, Emmanuel; Queffelec, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Here we report the predation on a colony of Lesser naked-backed bat (Pteronotus davyi) by a pair of American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) based on observations over a 16 day period. Kestrels preyed on bats in the evening as they were leaving their roost with two factors controlling hunting efficiency, namely: (1) meteorological conditions, and (2) the time of flock formation. The frequency of occurrence is 93.8% and the success rate is 16.4%. We estimate that bats provid...

  13. Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

    2001-12-01

    The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a clutch (egg-day 1) to determine the effects of high prolactin concentrations on yolk-androgen concentrations. In both this study and one on free-living kestrels, we quantified changes in yolk-androgen concentrations with date of clutch initiation. Concentrations of ir-prolactin in nonlaying females rose with date, irrespective of food treatment. Egg-day 1 ir-prolactin concentrations were higher in control females laying late during the breeding phase than in those laying early. This increase was absent in food-reduced females. Yolk-androgen concentrations in eggs 3 and 4 but not eggs 1 and 2 of the clutch were higher in clutches initiated late than in clutches initiated early in the breeding phase in both the field and laboratory. o-prolactin treatment elevated yolk-testosterone but not androstenedione concentrations. These findings suggest that, in American kestrels, seasonal and laying-associated increases in plasma-prolactin concentrations elevate yolk-testosterone concentrations. Food availability and other factors may interact with date to regulate the effects of prolactin on yolk-testosterone deposition.

  14. Genetic favouring of pheomelanin-based pigmentation limits physiological benefits of coloniality in lesser kestrels Falco naumanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Moraleda, Virginia; Otero, Ignacio; Álvarez, Ernesto; Inácio, Ângela

    2017-10-01

    Pheomelanin contributes to the pigmentation phenotype of animals by producing orange and light brown colours in the integument. However, pheomelanin synthesis in melanocytes requires consumption of glutathione (GSH), the most important intracellular antioxidant. Therefore, a genetic control favouring the production of large amounts of pheomelanin for pigmentation may lead to physiological costs under environmental conditions that promote oxidative stress. We investigated this possibility in the context of breeding coloniality, a reproductive strategy that may affect oxidative stress. We found in lesser kestrel Falco naumanni nestlings that the GSH:GSSG ratio, which decreases with systemic oxidative stress, increased with the size of the colony where they were reared, but the expression in feather melanocytes of five genes involved in pheomelanin synthesis (Slc7a11, Slc45a2, CTNS, MC1R and AGRP) did not vary with colony size. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of lesser kestrel nestlings also increased with colony size, but in a manner that depended on Slc7a11 expression and not on the expression of the other genes. Thus, antioxidant capacity increased with colony size only in nestlings least expressing Slc7a11, a gene with a known role in mediating cysteine (a constituent amino acid of GSH) consumption for pheomelanin production. The main predictor of the intensity of pheomelanin-based feather colour was Slc45a2 expression followed in importance by Slc7a11 expression, hence suggesting that the genetic regulation of the pigmentation phenotype mediated by Slc7a11 and a lack of epigenetic lability in this gene limits birds from benefiting from the physiological benefits of coloniality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Eggshell thickness and reproduction in American kestrels exposed to chronic dietary lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were randomly paired and fed 0, 10, or 50 ppm metallic lead in their diet from November 1979-May 1980. Lead levels were elevated in bones and livers of birds receiving the treated diets, particularly the 50 ppm treatment group. Differential deposition of lead was noted between males and females, with the highest levels in the females. No adverse effects were evident with respect to survival, egg laying, or initiation of incubation in any treatment group nor was fertility or eggshell thickness affected. Little or no lead was transferred to the egg contents and although lead was present in the shell, the levels were too variable for this to be considered a useful measure of exposure.

  16. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6–189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7–253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either ≤10% or ≥80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate ≤10% of the meatball before exhibiting acute signs of toxicity. Fenthion-exposed owls and kestrels displayed a wide spectrum of meatball consumption (kestrels exposed to fenthion and carbofuran and dead owls exposed to fenthion (P<0.0001). Brain ChE activity of owls exposed to carbofuran that survived was not different from that of controls (P=0.25). Data suggest: (1) slow feeding on a carbamate-contaminated item may provide limited protection from the toxicity of the chemical at certain rates of exposure; (2) the degree of ChE inhibition at neuromuscular junctions may be critical in determining the sensitivity of a species to a carbamate insecticide; (3) sensitivity may be a function of the ChE affinity for the carbamate inhibitor; and (4) the importance of neuromuscular junction ChE depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  17. Acute toxicity of four anticholinesterase insecticides to American kestrels, eastern screech-owls and northern bobwhites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius), eastern screech-owls (Otus asio), and northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) were given single acute oral doses of four widely diverse anticholinesterase pesticides: EPN, fenthion, carbofuran, and monocrotophos. LD50s, based on birds that died within 5 d of dosage, were computed for each chemical in each species. Sex differences in the sensitivity of northern bobwhites in reproductive condition were examined. American kestrels were highly sensitive to all chemicals tested (LD50s 0.6--4.0 mg/kg). Eastern screech-owls were highly tolerant to EPN (LD50 274 mg/kg) but sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 1.5-3.9 mg/kg). Northern bobwhites were highly sensitive to monocrotophos (LD50 0.8 mg/kg) and less sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 4.6--31 mg/kg). Female bobwhites (LD50 3.1 mg/kg) were more sensitive to fenthion than males (LD50 7.0 mg/kg). Mean percent depression of brain cho[inesterase (ChE) of birds that died on the day of dosing exceeded 65% for all chemicals in all species. The response of one species to a given pesticide should not be used to predict the sensitivity of other species to the same pesticide. The need for research on several topics is discussed

  18. Plasma corticosterone in American kestrel siblings: effects of age, hatching order, and hatching asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Oliver P; Bird, David M; Shutt, Laird J

    2003-04-01

    Although it is well documented that hatching asynchrony in birds can lead to competitive and developmental hierarchies, potentially greatly affecting growth and survival of nestlings, hatching asynchrony may also precipitate modulations in neuroendocrine development or function. Here we examine sibling variation in adrenocortical function in postnatally developing, asynchronously hatching American kestrels (Falco sparverius) by measurements of baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone at ages 10, 16, 22, and 28 days posthatching. There was a significant effect of hatching order on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development and these effects grew stronger through development. First-hatched chicks exhibited higher baseline levels than later-hatched chicks throughout development and higher stress-induced levels during the latter half of development. Furthermore, there was significant hatching span (difference in days between first- and last-hatched chicks) x hatching order interaction on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development. Hatching span was also positively correlated with both measures of corticosterone and body mass in first-hatched chicks, but was negatively correlated with these factors through most of the development in last-hatched chicks. It is known that hatching asynchrony creates mass and size hierarchies within kestrel broods and we suggest that hierarchies in adrenocortical function among siblings may be one physiological mechanism by which these competitive hierarchies are maintained.

  19. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes) preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar,Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Motta,Adarene; Esberárd,Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887). Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were obs...

  20. Trends in American kestrel counts from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Bystrak, D.; Robbins, C.S.; Patterson, R.M.; Bird, David M.; Bowman, Reed

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year summary of the BBS data suggests that continental numbers of American Kestrels have increased during 1966-1979. According to analyses of physiographic and state/province strata, some areas are largely responsible for the increase in the U.S. and southern Canada and that only in Illinois and Arkansas have kestrels declined. BBS data are too few in Florida to detect trends concerning F. s. paulus. Surveying on special Raptor Routes, on which volunteers looked specifically for raptors while retracing their BBS route, did not significantly increase the kestrel counts, but did improve detection rates.

  1. Morphological and molecular genetic analysis of Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 (Nematoda, Acuariidae from the barn owl (Tyto alba and the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebmer D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the biodiversity initiative and barcoding project “Austrian Barcode of Life” (ABOL post mortem examinations of the gastro-intestinal tracts of different species of wild birds were carried out and several adult helminths were retrieved. In the gizzard of two barn owls (Tyto alba and one common kestrel (Falco tinnuculus acuariid nematodes belonging to the species Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 were discovered. This report illustrates the identification of this parasitic nematode by morphometric comparison and scanning electron microscopic photographs. Furthermore, genetic identification of individual parasites based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene was carried out. This report constitutes the first COI-based DNA barcoding of S. (S. laticeps and its first record in the barn owl (Tyto alba in Austria.

  2. Copulatory behaviour and paternity in the American kestrel: the adaptive significance of frequent copulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel; Bird; Kuhnlein

    1998-08-01

    The adaptive significance of repeated withinpair copulations is not well understood. We analysed the copulatory behaviour of 16 pairs of solitary-nesting American kestrels, Falco sparverius, in southern Quebec (Canada), and the achieved reproductive success (paternity) of 21 kestrel families determined by DNA fingerprinting, in terms of four hypotheses. (1) The paternity assurance hypothesis, which suggests that males copulate frequently to avoid being cuckolded, was rejected because there were few extrapair copulation attempts (<1% of all copulations observed), withinpair copulations were not timed during the fertile period and mate attendance did not increase as the fertile period approached. (2) The immediate material benefits hypothesis, which suggests that females trade copulations for food, was refuted because copulations most often occurred without food transfers, especially outside the fertile period. (3) The female mate guarding of males hypothesis, which suggests that females distract their mates from other mating opportunities by copulating frequently, was rejected because extrapair copulation attempts were infrequent, male and female solicitation frequencies were similar and females did not differ in the timing or frequency of solicitations. (4) The mate assessment hypothesis, which suggests that assessment of mate quality is mediated via copulation, most closely predicted the behaviour observed since withinpair copulations were frequent outside the fertile period and at pair formation, males and females solicited similar numbers of copulations and pairs did not differ significantly in solicitation or copulation frequency. In line with this hypothesis we found that only one brood was extrapair, probably the result of mate replacement.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  3. Non-random pairing in American kestrels: mate choice versus intra-sexual competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Iko, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Natural selection may influence the arrangement of individuals into mated pairs through either inter-sexual (mate choice) or intra-sexual selection (competition). A study of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, in northern Saskatchewan distinguished between these two processes using size as a measure of the bird's competitive ability, and condition (mass scaled to body size) as an index of quality. Both sexes arrive on the study area after spring migration in equal numbers and males establish territories. Males and females that moved among territories at the time of pair formation were not different in size or condition from those that did not move, suggesting that birds were not being displaced by superior competitors, and that females moved to encounter potential mates. Within mated pairs, there was no relationship between a bird's size and the condition of its mate for either sex as would be predicted if intra-sexual competitition explained mating patterns. Instead, there was positive assortative mating by condition, suggesting that both sexes used quality as the criterion in choosing mates. There was no correlation between the sizes of males and females in mated paird. Because there were no differences in size or condition of breeding and non-breeding males, factors other than physical attributes, such as prior experience with the area, may determine a male's success in obtaining a territory. Because females that did not obtain mates were in poorer condition than those that did, males may have rejected poor quality females. The results suggest that intra-sexual competition was not important for pair formation, and that kestrels chose mates on the basis of quality.

  4. The role of prolactin in the regulation of clutch size and onset of incubation behavior in the American kestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

    2000-11-01

    In most bird species, the timing of incubation onset may influence the degree of hatching asynchrony, which, together with variation in clutch size, affects reproductive success. In some domesticated species that usually show no hatching asynchrony, plasma prolactin concentrations in females rise with the onset of incubation and the end of laying, and this rise enhances incubation behavior and may terminate laying. To investigate whether a rise in prolactin during laying is involved in the regulation of clutch size and incubation onset in a species with hatching asynchrony, we measured plasma concentrations of immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in laying American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and quantified clutch size and incubation behavior. In a separate study, we administered one of three concentrations of ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) via osmotic pumps implanted in females when egg 2 of a clutch was laid. ir-Prolactin concentrations during laying were higher in small than in large clutches and increased in parallel with the development of incubation behavior. o-Prolactin treatment enhanced incubation behavior, but did not affect clutch size, possibly because the manipulation was performed after clutch size had already been determined. Consistent with studies on domesticated species that show synchronous hatching, our results indicate that rising prolactin during laying enhances the expression of incubation behavior in a species that shows hatching asynchrony. Further studies are necessary to determine whether the relationship between prolactin and clutch size in the American kestrel is one of causation or of mere association. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  6. Body condition and the adrenal stress response in captive American kestrel juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J A; Dufty, A M

    1998-01-01

    We examined the adrenal response to handling stress of birds in different body conditions. In order to affect the birds' body condition, young (73-d old) female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were maintained for 6 wk on one of three diets: a control diet (fed ad lib.) and two calorically restricted diets. To invoke a stress response, we removed birds from their cages and took repeated blood samples over the course of an hour. All birds responded to handling stress with an increase in plasma corticosterone, but control birds (in good body condition) showed a more rapid increase to maximum corticosterone levels, followed by a decrease. Both groups of food-restricted birds had a slower rate of increase to maximum corticosterone levels and then maintained high corticosterone levels through 60 min. These results suggest that birds in good physical condition respond more quickly to stressors and adapt physiologically to stressful situations more rapidly than do birds in poor physical condition. This difference may reflect the ability of birds in good condition to mobilize fat for energy, while birds in poor condition must mobilize protein (i.e., muscle).

  7. Mercury in the blood and eggs of American kestrels fed methylmercury chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing methylmercury chloride (MeHg) at 0, 0.6, 1.7, 2.8, 3.9, or 5.0 ??g/g (dry wt) starting approximately eight weeks before the onset of egg laying. Dietary treatment was terminated after 12 to 14 weeks, and unhatched eggs were collected for Hg analysis. Blood samples were collected after four weeks of treatment and the termination of the study (i.e., 12-14 weeks of treatment). Clutch size decreased at dietary concentrations above 2.8 ??g/g. The average total mercury concentration in clutches of eggs and in the second egg laid (i.e., egg B) increased linearly with dietary concentration. Mercury concentrations in egg B were approximately 25% lower than in the first egg laid and similar in concentration to the third egg laid. Mercury concentrations in whole blood and plasma also increased linearly with dietary concentration. Total Hg concentrations in June blood samples were lower than those in April, despite 8 to 10 weeks of additional dietary exposure to MeHg in the diet. This is likely because of excretion of Hg into growing flight feathers beginning shortly after the start of egg production. The strongest relationships between Hg concentrations in blood and eggs occurred when we used blood samples collected in April before egg laying and feather molt. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  8. Family Planning in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) : The Ultimate Control of Covariation of Laying Date and Clutch Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Dijkstra, Cor; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    The theory that individual birds maximize their fitness by the two major decisions in reproduction concerning date (when to start laying eggs) and clutch size (when to stop laying eggs) is empirically approached in the Kestrel by quantifying Fisher's Reproductive Value for both the clutch (Vc =

  9. Investigating endocrine and physiological parameters of captive American kestrels exposed by diet to selected organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kimberly J; Palace, Vince; Peters, Lisa E; Basu, Nil; Letcher, Robert J; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Schultz, Sandra L; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Rattner, Barnett A

    2015-06-16

    Organophosphate triesters are high production volume additive flame retardants (OPFRs) and plasticizers. Shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, little is known about the risks they pose. Captive adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed the same dose (22 ng OPFR/g kestrel/d) daily (21 d) of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), or tris(1,2-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). Concentrations were undetected in tissues (renal, hepatic), suggesting rapid metabolism. There were no changes in glutathione status, indicators of hepatic oxidative status, or the cholinergic system (i.e., cerebrum, plasma cholinesterases; cerebrum muscarinic, nicotinic receptors). Modest changes occurred in hepatocyte integrity and function (clinical chemistry). Significant effects on plasma free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations occurred with exposure to TBOEP, TCEP, TCIPP, and TDCIPP; TBOEP and TCEP had additional overall effects on free thyroxine (FT4), whereas TDCIPP also influenced total thyroxine (TT4). Relative increases (32%-96%) in circulating FT3, TT3, FT4, and/or TT4 were variable with each OPFR at 7 d exposure, but limited thereafter, which was likely maintained through decreased thyroid gland activity and increased hepatic deiodinase activity. The observed physiological and endocrine effects occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations and suggest parent OPFRs or metabolites may have been present despite rapid degradation.

  10. Amino Acid Specific Stable Nitrogen Isotope Values in Avian Tissues: Insights from Captive American Kestrels and Wild Herring Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, C E; Popp, B N; Fernie, K J; Ka'apu-Lyons, C; Rattner, B A; Wallsgrove, N

    2016-12-06

    Through laboratory and field studies, the utility of amino acid compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) in avian studies is investigated. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed an isotopically characterized diet and patterns in δ 15 N values of amino acids (AAs) were compared to those in their tissues (muscle and red blood cells) and food. Based upon nitrogen isotope discrimination between diet and kestrel tissues, AAs could mostly be categorized as source AAs (retaining baseline δ 15 N values) and trophic AAs (showing 15 N enrichment). Trophic discrimination factors based upon the source (phenylalanine, Phe) and trophic (glutamic acid, Glu) AAs were 4.1 (muscle) and 5.4 (red blood cells), lower than those reported for metazoan invertebrates. In a field study involving omnivorous herring gulls (Larus argentatus smithsonianus), egg AA isotopic patterns largely retained those observed in the laying female's tissues (muscle, red blood cells, and liver). Realistic estimates of gull trophic position were obtained using bird Glu and Phe δ 15 N values combined with β values (difference in Glu and Phe δ 15 N in primary producers) for aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Egg fatty acids were used to weight β values for proportions of aquatic and terrestrial food in gull diets. This novel approach can be applied to generalist species that feed across ecosystem boundaries.

  11. Divergent hepatitis E virus in birds of prey, common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and red-footed falcon (F. vespertinus), Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has raised considerable public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the animal to animal transmissions and the natural chain of hepevirus infections in wildlife are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a novel HEV in birds of prey was serendipitously identified in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected in total of 2 (18%) of the 11 and 1 (14%) of the 7 faecal samples from common kestrels and red-footed falcons, respectively. High faecal viral load (2.03×10(8) genomic copies/ml) measured by qPCR. The complete genome of strain kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN (KU670940) HEV is 7033-nt long including a 35-nt 5'end and a 63-nt 3'end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (4920nt/639 aa), ORF2 (1989nt/662 aa) and ORF3 (360nt/119aa) proteins of kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN shared the highest identity (58.1%, 66.8% and 28.5%) to the corresponding proteins of ferret, rat and human genotype 4 Orthohepeviruses, respectively. Interestingly, the ORF3 protein is potentially initiated with leucine (L) using an alternate, non-AUG (UUG) start codon. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel Orthohepevirus species related to mammalian HEVs in birds of prey. It is important to recognize all potential hosts, reservoirs and spreaders in nature and to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of hepeviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Federoff, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1982, extensive waterfowl mortality due to white phosphorus (P4) has been observed at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh near Anchorage, Alaska. Ducks and swans that ingest P4 pellets become lethargic and may display severe convulsions. Intoxicated waterfowl attract raptors and gulls that feed on dead or dying birds. To determine if avian predators can be affected by secondary poisoning, we fed American kestrels (Falco sparverius) 10-day-old domestic chickens that had been dosed with white phosphorus. Eight of 15 kestrels fed intact chicks with a pellet of P4 implanted in their crops died within seven days. Three of 15 kestrels fed chicks that had their upper digestive tracts removed to eliminate any pellets of white phosphorus also died. Hematocrit and hemoglobin in kestrels decreased whereas lactate dehydrogenaseL, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma increased with exposure to contaminated chicks. Histological examination of liver and kidneys showed that the incidence and severity of lesions increased when kestrels were fed contaminated chicks. White phosphorus residues were measurable in 87% of the kestrels dying on study and 20% of the survivors. This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4 contaminated prey.

  13. Developmental toxicity of in ovo exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: II. Effects of maternal or paternal exposure on second-generation nestling american kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim; Bortolotti, Gary; Drouillard, Ken; Smits, Judit; Marchant, Tracy

    2003-11-01

    The development of second-generation nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was altered by in ovo exposure of only one parent to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Polychlorinated biphenyls appear to alter nestling development through both maternally and paternally mediated effects. In 1998, F0 parent kestrels consumed approximately 5 to 7 microg total PCBs/g bird/d (Aroclors 1248:1254: 1260) for approximately 100 d prior to eggs hatching; these eggs, containing total PCB concentrations of 34.1 microg/g, produced 13 F1 offspring, which were then paired in 1999 with unexposed kestrels to examine developmental effects of maternal or paternal in ovo PCB exposure. Using a toxicokinetics model, eggs from the maternally exposed group had predicted PCB levels of 0.03 to 0.34 microg/g, with enriched higher chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in eggs of all generations have recently been found in eggs and nestlings of free-ranging eagles. Consistent with the first generation, maternally exposed F2 females generally were larger, had altered growth rates, and delayed maximal growth and fledging compared with control females. Maternally exposed F2 males were heavier but had shorter bones, grew more quickly and earlier, and fledged 2 d later than control males. In the maternally exposed group, concentrations of plasma triiodothyronine were elevated in F2 females but suppressed in F2 males. Paternally exposed F2 hatchlings of both sexes were comparable in size to controls with the exception of having longer tarsi bones, but subsequently showed slower, delayed growth (both sexes) and fledging (females) and lower thyroxine concentrations (males). The alterations in thyroid hormones in the F2 generation are discussed in light of the enrichment of higher chlorinated PCB congeners and hydroxylated PCB congeners. The developmental changes in the kestrel nestlings are likely a function of several possible mechanisms involving maternal PCB deposition

  14. Ljungan/Sebokele-like picornavirus in birds of prey, common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and red-footed falcon (F. vespertinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2017-11-01

    Ljungan and Sebokele viruses are thought to be rodent-borne (picorna)viruses in the genus Parechovirus. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing method a novel Ljungan/Sebokele-like picornavirus was identified in birds of prey. Viral RNA was detected in total of 1 (9%) of the 11 and 2 (28.6%) of the 7 faecal samples from common kestrels and red-footed falcons in Hungary, respectively. High faecal viral RNA load (4.77×10 6 genomic copies/ml) measured by qPCR. The complete genome of picornavirus strain falcon/HA18_080/2014/HUN (KY645497) is 7964-nucleotide (nt) long including a 867-nt 5'end and a 101-nt 3'end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Falcon/HA18_080/2014/HUN has type-II IRES related to hunnivirus IRES, encodes a polyprotein lacking a leader protein, a VP0 maturation cleavage site and it predicted to encode three 2A proteins (2A 1 NPG↓P , 2A 2 NPG↓P and 2A 3 H-Box/NC ), two of them end with 'ribosome-skipping' sites (DxExNPG ↓ P). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (6996nt) polyprotein (2331 amino acid - aa) of falcon/HA18_080/2014/HUN shares the highest aa identity, 59% and 57%, to the corresponding polyproteins of Ljungan and Sebokele viruses. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel Ljungan/Sebokele-like picornavirus in faeces of birds of prey which suggests that the genetic diversity and the potential host species spectrum of Ljungan/Sebokele-like viruses in genus Parechovirus are wider than previously thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for methylmercury in female American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.W.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.; French, J.B.; Sappington, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH 3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cells, and remaining carcass. Additional compartments describe the elimination of CH3Hg to eggs and growing feathers. Dietary uptake of CH 3Hg was modeled as a diffusion-limited process, and the distribution of CH3Hg among compartments was assumed to be mediated by the flow of blood plasma. To the extent possible, model parameters were developed using information from American kestrels. Additional parameters were based on measured values for closely related species and allometric relationships for birds. The model was calibrated using data from dietary dosing studies with American kestrels. Good agreement between model simulations and measured CH3Hg concentrations in blood and tissues during the loading phase of these studies was obtained by fitting model parameters that control dietary uptake of CH 3Hg and possible hepatic demethylation. Modeled results tended to underestimate the observed effect of egg production on circulating levels of CH3Hg. In general, however, simulations were consistent with observed patterns of CH3Hg uptake and elimination in birds, including the dominant role of feather molt. This model could be used to extrapolate CH 3Hg kinetics from American kestrels to other bird species by appropriate reassignment of parameter values. Alternatively, when combined with a bioenergetics-based description, the model could be used to simulate CH 3Hg kinetics in a long-term environmental exposure. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  16. PATHOLOIGCAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS ( FALCO SPARVERIUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl mercury in aquatic food webs poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the environment, ...

  17. PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS (FALCO SPARVERIIUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl mercury in the aquatic food web poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both the aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the enviro...

  18. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.

  19. A comparative study on the histological structure of the spleen in the ostrich (Struthio camelus), the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlu, Tolunay; Karadag Sari, Ebru; Akaydin Bozkurt, Yesim; Altunay, H

    2011-06-01

    The spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. The histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). For this purpose, Mallory's modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. Germinal centers were not present in the spleen of the osprey. In the spleen of the kestrel, penicillar arterioles and the surrounding lymphoid tissue were markedly dense. Compared to the other two birds, the red and white pulps were clearly distinguishable in the spleen of the ostrich.

  20. Flame retardants in eggs of American kestrels and European starlings from southern Lake Ontario region (North America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela

    2012-11-01

    While a number of studies have extensively investigated flame retardant (FR) contamination in aquatic ecosystems from the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, there remains a dearth of information for terrestrial ecosystems. In the current study, American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (AMKE) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (EUST) that are terrestrial ecosystem consumers, and from the southern Lake Ontario regions, were investigated as potential terrestrial bio-monitoring species. Egg homogenates were screened for sixteen PBDE congeners and nineteen non-PBDE FRs of established or emerging environmental importance. PBDE congeners dominated the FR burdens in eggs of AMKE and EUST, with total concentrations ranging from 3.4 to 39.8 (median: 13.5) and 1.5 to 117 (median: 4.9) ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Although the production and application of the Firemaster FF-1 (a commercial hexabromobiphenyl PBB mixture) has been discontinued for over four decades, its major component, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), was still frequently detected in AMKE and EUST eggs. Two isomers of the chlorinated FR Dechlorane plus (DP) were mostly detected in eggs collected from Niagara-on-the-Lake in the western portion of Lake Ontario, approximately 15 km from the only North American DP manufacturing site, clearly reflecting point source influences. FR comparisons in eggs from AMKE, EUST and Great Lakes herring gulls revealed species-specific contamination burdens and PBDE congener profiles, likely due to influences from trophic levels and PBDE congener-specific bioaccumulation and biomagnification capacities in terrestrial versus aquatic food chains. Insectivorous birds (e.g. great tit) and relatives of AMKE have also been used as bio-monitoring tools in European and Asian regions, allowing investigation of spatial distribution patterns on a more international scale. AMKE and EUST have also been used as model species for laboratory evaluation of FR toxic effects in

  1. Why Do Kestrels Soar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Hernández-Pliego

    Full Text Available Individuals allocate considerable amounts of energy to movement, which ultimately affects their ability to survive and reproduce. Birds fly by flapping their wings, which is dependent on the chemical energy produced by muscle work, or use soaring-gliding flight, in which chemical energy is replaced with energy harvested from moving air masses, such as thermals. Flapping flight requires more energy than soaring-gliding flight, and this difference in the use of energy increases with body mass. However, soaring-gliding results in lower speeds than flapping, especially for small species. Birds therefore face a trade-off between energy and time costs when deciding which flight strategy to use. Raptors are a group of large birds that typically soar. As relatively light weight raptors, falcons can either soar on weak thermals or fly by flapping with low energy costs. In this paper, we study the flight behavior of the insectivorous lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni during foraging trips and the influence of solar radiation, which we have adopted as a proxy for thermal formation, on kestrel flight variables. We tracked 35 individuals from two colonies using high frequency GPS-dataloggers over four consecutive breeding seasons. Contrary to expectations, kestrels relied heavily on thermal soaring when foraging, especially during periods of high solar radiation. This produced a circadian pattern in the kestrel flight strategy that led to a spatial segregation of foraging areas. Kestrels flapped towards foraging areas close to the colony when thermals were not available. However, as soon as thermals were formed, they soared on them towards foraging areas far from the colony, especially when they were surrounded by poor foraging habitats. This reduced the chick provisioning rate at the colony. Given that lesser kestrels have a preference for feeding on large insects, and considering the average distance they cover to capture them during foraging trips, to

  2. Why Do Kestrels Soar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pliego, Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Individuals allocate considerable amounts of energy to movement, which ultimately affects their ability to survive and reproduce. Birds fly by flapping their wings, which is dependent on the chemical energy produced by muscle work, or use soaring-gliding flight, in which chemical energy is replaced with energy harvested from moving air masses, such as thermals. Flapping flight requires more energy than soaring-gliding flight, and this difference in the use of energy increases with body mass. However, soaring-gliding results in lower speeds than flapping, especially for small species. Birds therefore face a trade-off between energy and time costs when deciding which flight strategy to use. Raptors are a group of large birds that typically soar. As relatively light weight raptors, falcons can either soar on weak thermals or fly by flapping with low energy costs. In this paper, we study the flight behavior of the insectivorous lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) during foraging trips and the influence of solar radiation, which we have adopted as a proxy for thermal formation, on kestrel flight variables. We tracked 35 individuals from two colonies using high frequency GPS-dataloggers over four consecutive breeding seasons. Contrary to expectations, kestrels relied heavily on thermal soaring when foraging, especially during periods of high solar radiation. This produced a circadian pattern in the kestrel flight strategy that led to a spatial segregation of foraging areas. Kestrels flapped towards foraging areas close to the colony when thermals were not available. However, as soon as thermals were formed, they soared on them towards foraging areas far from the colony, especially when they were surrounded by poor foraging habitats. This reduced the chick provisioning rate at the colony. Given that lesser kestrels have a preference for feeding on large insects, and considering the average distance they cover to capture them during foraging trips, to commute using flapping

  3. Developmental effects of Arochlor 1242 in American kestrels and associated hormone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, diverse field and experimental studies have been brought together to suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife might be caused by the endocrine-like activity of pollutants acting on embryos. For example, hormonal and gonadal anomalies in juvenile alligators from Florida are associated with exposure to DDT and dicofol, experimental work on laboratory rodents has identified estrogenic and androgenic properties of several pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, and injection of gull eggs with metabolites of DDT produces intersex gonads in the male hatchlings. Very little evidence is available for birds that demonstrates a deficit in reproductive capability by this mechanism. Our breeding and egg-injection studies are investigating the potential of Aroclor 1242 and hydroxylated PCB congener 30, both with known estrogenic activity, to alter the course of embryonic development of reproductive structures and to affect later reproductive function in American kestrels. Findings from young birds whose parents were exposed indicated that gonadal morphology appeared consistent with the genetic sex of exposed birds; testes of exposed birds showed no difference in size or symmetry when compared to controls. Histological preparations showed very little intersexuality of male testes; females had ovaries that were indistinguishable from controls. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with greater dose of Aroclor; females hatchlings that resulted from injected eggs showed an opposite trend. Analyses in progress include LHRH and catecholamine concentrations in the brain.

  4. Changes in thyroid parameters of hatchling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs; C10-13, 55.5% CL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kimberly J; Henry, Paula F.; Letcher, Robert J; Palace, Vince; Peters, Lisa; Rattner, Barnett A.; Sverko, Edward; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes categorized according to their carbon chain length: short chain (SCCPs, C10 – C13), medium (C14 - C17), and long chain (C>17), chlorinated paraffins. SCCPs are primarily used in metalworking applications, as flame retardants, and in paints, adhesives, sealants, textiles, plastics and rubber (UNEP 2012). In 2012, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP 2012) reported in the Revised Draft Risk Profile for SCCPs, that CPs were produced in the United States, the European Union (EU), Slovakia, Brazil, India, Japan and China. While annual global consumption of SCCPs is large (>25 tonnes/year), it has sharply declined over the past 20 years. SCCPs are released through wastewater, landfills, and air emissions (UNEP 2012). Concentrations of SCCPs have been reported in fish and marine mammals in North and South America, Europe, Japan, Greenland and the Arctic (UNEP 2012 and references therein). Characterization of SCCP concentrations and exposure in terrestrial wildlife is limited. In 2010, SCCP concentrations were reported in the eggs of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) (4536 ± 40 pg/g wet weight (ww)) and Audouin’s gulls (Larus audouinii) (6364 ± 20 pg/g ww) in Spain (Morales et al. 2012), and little auks (Alle alle) (5 - 88 ng/g ww) and kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) (5 - 44 ng/g ww) in the European Arctic (Reth et al. 2006). In Sweden, muscle of ospreys contained CPs of unspecified chain length (Jansson et al. 1993). Although the toxicity of SCCPs has been demonstrated in aquatic invertebrates, fish, frogs, and laboratory rats, there are limited avian studies and these reported no effects of SCCPs on egg parameters of domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) (UNEP 2012). Despite reported accumulation of SCCPs in wild birds, to our knowledge, exposure-related toxicities and effects with respect to avian wildlife remain unknown.

  5. Haematozoan infections in the Eurasian kestrel : Effects of fluctuating food supply and experimental manipulation of parental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehn, J.; Korpimaki, E.; Pen, I.R.

    The influence of parental effort on susceptibility to parasitism was investigated experimentally in the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Finland. Parental effort was manipulated by either enlarging or reducing broods by 1-2 young, while unmanipulated broods served as controls. This was done

  6. Observation of Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus raiding the nest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Seasonal and annual dietary changes in Lesser Kestrels Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proportion of pellets containing scarabaeid and carabid beetles, as well as those containing locusts and crickets, increased as the wintering season progressed, while the proportion of pellets containing solifugids decreased during the same period. Significant differences in diet composition were recorded between the ...

  8. Diet composition of lesser kestrels in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel is recognized as “Least Concern” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List since 2011. So far, all available diet studies on the lesser kestrel were conducted in its European range or in partial African breeding and nonbreeding range. In particular, little is known about the feeding behavior of this small falcon in Asian ranges. Thus, this study can be considered as the first to examine the diet composition of the central Asian breeding populations of lesser kestrels. This study aims to provide some information about the diet composition of this species among Asian populations through biological and ecological investigations. Pellets (n = 762 dropped by lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni were collected during their breeding season from nine to 10 colony sites in Ikh Nart, between June and September of 2009 and 2010, and analyzed. A total of 1,484 prey items were identified in the pellets collected. After a measure of their weight (g and length and width (mm, we carefully examined each pellet and separated all prey remains using tweezers. Our results indicated that insects (including orthopterans and coleopterans were dominant in lesser kestrel’s diets. We found that the lesser kestrel’s diet mainly consisted of insects (69.7%, lizards (17.4%, small mammals (10%, small birds (2%, and other food (1%. Keywords: diet composition, insects, pellets, reptiles, small mammals

  9. Kestrel-prey dynamic in a Mediterranean region: the effect of generalist predation and climatic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Fargallo

    Full Text Available Most hypotheses on population limitation of small mammals and their predators come from studies carried out in northern latitudes, mainly in boreal ecosystems. In such regions, many predators specialize on voles and predator-prey systems are simpler compared to southern ecosystems where predator communities are made up mostly of generalists and predator-prey systems are more complex. Determining food limitation in generalist predators is difficult due to their capacity to switch to alternative prey when the basic prey becomes scarce.We monitored the population density of a generalist raptor, the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus over 15 years in a mountainous Mediterranean area. In addition, we have recorded over 11 years the inter-annual variation in the abundance of two main prey species of kestrels, the common vole Microtus arvalis and the eyed lizard Lacerta lepida and a third species scarcely represented in kestrel diet, the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. We estimated the per capita growth rate (PCGR to analyse population dynamics of kestrel and predator species.Multimodel inference determined that the PCGR of kestrels was better explained by a model containing the population density of only one prey species (the common vole than a model using a combination of the densities of the three prey species. The PCGR of voles was explained by kestrel abundance in combination with annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. In the case of shrews, growth rate was also affected by kestrel abundance and temperature. Finally, we did not find any correlation between kestrel and lizard abundances.Our study showed for the first time vertebrate predator-prey relationships at southern latitudes and determined that only one prey species has the capacity to modulate population dynamics of generalist predators and reveals the importance of climatic factors in the dynamics of micromammal species and lizards in the Mediterranean region.

  10. Captivity Diets Alter Egg Yolk Lipids of a Bird of Prey (the American Kestrel) and of a Galliforme (the Red-Legged Partridge)

    OpenAIRE

    Surai, Peter F.; Speake, Brian K.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Negro, Juan J.

    2001-01-01

    The salient feature of the fatty acid profile of kestrel eggs collected in the wild was the very high proportion of arachidonic acid (15.2% 0.7% of fatty acid mass, np5) in the phospholipid fraction of the yolk. Kestrels in captivity fed on dayold chickens produced eggs that differed from those of the wild birds in a number of compositional features: the proportion of linoleic acid was increased in all the lipid fractions; the proportion of arachidonic acid was increased ...

  11. Nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in the province of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in Vojvodina (Serbia was done in the period from 1986 to 2004. During three specially analyzed periods, saker falcon took the nests of raven (Corvus corax in 91% of a total of 22 cases of nest occupation, and those of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in only 9%. Saker falcon regularly grabs prey from different birds that occasionally or constantly spend time around power lines [Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, hobby (Falco subbuteo, hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix, jack-daw (Corvus monedula, marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus, hen harrier (Circus cyaneus, buzzard (Buteo buteo, and raven (Corvus corax]. One year a studied pair of saker falcons on a power line in Donji Srem, Serbia grabbed prey from five different species of birds. Out of a total of 40 cases of prey grabbing in the period from January to December, as much 70% of the grabbed prey was taken from kestrel (Falco tinnunculus. During the winter and early spring, prey was grabbed predominantly by males; after May, prey was sometimes grabbed by females as well. Most of the grabbed prey was common vole (Microtus arvalis.

  12. Captivity diets alter egg yolk lipids of a bird of prey (the American kestrel) and of a galliforme (the red-legged partridge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Bortolotti, G R; Negro, J J

    2001-01-01

    The salient feature of the fatty acid profile of kestrel eggs collected in the wild was the very high proportion of arachidonic acid (15.2%+/-0.7% of fatty acid mass, n=5) in the phospholipid fraction of the yolk. Kestrels in captivity fed on day-old chickens produced eggs that differed from those of the wild birds in a number of compositional features: the proportion of linoleic acid was increased in all the lipid fractions; the proportion of arachidonic acid was increased in yolk phospholipid and cholesteryl ester; the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid was decreased in all lipid classes, and that of docosahexaenoic acid was decreased in phospholipid and cholesteryl ester. Partridge eggs from the wild contained linoleic acid as the main polyunsaturate of all the yolk lipid fractions. Captive partridges maintained on a formulated diet very rich in linoleic acid produced eggs with increased levels of linoleic, arachidonic, and n-6 docosapentaenoic acids in the phospholipid fraction; reduced proportions of alpha-linolenic acid were observed in all lipid classes, and the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid was markedly reduced in the phospholipid fraction. Thus, captive breeding of both the kestrel and the partridge increases the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturate ratio of the yolk lipids.

  13. Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2007-12-01

    Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour.

  14. Magnetic fields produced by power lines do not affect growth, serum melatonin, leukocytes and fledging success in wild kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Costantini, David; Lucini, Valeria; Antonucci, Giovanni; Nonno, Romolo; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2009-09-01

    Nesting on high voltage transmission line towers exposes birds to electric and magnetic fields for long periods. Nestlings are exposed from their development in ovo until fledging. This is a critical period for them because the quality of the developmental environment may affect their fitness at adulthood. We carried out a field study on Eurasian kestrels, Falco tinnunculus, to compare chicks from pairs nesting on high voltage power lines vs. those nesting in control sites in similar habitats. The magnetic field (MF) was measured in each nest-box and analysed in relation to growth curves, melatonin levels, leukocyte counts, and fledging success. None of the variables differed between exposed and control nestlings. Wing length (proxy of age) showed a negative covariation with serum melatonin concentration. Our findings suggest that exposure to MFs produced by high voltage power lines during the embryonic and post-hatching period (until fledging) does not have significant short-term physiological effects on kestrel nestlings.

  15. Transfer of hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant isomers from captive American kestrel eggs to feathers and their association with thyroid hormones and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2017-01-01

    Feathers are useful for monitoring contaminants in wild birds and are increasingly used to determine persistent organic pollutants. However, few studies have been conducted on birds with known exposure levels. We aimed to determine how well nestling feather concentrations reflect in ovo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β- and γ-HBCDD), and to determine if feather concentrations are related to physiological biomarkers. Captive kestrels (n = 11) were exposed in ovo to maternally transferred HBCDD-isomers at concentrations of 127, 12 and 2 ng/g wet weight of α-, β- and γ-HBCDD (measured in sibling eggs), respectively, and compared to controls (n = 6). Nestling growth was monitored at 5 d intervals and circulating thyroid hormone concentrations assessed at d 20. Tail feathers were collected prior to the first molt and analyzed for HBCDD isomers. The mean ΣHBCDD concentration in feathers was 2405 pg/g dry weight (in exposed birds) and α-, β- and γ-HBCDD made up 32%, 13%, and 55%, respectively of the ΣHBCDD concentrations. This isomer distribution deviated from the typical dominance of α-HBCDD reported in vertebrate samples. Exposed chicks had significantly higher feather concentrations of β- and γ-HBCDD compared with controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001 respectively), while α-HBCDD concentrations did not differ between the two groups. Feather concentrations of α-HBCDD were best explained by egg concentrations of β- or γ-HBCDD concentrations (w i  = 0.50, 0.30 respectively), while feather concentrations of β- and γ-HBCDD were influenced by growth parameters (rectrix length: w i  = 0.61; tibiotarsus length: w i  = 0.28). These results suggest that feather α-HBCDD concentrations may reflect internal body burdens, whereas β- and γ-HBCDD may be subject to selective uptake. The α-HBCDD concentrations in the feathers were negatively associated with the ratio of plasma free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine (T 3 :T 4 ; p = 0

  16. Morphological properties of the last primaries, the tail feathers, and the alulae of Accipiter nisus, Columba livia, Falco peregrinus, and Falco tinnunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Ponitz, Benjamin; Brücker, Christoph; Schmitz, Helmut; Herweg, Jan; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). In all four species, the Young's moduli of the feathers ranged from 5.9 to 8.4 GPa. The feather shafts of F. peregrinus had the largest cross-sections and the highest specific bending stiffness. When normalized with respect to body mass, the specific bending stiffness of primary number 10 was highest in F. tinnunculus, while that of the alula was highest in A. nisus. In comparison, the specific bending stiffness, measured at the base of the tail feathers and in dorso-ventral bending direction, was much higher in F. peregrinus than in the other three species. This seems to correlate with the flight styles of the birds: F. tinnunculus hovers and its primaries might therefore withstand large mechanical forces. A. nisus has often to change its flight directions during hunting and perhaps needs its alulae for this maneuvers, and in F. peregrinus, the base of the tail feathers might need a high stiffness during breaking after diving. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The use of kestrels in toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Lincer, J.L.; Bird, David M.; Bowen, Reed

    1987-01-01

    Various species of kestrels have become important bioindicators of environmental quality and test species for comparative toxicology in captivity. At least 7 species of kestrels have been used to document the presence of environmental contamination primarily organochlorines and metals, in at least 15 countries. Captive kestrels have been used in studies involving a wide variety of environmental contaminants and toxicants examining: bioaccumulation; lethal toxicity using acute, chronic, and secondary exposures; effects on reproduction, eggshell thickness, and related enzyme systems; and effects on a wide variety of physiological and biochemical parameters. Field studies have examined the response of kestrels to exposure to insecticides. Kestrels should continue to play a vital role as a bioindicator and raptorial 'white mouse', especially because of their relationship to other falconiformes, several of which have been shown to be extremely sensitive to environmental changes.

  18. Body condition variation in kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings in relation to breeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Carello, Livia; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    The body condition index (i.e., body mass corrected for age or size differences) is commonly used to investigate offspring condition in nestling birds. The body condition index reflects different parameters related to the general nutritional state of nestlings and may predict survival prospects.

  19. Hobbies (Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo) versus bats over Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Hobbies (Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo) versus bats over. Kampala skies. The African Hobby Falco cuvieri is widely distributed in the sub-Saharan part of the continent (Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). However, it is unaccountably rare in much of the range (Brown et al. 1982), making specific observations ...

  20. Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis American Kestrel Falco sparverius American Pipit Anthus rubescens American Robin Turdus migratorius Ash-throated...Name Lesser Goldfinch Carduelis psaltria Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis Lincoln’s Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii Loggerhead Shrike Lanius... Carduelis pinus Pinyon Jay Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus Plumbeous Vireo Vireo plumbeus Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus Red-tailed Hawk Buteo

  2. Intraspecific Allometry of Basal Metabolic Rate : Relations with Body Size, Temperature, Composition, and Circadian Phase in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Masman, Dirkjan; Strijkstra, Arjen; Verhulst, Simon

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in homeotherms has been treated in the literature primarily by comparison between species of mammals or birds. This paper focuses on the intraindividual changes in BMR when body mass (W) varies with different maintenance regimens. BMR

  3. MF magnitude does not affect body condition, pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants in Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    Pylons of utility lines are commonly used by breeding birds as structures for supporting their nests. Nesting near power lines, however, exposes adult birds and their offspring to the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) produced by the current. Therefore, we searched for possible relationships

  4. Nesting biology and food habits of the Peregrine Falcon Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied nesting biology, behaviour, and diet of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus radama in Madagascar during two breeding seasons at Tsimanampetsotsa Natural Reserve in the south-west (n = 2 nests) and at Tritriva Lake (n = 1 nest) on the central plateau from July to November 1999 and June to October 2000, ...

  5. Migration of a Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus calidus from Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In boreal autumn 1995, we tracked a migrating adult Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus calidus from the border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen to near Cape Town, South Africa, a distance of 6 346 km. While on migration it covered 288 km d−1, on average. During its migration in Africa it migrated faster than any other ...

  6. Variation of a carotenoid-based trait in relation to oxidative stress and endocrine status during the breeding season in the Eurasian kestrel: a multi-factorial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, S; Dell'omo, G; Costantini, D; Tagliavini, J; Groothuis, T

    2011-09-01

    Carotenoid-based skin colorations vary seasonally in many bird species and are thought to be honest sexually selected signals. In order to provide more insight in the potential signal function and underlying mechanisms of such colorations we here quantified patterns of variation of leg coloration in adult male and female Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus) over the breeding season, and evaluated the relationship between coloration and levels of carotenoids, androgens and estrogens, oxidative damage and plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity. We studied both reproducing wild and non-reproducing captive birds to test for the effect of diet and breeding effort. Males were more colored than females only during mating, and independently of diet, suggesting that leg-color is a sexually selected trait. Seasonal variation in leg color was associated with circulating carotenoids, but concentrations of these molecules were not related to antioxidant capacity, body condition or oxidative damage. These results indicate that carotenoid-based colorations may not be an honest signal of health status in this species. Production of carotenoid rich eggs coincided with low levels of circulating carotenoids in females, indicating that carotenoids might be a limited resource for laying female kestrels. Finally, young rearing males had higher levels of oxidative damage than females, and wild birds of both sexes had higher levels of these parameters than captive birds. These results may indicate that parental effort and physical activity are costly, independently from hormonal status. Since androgens did not explain carotenoid variation we suggest that multiple interacting factors can regulate carotenoid levels along the season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Old males reduce melanin-pigmented traits and increase reproductive outcome under worse environmental conditions in common kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Idiaquez, David; Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Padilla, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Secondary sexual traits displayed by males and females may have evolved as a signal of individual quality. However, both individual quality and investment on producing or maintaining enhanced sexual traits change as individuals age. At the same time, the costs associated to produce sexual traits might be attenuated or increased if environmental conditions are benign or worse respectively. Accordingly, environmental conditions are expected to shape the association between the expression of sexual traits and their reproductive outcome as individuals age. Nonetheless, little is known about the environmental influence on the co-variation between sexual traits and reproductive outcome throughout the life of individuals. We studied the age-dependency of the number and size of back spots, a melanin-based and sexual trait in adults of common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). We analysed the age-dependence of reproductive traits and the environmental influence, defined as vole abundance, using a 10-year individual-based dataset. We broke down age-related changes of reproductive traits into within- and between-individual variation to assess their contribution to population-level patterns. Our results showed a within-individual decrease in the number, but not the size, of back spots in males. The size of back spots was positively correlated with food availability in males. Reproductive performance of males increased as they aged, in agreement with the life-history theory but depending of vole abundance. Remarkably, we found that having fewer back spots was positively associated with clutch size only for old individuals under low-food conditions. We suggest that environmental variation may shape the association between the expression of a sexual signal and reproductive outcome. We speculate that the reliability of sexual traits is higher when environmental conditions are poor only for old individuals. Within an evolutionary context, we suggest that the expression of sexual traits

  8. Environmental Assessment of Beale AFB Grazing Lease Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    species, including burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), killdeer (Charadrius vociferus), American kestrel (Falco...special concern  American peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum), a USFWS Bird of Conservation Concern and fully protected under the CA Fish...consultation with the SHPO or any Native American tribes on this lease renewal. The draft EA will, however, be provided to the SHPO and Native American

  9. Diet composition of syntopically breeding falcon species Falco vespertinus and Falco tinnunculus in south-western Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulis Filip

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-footed falcon and Eurasian falcon represent two syntopical falcon species. While the Eurasian falcon is considered a common and numerous species in Slovakia, the red-footed falcon population has undergone a considerable decline during the past few decades. Nowadays it nests in a single locality in Slovakia, the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area, which forms the northern and fragmented border of the species distribution area in Europe. By analysing prey remains from 9 nests (from 1998, 2001, 2013, 2014 and 2016, we identified 433 prey items belonging to 35 taxa and 9 orders. Every year, invertebrates made up the major part of the diet spectrum, in which Calosoma auropunctatum, Tettigonia viridissima, Zabrus tenebrioides, Anisoplia aegetum and Rhizotrogus sp. were the most frequent species of prey. Of the vertebrates, Microtus arvalis was the most hunted prey species. By supplementary analysis of 21 photos, we extended our knowledge on the diet by other 6 taxa. The peak of the M. arvalis population growth in 2014 did not manifest itself in the red-footed falcon diet composition. In 1998, 2014 and 2016 we also studied the diet of a syntopical species, the Eurasian kestrel. By analysing prey remains in 22 nests, we identified 1,151 prey items belonging to 37 taxa and 7 orders. In 1998 and 2014 vertebrates predominated, especially the common vole, however in 2016 invertebrates prevailed. This fact could be a reaction to the M. arvalis population peak in 2014 and its decline in 2016. These results suggest that this variability in the foraging behaviour of the Eurasian kestrel, an opportunistic predator, during the hunting of invertebrates increases the diet similarity and overlapping of the food niche of both studied falcon species.

  10. Generalized Tetanus in a Gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) with Pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Laniesse, Delphine; Stickings, Paul; Tierney, Robert; Sesardic, Thea; Slavic, Durda; Compo, Nicole; Smith, Dale A

    2016-12-01

    A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus. Several bacteria were isolated from the abscess including Clostridium tetani . The isolate was confirmed to be toxigenic by PCR. Attempts to detect tetanus toxin in the bird's plasma were unsuccessful. The abscess was debrided. The gyrfalcon received equine tetanus antitoxin, intravenous metronidazole, methocarbamol, midazolam, a constant-rate infusion of Fentanyl, active cooling, and supportive care. Inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane was the only treatment that would lower the body temperature and reduce the clinical signs. The gyrfalcon died a few hours after admission. The characteristic clinical signs and isolation of toxigenic C. tetani from a wound were strong supportive evidence for a diagnosis of tetanus. This case constitutes the first reported natural occurrence of tetanus in an avian species. Further information is needed to determine whether gyrfalcons are more susceptible to tetanus than are other avian species and whether pododermatitis lesions may be risk factors.

  11. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ponitz

    Full Text Available This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  12. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponitz, Benjamin; Schmitz, Anke; Fischer, Dominik; Bleckmann, Horst; Brücker, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  13. Seasonal Sex Ratio Trend in the European Kestrel : An Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Weissing, F.J.; Daan, S.

    We present an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model to analyze selection on seasonal variation in the brood sex ratio, as observed in several species of raptorial birds. The model is specifically tailored to the life history of the European kestrel, and it reflects the maturation time

  14. Home range and habitat utilization of breeding male merlins, Falco columbarius, in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale M. Becker; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1987-01-01

    Home range size and habitat utilization of three breeding male Richardson’s Merlins (Falco columbarius richardsonii) in southeastern Montana were studied using radio telemetry. Home ranges of these birds encompassed 13,23, and 28 km2. Each bird traveled up to 9 km from its nest. Each home range encompassed five habitats;...

  15. A second Uganda record of Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-05

    Oct 5, 2014 ... cloud cover, I drove north from Fort Portal with my wife Jean to Lake Saka and we walked on from ... morning progressed, more birds began to arrive, with “kettles” of Steppe Buzzards and Lesser Spotted ... male Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus, a bird I am familiar with from Europe and from spring ...

  16. Eggshell pigmentation has no evident effects on offspring viability in common kestrels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fargallo, J. A.; López-Rull, I.; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2014), s. 627-637 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biliverdin IX * egg colouration * eggshell proteins * falco tinnunculus * protoporphyrin IX Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2014

  17. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    canadensis Flatwoods Ecological Association Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Wood Duck Aix sponsa Runner Oak Quercus pumila Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius...Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed Kite - - Eudocimus albus White Ibis LS - Falco sparverius paulus Southeastern American Kestrel LT - Haematopus

  18. Compound Humerus Fracture and Angled Retrograde Pin Treatment in a Barbary Falcon (Falco Peregrinus)

    OpenAIRE

    YAPRAKCI, Mustafa Volkan; SARITAŞ, Zülfikar Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, the representation of the treatment of a fresh compound fracture were aimed in a barbary falcon (falco peregrinus). Especially in winter seasons, wild raptors go beyond their natural habitat due to the food exiguity and therefore may interfere with social areas. The vast amount of cases brought to clinics are found with fractures caused by traffic accidents or gun shot wounds of hunters. This case report was prepared for clinical practitioners in the treatment and the reh...

  19. Converging migration routes of Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo crossing the African equatorial rain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Hake, Mikael; Olofsson, Patrik; Alerstam, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Autumn migration of adult Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo from Europe to southern Africa was recorded by satellite telemetry and observed routes were compared with randomly simulated routes. Two non-random features of observed routes were revealed: (i) shifts to more westerly longitudes than straight paths to destinations and (ii) strong route convergence towards a restricted area close to the equator (1° S, 15° E). The birds migrated south or southwest to approximately 10° N, where they chan...

  20. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase in the a......Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...... in the average thickness of eggshells over the period of 0.19% per year, corresponding to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% in 1972 to 7.8% in 2003. Backwards extrapolation of the data, suggests that the Greenlandic Peregrine population probably was never critically affected by DDT-induced eggshell...... thinning. By sampling eggshell fragments in many nests the spatial and temporal sample distribution was enlarged, allowing the detection of a significant long-term decrease in pollutant-induced eggshell thinning—a trend that could not have been identified if only the rarer whole, addled eggs had been...

  1. Multiple coloured ornaments in male common kestrels: different mechanisms to convey quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2011-04-01

    The simultaneous exhibition of more than one secondary sexual trait is a widespread phenomenon in nature, though it has rarely been explored. It has been proposed that different ornaments may convey complementary or back-up information about a single aspect of individual quality (redundancy hypothesis) or that each ornament may convey unique information (multiple-messages hypothesis). During a 5-year period, we measured several carotenoid-based (eye ring, bill cere and tarsi skin) and melanin-based (head, back, rump and tail feathers) potential ornamental colours in male common kestrels. We analysed whether multiple ornaments can convey different or related information about individual quality. We explored whether different ornaments can express different information depending on the pigment (carotenoids or melanins), the time-scale over which the ornament can change (dynamic vs. static) and the season of the year when the ornament is formed. We found that both melanin- and carotenoid- based traits correlated with indexes of quality, including body condition, body condition of their partners and laying date. However, not all ornaments correlated with the same measures of quality. In addition, some ornaments were intercorrelated within the same individuals while others were not. These results suggest that different ornaments can convey information about different qualities, as predicted by the multiple-messages hypothesis. In addition, this study suggests that the predominant pigment (e.g. carotenoid vs. melanin, eumelanin vs. pheomelanin), the time-scale over which the trait is developed (static feathers vs. dynamic skin) and the season of the year at which the ornament is produced can be potential mechanisms to convey different messages in male common kestrels.

  2. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  3. Residues in common flicker and mountain bluebird eggs one year after a DDT application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Meeker, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Common flicker (Colaptes auratus) and mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) eggs were examined 1 year after DDT application and showed a marked difference. Residue levels in mountain bluebird eggs were approximately 10 times higher than in common flicker eggs (5.29 to 0.58 ppm wet weight). These differences can be explained by disparate dietary habits. The mean level in American kestrel (Falco sparverius) eggs collected in the spray area at the same time was 6.42 ppm wet weight.

  4. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, Ted; Brimm, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  5. New insights into the phylogenetics and population structure of the prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Bell, Douglas A.; Bloom, Peter H.; Emmons, Gavin; Fesnock, Amy; Katzner, Todd; LePre, Larry; Leonard, Kolbe; SanMiguel, Phillip; Westerman, Rick; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundManagement requires a robust understanding of between- and within-species genetic variability, however such data are still lacking in many species. For example, although multiple population genetics studies of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been conducted, no similar studies have been done of the closely-related prairie falcon (F. mexicanus) and it is unclear how much genetic variation and population structure exists across the species’ range. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of F. mexicanus relative to other falcon species is contested. We utilized a genomics approach (i.e., genome sequencing and assembly followed by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping) to rapidly address these gaps in knowledge.ResultsWe sequenced the genome of a single female prairie falcon and generated a 1.17 Gb (gigabases) draft genome assembly. We generated maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees using complete mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear protein-coding genes. This process provided evidence that F. mexicanus is an outgroup to the clade that includes the peregrine falcon and members of the subgenus Hierofalco. We annotated > 16,000 genes and almost 600,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear genome, providing the raw material for a SNP assay design featuring > 140 gene-associated markers and a molecular-sexing marker. We subsequently genotyped ~ 100 individuals from California (including the San Francisco East Bay Area, Pinnacles National Park and the Mojave Desert) and Idaho (Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area). We tested for population structure and found evidence that individuals sampled in California and Idaho represent a single panmictic population.ConclusionsOur study illustrates how genomic resources can rapidly shed light on genetic variability in understudied species and resolve phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we found evidence of a single, randomly mating

  6. Demographic consequences of nest box use for Red-footed Falcons Falco vespertinus in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Evgeny A.; Bragin, Alexander E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Nest box programs are frequently implemented for the conservation of cavity-nesting birds, but their effectiveness is rarely evaluated in comparison to birds not using nest boxes. In the European Palearctic, Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus populations are both of high conservation concern and are strongly associated with nest box programs in heavily managed landscapes. We used a 21-year monitoring dataset collected on 753 nesting attempts by Red-footed Falcons in unmanaged natural or semi-natural habitats to provide basic information on this poorly known species; to evaluate long-term demographic trends; and to evaluate response of demographic parameters of Red-footed Falcons to environmental factors including use of nest boxes. We observed significant differences among years in laying date, offspring loss, and numbers of fledglings produced, but not in egg production. Of these four parameters, offspring loss and, to a lesser extent, number of fledglings exhibited directional trends over time. Variation in laying date and in numbers of eggs were not well explained by any one model, but instead by combinations of models, each with informative terms for nest type. Nevertheless, laying in nest boxes occurred 2.10 ± 0.70 days earlier than in natural nests. In contrast, variation in both offspring loss and numbers of fledglings produced were fairly well explained by a single model including terms for nest type, nest location, and an interaction between the two parameters (65% and 81% model weights respectively), with highest offspring loss in nest boxes on forest edges. Because, for other species, earlier laying dates are associated with more fit individuals, this interaction highlighted a possible ecological trap, whereby birds using nest boxes on forest edges lay eggs earlier but suffer greater offspring loss and produce lower numbers of fledglings than do those in other nesting settings. If nest boxes increase offspring loss for Red-footed Falcons in heavily

  7. Comparación de la dieta estival del halconcito colorado (Falco sparverius ) y el halcón plomizo (Falco femoralis) en un área agrícola de la araucaría, Sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Rojas, Ricardo A.; Corales Stappung, E. Soraya

    2004-01-01

    La dieta del Halconcito Colorado (Falco sparverius) y del Halcón Plomizo (Falco femoralis) fue cuantificada a partir de regurgitados durante el verano de 1997-1998 en un área agrícola de la región de la Araucanía, sur de Chile. Numéricamente, las presas más importantes del Halconcito Colorado fueron los insectos (61% del total de presas), seguidos de aves (23%), roedores (13.7%) y reptiles (2.6%). Las aves tuvieron el mayor aporte de biomasa (79.6%), seguidas por los roedores (18%). La contri...

  8. Home Range and Habitat Use of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae within a Plantation Forest: A Satellite Tracking Study

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    Bindi Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tracked two adult and three juvenile New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae in Kaingaroa Forest pine plantation from 2002 to 2008 using Argos satellite technology. The home ranges for both adults and juveniles varied, ranging between 44 and 587 km2. The falcons occasionally utilised areas outside the forest and used stands of all ages within the forest, generally in proportion to their availability. For the most part, the juveniles remained within ca. 8 km of their nests and dispersed at 58, 69, and 68 days after fledging. Falcon movement information was obtained from an average of four location points per tracking day per falcon at a putative accuracy of 350 m. The transmitters, including their solar charge capability, performed well in the forest environment. The use of all stand ages highlights the importance of forestry practises that maintain a mosaic of different aged pine stands.

  9. COMPARATIVE HEMATOLOGY AND PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY OF RED-TAILED HAWKS AND AMERICAN KESTRELS WINTERING IN CALIFORNIA. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. A Global Model of Predicted Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) Distribution with Open Source GIS Code and 104 Open Access Layers for use by the global public

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, Sumithra; Huettmann, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) are among the fastest members of the animal kingdom, and they are probably the most widely distributed raptors in the world; their migrations and habitats range from the tundra, mountains and some deserts to the tropics, coastal zones and urban habitats. Habitat loss, conversion, contamination, pesticides and other anthropogenic pressures are all known factors that have an adverse effect on these species. However, while peregrine falcons were removed from ...

  11. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  12. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  14. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  15. Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency in the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia: case study from 2017

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    Chavko Jozef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency are less studied parameters of behaviour in insectivorous falcons, many of which are endangered bird species. In this short study, prey composition and feeding frequency of red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus nestlings were studied using the method of camera recordings during seven days in July 2017 in southwestern Slovakia. Camera recording analyses of 2–3 chicks (14–26 days old in three nests revealed a significant preference for insects (97%, n = 305 prey items, of which the Italian locust (Calliptamus italicus was highly predominant (54%. We also found very high average chick feeding frequency (9.9 feedings per hour, n = 29 hours 22 min of regular observations, whereby the females fed their young ones more frequently (64.9%, n = 305 feedings than the males (35.1%. Analyses of food composition in adverse weather conditions showed that unfavourable weather had a negative effect on chick feeding frequency, and in rainy weather the males fed significantly less than the females.

  16. Heavy metal and other residues in feathers of laggar falcon Falco biarmicus jugger from six districts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, P A

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents the levels of metals and other trace elements measured in feathers of laggar falcons, Falco biarmicus jugger, in Pakistan. The laggar falcon is resident or locally migrant throughout the Indian Subcontinent where it is a rare and declining species. Breast feathers from 57 live, recently trapped, adult and juvenile laggar falcons and from five dead birds were collected from Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, Mithi, Chachcro, Jacobabad and Karachi districts. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), cobalt (Co), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), scandium (Sc), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), lanthanum (La) and bromine (Br) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Hg levels were below those found in other raptors with reduced reproductive success. No correlation was found between Hg and Se levels. For some metals and elements interpretation of results is difficult as no data exist in the literature. Concentrations did not differ significantly between males and females nor between juveniles and adults, but differed among districts for Pb, Hg, Co, Sc, Cr, La and Br. A significant correlation was found between Pb concentration and occurrence of louse eggs. As the laggar is resident or a partial local migrant, it is probable that the metal burden in adult and juvenile feathers reflects the level of contamination in these particular districts.

  17. Spatio-temporal trends in the predation of large gulls by peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus in an insular breeding population

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    Sutton Luke J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual diet specialization occurs in many populations of generalist predators, with specific individuals developing specialist strategies in their feeding behaviour. Intraspecific resource partitioning is hypothesised to be common amongst species in higher trophic levels where competition for resources is intense, and a key driver in breeding success and community structure. Though well-studied in other predators, there is sparse data on ecological specialization in raptors, which are important drivers of community and trophic structure. In this study, the breeding season diet of an insular population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus was determined from indirect analysis of prey remains collected over three years. An unexpected result was the high proportion of large gulls (Laridae, of the genus Larus, in the diet of two breeding pairs of peregrines. Large gulls made up 18.44% by frequency of total prey recorded and 30.81% by biomass. Herring gulls (Larus argentatus were the most common large gull prey, with immatures most frequent (67.95% compared to adults (19.23%. Overall, most gulls predated were immatures (80.77%. Frequency of predation varied between breeding pairs and months, but was consistent over the three years. Most gulls were taken in April (37.17%, followed by May (19.23%, with a smaller peak of immature herring gulls taken in August and September. The pattern of regular predation by peregrines on large gulls is a new observation with important implications for understanding individual diet specialization in raptors, and its effect on bird populations and community structure.

  18. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A., E-mail: mmora@tamu.edu [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Baxter, C. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Montoya, A.B. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States); Gallardo, J.C. [Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 {mu}g/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 {mu}g/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: > We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. > Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. > Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. > Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. > Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  19. Food supply (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla and food preferences of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krištín Anton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supply in the nesting territories of species has a key role to the species diet composition and their breeding success. Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus preys predominantly on larger insect species with a supplementary portion of smaller vertebrates. In the breeding periods 2014 and 2016 their food supply, focusing on Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla, was analysed at five historical nesting sites of the species in Slovakia. Preference for these prey groups in the diet was also studied at the last active nesting site in this country. Overall we recorded 45 Orthoptera species (of which 23 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon, one species of Mantodea, 10 species of Rodentia (of which 2 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon and 5 species of the Eulipotyphla order in the food supply. With regard to the availability of the falcons' preferred food, in both years the most suitable was the Tvrdošovce site, which continuously showed the greatest range and abundance of particular species. In the interannual comparison the insects showed lower variability in abundance than the small mammals. In 2014 the growth of the common vole (Microtus arvalis population culminated and with the exception of a single site (Bodza a slump in abundance was recorded in 2016. In comparing the diet composition with the food supply at the last Slovak breeding site Rusovce (Special Protection Area Sysľovské polia, we recorded significant preference for grasshopper Caliptamus italicus (in 2014, common vole (in 2016 and cricket Tettigonia viridissima (in both years in the falcons' diet. They did not prey on the Apodemus sylvaticus species belonging among the abundant small mammal species in that locality. Conservation measures in the agricultural landscape are discussed in relation to homogeneous red-footed falcon breeding territories.

  20. Distribución temporal de aves rapaces diurnas en la Reserva "Playón de Mismaloya", Jalisco, México

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    Salvador Hernández Vázquez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal raptors were counted monthly in the "Playón de Mismaloya", reserve, Jalisco, Mexico, from November 1997 to October 1998. We identified 11 species; eight of them migrants, one resident and two resident with migrant populations. The highest increase in total number of individuals was from December to March, influenced mainly by the presence of Caracara plancus (Crested Caracara, Falco sparverius (American Kestrel and Pandion haliaetus (Osprey. The two former species were observed frequently in open areas, where they could detect prey more easily, while ospreys were found only in estuaries, lagoons and beach, where food was available.

  1. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

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    Megan E Shave

    Full Text Available Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  2. CFD Validation and Flow Control of RAE-M2129 S-Duct Diffuser Using CREATETM-AV Kestrel Simulation Tools

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    Pooneh Aref

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The flow physics modeling and validation of the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE subsonic intake Model 2129 (M2129 are presented. This intake has an 18 inches long S duct with a 5.4 inches offset, an external and an internal lip, forward and rear extended ducts, and a center-positioned bullet before the outlet. Steady-state and unsteady experimental data are available for this duct. The measurements include engine face conditions (pressure recovery, static pressure to free-stream total pressure ratio, and distortion coefficient at the worst 60 ∘ sector or DC60, as well as wall static pressure data along the duct. The intake has been modeled with HPCMP CREATE TM -AV Kestrel simulation tools. The validation results are presented including the effects of turbulence models on predictions. In general, very good agreement (difference errors are less than 6% was found between predictions and measurements. Secondary flow at the first bend and a region of flow separation are predicted at the starboard wall with an averaged DC60 coefficient of 0.2945 at the engine face. Next, a passive and an active flow control method are computationally investigated. The passive one uses vane-type vortex generators and the active one has synthetic jet actuators. The results show that considered passive and active flow control methods reduce the distortion coefficient at the engine face and the worst 60 ∘ sector to 0.1361 and 0.0881, respectively. The flow control performance trends agree with those obtained in experiments as well. These results give confidence to apply the Kestrel simulation tools for the intake design studies of new and unconventional vehicles and hence to reduce the uncertainties during their flight testing.

  3. Histological analysis of the eyeball of Neotropical birds of prey Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Rupornis magnirostris, Megascops choliba and Athene cunicularia

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    Débora Galdino Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of ophthalmic examination as a screening tool in birds intended for reintroduction into natural environments over the last few years has given renewed significance to avian ophthalmology in the context of free-ranging and captive bird conservation. The eye plays a vital role in prey detection and capture by birds of prey. The remarkable eyesight of such birds makes them interesting subjects for avian visual system anatomical and histological investigation. This study set out to describe histological features of the eyeball of ubiquitous birds of prey in Brazil (Falconiformes, Accipitriformes and Strigiformes. Twenty enucleated cadaveric eyeballs obtained from birds with natural death, Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Rupornis magnirostris, Megascops choliba and Athene cunicularia were used. Routinely prepared histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin were analyzed under light microscopy. Similarities and variations in ocular structures between the different bird species studied were highlighted in this study, with major differences concerning the lens and retina. This study highlights the importance of determining the ocular histological pattern of the species so they can be better understood. These results may well assign baseline information of the species and assist in eye histopathological diagnostics.

  4. Occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach for falcotentorial meningioma: case report Acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino para abordagem de meningioma falco-tentorial: relato de caso

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    Sebastião Gusmão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesions located in the bilateral posterior incisural space are difficult to treat due to limited exposure. The classical approaches to this area are limited for lesions located bilaterally and especially when the lesion extends also below the tentorium as it may occur with meningiomas. Kawashima et al. reported, in anatomic studies, a new occipital transtentorial approach: the occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach, to treat such lesions. We present a patient with a large falcotentorial meningioma, located bilaterally in the posterior incisural space. The occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach allowed an excellent surgical exposure and complete tumor removal with an excellent patient outcome.Grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior são de difícil abordagem cirúrgica pelos acessos clássicos. Recentemente, Kawashima et al. descreveram, em peças anatômicas, uma modificação do acesso occipital transtentorial, o acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino, para abordagem de grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior. Retata-se um caso de grande meningioma falco-tentorial que ocupava o espaço incisural posterior bilateralmente. O acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino permitiu exérese completa da lesão sem déficit no pós-operatório.

  5. Unusual clockwise loop migration lengthens travel distances and increases potential risks for a central Asian, long distance, trans-equatorial migrant, the Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Bragin, Alexander E.; McGrady, Michael J.; Miller, Tricia A.; Bildstein, Keith L.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule: Red-footed Falcons Falco vespertinus migrating from northern Kazakhstan proceed west before heading south to Africa; their northbound travel follows a different route with passage close to shooting hotspots in the Mediterranean.Aim: To use tracking and ringing data to document for the first time the migration of globally threatened Red-footed Falcons from northern Kazakhstan.Methods: Light-level geolocators were deployed on breeding adults in Kazakhstan and recovered one year later. Ringing and observational data from more than 100 years of Russian-language and other literature were summarized and mapped alongside the geolocator data.Results: Geolocator, ringing and observational data together demonstrate that Red-footed Falcons from northern Kazakhstan have a clockwise loop migration that begins with a long and unusual westward trek around eastern Europe’s large inland seas before continuing to extreme southern Africa. Return migration is farther west and requires crossing two major migratory barriers: the Sahara and the Mediterranean.Conclusion: The loop migration we describe requires an extensive longitudinal movement, exposes central Asian Red-footed Falcons to multiple desert, mountain and marine crossings, and, at outbound and return Mediterranean bottlenecks, crosses sites where raptor shooting is common.

  6. Observations of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera (Aves: Falconiformes: Falconidae nest at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a focus on post-fledging behavior

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    Mohammod Foysal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A nest of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera was observed in 2009, beginning with the onset of breeding and continuing on to the next breeding of the pair.  The nest was found on 02 March 2009 in an electricity pylon in a sub-urban area at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  The incubation period was estimated at a minimum of four weeks and the nestling period was 37 days.  Fledglings remained in the nesting area up to four months after fledging.  The female almost exclusively fed the nestlings and fledglings.  The diet of adults, nestlings and fledglings consisted of 72% small birds (sparrow sized and 28% Pipistrellus bats (n = 112.  The diet of fledglings consisted of 61% birds and 39% bats (n= 72; before independence mainly birds and after independence mainly bats.  Parents delivered prey to fledglings up to 39 days after fledging (i.e., post-fledging dependence period was 39 days.  The fledgling’s flight pattern was distinguishable from the adults nearly two months after fledging.  The fledgling’s call reminiscent of a begging call was recorded up to 75 days after fledging. Food competition was observed among the fledglings; when one of the fledglings snatched prey from a parent, the other siblings tried to pilfer it.  The parents had resumed breeding eight months after the fledging stage of their offspring. 

  7. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  8. Exposure to the androgenic brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane alters reproductive and aggressive behaviors in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-10-01

    Detected in environmental samples, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) is a bioaccumulative isomer of a current-use brominated flame retardant. All 4 structural isomers are androgen agonists; however, little toxicological information exists for this compound. The objective of the present study was to determine if β-DBE-DBCH, the isomer found most prominently in animal tissue, affects androgen-dependent behavior of breeding American kestrels (Falco sparverius). The authors hypothesized that if β-DBE-DBCH acts as an androgen agonist in kestrels, androgen-dependent behaviors (i.e., copulation, courtship, aggression) would increase and behaviors inhibited by androgens (i.e., parental care behaviors) would decrease. Sixteen captive experimental kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.239 ng β-DBE-DBCH/g kestrel/d by diet from 4 wk prior to pairing until their nestlings hatched (mean 82 d) and compared with vehicle only-exposed control pairs (n = 15). Androgen-dependent behaviors were significantly increased in β-DBE-DBCH-exposed birds, consistent with the authors' hypothesis. These behavioral changes included copulation and other sexual behaviors in males and females and aggression in males, suggesting that β-DBE-DBCH may have acted like an androgen agonist in these birds. Parental behaviors were not reduced in exposed birds as predicted, although dietary exposure had ceased before chicks hatched. Further assessment of β-DBE-DBCH is recommended given these behavioral changes and the previously reported reproductive changes in the same birds. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  10. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  11. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  12. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  13. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  14. How to Have Fewer Endangered Species to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    pickeringii (Pickering morning-glory) Eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon corais couperi) SE Kestrel (Falco sparverius paulus) Pine snake (Pituophis...can preserve an entire species  Does it “take a village to raise a child ?”  It takes a whole state to save a species  Better yet, a whole region

  15. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 76, No 1-2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding biology and diet of Banded Kestrels Falco zoniventris on Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Short Note Nests and eggs of the Black-headed Bee-eater (Merops breweri) in Gabon, with notes on other bee-eaters · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  17. Response of brown anoles Anolis sagrei to multimodal signals from a native and novel predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar L. ELMASRI, Marcus S. MORENO, Courtney A. NEUMANN, Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple studies have focused on the importance of single modalities (visual, auditory, olfactory in eliciting anti-predator behavior, however multiple channels are often engaged simultaneously. While examining responses to multiple cues can potentially reveal more complex behavioral responses, little is known about how multimodal processing evolves. By contrasting response to familiar and novel predators, insights can be gained into the evolution of multimodal responses. We studied brown anoles’ (Anolis sagrei response to acoustic and visual predatory cues of a common potential predator, the great-tailed grackle Quiscalus mexicanus and to the American kestrel Falco sparverius, a species found in other populations but not present in our study population. We observed anole behavior before and after a stimulus and quantified rates of looking, display, and locomotion. Anoles increased their rate of locomotion in response to grackle models, an effect modulated by grackle vocalizations. No such response or modulation was seen when anoles were presented with kestrel stimuli. This suggests that the degree of sophistication of anole response to predators is experience dependent and that relaxed selection can result in reduced anti-predator response following loss of predators [Current Zoology 58 (6: 791–796, 2012].

  18. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  19. Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Briganti, Angela; Spratte, Johanna R; Ceccherelli, Renato; Breghi, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey. Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL(®) device. The animals, which had been taken to a rescue center, were examined for ocular lesions prior to their eventual release into the wild. STT-I readings and IOP values were expressed as means ± standard deviation. Schirmer tear test type I readings were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 3.12 ± 1.92 mm/min; Little owls: 3.5 ± 1.96 mm/min; Common buzzards: 12.47 ± 2.66 mm/min; European kestrels: 6.20 ± 3.67 mm/min. IOP values were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 11.21 ± 3.12 mmHg; Little owls: 9.83 ± 3.41 mmHg; Common buzzards: 17.2 ± 3.53 mmHg; European kestrels: 8.53 ± 1.59 mmHg. The results of this study give representative values for STT-I and IOP in four of the most common species of birds of prey in Europe. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Agricultural utilisation and potential suitability of the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area (south-western Slovakia landscape in relation to the habitat requirements of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemko Martin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of land use in an agricultural landscape significantly affects biodiversity also in protected areas. This can be observed in the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area in relation to the occurrence of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the landscape structure and suitability of agrotechnical procedures for the habitat demands of this species in the course of the period from 2004 until 2017. The utilisation was assessed on the basis of four landscape elements representation in 1949 and 2017. The next step was analysis of landscape patches. The aim was to quantify the diversity and the spatial structure of the landscape mosaic using Shannon’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index as well as Simpson’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index and spatial pattern analysis in the Fragstats software programme. Assessment of crop suitability was carried out according to the following criteria: representation of positive/negative agricultural crops, diversity of crops in crop rotation, and (non-observance of crop rotation. It was found that the agricultural landscape use did not change significantly. The study area has been used as an intensively-farmed agricultural landscape for a long time. The landscape elements have remained almost identical, with dominance of arable land. Differences emerged in the analysis of the micropatches, which are represented by natural hedgerows consisting of various species of trees, shrubs and grasses. The results show a decrease in the diversity of patches and changes in the structure of the landscape patches, which may be important in terms of the preservation of the habitat of fauna which form an important part of the F vespertinus diet. On the basis of the evaluation of the suitability of agricultural crop growing, we found that there were some areas showing negative values in all the criteria, and thus they require changes in the crop rotation focusing

  1. A retrospective survey into the presence of Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in archived tissue samples from New Zealand raptors: New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, V; Burrows, E B; Gils, S; Hunter, S; Gartrell, B D; Howe, L

    2017-08-01

    Human colonisation of New Zealand has resulted in the introduction of emerging diseases, such as avian malaria and toxoplasmosis, which arrived with their exotic avian and mammalian hosts. Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii have a wide host range, and several species of endemic New Zealand birds have developed a fatal disease following infection with either pathogen. However, no reports of either toxoplasmosis or avian malaria in New Zealand raptors, namely, the New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae) exist in the literature. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if these two pathogens are present in these raptors through a retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples. Detection and isolate identification of these pathogens was determined using established histological and molecular techniques. All three species of New Zealand raptors tested positive for the presence of Plasmodium spp. (10/117; 8.5%) and an atypical genotype of T. gondii (9/117; 7.7%). Plasmodium lineages identified include P. elongatum GRW6, P. relictum SGS1, P. relictum PADOM02 and Plasmodium sp. LINN1. Two Australasian harriers and one morepork tested positive for the presence of both Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii. However, the pathogenicity of these organisms to the raptors is unclear as none of the tissues showed histological evidence of clinical disease associated with Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii infections. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that these two potential pathogens are present in New Zealand's raptors; however, further research is required to determine the prevalence and pathogenicity of these organisms among the living populations of these birds in the country.

  2. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  3. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  4. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  5. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  6. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Schultz, Sandra; Knowles, Susan N.; Abbo, Benjamin G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol® bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell’s viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  7. American Macular Degeneration Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Disclaimer Contact Us Donate Store The American Macular Degeneration Foundation The American Macular Degeneration Foundation (AMDF) is ... Ed Asner Video Clip An Inspiring Her-story Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting ...

  8. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  9. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  10. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  11. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  12. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the deceptive nature of The American Dream and its place in American culture in the first six decades of the 20th century, namely in the three quintessential novels The Great Gatsby, The Grapes of Wrath and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. With the aid of Jim Cullen's The American Dream – A short history of an idea that shaped a nation and Lawrence Samuel's The American Dream – A cultural history the different types of American Dreams are investigated, as well as how the...

  13. Intraspecific evolutionary relationships among peregrine falcons in western North American high latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Talbot

    Full Text Available Subspecies relationships within the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus have been long debated because of the polytypic nature of melanin-based plumage characteristics used in subspecies designations and potential differentiation of local subpopulations due to philopatry. In North America, understanding the evolutionary relationships among subspecies may have been further complicated by the introduction of captive bred peregrines originating from non-native stock, as part of recovery efforts associated with mid 20th century population declines resulting from organochloride pollution. Alaska hosts all three nominal subspecies of North American peregrine falcons-F. p. tundrius, anatum, and pealei-for which distributions in Alaska are broadly associated with nesting locales within Arctic, boreal, and south coastal maritime habitats, respectively. Unlike elsewhere, populations of peregrine falcon in Alaska were not augmented by captive-bred birds during the late 20th century recovery efforts. Population genetic differentiation analyses of peregrine populations in Alaska, based on sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA control region and fragment data from microsatellite loci, failed to uncover genetic distinction between populations of peregrines occupying Arctic and boreal Alaskan locales. However, the maritime subspecies, pealei, was genetically differentiated from Arctic and boreal populations, and substructured into eastern and western populations. Levels of interpopulational gene flow between anatum and tundrius were generally higher than between pealei and either anatum or tundrius. Estimates based on both marker types revealed gene flow between augmented Canadian populations and unaugmented Alaskan populations. While we make no attempt at formal taxonomic revision, our data suggest that peregrine falcons occupying habitats in Alaska and the North Pacific coast of North America belong to two distinct regional groupings-a coastal grouping

  14. Intraspecific evolutionary relationships among peregrine falcons in western North American high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, Kevin; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Meg C.; Swem, Ted; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Ambrose, Skip; Flamme, Melanie J; Lewis, Stephen B.; Phillips, Laura M.; Anderson, Clifford; White, Clayton M

    2017-01-01

    Subspecies relationships within the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been long debated because of the polytypic nature of melanin-based plumage characteristics used in subspecies designations and potential differentiation of local subpopulations due to philopatry. In North America, understanding the evolutionary relationships among subspecies may have been further complicated by the introduction of captive bred peregrines originating from non-native stock, as part of recovery efforts associated with mid 20th century population declines resulting from organochloride pollution. Alaska hosts all three nominal subspecies of North American peregrine falcons–F. p. tundrius, anatum, and pealei–for which distributions in Alaska are broadly associated with nesting locales within Arctic, boreal, and south coastal maritime habitats, respectively. Unlike elsewhere, populations of peregrine falcon in Alaska were not augmented by captive-bred birds during the late 20th century recovery efforts. Population genetic differentiation analyses of peregrine populations in Alaska, based on sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA control region and fragment data from microsatellite loci, failed to uncover genetic distinction between populations of peregrines occupying Arctic and boreal Alaskan locales. However, the maritime subspecies, pealei, was genetically differentiated from Arctic and boreal populations, and substructured into eastern and western populations. Levels of interpopulational gene flow between anatum and tundrius were generally higher than between pealei and either anatum or tundrius. Estimates based on both marker types revealed gene flow between augmented Canadian populations and unaugmented Alaskan populations. While we make no attempt at formal taxonomic revision, our data suggest that peregrine falcons occupying habitats in Alaska and the North Pacific coast of North America belong to two distinct regional groupings–a coastal grouping

  15. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    common perception, the early 20th century was a period of significant intellectual development in American military theory. Organizational changes in...Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists A Monograph by MAJ Russell McKelvey United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  17. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  18. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  19. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  20. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  1. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  2. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  3. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  4. American Elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2006-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus americana) is a valuable and sentimental tree species that was decimated by Dutch elm disease in the mid-20th century. Therefore, any methods for modifying American elm or enhancing disease resistance are significant. This protocol describes transformation and tissue culture techniques used on American elm. Leaf pieces containing the midvein and petiole are used for explants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is used for transformation, with the binary vector pSE39, containing CaMV35S/nptII as a selectable marker, ACS2/ESF39A as a putative resistance enhancing gene, and CaMV35S/GUS as a reporter.

  5. Lolita - the American nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  6. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  7. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  8. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  9. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  10. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  11. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Sickle Cell Priorities Lymphoma Roadmap Moonshot Initiative ...

  12. American Society of Anesthesiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trauma ASA and CAE Healthcare’s virtual O.R. Popular Courses Member Exclusive Difficult Airway Algorithm Member login ... You Industry Supporters Whose contributions allow the American Society of Anesthesiologists ® to create world-class education and ...

  13. American Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMA Wire For healthy individual market, keep tax rules that spur coverage Senate tax plan would scrap ... Foundation AMA Insurance Copyright 1995 - 2017 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Terms of Use Privacy Policy ...

  14. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  15. Singing American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  16. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  17. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans live with heart disease, stroke or a cardiovascular condition. Your donation will help us save and improve their lives with research, education and emergency care. Warning Signs If you or someone else is ...

  18. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  19. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vietnamese, 46 percent of Chinese, 23 percent of Filipinos and 21 percent of Asian Indians are not fluent in English. In 2015, 75.5 percent of Asian American spoke a language other than English at home. Educational Attainment: According ...

  20. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    NATO: Revisiting American Commitment by Captain Thomas F Hurley II United States Navy United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO: Revisiting American Commitment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the 21st century. The strategic benefit to the United States may no longer be worth the commitment to the alliance. The U.S. should reevaluate its

  1. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  2. African Anglo American

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    1993-11-01

    The South-African based Anglo-American Corp. dominates the mining industries of South Africa and Botswana and is very important in Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Most recently it has started prospecting in Tanzania once again. This article discusses the corporation's interests in Africa, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, nickel and coal, and its interest in South American copper and various African metal industries. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old and New Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N; Bond, Laura

    2013-07-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ), prairie falcons ( Falco mexicanus ), and American kestrels ( F. sparverius ) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  4. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development.

  5. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  6. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors.

  7. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  8. Assessment of Trace Element Concentrations in Birds of Prey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study presents liver concentrations of trace elements of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), common buzzards (Buteo buteo), common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) collected in Korea from 2007 to 2008. Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in common kestrel juveniles were greater than in other juveniles of birds of prey. Adult cinereous vultures had greater Fe, Pb, and Cd concentrations than in those of other species, but common kestrels had greater Mn and Cu concentrations than in those of other birds of prey. Zinc concentrations in Eurasian eagle owl juveniles and adults were greater than in juveniles and adults of other species, respectively. In common kestrels, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cd concentrations were significantly greater in adults than in juveniles. In Eurasian eagle owls, only Pb concentrations were greater in adults than in juveniles. Essential elements, such as Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu concentrations, were within the range of other birds of prey studies. Seventeen individual birds of prey (30 %) were at a level considered Pb exposed (6-30 µg/g dw). This is a greater proportion than reported earlier in herons, egrets, and other birds from Korea. Elevated Pb concentration might be attributed to ingestion of Pb shot and bullet fragments for cinereous vultures and common buzzards, and urbanization for common kestrels. Cadmium concentrations in birds of prey were within the background concentrations (<3 µg/g dw) for wild birds.

  9. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, Beta

    2008-01-01

    The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discove...

  10. Expanding the Secondary Literature Curriculum: Annotated Bibliographies of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Ogle B.; Tongchinsub, Helen J.

    1990-01-01

    Aids teachers looking for literature selections of established literary worth which reflect the diversity of American culture. Discusses briefly the history and development of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American literature. Offers annotated bibliographies of selections appropriate for use in secondary schools. (SR)

  11. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  12. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  13. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Relations Toolkit and Hotline to Get Your Practice and Profession into the Media Audiology News 16 Nov A Movement Was Born: ... Academy of Audiology Publications and Resources Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology ... About Us Academy Information ...

  14. Teaching Asian American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian…

  15. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  16. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  17. Civic Innovation & American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis

    1997-01-01

    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  18. Arab American Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  19. The Native American Speaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Walter; And Others

    This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching…

  20. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  1. Estimating Bird / Aircraft Collision Probabilities and Risk Utilizing Spatial Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    16 Coyote 15 17 6 15 20 American Kestrel 16 10 16 16 14 Shorebirds 17 19 14 17 12 Crows - Ravens 18 16 15 18 12 Blackbirds - Starl ing 19 18 18 19 9...Vultures 63 Geese 52 Cranes 48 Osprey 50 Pel icans 44 Ducks 37 Hawks 25 Eagles 31 Rock Dove 24 Gul ls 22 Herons 22 Mourning Dove 17 Owls 16 American Kestrel ...3.6 141 0 American Kestrel 0 0 3.4 141 0 Shorebirds 0 0 3.2 141 0 Crows - Ravens 0 0 3 141 0 Blackbirds - Starling 0 0 2.8 141 0 Sparrows 0 0 2.6 141 0

  2. The American Armies: 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Liberation Front) in El Salvador has evaporated, paving the way for resolution of El Salvador’s civil conflict. A minor "reverse domino" effect is...being felt throughout Latin America. As the conflict in El Salvador subsided, Honduran fears about the size of El Salvadoran forces have eased, resulting...30 American nations, especially since US. participation in the overthrow of Allende in 1973.21 Bolivia’s aspirations for direct access to the Pacific

  3. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  4. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is to ...

  5. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  6. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  7. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  8. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  9. African-American wildland memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker

    2004-01-01

    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  10. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  11. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  13. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  14. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  15. Hard times in the city - attractive nest sites but insufficient food supply lead to low reproduction rates in a bird of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Nemeth, Erwin; Tebb, Graham; Krenn, Harald W; Gamauf, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a global phenomenon that is encroaching on natural habitats and decreasing biodiversity, although it is creating new habitats for some species. The Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is frequently associated with urbanized landscapes but it is unclear what lies behind the high densities of kestrels in the urban environment. Occupied nest sites in the city of Vienna, Austria were investigated along a gradient of urbanization (percentage of land covered by buildings or used by traffic). Field surveys determined the abundance of potential prey (birds and rodents) and the results were compared to the birds' diets. A number of breeding parameters were recorded over the course of three years. The majority of kestrels breed in semi-natural cavities in historic buildings. Nearest neighbour distances (NND) were smallest and reproductive success lowest in the city centre. Abundance of potential prey was not found to relate to the degree of urbanization but there was a significant shift in the birds' diets from a heavy reliance on rodents in the outskirts of the city to feeding more on small birds in the centre. The use of urban habitats was associated with higher nest failure, partly associated with predation and nest desertion, and with significantly lower hatching rates and smaller fledged broods. High breeding densities in urban habitats do not necessarily correlate with high habitat quality. The high density of kestrel nests in the city centre is probably due to the ready availability of breeding cavities. Highly urbanized areas in Vienna are associated with unexpected costs for the city dwelling-raptor, in terms both of prey availability and of reproductive success. The kestrel appears to be exploiting the urban environment but given the poor reproductive performance of urban kestrels it is likely that the species is falling into an ecological trap.

  16. American foundations : roles and contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Hammack, David

    2010-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  17. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    in the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have been...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...

  18. American Academy of Pain Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 7. GET STARTED AAPM... the Voice of Pain Medicine Become part of the distinguished multimodal, interdisciplinary community of pain medicine clinicians. Join Today! Welcome The American Academy of ...

  19. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  20. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  1. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  2. A Slice of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  3. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  4. Family Values in American Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  5. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  6. Native American Women: Leadership Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothy L.

    1978-01-01

    Personal rewards for American Indian women in bicultural leadership roles are largely lacking due to the dilemmas rooted in the ambiguity of the two social structures between which they move. Despite strains and pressures, many of these women are making their voices heard on native American issues. (Author/GC)

  7. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  8. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 4 American Foreign Policy...American comparative ad- vantage, including the liberalization of textile and agricultural policies in the United States, thereby leveling the playing

  9. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  10. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs.

  11. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  12. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  13. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    ) and modern day American–associated universities in the Middle East. Much policy attention, but little scholarly attention has been devoted to the question of soft power of especially higher education in the USA and much less American overseas higher education. This chapter will present analysis on the soft......This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  14. Differences in Family-of-Origin Perceptions Among African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…

  15. Gothic roots: Brockden Brown's Wieland, American identity, and American literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. Mautner Wasserman

    2012-11-01

    Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.

  16. Immigration reform, American style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status.

  17. Hobbies ( Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo ) versus bats over Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Assessing the diet of Amur Falcon Falco amurensis and Lesser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxa less represented included Rodentia, Solifugae, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and other unidentified prey items. Although both F. amurensis and F. naumanni sometimes feed on birds, we believe that all feathers found in stomachs were ingested during preening activities or were accidentally introduced during excision.

  19. Serratospiculosis in a New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C H; Gartrell, B D; Charleston, W A G

    2006-08-01

    An adult New Zealand falcon was presented with metacarpal fractures in the left wing. In addition to the fractures, radiographs revealed an area of opacity in the air sacs. A few days after hospitalisation and initiation of treatment of the fractures, the bird developed signs of respiratory disease; the area of opacity was found to have increased in size and density. Treatment with antibiotics and nebulisation was commenced; the bird initially responded but respiratory signs subsequently worsened and the bird died. At necropsy, air sacculitis and bronchopneumonia were associated with numerous nematodes in the air sacs, which were morphologically consistent with Serratospiculum guttatum. Serratospiculosis The discovery of this parasite and the associated disease for the first time in New Zealand indicates that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in falcons and possibly other raptors in New Zealand.

  20. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  1. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  2. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    her narrative performance within the histories of American orientalism, the emerging Cold War, and ethnic beauty pageants to provide a better understanding of the specific intersection in these 1950s hegemonic discourses that framed and enabled her public agency. Her analysis then looks at how Hakim...... herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  3. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  4. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  5. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  6. Association of American Indian Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the OMH website Tribal Stories Needed for CDC Museum Exhibition Stories should highlight how Native traditions and ... of American Indian Physicians. Website designed by Back40 Design & managed by Javelin CMS

  7. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Career Center is where you can find your dream job Search Jobs Now Tweets about "@ACEPNow OR # ... For You emCareers.org Insurance Programs Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians emCareers.org Terms of ...

  8. Teaching French via American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  9. American Health Information Management Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions Privacy Policy RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2017 by The American Health ...

  10. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  11. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  12. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Council: nationalMSsociety.org/African- AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  13. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  14. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  15. Health promotion for older Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Heckler, M M

    1985-01-01

    As American lifespans increase, there is greater concern for the quality of those longer lives. The Department of Health and Human Services, through its many component agencies, has inaugurated a major initiative to promote health and fitness among older Americans to improve life quality and to reduce health care costs. The older population is a fertile ground for such an initiative, because studies indicate that the elderly are extremely health-conscious and very willing to adopt habits that...

  16. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  17. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  19. Examining cultural socialization within African American and European American households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M; Dillihunt, Monica L; Boykin, A Wade; Coleman, Sean T; Scott, Darla M; Tyler, Christina M B; Hurley, Eric A

    2008-07-01

    This preliminary study explored the cultural socialization processes of 227 African American and European American parents of elementary schoolchildren. The Cultural Value Socialization Scales (K. M. Tyler, A. W. Boykin, C. M. Boelter, & M. L. Dillihunt, 2005) were used to garner parents' reports of their cultural value socialization activities at home. The scales contained written vignettes depicting persons involved in activity that reflected a specific cultural value. Ethnocultural values examined were communalism, verve, movement, and affect, and mainstream cultural values included individualism, competition, bureaucracy, and materialism. Regression analyses reveal that being an African American parent was predictive of competition and materialism scores. Race was not a significant predictor of the remaining cultural value socialization scores. Limitations to the study are discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the AMEREX Model 775 Wheeled Extinguisher with Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    5). Previously tested agents include the firefighting agents HFC-236fa (Dupont trade name FE-36) and HFCF Blend B ( American Pacific Corporation...Test Two tripod-mounted video cameras were set up to record each test from two different angles. A tripod-mounted Kestrel weather meter was also...the Amerex 775 extinguisher. Temperature, wind speed, and humidity are values measured by the Kestrel weather meter just before the start of the test

  1. Enhancing Entity Level Knowledge Representation and Environmental Sensing in COMBATXXI Using Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    resupply a joint American /Host Nation Outpost consisting of approximately 30 personnel. Along the route there are areas known to have a higher than...2013). [Online]. Available: http://www.avinc.com/img/media_gallery/UAS_Raven_Field_Launch.jpg [9] Kestrel - land mti for small unmanned aircraft systems...2013). [Online]. Available: http://www.avinc.com/uas/ kestrel / [10] U. A. Force, “U.S. Air Force scan eagle fact sheet,” (2013). [Online]. Available

  2. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  3. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  4. Dietary acculturation in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafica, Reimund C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to promote a better understanding of the construct of dietary acculturation in recent years and how it affects dietary intake of Asian-American population. Four databases were searched simultaneously using the following key terms: Asian-Americans, dietary practices, eating habits, and dietary acculturation. A total of seven articles were relevant and met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies of dietary acculturation in Asian Americans are generally in agreement with other dietary acculturation research conducted in non-Asian population samples. Although the studies presented in this literature review represent the recent researches conducted in Asian populations in the US, the research in dietary acculturation remains sparse.

  5. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  6. American Indians, American Dreams, and the Meaning of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Sees a 1987 Supreme Court decision allowing California tribes to continue operating high-stakes gambling operations as a milestone on the path to the Indian dream of community survival and collective political power. Contrasts this dream with the traditional American Dream of individual economic achievement. Contains 14 references. (SV)

  7. Perfluorinated Compounds and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Great Blue Heron Eggs from Three Colonies on the Mississippi River, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Yun, S.-H.; Trowbridge, A.

    2010-01-01

    Archived Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs (N = 16) collected in 1993 from three colonies on the Mississippi River in Minnesota were analyzed in 2007 for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). One of the three colonies, Pig's Eye, was located near a presumed source of PFCs. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of nine PFC concentrations differed significantly between Pig's Eye and the upriver (P = 0.002) and downriver (P = 0.02) colonies; but not between the upriver and downriver colonies (P = 0.25). Mean concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a major PFC compound, were significantly higher at the Pig's Eye colony (geometric mean = 940 ng/g wet weight) than at upriver (60 ng/g wet weight) and downriver (131 ng/g wet weight) colonies. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations from the Pig's Eye colony are among the highest reported in bird eggs. Concentrations of PFOS in Great Blue Heron eggs from Pig's Eye were well below the toxicity thresholds estimated for Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for White Leghorn Chickens (Gallus domesticus). The pattern of six PBDE congener concentrations did not differ among the three colonies (P = 0.08). Total PBDE concentrations, however, were significantly greater (P = 0.03) at Pig's Eye (geometric mean = 142 ng/g wet weight) than the upriver colony (13 ng/g wet weight). Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in two of six Great Blue Heron eggs from the Pig's Eye colony were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius).

  8. Molecular confirmation of Trichomonas gallinae and other parabasalids from Brazil using the 5.8S and ITS-1 rRNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred S; Vilela, Daniel A R; Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Beckstead, Robert B; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Stimmelmayer, Raphaela; Gerhold, Richard W

    2012-11-23

    Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the sinuses of the skull. Histopathologically, marked necrotic and inflammatory lesions were associated with numerous round to oval, pale eosinophilic structures (6-10μm) with basophilic nuclei, consistent with trichomonads. Organisms similar to those described above also were found in the liver of the two green-winged saltators. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of trichomonosis in a striped owl and a toco toucan. Sequence analysis of the Trichomonas spp. internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region and partial 5.8S of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) disclosed significant genetic diversity. Two sequences had 100% identity to Trichomonas gallinae, whereas two sequences had a 99% and 92% identity to a Trichomonas vaginalis-like sequence, respectively. One sequence (green-winged saltator 502-08) had a 100% identity to a newly recognized genus Simplicomonas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  10. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  11. Feasibility Report. Mississippi River at Saint Paul, Minnesota. Reevaluation of Saint Paul Flood Control Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Section 107 - Small Boat Harbors Grand Portage , Minnesota Cook County Bald Eagle (T) (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Gray Wolf (T) (Canis lupus) American...River, Portage , Wisconsin Columbla County American Peregrine Falcon (E) (Falco peregrInus anatum) Arctic Peregrine Falcon (E) (Falco peregrinus...valuation of properties exceeds $100 milion. The total value of inventories for products and other capital goods and contents of buildings is in excess

  12. Combined use of tri-axial accelerometers and GPS reveals the flexible foraging strategy of a bird in relation to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pliego, Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Bustamante, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Tri-axial accelerometry has proved to be a useful technique to study animal behavior with little direct observation, and also an effective way to measure energy expenditure, allowing a refreshing revisit to optimal foraging theory. This theory predicts that individuals should gain the most energy for the lowest cost in terms of time and energy when foraging, in order to maximize their fitness. However, during a foraging trip, central-place foragers could face different trade-offs during the commuting and searching parts of the trip, influencing behavioral decisions. Using the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) as an example we study the time and energy costs of different behaviors during the commuting and searching parts of a foraging trip. Lesser kestrels are small insectivorous falcons that behave as central-place foragers during the breeding season. They can commute by adopting either time-saving flapping flights or energy-saving soaring-gliding flights, and capture prey by using either time-saving active hovering flights or energy-saving perch-hunting. We tracked 6 lesser kestrels using GPS and tri-axial accelerometers during the breeding season. Our results indicate that males devoted more time and energy to flight behaviors than females in agreement with being the sex responsible for food provisioning to the nest. During the commuting flights, kestrels replaced flapping with soaring-gliding flights as solar radiation increased and thermal updrafts got stronger. In the searching part, they replaced perch-hunting with hovering as wind speed increased and they experienced a stronger lift. But also, they increased the use of hovering as air temperature increased, which has a positive influence on the activity level of the preferred prey (large grasshoppers). Kestrels maintained a constant energy expenditure per foraging trip, although flight and hunting strategies changed dramatically with weather conditions, suggesting a fixed energy budget per trip to which they

  13. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  14. American Indians as Economic Decisionmakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; Gash, David

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that U.S. history did not begin with the colonization of North America by Europeans but with the Native American tribes that flourished prior to colonization. Discusses economic issues that determined the history and culture of various tribes. Provides a lesson plan based on economic decisions made by the Choctaw tribe. (CFR)

  15. American Samoa's forest resources, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Donnegan; Sheri S. Mann; Sarah L. Butler; Bruce A. Hiserote

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the Pacific Northwest Research Station collected, analyzed, and summarized data from field plots, and mapped land cover on four islands in American Samoa. This statistical sample provides estimates of forest area, stem volume, biomass, numbers of trees, damages to trees, and tree size distribution. The summary provides...

  16. Arab American Experiences in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  17. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  18. Pedagogics in Mexican American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    A pedagogy appropriate to college level courses and comprised of interdisciplinary content, multidisciplinary faculty, and students from diverse academic backgrounds and with varying levels of skills merits development. A taxonomy of some of the difficulties in the construction of such a course in Mexican American studies, for example, focuses on…

  19. Indigenous agroforestry in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malala (Mike) Misa; Agnes M. Vargo

    1993-01-01

    Agroforestry exists in American Samoa as a system where indigenous trees and natural vegetation used for food, fuelwood, crafts and medicine are incorporated with traditional staple crops and livestock on a set piece of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While nutritional, cultural, social,...

  20. Native Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dauna B.; Evans, Wayne H.

    Colleges and universities have failed to meet the unique educational needs of Native American students, whose attrition rates are far in excess of those of other students. These students must come to terms with their cultural identity while functioning within the culturally alien framework presented by the school. Federally funded programs have…

  1. Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    Throughout the United States, many Filipino Americans, especially students, are beginning to want to know more about their cultural heritage and future. Overall, there has been very little written to transmit knowledge about Filipino history, ideas, and values, even though Filipinos make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States.…

  2. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  3. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  4. Alcohol Education via American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celluci, Tony; Larsen, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes two courses utilizing modern American fiction, poetry, and drama in which vivid depictions of the disasters wrought by excessive drinking are found. Posits these as examples of how literature that addresses problems related to drinking and alcoholism can be used in a focused way in alcohol education. (LKS)

  5. Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    As many linguists continue to work with and analyze First Nations/Native American languages, the consensus opinion usually direly predicts the loss of daily use for almost all of the extant Indigenous languages. Tremendous efforts are being expended for renewing, revitalizing, and restoring these languages to everyday use. The model upon which…

  6. American Elements in Czech Parody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemelíková, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-113 ISSN 0022-3840 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech interwar literature * parody * Brdečka, Jiří * Kuděj, Zdeněk Matěj * americanism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision Impact factor: 0.070, year: 2015

  7. Communication; A Scientific American Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  8. History of American Education Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, David

    2007-01-01

    This book depicts the evolution of American educational history from 1630 to the present. The book highlights how ideological managers have shaped society and, because schools mirror society, have thus had a profound impact on education and schooling. Five common areas of study - philosophy, politics, economics, social sciences, and religion -…

  9. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  10. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  11. Counseling Considerations among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a focus group interview conducted with a group of therapists in a large-scale, comprehensive family service agency in an Arab American community. The interview format was semistructured, and the results confirmed what little was already known about the population and supplemented that body of knowledge with updated…

  12. Ideas That Shaped American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1981-01-01

    Briefly discusses 10 books, or series of books, that represent major turning points in American education in the last 75 years. The authors include William H. McGuffey, Abraham Flexner, Lewis M. Terman, John Dewey, George S. Counts, Jerome S. Bruner, James S. Coleman, Michael B. Katz, and B. F. Skinner. (IRT)

  13. Eisenhower and the American Sublime

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ned

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential rhetoric as an iteration of an American synecdochal sublime. Eisenhower's rhetoric sought to re-aim civic sight beyond corporeal objects to the nation's transcendental essence. This rhetoric is intimately connected to prevailing political anxieties and exigencies, especially the problem of…

  14. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  15. Textbooks and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert, Ed.

    An independent Indian publishing house has been formed to provide classroom instructional materials which deal accurately with the history, culture, and role of the American Indian. This book is a preliminary statement in that publishing program. General criteria, valid for instructional materials from elementary through high school, are applied…

  16. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  17. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D.; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were ...

  18. Avian species differences in the intestinal absorption of xenobiotics (PCB, dieldrin, Hg2+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    1. Intestinal absorption of a polychlorinated biphenyl, dieldrin, and mercury (from HgCl2) was measured in adult Northern bobwhites, Eastern screech owls, American kestrels, black-crowned night-herons and mallards in vivo by an in situ luminal perfusion technique.2. Bobwhites, screech owls and kestrels absorbed much more of each xenobiotic than black-crowned night-herons and mallards.3. Mallards absorbed less dieldrin and mercury than black-crowned night-herons.4. Mercury absorption by kestrels was more than twice that in screech owls and eight times that observed in mallards.5. Pronounced differences in xenobiotic absorption rates between bobwhites, screech owls and kestrels on the one hand, and black-crowned night-herons and mallards on the other, raise the possibility that absorptive ability may be associated with the phylogenetic classification of birds.

  19. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  20. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  1. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  3. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  4. The Need for American Hegemony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    military power.17 The first ended abruptly with “the war to end all wars.”18 Yet, liberal internationalists, like Professor Noam Chomsky of MIT...December 2008. 16. Krauthammer, 11. 17. Kagan, “Benevolent Empire,” 30. 18. Kagan, “Benevolent Empire,” 30. 19. Noam Chomsky , Hegemony or...Era of American Empire. London: Routledge, 2003. Chomsky , Noam . Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance. New York

  5. Reconstructing Native American population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2012-08-16

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  7. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  8. American Cocker Spaniel Chronic Hepatitis in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanemoto, H.; Sakai, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Spee, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830925

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: American Cocker Spaniels are predisposed to chronic hepatitis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis in Japanese American Cocker Spaniels. ANIMALS: Thirteen cases examined from 2003 to 2009. METHODS: Retrospective study. Medical

  9. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chicago Learn More Close The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy ASGCT is the primary membership organization for scientists, ... Therapeutics Official Journal of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Molecular Therapy is the leading journal for gene ...

  10. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) ...

  12. Prepositions in American and British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Dieter; Weber, Christel

    1989-01-01

    Compares the distribution of prepositions in American and British English. Two machine-readable one million word Corpora, the Brown Corpus of American English and the Lob Corpus of British are used as a basis of comparison. (Author/OD)

  13. EARLY DOWNHOME BLUES IN AMERICAN CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Muhni, Djuhertati Imam

    2012-01-01

    People's traditional music and the way people behave when performing it are symbolic expressions of broad cultural pattern and social organization . In other words music is a part of men's learned heritage . Hence this study is about music in a given culture, specifically blues in American culture . Allen Trachtenberg stated that blues songs are inheritance from the American past for negotiating black people's lives as Americans . In the experience of blues the African-Americans find themselv...

  14. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  15. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  16. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  17. Nostalgia and Educational History: An American Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the way in which nostalgia informs the 1953 painting of a school setting by the popular American artist Norman Rockwell. "The Girl with Black Eye", the cover image of the American popular magazine "The Saturday Evening Post" on 23 May 1953, draws on traditional American iconography of the disciplining of…

  18. Russians and Americans Gather to Talk Psychobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)

  19. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  20. Americans taking the plunge with videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszewski, C. M.

    1989-05-01

    The growing use of videoconferencing by American businesses and institutions is outlined. Case studies of the use three American firms make of videoconferring techniques are presented. The choice of videoconferencing services offered on the American market is summarized. New developments in the area of standards is predicted to further accelerate the growth of international videoconferencing.

  1. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  2. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the cause is not always known, some ...

  3. Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program Phase III. A grant to improve a new generation of Latin American leaders' understanding of how to better manage natural resources will contribute to the region's economic and social development. Earlier IDRC grants helped the Latin American and ...

  4. AMERICAN SPLENDOR: UMA ESTRUTURA MOEBIANA / American Splendor: A Moebian Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Nino (UFPE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os conceitos intrínsecos à indecidibilidade espacial moebiana constituiu o eixo a partir de onde analisamos os aspectos estruturais narrativos do filme American Splendor (2003, dos documentaristas americanos Shari Springer e Robert Pulcini, que transita parcialmente entre documentário, drama biográfico, ficção, resultante da adaptação literária da HQ homônima do autor roteirista Harvey Pekar (1939-2010. O filme em questão, metalinguístico e autobiográfico como a própria HQ, representa especularmente, por meio da mise en abyme, a complexidade sujeito/obra na trajetória do autor Pekar, introduzindo-o diegeticamente em vários níveis na produção, aliando assim forma e conteúdo de modo exemplar e estimulante, em perfeita sincronia com a revista underground de autoria do homenageado, sem que, no entanto, deixe de ser puro cinema. Palavras-chave: fita de Moebius, metalinguagem, autorreferência, autobiografia, mise en abyme. ABSTRACT American Splendor, A Moebian Structure – The intrinsic concepts to moebian space undecidability was the axis form where se analyze the narrative in its structural aspects of the film American Splendor (2003 of american documentary filmmakers Shari Springer and Robert Pulcini that work among documentary, biographical, drama, ficcion resulting from the literary adaptation of the eponymous comic book of author Harvey Pekar (1939-2010. The film in question, metalinguistic and autobiographical as the comics itself, is spercularly through the mise-en-abyme, of the subject / work complex in the trajectory of author Pekar, introducing him diegetically at various levels in the production, thus combining form and content of exemplary and stimulating way, in perfect sync with the underground magazine written by the honored one, without, however, stop being pure cinema. Keywords: Moebius strip, metalanguage, self-reference, autobiography, mise en abyme

  5. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. American Elementary School Children's Attitudes about Immigrants, Immigration, and Being an American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined 5 to 11-year-old European American children's (N = 90) attitudes regarding immigrants, immigration policy, and what it means to be an American. The majority of children in the sample (from a predominantly European American community) held strong American identities and had distinct ideas about what it means to be an…

  7. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  8. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  9. Health promotion for older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, M M

    1985-01-01

    As American lifespans increase, there is greater concern for the quality of those longer lives. The Department of Health and Human Services, through its many component agencies, has inaugurated a major initiative to promote health and fitness among older Americans to improve life quality and to reduce health care costs. The older population is a fertile ground for such an initiative, because studies indicate that the elderly are extremely health-conscious and very willing to adopt habits that will maintain good health. Investigation disclosed six target areas of concentration at which the health promotion initiative could be aimed: fitness-exercise, nutrition, safe and proper use of drugs and alcohol, accident prevention, other preventive services, and smoking cessation. The initiative includes cooperative programs with States; dissemination of printed information; nutritious meals for the elderly; a Food and Drug Administration consumer education program; Centers for Disease Control programs on accident prevention; a special task force to deal with Alzheimer's disease; and, in cooperation with states, a media campaign of health promotion for the elderly. At least three national health and senior citizens organizations are working closely with HHS agencies on the initiative. A separate Department effort involves the encouragement of fast-growing health maintenance organizations to promote health and prevention for their Medicare members and the persuasion of Medicare beneficiaries generally to seek second medical or surgical opinions. State and local government and the private sector, responding to Department initiatives, have also been developing programs for the aging. Their interest and participation ensures that special health promotion and disease prevention efforts directed toward elderly Americans will continue and proliferate.

  10. Redeeming American democracy in Sayonara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Seguro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affection is perceived as something natural, pre-existing Culture and, therefore, free form discursive constructions. However, insofar as reality is mediated, if not given existence by language, human relationships are inevitably fashioned by narratives. Romance fictions and in particular heterosexual, interracial love stories have been used in U.S. popular culture as a means of promoting American democratic values of racial harmony at home and abroad. This will be exemplified by analyzing James A. Michener’s 1953 novel Sayonara together with Joshua Logan’s 1957 film adaptation.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  12. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  13. Space and the American imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction will set out the principal theme of the book: that the rise of the U.S. space program was due to a concerted effort by science writers, engineers, industrialists, and civic and political leaders to create a popular culture of space exploration based on important elements of American social life (such as frontier mythology, fears about the cold war, and the rise of the consumer culture). Much of the disillusionment with the NASA space program which set in during the third decade of space flight can be traced to a widening gap between popular expectations and the reality of space exploration.

  14. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  16. North American natural gas vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app.

  17. North American natural gas vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app

  18. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  19. Influences of culture on Asian Americans' sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sumie

    2002-02-01

    Asian Americans comprise a population group that is characterized by an enormous demographic, historical, and cultural heterogeneity, yet Asian Americans also share many Asian cultural characteristics such as the primacy of the family and the collective's goals over individual wishes, emphasis on propriety and social codes, the appropriation of sexuality only within the context of marriage, and sexual restraint and modesty. Although there are significant gaps in the scientific literature concerning Asian Americans sexuality, the existing data point to notable differences between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups on major aspects of sexual behavior. For example, relative to other U.S. ethnic group cohorts, Asian American adolescents and young adults tend to show more sexually conservative attitudes and behavior and initiate sexual intercourse at a later age. There are indications that as Asian Americans become more acculturated to the mainstream American culture, their attitudes and behavior become more consistent with the White American norm. Consistent with their more sexually conservative tendencies in normative sexual behavior, Asian American women also appear more reluctant to obtain sexual and reproductive care, which in turn places them at a greater risk for delay in treatment for breast and cervical cancer as well as other gynecological problems. Available data suggest that the prevalence rate of sexual abuse in Asian American communities appear lower than those of other groups, although it is not clear to what extent the low rates are due to cultural reluctance to report shameful experiences.

  20. Biomagnification of higher brominated PBDE congeners in an urban terrestrial food web in north China based on field observation of prey deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le-Huan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Liu, Li-Yu; Song, Jie; Sun, Quan-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-06-15

    As an important group of brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) persist in the wildlife food webs. However, the biomagnification of PBDEs has not been adequately studied in the terrestrial food webs. In this study, a terrestrial food web composed of common kestrels, sparrows, rats, grasshoppers, and dragonflies in the urban environment from northern China was obtained. A field prey delivery study, reinforced by δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N analyses, indicates that sparrows are the primary prey items of common kestrels. Concentrations of PBDEs were in the following order: common kestrel > sparrow > rat > grasshopper and dragonfly with BDE-209 as the dominant congener. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were calculated as the ratio between the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey. The highest BMF (6.9) was determined for BDE-153 in sparrow/common kestrel food chain. Other higher brominated congeners, such as BDE-202, -203, -154, -183, -197, and -209, were also biomagnified in this terrestrial food chain with BMF of 1.3-4.7. BDE-47, -99, and -100 were found to be biodiluted from sparrow to common kestrel (BMFs American kestrels from another study. Retention factors and metabolism of BDE congeners may be confounding factors influencing the measured BMFs in this current study.

  1. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    Full Text Available Higher body mass index (BMI is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with 80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry. This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  2. Asian and European American cultural values and communication styles among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Kim, Bryan S K

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between adherence to Asian and European cultural values and communication styles among 210 Asian American and 136 European American college students. A principal components analysis revealed that, for both Asian Americans and European Americans, the contentious, dramatic, precise, and open styles loaded onto the first component suggesting low context communication, and interpersonal sensitivity and inferring meaning styles loaded onto the second component suggesting high context communication. Higher adherence to emotional self-control and lower adherence to European American values explained Asian Americans' higher use of the indirect communication, while higher emotional self-control explained why Asian Americans use a less open communication style than their European American counterparts. When differences between sex and race were controlled, adherence to humility was inversely related to contentious and dramatic communication styles but directly related to inferring meaning style, adherence to European American values was positively associated with precise communication and inferring meaning styles, and collectivism was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity style. 2008 APA

  3. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Method: Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n =…

  4. Latin American production - premium Barrels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, P.D.

    1993-12-31

    The rapid increase in acceptability of various potential exploration and production venture opportunities throughout most of Latin America has created yet another watershed in our ever changing industry. Who would have believed a very short while ago that ventures in Latin America would compete successfully for risk funds against well established opportunities in such areas as the North Sea or Asia Pacific and even with the heady prospects continuing to appear in the CIS? Is this competition real, or is it another industry myth which sets sights too high and where we chase each others pot of gold before reality sets in? Let us try and examine some of the reasons why the current enthusiasms may be justified, particularly so in the case of North American investment.

  5. The Absence of Structural Americanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    use, and funding for public service media from a strategic sample of six countries to test the structural version of the convergence hypothesis, looking at the period from 2000 to 2009. (The countries included are Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States......Several comparative media researchers have hypothesized that the media systems of affluent Western democracies are becoming more and more structurally homogeneous—that they are becoming “Americanized.” This article uses data on newspaper industry revenues, commercial television revenues, Internet.......) The analysis demonstrates an “absence of Americanization” as the six media systems have not become structurally more similar over the last decade. Instead, developments are summarized as a combination of (1) parallel displacements, (2) persistent particularities, and (3) the emergence of some new peculiarities...

  6. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  7. Ophthalmology of South american camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2010-11-01

    In the past 10 years, information about South American camelid anatomy, physiology, medicine, and surgery has increased exponentially, including information about the eye. Although trauma-related diseases are the most common eye problems for which camelids are presented to veterinarians, there have recently been many anecdotal reports and published case reports of camelids having ocular malignancies and potentially hereditary ocular abnormalities. The increased number of ocular diseases being reported may be because of increased recognition of camelid diseases or an increase in these diseases as a result of restricted gene pools as a consequence of inbreeding. As the popularity of camelids is steadily increasing, owners are becoming more knowledgeable about their animals, and there is more need for veterinarians who understand their ocular anatomy, physiology, disease susceptibility, and recommended treatments. This article provides the relevant information about the eye. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  9. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays as the objects for laughs; gays revealing their sexual identities; sexual scenes of gays; masculine gay men; and violence in gay life. They appear in genres like drama, comedy, romance, detective, western, and horror/mystery with two images of gay people shown in American gay movies; they are the portrait of gays as a minority and the pessimism. However, it also shows that some American gay films picture good gay life, happy gay couples, gay marriage, etc.

  10. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US.ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%.Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  11. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577

  12. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, ...

  13. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  14. The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    become the first and only official American regulations of the eighteenth century , Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United...The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces A Monograph by MAJ Grant A. Brown British Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  15. The work of the American emergency physician.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, J P; Weber, J E; Chudnofsky, C

    1998-01-01

    The organisation of the American emergency health care system has changed rapidly during recent years, but it remains very different to the system in the United Kingdom. American emergency departments are organised around an attending physician based service, rather than a consultant led service. As a result, the work of the American emergency physician differs considerably from that of the United Kingdom A&E consultant. The problems associated with working in an attending physician based ser...

  16. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  17. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  18. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  19. Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients.

  20. 75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    .... Identify affiliation agreements with Tribal community colleges, the IHS, university affiliated programs...; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Medicine Program Announcement Type... competitive grant applications for the American Indians into Medicine Program. This program is authorized...

  1. Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanfer Emin Tunc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim

  2. Heather Switzer named American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    Heather Switzer, planning, governance, and globalization doctoral student in the School of Public and International Affairs at Virginia Tech, has been named an American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow.

  3. The relationship between momentary emotions and well-being across European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E

    2017-09-01

    Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.

  4. Successful anglo-american entrepreneurs and the american dream. A narrative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, Marian; Liñán, Francisco (Coordinador); Guzmán Cuevas, Joaquín J. (Coordinador)

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most successful entrepreneurs in the Anglo-American world have written their autobiographies. A narrative analysis of these autobiographies reveal the influence of the American Dream on their life and on the way they tell their lifestories. An emphasis on moral correctness as well as on working hard, perseverance and discipline justifies the success of the narrators. The American Myth seems to be a reality – at least for white, Anglo-American, male entrepreneur...

  5. Smoking in contemporary American cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Karan; Lessnau, Klaus; Kim, Jeannie; Mercante, Donald; Weinacker, Ann; Mason, Carol

    2005-08-01

    The true prevalence of smoking among characters portrayed in the movies is unknown. This study examines this prevalence objectively. The top 10 movies on the weekly box office charts were reviewed. Whether or not the top five characters in these movies smoked, was documented. It was determined prior to the start of the study that 300 male characters and 300 female characters were needed to detect any significant difference. A total of 447 movies, composed of 193 movies rated restricted (R) [children movies rated PG13 for parental guidance suggested for children movies rated PG for parental guidance suggested, were examined until the sample size was reached. Smoking prevalence is the same in contemporary American movies and in the general US population (23.3% vs 24.8%, respectively). However, there was more smoking in these movies among men than among women (25.5% vs 20.5%, respectively; p movies (46.2% vs 18.2%, respectively; p movies (37.3%, 16.2%, and 8.1%, respectively; p movies, and in both subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies, smoking prevalence is higher than in the US population (37.3%, 30.5%, and 50.6% vs 24.8%, respectively; p movies, R-rated studio movies, and R-rated independent movies. In R-rated movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (43.9% vs 35.8%, respectively; p movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (42.6% vs 26.6%, respectively; p movies, whites smoke more than nonwhites (51.8% vs 40.5%, respectively; p movies than in R-rated studio movies (50.6% vs 30.5%, respectively; p movies than in R-rated studio movies in subcategories of men (32.0% vs 49.8%, respectively; p movies, and R-rated movies. Smoking prevalence is higher than in the general US population in R-rated movies, and in both its subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies. There is more smoking in R-rated independent movies than in R-rated studio movies. Smoking in contemporary American cinema is associated

  6. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  7. 75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type... applications for the American Indians into Psychology Program. This program is authorized under the authority...

  8. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  9. Why American civilization? American literature and academic exchange in occupied Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaustein, G.

    2012-01-01

    After 1945, many American writers and intellectuals devoted themselves to European reconstruction, tying American literature and culture to an agenda of reeducation and democratization. At the nexus of these efforts was American Studies, then a new and ideologically diffuse movement of writers,

  10. Extending Research on the Consequences of Parenting Style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…

  11. Eating Disorders of White American, Racial and Ethnic Minority American, and International Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

    1993-01-01

    Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)

  12. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  13. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  14. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  15. First Person Past: American Autobiographies, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic......American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic...

  16. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  17. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  18. African Americans and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

  19. American Women Dramatists: 1960-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Patti P.

    A history of American women dramatists is provided in this paper with emphasis on the period 1960 to 1980. It is noted that by 1960 several American women had earned sizable reputations as dramatists; that prior to 1960, especially in the 1920s and 1930s, they had offered both commercial and experimental pieces; and that, like their male…

  20. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  1. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  2. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  3. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  4. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  5. 75 FR 23245 - American Lobster Fishery Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Lobster Fishery Management AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... management actions and alternatives for the American lobster fishery in Federal waters. The management... (Commission) as part of the Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan for American Lobster (ISFMP). Two...

  6. Nurturing Learning in Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Robert W.

    This book helps teachers of Native American students to facilitate learning in school through awareness of cultural and values differences between Native Americans and the mainstream culture. Most of the specific cultural information presented comes from the Navajo and Hopi Reservations in northeastern Arizona, but the associated ideas,…

  7. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy

  8. African American Males: Leaving the Nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wali

    The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…

  9. 33 CFR 117.141 - American River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false American River. 117.141 Section 117.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.141 American River. The draw of the...

  10. American Indian Migration and Economic Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the determinants of interstate migration and the impact of migration on labor force participation for American Indians, in comparison to White and intermarried Indian/White couples. Interstate migration was much lower for endogenous American Indian couples, but its effect on labor force participation was the same for all couples. (ETS)

  11. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  12. Educating African American Males: A Dream Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    This document presents recommendations of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) African American Male Task Force (MAAMTF), which reviewed from January through April of 1990 current educational efforts and recommended strategies by which schools could better address African American males' needs. The MAAMTF recommendations are to be implemented in two phases.…

  13. The American Pika in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Ethan; Frey, S. Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the American pika, the smallest member of the rabbit and hare family. It discusses concerns for the American pika populations, its presence in the Cedar Breaks National Monument, and how individuals can help monitor the pika at Cedar Breaks and throughout Utah.

  14. Arab Americans: Into the Multicultural Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Long-standing anti-Arab racism in the U.S. has worsened in recent decades, fueled by U.S. military involvement in the Middle East and by the September 11 attack on the U.S. Arab American and Muslim children have been the targets of misunderstanding and discrimination. Following a historical introduction, discrimination against Arab American and…

  15. Categorical Perception in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Brentari, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether Deaf signers or hearing nonsigners exhibit categorical perception (CP) for hand configuration or for place of articulation in American Sign Language. Findings that signers and nonsigners performed similarly suggests that these categories in American Sign Language have a perceptual as well as a linguistic basis.…

  16. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  17. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  18. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  19. Teaching American History in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri; Carl, Ed.; Davis, James, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive resource is an invaluable aid for adding a global dimension to students' understanding of American history. It includes a wide range of materials from scholarly articles and reports to original syllabi and ready-to-use lesson plans to guide teachers in enlarging the frame of introductory American history courses to an…

  20. Teaching American History Evaluation: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Tseng, Fannie; Humphrey, Daniel; Gillespie, Marilyn; Yee, Kaily

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Congress established the Teaching American History (TAH) program, which seeks to improve student achievement by improving teachers' knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of traditional American history as a separate subject within the core curriculum. Under this program, grants are awarded to local education agencies (LEAs), which…

  1. Drug testing in American schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Russo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As the use of illegal drugs has reached epidemic proportions in schools, educational leaders in the United States have turned to drug testing in attempting to maintain learner discipline. To this end, the United States Supreme Court has addressed the issue twice in the past eight years. In 1995, the Court permitted drug testing in Acton v. Vernonia School District 47J. More recently, in Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie v. Earls (2002, the Court upheld suspicionless drug testing of learners who wished to participate in extracurricular activities. Even though drug testing has yet to emerge as an issue in South Africa, Earls is significant for educational leaders and policy makers in South Africa since it involves concerns under the National Policy on Privacy. More specifically, under Items 20 and 21 of the South African National Policy on the Management of Drug Abuse (SA, 1996b searches and drug testing should only be used where there is reasonable suspicion, the same standard applied by American courts. However, unlike the United States, the South African policy prohibits random searches and/or drug testing. Thus, due to constitutional and educational issues that drug testing raises, a timely discussion of this matter should be of interest to educational leaders and policy makers in South Africa.

  2. Arsenic Content in American Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies that have investigated arsenic content in juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and other foods have stimulated an interest in understanding how prevalent arsenic contamination is in the U.S. food and beverage supply. The study described here focused on quantifying arsenic levels in wine. A total of 65 representative wines from the top four wine-producing states in the U.S. were analyzed for arsenic content. All samples contained arsenic levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) exposure limit for drinking water of 10 parts per billion (ppb) and all samples contained inorganic arsenic. The average arsenic detected among all samples studied was 23.3 ppb. Lead, a common co-contaminant to arsenic, was detected in 58% of samples tested, but only 5% exceeded the U.S. EPA exposure limit for drinking water of 15 ppb. Arsenic levels in American wines exceeded those found in other studies involving water, bottled water, apple juice, apple juice blend, milk, rice syrup, and other beverages. When taken in the context of consumption patterns in the U.S., the pervasive presence of arsenic in wine can pose a potential health risk to regular adult wine drinkers.

  3. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  4. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  5. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2016-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:27182075

  6. THE GODFATHER AND THE AMERICAN DREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goksu Gigi Akkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to demonstrate how The Godfather by Francis Ford Coppola challenges the myth of the American Dream. The thesis of the paper is that The Godfather is not a film seeking to re-establish American norms and ideals, but that it tries to break down and shed light on the corrupt side of the modern American society through the myth of “the American Dream”. The structure of the paper is so that first, what other academics and critiques have to say about Coppola’s attempt to criticize the American society and ideals will be visited, as this will give the reader a clearer understanding of the film’s meaning and message. Then, analyses of how certain characters are built and how their presence and attributes contribute to the film’s meaning will be conducted, topped off with the usage of props.

  7. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are proclaiming their identity. Moreover, the paper presents the translation problems that emerge when attempting to transfer such a specific, even exotic, source culture into a target culture, like Slovene. The goal is to show to what extent contemporary African American poetry can successfully be translated into the Slovene language and to highlight the parts that inevitably remain lost in the translation process.

  8. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  9. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  10. African-Americans and comprehensive service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Matthew T; Segal, Steven P; Cowsert, Max J

    2003-06-01

    This study examined African-Americans' use of comprehensive mental health services. 248 long-term users of self-help agencies (SHAs) were interviewed about their use of 37 different mental health services from various providers in a six-month period. Multiple regression analysis showed that the homeless and African-Americans were the high users in our sample. A subsequent MANOVA procedure suggested that this may be the result of African-Americans' increased use of SHAs. While African-Americans are low service users in traditional studies focusing on a narrow list of services and providers, this research argues for including SHAs in future studies of African-American service use.

  11. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  12. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  13. Asian Americans: growth, change, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C

    1985-10-01

    The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.

  14. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-11-21

    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The state of American management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriston, W B

    1990-01-01

    Every year, the president of the United States offers his State of the Union address. Here, from one of the most respected managers in America, is a report on the State of American Management. The state of management, says Walter B. Wriston, is good. Despite the predictions of America's decline, our economy continues to prosper. That is because of this fundamental truth: the United States is the only country in the world that renews itself daily. This is the Age of Pluralism, and U.S. business is based on pluralism. The spirit of the entrepreneur has entered the mainstream of U.S. management, transforming bureaucracy and emphasizing leadership. Today's top executives need to be more like politicians than the number-crunchers of yesterday. At the same time, information is flowing more freely, so corporations are eliminating layers of managers who were really just transmission lines. And top managers are learning to listen to the people who are closest to the work. Everyone today is a knowledge worker. The accelerating pace of knowledge has put a greater premium than ever on talent. Globalization is a big part of this new world. From the manager's viewpoint, globalization means that "you're in a marketplace where you're suddenly waking up with a guy...from a country you're not too sure where it is, who's eating your lunch in your hometown." To understand global competition, managers in large and small companies need broad vision. Finally, to deal with change, U.S. managers must confront some issues at home. For instance, our accounting systems are obsolete, both in companies and in our national accounts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The North American electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, I.

    1999-01-01

    The wide ranging changes that will drive the evolution of the North American electricity industry in the future are discussed. Deregulation and the advent of competition in both the United States and Canada are the principal forces that will change the shape of the electricity market, bringing new players and new forms of doing business into the marketplace. A review of the current state of the business shows that especially in the United States where deregulation began earlier than in Canada, independent generators already constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Non-utility generation capacity is about seven per cent of total U.S. capacity and accounts for about 10 per cent of total U. S. electricity supply, including imports. Examples from other industries clearly show that restructuring and the breakup of vertically integrated industries could be accomplished much faster than anticipated, that a decrease in prices followed rapidly as products became more like commodities, and that decreasing prices fostered product differentiation and competition. Major legislation affecting the electric power industry in the U.S. and Canada (U.S. National Energy Policy Act 1992, Alberta Electric Utilities Act 1995, Ontario Energy Competition Act 1998) decreeing open access transmission, unbundling of generation, transmission and ancillary services, and promoting competition, and the impacts of these legislative actions are also reviewed. The most visible impact is the explosion that can be seen in power marketing and energy trading on a scale unimaginable only a few short years ago, where the total volume of trade may be worth multiples of the value of the underlying commodity. At the same time, there is concern about the reliability of the system, and thus making it imperative to find new ways to manage reliability. Various suggestions are made as to how increased reliability of supply could be achieved by better management, new standards and better enforcement of

  17. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  18. AMERICAN DREAM: THE AMERICAN HEGEMONIC CULTURE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasiyarno .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nation could be a great one as long as it has a great dream. The best example for this is America. Through its long history, it manages to realize a dream to be a superpower. It can be said that “American Dream” is one of the most significant features for the growth of a “constantly eyeing for winner” culture. American Studies experts call it as a “hegemonic culture” in which American norms, values and cultural practices are considered superior against the world culture. Globalizing the culture has been the most effective engine to spread American cultural values and to shape the global civilizations. Using American Studies perspective, this paper attempts to review the extent to which the “American Dream” has successfully established Americanization, as well as how the hegemonic culture has influenced the lives of peoples across the world in the form of popular culture.

  19. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with ancestry were 2.5 times more likely to be severely obese compared to those with >80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  20. Quality of diabetes care in Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlie, Helen D; Herman, William H; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Jaber, Linda A

    2008-02-01

    The quality of care received by Arab American patients with type 2 diabetes residing in a city with a large migrant Arab population has not been examined. Arab American adults with a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes were identified in a rigorous cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study conducted in Dearborn, MI. Quality of diabetes care was determined by assessing adherence to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) clinical practice recommendations. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided data for a national comparison. Among the 53 participants, mean age was 59+/-12 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 11.3+/-13.3 years. The ADA goal for an A1c of Arab American subjects studied were treated less aggressively with pharmacologic agents than recommended by the ADA. 26% of the Arab Americans had an A1c>9.5% as compared to 18% of the national population. Arab Americans generally had worse blood pressure control but better lipid control compared to the national sample. This is the first report of the quality of diabetes care in an Arab American population, and demonstrates sub-optimal quality of care according to the ADA clinical practice recommendations.