WorldWideScience

Sample records for american indians

  1. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  2. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  3. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  4. Textbooks and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert, Ed.

    An independent Indian publishing house has been formed to provide classroom instructional materials which deal accurately with the history, culture, and role of the American Indian. This book is a preliminary statement in that publishing program. General criteria, valid for instructional materials from elementary through high school, are applied…

  5. Association of American Indian Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the OMH website Tribal Stories Needed for CDC Museum Exhibition Stories should highlight how Native traditions and ... of American Indian Physicians. Website designed by Back40 Design & managed by Javelin CMS

  6. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  7. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  8. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  9. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, ...

  10. 75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type... applications for the American Indians into Psychology Program. This program is authorized under the authority...

  11. Washington Irving and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

  12. American Indian Migration and Economic Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the determinants of interstate migration and the impact of migration on labor force participation for American Indians, in comparison to White and intermarried Indian/White couples. Interstate migration was much lower for endogenous American Indian couples, but its effect on labor force participation was the same for all couples. (ETS)

  13. 75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    .... Identify affiliation agreements with Tribal community colleges, the IHS, university affiliated programs...; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Medicine Program Announcement Type... competitive grant applications for the American Indians into Medicine Program. This program is authorized...

  14. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  15. Theories of underdevelopment and the American Indian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, G.C.

    1980-09-01

    This article examines the applicability of the theories of colonialism and dependency to the present underdeveloped situation of American Indians. In the first section, the theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed. The second section applies the general theory to various US minorities, including American Indians. After discussing the shortcomings of this theoretical framework, the article demonstrates how deficiencies found in the colonial analysis of Indian underdevelopment can be corrected by using the supporting theoretical construct of dependency. Among other things, it suggests that dependency analysis of Native Americans, on the basis of previous research, appears, to offer a potentially unified and coherent explanation for the Indian's continued underdevelopment.

  16. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  17. Indian Voices; The First Convocation of American Indian Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; And Others

    The document reports on The First Convocation of American Indian Scholars, which was attended by professional people, artists, traditional historians, etc. As noted, the 4-day convocation was conceived, organized, and directed entirely by Native Americans and was limited to 200 participants, among whom were 36 Native American students. The…

  18. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  19. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS... Epidemiology Centers serving American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document...

  20. Suicide among American Indian Adolescents: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Irving N.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies common patterns in experience and behavior among American Indian adolescent suicides. Discusses factors characterizing tribes with high suicide rates, including failure to adhere to traditional ways and resulting chaotic family structure and adult alcoholism. Discusses roles of adoption of Indian children, boarding schools, and high…

  1. Education "for" American Indians: Threat or Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, Sol; Thomas, Robert K

    1969-01-01

    Results of this Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsored research project in literacy training among the Cherokee Indians of Eastern Oklahoma indicate that alienation rather than lack of opportunity is the chief difficulty in American Indian education. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue "Linguistic-Cultural Differences…

  2. 76 FR 33314 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities Division of Epidemiology and Disease Prevention; Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities Announcement Type...

  3. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  4. Indian - American contributions to psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangi, Anand K

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian - American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years.

  5. Building bridges in American Indian bereavement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    Due to the severity of the risks involved in violation of ethical principles with research of American Indian populations, more attention in literature is needed on the topic. This article reviews discussions of ethical and methodological issues, uses Muscogee Creeks' responses from the author's prior study (Walker, 2008; Walker & Balk, 2007) as an example and application, and specifically focuses on the research of death and bereavement. The article provides ethical reflection and recommendations for designing death and bereavement research as an outsider to the culture, as well as for building trust with participants in American Indian populations.

  6. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Census Bureau. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Facts Heart Disease is the first and stroke ...

  7. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  8. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…

  9. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  10. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... income. Some of the leading diseases and causes of death among AI/AN are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), diabetes, and stroke. American Indians/Alaska Natives also have a high prevalence and risk factors for mental health and suicide, ...

  11. Literature of the American Indian. Abridged Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas E.; Peek, Walter W.

    From ancient stories of creation to contemporary poetry and prose, this volume ranges through thousands of years of the literature of the American Indian. Chapter One of the book deals with pre-Columbian religions and features accounts of the Creation by the Cheyenne, Navajo, Omaha, Yakima, Zuni, and Uitoto. Chapter Two has as its theme folk…

  12. American Indians, American Dreams, and the Meaning of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Sees a 1987 Supreme Court decision allowing California tribes to continue operating high-stakes gambling operations as a milestone on the path to the Indian dream of community survival and collective political power. Contrasts this dream with the traditional American Dream of individual economic achievement. Contains 14 references. (SV)

  13. Expanding the Secondary Literature Curriculum: Annotated Bibliographies of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Ogle B.; Tongchinsub, Helen J.

    1990-01-01

    Aids teachers looking for literature selections of established literary worth which reflect the diversity of American culture. Discusses briefly the history and development of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American literature. Offers annotated bibliographies of selections appropriate for use in secondary schools. (SR)

  14. American Indians Today. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, J. Milton, Ed.; Simpson, George Eaton, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of social change among American Indians and in the relationships of Indians to government and the larger society are examined in the collection of articles by 12 political and social scientists. Focusing on recent developments, this look at American Indians today encompasses rapid population growth, urbanization of the Indian population,…

  15. Montana Schools of Promise: Addressing Equity in American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Dugi, Rosemarie; Schmitz, Stevie

    2016-01-01

    The American Indian presence in Montana enriches the state's culture. Educationally, however, there are gross disparities between academic performance of American Indian students when compared with the student population as a whole and with various ethnic/cultural subgroups. Montana's educational data mirror the Bureau of Indian Education national…

  16. American Indians as Economic Decisionmakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; Gash, David

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that U.S. history did not begin with the colonization of North America by Europeans but with the Native American tribes that flourished prior to colonization. Discusses economic issues that determined the history and culture of various tribes. Provides a lesson plan based on economic decisions made by the Choctaw tribe. (CFR)

  17. Some Elements of American Indian Pedagogy from an Anishinaabe Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lawrence W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 the author published an article discussing the teaching method teachers used for an introduction to American Indian studies course at Iowa State University. In his previous piece, the author did not delineate the elements that go into an American Indian pedagogy. In this article, the author discusses some elements of American Indian…

  18. A Research Note on American Indian Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Rich; Anderson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    One confronts many difficulties when conducting policy-relevant criminal justice research that focuses on American Indian interests. Foremost among these difficulties is the great variation in relevant contexts that apply to this area of research. From the urban context of large American cities, where American Indians constitute a slim minority…

  19. American Indian Studies: Intellectual Navel Gazing or Academic Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2009-01-01

    The academic field of Native American/American Indian studies (NAS/AIS) has been and largely remains a product of political forces at the national level and now at the tribal level. The very recognition of American Indians as a unique group by the U.S. government is a political statement of survival. In this article, the author revisits the…

  20. American Languages: Indians, Ethnology, and the Empire for Liberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Sean P.

    2009-01-01

    "American Languages: Indians, Ethnology, and the Empire for Liberty" is a study of knowledge and power, as it relates to Indian affairs, in the early republic. It details the interactions, exchanges, and networks through which linguistic and racial ideas were produced and it examines the effect of those ideas on Indian administration. First…

  1. Culture and Self in Career Development: Working with American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Cindy L.; Cline, Kara

    2010-01-01

    The career development concerns of American Indians continue to receive limited attention in the vocational or career literature. To address this deficit, the current article will apply the cultural formulation approach to career counseling with American Indians. This article presents information on factors related to cultural and self-identity…

  2. Financial Management and Culture: The American Indian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, Sharon M.; Garbow, Jennifer; Jokela, Becky Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Study investigates distal and proximal contextual influences of the American Indian culture that affect financial decisions and behaviors. Primary household financial managers were interviewed. Study was grounded in Deacon and Firebaugh's "Family Resource Management" theory. Findings indicated that American Indians view many concepts…

  3. The American Indian: Tradition and Transition through Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrow, Leona M.

    The purpose of this teaching guide is to educate middle school students about American Indian culture reflected through Indian art forms. Ten contemporary Native American artists are featured with works representing both traditional and transitional techniques and materials. Represented art forms include beadwork, carvings, basketry, jewelry,…

  4. "Starting Stories" among Older Northern Plains American Indian Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian adults have the highest smoking rate of any racial group in the nation. By the turn of the 21st century, smoking rates for the general adult population were reported to be 24%. Among adolescents in the United States, 34.8% of high school students reported they currently smoked in 1999. In comparison, American Indian adults report…

  5. Using Mental Map Principles to Interpret American Indian Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of maps drawn or significantly influenced by American Indians fosters critical thinking, cultural diversity, and awareness of a much-neglected topic in cartography. Line styles, scale depiction, and the sizing of individual entities are discussed in the context of applying principles from mental maps to American Indian maps and…

  6. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  7. Indian Sports Nicknames/Logos: Affective Difference between American Indian and Non-Indian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Angela R.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed…

  8. Predictors of Wellness and American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia S.; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Wellness is an important American Indian (AI) concept, understood as being in balance with one’s body, mind, and environment. Wellness predictors are reported in this paper within the context of health. A cross-sectional randomized household survey of 457 AI adults at 13 rural health care sites in California was conducted. Measures included wellness perceptions, barriers, health status/health conditions, spirituality, cultural connectivity, high-risk behaviors and abuse history. Statistical analysis obtained the best predictive model for wellness. Predictors of wellness were general health status perception, participation in AI cultural practices and suicide ideation. Significant differences in wellness status were observed depending on experience of adverse events in childhood and adulthood (neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). Cultural connectivity (speaking tribal language, participating in AI practices, and feeling connected to community) was also associated with perceptions of wellness. Recommendations are for culturally-appropriate education and interventions emphasizing community and cultural connectivity for improving wellness status. PMID:21841279

  9. Suicide and Self-Destruction among American Indian Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines adolescent and young adult suicides, suicide attempts, and self-destructive behavior among the general population, American Indians, and Indians of New Mexico. Describes prevention and intervention efforts undertaken to lower suicide rates on one reservation. Contains 30 references. (SV)

  10. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  11. At what cost? The social impact of American Indian gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, T D; Day, P A; Peacock, R B

    1999-01-01

    American Indian gaming has been called the "new buffalo." It has the potential to greatly influence cultural traditions on American Indian reservations. This study looks at the social impact that American Indian gaming is having on one reservation in northern Minnesota. Tribal members share strong feelings, both positive and negative, about the issue. Concerns about gaming include an increase in gambling abuse and addiction; a lack of appropriate child care; and concern that gaming is replacing traditional social activities. Some express concern that American Indian values are being replaced by materialism. Supporters of gaming point out that gaming provides tribal members with an opportunity to learn job skills and have gainful employment. Implications for social policy are given.

  12. 8 CFR 289.3 - Recording the entry of certain American Indians born in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Indians born in Canada. 289.3 Section 289.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.3 Recording the entry of certain American Indians born in Canada. The lawful admission for permanent residence of an American Indian born in Canada...

  13. 77 FR 31637 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the American Indian and Alaska Native Population...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... the American Indian and Alaska Native Population and Labor Force Report AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... for the collection of information for the American Indian and Alaska Native Population and Labor Force... information for the American Indian Population and Labor Force Report, as required by the Paperwork Reduction...

  14. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; McDougall, Casey L; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with: 1) higher total physical activity levels, and 2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n=2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n=1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n=1,654) in Arizona. Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (Pcultures with which they identify are recommended.

  15. Indian Treaties: Two Centuries of Dishonor. American Indian Reader: Current Affairs, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; Henry, Jeannette

    Today self-determination, economy, tribal jurisdiction, taxation, water and resource rights, and other aspects of American Indian affairs are affected by issues raised through the treaties and agreements made with Indian nations and tribes, and through the executive orders and statutes. Government policy has been influenced by the pressure brought…

  16. Sovereignty and social justice: how the concepts affect federal American Indian policy and American Indian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Donalee

    2018-04-19

    The health disparities that are prevalent among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities are connected to the ideology of sovereignty and often ignored in social work and public health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the health outcomes of American Indians from the time of contact with European settlers to the present through the ideology of sovereignty and federal government AI health policy. The foundation for the health outcomes of AIs and the governmental policies affecting them lie in the ideology of tribal sovereignty. This ideology has greatly impacted how the government views and treats AIs and consequently, how it has impacted their health. From the earliest treaties between European settlers and AIs, this legal relationship has been and remains a perplexing issue. With the examination of tribal sovereignty comes the realization that colonization and governmental polices have greatly contributed to the many social and health problems that AIs suffer from today. Understanding that the health disparities that exist among AI/AN populations cannot only be attributed to individual behavior and choice but is driven by societal, economic and political factors may be used to inform social work education, practice, and research.

  17. American Indian Areas Located in Region 2 (CENSUS.AM_INDIAN_AREAS_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are both legal and statistical American Indian, Alaska Native, and native Hawaiian entities for which the U.S. Census Bureau provides data for Census 2000. The...

  18. Moral Minimalism in American Indian Land Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Burke A.

    2005-01-01

    This is an essay about Indian claims for the return of historically stolen lands, written from the perspective of a "Western" academic moral philosopher. I want to try to outline points of agreement and disagreement between Indian and Western moral conceptions and to seek common ground on which land claims can be more clearly evaluated…

  19. Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation.…

  20. American Indians, Place Meanings and the Old/New West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo McAvoy

    2002-01-01

    The American West includes millions of acres of national parks, forests and other protected lands. These landscapes are often associated with sense of place and place meanings for those who live there and for people who go there for recreation and tourism. American Indian place meanings regarding national parks and protected areas are often very different from those of...

  1. Conjunctivitis and pterygium associated with the American Indian type of polymorphous light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D C; Romanchuk, K G; Lane, P R

    1988-02-01

    We describe three patients with the American Indian type of polymorphous light eruption (actinic prurigo), two Cree Indian sisters and a Cree Indian boy, who had eye symptoms similar to those seen in limbal-type vernal catarrh.

  2. American Indians without Tribes in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn; Zacher, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, most aspects of ethnicity are tightly associated with the person's tribal origins. Language, history, foods, land, and traditions differ among the hundreds of tribes indigenous to the United States. With this in mind, we ask why almost one million American Indians failed to respond to the tribal affiliation part of the Census 2000 race question. We investigate four hypotheses about why one-third of multiracial American Indians and one-sixth of single-race American Indians did not write any response to the tribal affiliation question: (1) survey item non-response which undermines all fill-in-the-blank questions, (2) a non-salient tribal identity, (3) a genealogy-based affiliation, and (4) a mestizo identity which does not require a tribe. We use multivariate logistic regression models and high-density restricted-use Census 2000 data. We find support for the first two hypotheses and note that predictors differ substantially for single-race versus multiple-race American Indians.

  3. North American Indian Language Materials, 1890-1965: An Annotated Bibliography of Monographic Works. American Indian Bibliographic Series No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. Edward; Clark, Jeffrey

    The 187 monographs cited in this annotated bibliography on North American Indian language materials cover the period 1890-1965, updating the 9 linguistic bibliographies compiled by James C. Pilling for the U.S. Bureau of (American) Ethnology. Filling the gap between Pilling's works (variously published between 1887 and 1894), this bibliography is…

  4. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  6. The Performance of American Indian Children on the Draw-A-Man Test. National Study of American Indian Education, Series III, No. 2, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levensky, Kay

    As a part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this document reports on 1700 American Indian primary school children (representing 14 tribal groups and 12 states) who were administered the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (DAM) as a measure of mental alertness. A comparison is given of the Indian and white children's scores. It appears…

  7. History of Indian Arts Education in Santa Fe: The Institute of American Indian Arts with Historical Background 1890 to 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmhausen, Winona

    This book traces the history of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sections cover four time periods in the evolution of the Institute: the United States Indian Industrial School at Sante Fe, 1890-1932; the Santa Fe Indian School, 1930-62; and the Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-70 and 1970-78. The United States…

  8. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Culturally Relevant Science Instruction of K-8 Teachers of American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native students are at the bottom of educational achievement, particularly in science where few American Indians enter into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. To meet the needs of American Indian students, teachers must understand the sociocultural nature of learning as it relates to students'…

  10. Removing the College Involvement "Research Asterisk": Identifying and Rethinking Predictors of American Indian College Student Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify campus environmental predictors of American Indian college student involvement. The American Indian research asterisk, or not including American Indian data, has prevailed over student development research for decades. As a result, student affairs professionals have been limited in their ability to develop…

  11. Creating a Virtual Tour of the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Loriene; Christal, Mark

    This paper describes how Potawatomi and Santa Clara Pueblo children came to create a virtual tour of cultural exhibits from the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI). The first part of this paper explores the nature of museums, how people interact with them, the concept of a virtual museum, and a brief history of NMAI. In addition to three…

  12. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Folklore of the North American Indians. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullom, Judith C., Comp.

    Intended for compilers or retellers of folktales, for storytellers or librarians serving children, or for children themselves, the annotated bibliography contains references to 152 sources of North American Indian folktales. Sources in the non-comprehensive bibliography were selected on the basis of (1) a statement of sources and faithfulness to…

  14. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  15. Culture and colorectal cancer screening on three American Indian reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, David G; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Garroutte, Eva; Bogart, Andrew; Wen, Yang; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) rates among many American Indian populations are high. Screening by fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and endoscopy is effective for reducing CRC mortality, but little research has examined the extent of such screening in reservation populations. Further, nothing is known of how American Indians' cultural characteristics may be related to screening receipt. We examined data from participants recruited from 2 Northern Plains and 1 Southwest reservation for the Education and Research Toward Health (EARTH) study. All participants aged > or = 51 years were eligible for inclusion. After calculating screening rates, we examined bivariate relationships between screening and participant characteristics, including measures of cultural characteristics including ethnic identity and use of traditional healing practices. We applied multivariate regression to relate these cultural variables to odds of lifetime screening by FOBT or endoscopy. Of 751 American Indians sampled, 35% reported lifetime CRC screening by at least one modality. Multivariate analyses did not reveal significant relationships or trends relating FOBT to respondents' cultural characteristics. By contrast, odds of endoscopy were significantly lower among persons who spoke a tribal language at home (OR .6, 95% C.I. .4-.9), and trend analysis revealed an inverse relationship between endoscopy and number of identity measures endorsed (Ptrendcultural characteristics are related to odds of endoscopy. Findings warrant culturally tailored CRC screening initiatives for American Indians.

  16. American Indians' Knowledge about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Myra; Brown, Lester B.

    1995-01-01

    A survey examined knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and about the effects of prenatal maternal drinking on the fetus among 76 American Indians in Los Angeles, including undergraduate and graduate students and participants in a residential alcohol treatment program. Also reviews the literature on FAS symptoms, outcomes, and incidence,…

  17. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  18. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  19. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  20. Secularism, Civil Religion, and the Religious Freedom of American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that traditional religions of American Indians (and other persons) are under the secular attack because the civil religion of the United States will tolerate no value higher than the state. Cites court decisions suggesting that civil laws have become the definitive statement of what is acceptable religious behavior. (SV)

  1. Economic Development on American Indian Reservations: A Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer-Duran, Cheryl; Hernon, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of a citation analysis of literature concerning economic development on American Indian reservations focuses on the topics of gaming and natural resources and the environment. Highlights include a comparison of the findings to previous research; government and nongovernment sources; and suggestions for further research. (LRW)

  2. American Indian Resource Manual for Public Libraries. Bulletin No. 92429.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Usabel, Frances; Roeber, Jane A.

    This manual, written primarily for Wisconsin public librarians, is designed to provide practical assistance to those who wish to expand public library collections of American Indian (defined as people in the United States and Canada who trace their lineage to the original habitants of these lands) resources and to improve related library programs…

  3. Predicting an Alcohol Use Disorder in Urban American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale

    2014-01-01

    This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…

  4. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  5. Adult Caregiving Among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional study of 5,207 American Indian adults residing on 2 closely related Lakota Sioux reservations in the Northern Plains and one American Indian community in the Southwest. Cultural factors included measures of cultural identity and traditional healing practices. Results: Seventeen percent of our sample reported being caregivers. In both the Northern Plains and Southwest, caregiving was positively correlated with younger age, being a woman, larger household size, attending and participating in Native events, and endorsement of traditional healing practices. In both regions, attendance and participation in Native events and engagement in traditional healing practices were associated with increased odds of caregiving after adjusting for covariates. Only in the Northern Plains did we find that speaking some Native language at home was associated with increased odds of being a caregiver. Examination of interaction terms indicated some sex differences in the association between cultural factors and caregiving in the Northern Plains but not in the Southwest. Implications: Our findings indicate that greater cultural identity and engagement in traditional healing practices are related to caregiving in American Indian populations. Caregiving research, intervention efforts, and caregiving programs and services in Native communities should pay special attention to the dynamics of culture and caregiving. PMID:21148253

  6. Urban American Indian/Alaskan Natives Compared to Non-Indians in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Vernon B.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) children have been disproportionately represented in the foster care system. In this study, nationally representative child welfare data from October 1999 was used to compare urban AI/AN children to non-Indian children placed into out-of-home care. Compared to non-Indian children, urban AI/AN…

  7. Cultural Difference as the Basis for Creative Education at the Institute of American Indian Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, NM.

    The task of setting up and administering educational programs for the American Indian has been fraught with seemingly insurmountable problems and inbuilt frustrations for both the Indian population and the Federal Government. Many programs are now under way to increase Indian control of Indian affairs, including their own educational institutions.…

  8. Assimilating American Indians in James Fenimore Cooper’s Novels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peprník Michal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article employs critical concepts from sociology and anthropology to examine the stereotype of the Vanishing Indian and disclose its contradictory character. The article argues that in James Fenimore Cooper’s late novels from the 1840s a type of American Indian appears who can be regarded as a Vanishing Indian in many respects as he displays some slight degree of assimilation but at the same time he can be found to reveal a surprising amount of resistance to the process of vanishing and marginalization. His peculiar mode of survival and his mode of living demonstrate a certain degree of acculturation, which comes close to Gerald Vizenor’s survivance and for which I propose a term critical integration. I base my study on Susquesus (alias Trackless, Cooper’s less well-known character from The Littlepage Manuscripts, a three-book family saga.

  9. Marketplace Clinics Complementing Diabetes Care for Urban Residing American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Robert; Hoye, Robert E; Thron, Raymond W; Kumar, Vibha

    2017-10-01

    For several decades, the Minneapolis American Indian population has experienced limited health care access and threefold diabetes health disparity. As part of an urban health initiative, the marketplace clinics located in nearby CVS, Target, and Supervalu stores committed financial support, providers, certified educators, and pharmacy staff for a community-based diabetes support group. To measure the extent to which collaborating marketplace clinics and the community-based support group expanded diabetes care and provided self-management education for this largely urban Indian neighborhood. A controlled quasi-experimental study and 3-years retrospective analysis of secondary data were used to test whether the Minneapolis marketplace clinics and the community diabetes support group participants (n = 48) had improved diabetes health outcomes relative to the comparison group (n = 87). The marketplace complemented intervention group employed motivational interviewing and the patient activation measure (PAM®) in coaching diabetes self-care and behavioral modification. The federally funded comparison group received only basic self-management education. T tests and effect sizes were used to quantify the difference between the study intervention and comparison groups. Statistical significance was determined for the following outcome variables: A1C ( P health complementation were found with regard to improved blood glucose control, weight loss, and healthful lifestyle adaptation. Primary care and community health improvements could be realized by incorporating patient activation with diabetes prevention programs for the urban Indian two-thirds majority of the United States 5 million American Indian population.

  10. American Indian-Alaska Native Youth Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 13,454 rural Native American adolescents. Found 2 percent reported poor physical health and high rates of health-compromising behaviors, which were significantly correlated with physical or sexual abuse, suicide attempts, substance abuse, poor school performance, and poor nutrition. Academic risk was strongly associated with physical,…

  11. Interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R

    2013-12-01

    The interactive behaviors of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants and selected maternal and infant factors affecting those behaviors were measured using naturalistic observation and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory at 3, 6, and 12 months corrected infant age. The frequency of some maternal behaviors changed over the first 12 months. Mothers spent less time holding, looking at, touching, and interacting with their premature infants and more time uninvolved as the infant aged. Maternal education and infant illness severity were associated with mother-infant interactive behaviors and HOME Inventory scores. These findings emphasize the importance of maternal and infant factors affecting the interactions between American Indian premature infants and their mothers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Utilizing Traditional Storytelling to Promote Wellness in American Indian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    HODGE, FELICIA SCHANCHE; PASQUA, ANNA; MARQUEZ, CAROL A.; GEISHIRT-CANTRELL, BETTY

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing storytelling to transmit educational messages is a traditional pedagogical method practiced by many American Indian tribes. American Indian stories are effective because they present essential ideas and values in a simple, entertaining form. Different story characters show positive and negative behaviors. The stories illustrate consequences of behaviors and invite listeners to come to their own conclusions after personal reflection. Because stories have been passed down through tribal communities for generations, listeners also have the opportunity to reconnect and identify with past tribal realities. This article reports on a research intervention that is unique in promoting health and wellness through the use of storytelling. The project utilized stories to help motivate tribal members to once more adopt healthy, traditional lifestyles and practices. The authors present and discuss the stories selected, techniques used in their telling, the preparation and setting for the storytelling, and the involvement and interaction of the group. PMID:11776018

  13. Panic attacks and panic disorder in the American Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Craner, Julia R; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero; Buchwald, Dedra

    2017-05-01

    Panic disorder is a common mental health condition, but little is known about panic disorder in non-Caucasian populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and comorbidities of panic attacks and panic disorder in two large American Indian (AI) tribes (N=3084). A culturally-adapted version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed panic attacks, panic disorder, and various psychiatric comorbidities. After adjusting for age, gender, and tribe, linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare AIs with panic disorder to those with panic attacks only on clinical characteristics and panic symptoms. Approximately 8.5% (N=234) of American Indians reported a lifetime history of panic attacks. Among individuals with panic attacks, comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was higher in females (p=0.03) and comorbid alcohol-related disorders were higher in males (p≤0.001). The prevalence and clinical features of panic attacks and panic disorder in American Indians were similar to epidemiologic studies with majority populations. However, in contrast to earlier research, panic symptoms were similar in both males and females, and different patterns of comorbidity emerged. Future research should examine the availability and accessibility of evidence-based panic treatments for this traditionally underserved population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A cultural contracts perspective: examining American Indian identity negotiations in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsam, Teresa Trumbly

    2014-01-01

    Education has played a central role in identity confusion, and to this day, it is used to assimilate American Indians. For those American Indians who persist through doctoral degrees and enter academe, resisting assimilation is especially risky and often tiresome. In this conceptual exploration of identity, Cultural Contracts theory serves to illuminate the path of the American Indian academic journey. Although never applied in an American Indian context, cultural contracts theory may provide a bridge between the seemingly disparate strains of identity research and leave us with a sense of scope and potential for the theory's application.

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Perceptions Among Caregivers of American Indian Toddlers and Community Stakeholders: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    American Indians experience higher rates of obesity than any other ethnic group living in the USA. This disparity begins to develop in early childhood, and the excess weight carried by American Indian children contributes to health conditions that can affect their quality of life by the time they enter preschool. These children consume less than recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, a dietary pattern that may be related to the development of obesity and other health conditions. This qualitative study explored the fruit and vegetable intake of American Indian toddlers through use of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. Focus groups with caregivers of American Indian toddlers and interviews with stakeholders in American Indian communities were conducted to investigate perceptions of knowledge, motivational, and behavioral skills related to the fruit and vegetable intake of American Indian toddlers. Study participants communicated that peer support, food insecurities, cultural norms, self-efficacy, and skills to prepare fruits and vegetables impact their ability to provide fruits and vegetables to toddlers. Study participants expressed a desire to increase their knowledge regarding fruits and vegetables, including variety, benefits, and recommendations for consumption. Findings from this qualitative study provide essential insights into perceptions of fruits and vegetables among caregivers of American Indian toddlers and stakeholders in American Indian communities. Future research will utilize these findings to develop a culturally appropriate IMB-model-based fruit and vegetable-focused nutrition education program for American Indian families.

  16. Blood Politics, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Haozous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  17. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  18. SKILL PREP Program for American Indian Students. Final report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloh, S.; Huebner, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL) precollege college program of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology concluded the 1994 PREP program on July 22, 1994. The program graduated 22 students from the 4-week residential math/science program for American Indian students. Primary academic focus was physics (30 hours); each student was given a bicycle to solve problems on angular momentum and mechanical advantage. Mathematical calculations and problem solving exercises were done in mathematics class (20 hours). Preliminary results in math, physics, and geology show dramatic increases in student achievement over the 4- week period. The program paired every two students with a faculty member or research scientist, and each team completed a research project.

  19. Contextualised worship amongst the Nanticoke-Lenape American Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Norwood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Christian history of the Nanticoke-Lenape people who live in three American Indian tribal communities of ‘first contact’ around the Delaware Bay (USA, is over three centuries old and continues in the contemporary tribal community congregations. The modern era of tribal cultural reprisal and rise of Pan-Indian neo-traditionalism has heightened an awareness of, and cast a critical eye on the absence of contextualisation in the regular worship of the tribal community churches. This article is a study in ethno-doxology and seeks to determine the need for contextualised worship, to analyse the challenges of contextualisation, and provide guidance for an approach to contextualisation of worship amongst the Nanticoke-Lenape Christian congregations.

  20. A latent class analysis of urban American Indian youth identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S; Robbins, Danielle E; Baker, Tahnee M; Denetsosie, Serena; Deschine Parkhurst, Nicholet A

    2016-04-01

    This study examined sources of indigenous identity among urban American Indian youth that map the three theoretical dimensions of a model advanced by Markstrom: identification (tribal and ethnic heritage), connection (through family and reservation ties), and involvement in traditional culture and spirituality. Data came from self-administered questionnaires completed by 208 urban American Indian students from five middle schools in a large metropolitan area in the Southwest. Descriptive statistics showed most youth were connected to multiple indicators on all three dimensions of indigenous identity: native parental heritage, native best friends, past and current reservation connections, involvement with cultural practices, tribal language and spirituality, and alignment with native and mainstream cultural orientations. A latent class analysis identified five classes. There were two larger groups, one with strong native heritage and the highest levels of enculturation, and another that was more bicultural in orientation. The remaining three groups were smaller and about equal in size: a highly acculturated group with mixed parental ethnic heritage, those who had strong native heritage but were culturally disengaged, and a group with some mixed ethnic heritage that was low on indicators of enculturation. Evidence for the validity of the latent classes came from significant variations across the classes in scores on an American Indian ethnic identity (modified Phinney) scale, the students' open-ended descriptions of the main sources of their indigenous identities, and the better academic grades of classes that were more culturally engaged. Despite the challenges of maintaining cultural identities in the urban environment, most youth in this sample expressed a strong sense of indigenous identity, claimed personal and parental tribal heritage, remained connected to reservation communities, and actively engaged in Native cultural and spiritual life. (c) 2016 APA, all

  1. Surviving the War by Singing the Blues: The Contemporary Ethos of American Indian Political Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Explores major themes in contemporary American Indian poetry that comprise the Native ethos of cultural resistance and survival. Correlates certain themes of Indian poetry with those of Black spiritual and blues. Discusses Western and Indian world views, political and social conflict, and art as the agent of criticism and change. Contains 28…

  2. Ohoyo Training Manual. Leadership: Self Help American Indian-Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verble, Sedelta D.; Walton, M. Frances

    The training manual provides self-help in six areas of leadership development for American Indian and Alaska Native women. Following an introduction describing how to use the manual are six chapters focusing on the theories and development of leadership skills, the vulnerability of Indian women to poverty, nontraditional careers for Indian women,…

  3. Premature mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-05-01

    American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodur, Gwen M; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M; Antiporta, Daniel A; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  5. Healing pathways: art therapy for American Indian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warson, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    There is a paucity of research addressing quality of life factors for American Indian and Alaska Native cancer survivors. Complementary forms of therapy, such as art therapy, are beginning to address quality of life factors through the "healing" arts for cancer survivors. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot was to explore the effects of culturally relevant art interventions on stress reduction for American Indian cancer survivors and their family members. Forty-six adult participants attended one of three workshops held within two settlements of the Coharie tribe and one southeastern urban tribal center. The data collected consisted of a pretest and posttest State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and artwork resulting from three directed interventions. The artwork was analyzed using qualitative coding methods; however, the scores from the STPI were inconclusive because the inventory was determined to be culturally biased. While statistical significance was not achieved, the findings from qualitative coding reinforced a native concept of wellness focusing on the complex interaction between mind, body, spirit, and context. This pilot study also demonstrated how a community-driven approach was instrumental in the development of the overall workshop format. An expansion of the pilot study is also presented with preliminary results available in 2012.

  6. Cultural identity and patient trust among older American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Goins, R Turner; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Garroutte, Eva Marie

    2014-03-01

    Patients' trust in healthcare providers and institutions has been identified as a likely contributor to racial-ethnic health disparities. The likely influence of patients' cultural characteristics on trust is widely acknowledged but inadequately explored. To compare levels of patients' trust in primary care provider (interpersonal trust) with trust in healthcare organizations (institutional trust) among older American Indians (AIs), and determine associations with cultural identity. Patient survey administered following primary care visits. Two-hundred and nineteen American Indian patients ≥ 50 years receiving care for a non-acute condition at two clinics operated by the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. Self-reported sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Trust was measured using three questions about interpersonal trust and one measure of institutional trust; responses ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Finding substantial variation only in institutional trust, we used logistic generalized estimating equations to examine relationships of patient cultural identity with institutional trust. Ninety-five percent of patients reported trusting their individual provider, while only 46 % reported trusting their healthcare institution. Patients who strongly self-identified with an AI cultural identity had significantly lower institutional trust compared to those self-identifying less strongly (OR: 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.4, 0.9). Interpersonal and institutional trust represent distinct dimensions of patients' experience of care that may show important relationships to patients' cultural characteristics. Strategies for addressing low institutional trust may have special relevance for patients who identify strongly with AI culture.

  7. Trajectories of cognitive development among American Indian young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N

    2011-07-01

    Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants from one Northern Plains reservation community were assessed four times between ages 6 months and 36 months, with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. At 6 months of age, scores were near the national norms; a drop occurred between 6 months and 15 months. Scores then tended to level off below the norms through 36 months. In each domain, we observed a crucial decline over the 1st year of life and relatively little change in the 2nd and 3rd years of life, highlighting the importance of developing culturally syntonic interventions to facilitate cognitive development during the 1st year of life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen M Chodur

    Full Text Available To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California.Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24.After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food.Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  9. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...

  10. 7 CFR 766.356 - Acceleration of loans to American Indian borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceleration of loans to American Indian borrowers... § 766.356 Acceleration of loans to American Indian borrowers. (a) General. (1) The Agency accelerates... with this section, unless State law imposes separate restrictions on accelerations. (2) The Agency...

  11. Taxing Those They Found Here. An Examination of the Tax Exempt Status of the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jay Vincent

    In 1971, the Institute for the Development of American Indian Law was organized to develop a program which would begin to sort out the inconsistencies and contradictory doctrines blocking any final settlement of the rights of American Indians. The field of taxation is one in which conflicts have continually arisen. This text is intended to give…

  12. Intellectual Capital: For 20 Years, American Indian College Fund Has Been Investing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2009-01-01

    For 20 years, the American Indian College Fund (the Fund) has been helping students to afford a higher education. In addition to providing more than 4,000 scholarships for American Indian students last year, it also provides tribal colleges with funding and programmatic support. The Fund was created in 1989 by the tribal colleges and universities…

  13. The Institute of American Indian Arts Background Information (Task One of the Transition Evaluation). Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., Jr.

    The paper, prepared as Task One of the Institute of American Indian Arts Transition Evaluation, provides pertinent background information about the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. A brief history of the Institute is given, with information about its philosophy and purpose; objectives; organization and administration; the…

  14. An Evaluation of the JTPA Section 401 Indian and Native American Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Ronald; Soukamneuth, Sengsouvanh; Wolff, Kristin; Tonemah, Stuart; Brittan, Mary Ann

    This report presents the findings from a 30-month evaluation of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Title IV Section 401 Indian and Native American (INA) Program. This specially targeted JTPA program provides employment and training services to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians. Most grantees are tribal governments or…

  15. In Pursuit of a Computing Degree: Cultural Implications for American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaseet, Glenda G.; Varma, Roli

    2012-01-01

    While a number of challenges contribute to the American Indian population's disconnect from information technology (IT), the most glaring is the low number of American Indian students pursuing computer science (CS) studies--a degree essential to IT's entry into and diffusion across communities. Yet, research is scant on factors that contribute to…

  16. Predicting College Performance of American Indians: A Large-Sample Examination of the SAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Siwen; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research has examined the validity and fairness of standardized tests in academic admissions. However, due to their underrepresentation in higher education, American Indians have gained much less attention in this research. In the present study, we examined for American Indian students (1) group differences on SAT scores, (2) the…

  17. American Indian identity in mental health services utilization data from a rural midwestern sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Samantha M; Larrison, Christopher R; Gone, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    The governing bodies for psychiatry, psychology, and social work all publicly support culturally competent mental health care and have called for increased awareness of the importance of racial, ethnic, and cultural identity in mental health treatment and outcomes. However, since 1960 the population of people identifying as American Indian in the United States has grown faster than can be explained by birth rates, raising questions about the personal meaning of identity for newly self-designated American Indians. For this research, interviews were conducted with 14 self-identified American Indian clients receiving rural mental health care services in the Midwest. The goal was to assess clients' cultural connection to their racial identity and to understand what impact their American Indian identity had on their mental health care experiences. A modified Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method was used to develop the interview protocol and code responses. Interview data revealed that clients primarily based their racial identity on family stories of an American Indian ancestor and the majority did not feel their identification as American Indian was relevant to their mental health care. Regardless of lack of cultural connection, participants often reported feeling personal pride associated with identifying as American Indian. Implications for both researchers collecting self-reported race data and for mental health practitioners who might serve self-identified American Indian clients are discussed.

  18. Making Meaning of Urban American Indian Identity: A Multistage Integrative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    The cultural identity and tribal connectedness of American Indians are commonly believed to have been negatively affected by the urbanization process in which American Indians have been involved during the past half century. This phenomenological study examined the processes through which cultural identity was formed and maintained by a group of…

  19. The Policing of Native Bodies and Minds: Perspectives on Schooling from American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that high school campus climates are contentious for students of color, particularly as they negotiate institutional and personal racism. Unfortunately, minimal research centers on the experiences of American Indian youth. In response, this qualitative study explores American Indian responses to hostile campus climates. Using a…

  20. Alcohol and Suicide Death among American Indians of New Mexico: 1980-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Van Winkle, Nancy W.; Williams, Mary B.; McFeeley, Patricia J.; DeBruyn, Lemyra M.; Serna, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship between alcohol use prior to suicide among American Indian decedents in New Mexico for the years 1980 through 1998. Alcohol was detected in 69% of all suicides of American Indians with some variance by major tribal cultural groups. This is higher than in suicides among the overall New Mexico population (44.3%). (Contains…

  1. An Emergent Phenomenon of American Indian Secondary Students' Career Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Duncan, Kelly J.; Evenson, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Nine single-race American Indian secondary students' career development experiences were examined through a phenomenological methodology. All 9 participants were in the transition period starting in late secondary school (age 18). Data sources included individual interviews and journal analysis. The phenomenon of American Indian secondary…

  2. Different Hunting Grounds: American Indian Tribal College Student Perceptions of Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Cheryl Birdhat

    2017-01-01

    American Indian students who have attended tribal colleges have expressed gratitude, appreciation and pride in their educational and cultural experiences at these institutions. Most of the 37 tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) in the US and Canada currently offer two-year degree and certificate programs. Many American Indian students who wish…

  3. She Has Great Spirit: Insight into Relationships between American Indian Dads and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Martin James; Perry Evenstad, Jan; Faircloth, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Data from this preliminary study, the American Indian--Dads and Daughters Survey, shed light on how American Indian fathers think and feel about their relationships with their daughters. Respondents represent an array of tribal affiliations, age, occupations, socioeconomic status, and geographical/geopolitical locations, helping to ensure that…

  4. An assessment of American Indian women's mammography experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseru Babalola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from breast cancer has increased among American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN women. Despite this alarming reality, AI/AN women have some of the lowest breast cancer screening rates. Only 37% of eligible AI/AN women report a mammogram within the last year and 52% report a mammogram within the last two years compared to 57% and 72% for White women. The experiences and satisfaction surrounding mammography for AI/AN women likely are different from that of women of other racial/ethnic groups, due to cultural differences and limited access to Indian Health Service sponsored mammography units. The overall goals of this study are to identify and understand the mammography experiences and experiential elements that relate to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with mammography services in an AI/AN population and to develop a culturally-tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction survey. Methods and Design The three project aims that will be used to guide this work are: 1 To compare the mammography experiences and satisfaction with mammography services of Native American/Alaska Native women with that of Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Black women, 2 To develop and validate the psychometric properties of an American Indian Mammography Survey, and 3 To assess variation among AI/AN women's assessments of their mammography experiences and mammography service satisfaction. Evaluations of racial/ethnic differences in mammography patient satisfaction have received little study, particularly among AI/AN women. As such, qualitative study is uniquely suited for an initial examination of their experiences because it will allow for a rich and in-depth identification and exploration of satisfaction elements. Discussion This formative research is an essential step in the development of a validated and culturally tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction assessment. Results from this project will provide a springboard from which a maximally

  5. Dog bite injuries among American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Adam; Holman, Robert C; Callinan, Laura S; Hennessy, Thomas W; Cheek, James E; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2013-06-01

    To examine dog bites among American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) children visiting Indian Health Service and tribal health facilities. We retrospectively analyzed hospitalizations and outpatient visits with a diagnosis of dog bite between 2001 and 2008 in AI/AN children aged bite hospitalizations and outpatient visits were estimated by age group, sex, region, and number and location of open wounds using Indian Health Service data. Analyses of hospitalizations for the general US population agedbite hospitalization rate was higher among AI/AN children in Alaska (6.1/100,000 population) and the Southwest region (5.3/100,000) compared with the general US child population (3.1/100,000; 95% CI, 2.9-3.3/100,000). The average annual outpatient visit rate in AI/AN children was highest in the Alaska (596.4/100,000), Southwest (540.0/100,000), and Northern Plains West (537.6/100,000) regions. The hospitalization rate was highest in both AI/AN and US males agedOpen wounds diagnoses were most commonly seen on the head, neck, and face in hospitalized children (45.5% of open wounds in AI/AN children, 59.3% in US children; SE, 1.0%) and on the leg in AI/AN outpatients (35.6%). Dog bites represent a significant public health threat in AI/AN children in the Alaska, the Southwest, and Northern Plains West regions of the US. Enhanced animal control and education efforts should reduce dog bite injuries and associated problems with pets and stray dogs, such as emerging infectious diseases. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Barriers to Healthcare for American Indians Experiencing Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Stephanie M; Kemp, Katherine A; Greenfield, Brenna L; Walls, Melissa L

    2017-01-01

    Members of American Indian (AI) communities face many barriers to receiving both mental and physical healthcare. These barriers can have a negative effect on overall health. Barriers are compounded for AIs who are also experiencing homelessness, and AI make up a disproportionate percentage of the homeless population nationwide. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 service providers and 16 homeless participants in a mid-size Midwestern city to identify barriers to care for homeless participants. Key barriers identified in this study for homeless participants were: transportation, phone accessibility, discrimination, and cold and bureaucratic cultures of healthcare systems. Major barriers identified by service providers were: access to care, discrimination and mistrust, and restrictive policies. Given generally higher disease prevalence within the homeless population and health disparities within the AI community, steps should be taken to reduce barriers to healthcare.

  7. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understanding Teen Pregnancy with American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B

    2017-07-01

    Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.

  8. Brain MRI, Apoliprotein E Genotype, and Plasma Homocysteine in American Indian Alzheimer Disease Patients and Indian Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Myron F.; de la Plata, Carlos Marquez; Fields, B.A. Julie; Womack, Kyle B.; Rosenberg, Roger N.; Gong, Yun-Hua; Qu, Bao-Xi; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Hynan, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    We obtained brain MRIs, plasma homocysteine levels and apolipoprotein E genotyping for 11 American Indian Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects and 10 Indian controls. We calculated white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), whole brain volume (WBV), and ratio of white matter hyperintensity volume to whole brain volume (WMHV/WBV). There were no significant differences between AD subjects and controls in gender, history of hypertension, diabetes, or history of high cholesterol, but hypertension and ...

  9. Committee opinion no. 515: Health care for urban American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  10. The American Indian Reader: History. Book Four of a Series in Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; Henry, Jeannette, Ed.

    In an attempt to rewrite American history incorporating "long hidden facts" pertinent to the American Indian, this book endeavors to relate the "truth in history" and make "humanity see itself face to face without fear and in spite of the pangs of conscience". Each of 7 chapters addresses a specific aspect of American history relevant to the…

  11. Cultural Discontinuity between Home and School and American Indian and Alaska Native Children's Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D. Diego

    2017-01-01

    An assumption of culture-based education with respect to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children is that discontinuity between home and school cultures is responsible for educational underachievement. Using data from the 2009 round of the National Indian Education Study, a subset of the larger National Assessment of Education Progress…

  12. Investigating Differences between American and Indian Raters in Assessing TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the role raters' language background plays in raters' assessment of test takers' speaking ability. Specifically, this article examines differences between American and Indian raters in their scores and scoring processes when rating Indian test takers' responses to the Test of English as a Foreign…

  13. The Education of the American Indians, A Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brewton

    A review of the historical components of American Indian education (including missions, institutional histories, and tribal histories) was followed by an effort to identify in the literature specific problem areas accounting for the apparent failure of formal education systems imposed on Indians. Specific causal relationships for this failure were…

  14. The Social Causes of American Indian Homicide as Revealed by the Life Experiences of Thirty Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Ronet

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with 30 Indian homicide offenders revealed common life-history elements: poverty, early separation from family, environment of social disorganization, culture conflict, values derived from a subculture of violence, and alcohol and drug abuse. These are related to antecedents in internal colonialism suffered by American Indians. Contains…

  15. Listening to Neglected Voices - American Indian Perspectives on Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2004-01-01

    Forestry agencies must ensure that the views of all citizens in our increasingly diverse society are included in decisionmaking. But gaining clear insights into the perspectives of ethnic and minority communities is often difficult. This article summarizes an analysis of news articles about resource management issues written by American Indians and published in Indian...

  16. American Indian health. Providers, communities surmount profound problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, J

    1992-07-01

    Minnesota's urban and rural Indian communities today face a similar set of complex and daunting health problems. No one overriding issue exists, nor does an overall solution. While staff shortages, a dire lack of Indian health professionals, and inadequate financial resources play a role, poverty, racism, lifestyle, alcoholism, and cultural change and conflict all further complicate health problems for Indian people.

  17. Teacher Education for Teaching Science to American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Paul; Adkins, Carol R.

    1995-01-01

    The Science and Mathematics for Indian Learners and Educators (SMILE) Project at Northern Arizona University provided science inservice training to K-8 teachers from Bureau of Indian Affairs schools on the Navajo reservation. The training aimed to increase and improve science instruction for Indian children and to connect science education to…

  18. Wicasa Was'aka: restoring the traditional strength of American Indian boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Elkins, Jennifer; Tafoya, Greg; Bird, Doreen; Salvador, Melina

    2012-05-01

    We examined health disparities among American Indian men and boys within the framework of historical trauma, which incorporates the historical context of collective massive group trauma across generations. We reviewed the impact of collective traumatic experiences among Lakota men, who have faced cross-generational challenges to enacting traditional tribal roles. We describe historical trauma-informed interventions used with two tribal groups: Lakota men and Southwestern American Indian boys. These two interventions represent novel approaches to addressing historical trauma and the health disparities that American Indians face. We offer public health implications and recommendations for strategies to use in the planning and implementation of policy, research, and program development with American Indian boys and men.

  19. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  20. On the World Politics Curb: American Indians of Ecuador in the Struggle for Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Bedini Evis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the contemporary peculiarities of American Indians movements in Ecuador in the context of recognition of their rights for life and wellbeing by the world community.

  1. Establishing survey validity and reliability for American Indians through "think aloud" and test-retest methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L; Burgess, Katherine M; Puumala, Susan E; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a "think aloud" methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test-retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test-retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Exploring Hindu Indian emotion expressions: evidence for accurate recognition by Americans and Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmadi, A; Davidson, R J; Rozin, P

    2000-05-01

    Subjects were presented with videotaped expressions of 10 classic Hindu emotions. The 10 emotions were (in rough translation from Sanskrit) anger, disgust, fear, heroism, humor-amusement, love, peace, sadness, shame-embarrassment, and wonder. These emotions (except for shame) and their portrayal were described about 2,000 years ago in the Natyasastra, and are enacted in the contemporary Hindu classical dance. The expressions are dynamic and include both the face and the body, especially the hands. Three different expressive versions of each emotion were presented, along with 15 neutral expressions. American and Indian college students responded to each of these 45 expressions using either a fixed-response format (10 emotion names and "neutral/no emotion") or a totally free response format. Participants from both countries were quite accurate in identifying emotions correctly using both fixed-choice (65% correct, expected value of 9%) and free-response (61% correct, expected value close to zero) methods.

  3. Accuracy of Weight Perception Among American Indian Tribal College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Heather D; Pacheco, Christina; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Daley, Christine; Greiner, K Allen; Choi, Won S

    2016-11-01

    National data indicate a higher prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) populations and greater disparity of morbidity and mortality among younger age groups compared with other ethnicities. Diet and physical activity are important obesity preventive behaviors, but no published data exist that describe these behaviors in relation to obesity in AI young adults at tribal colleges. Study purposes were to: (1) identify fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity practices of AI young adults from three U.S. tribal colleges according to BMI categories; (2) identify the accuracy of body weight perceptions; and (3) identify predictor variables for weight misperception. In this observational study during 2011-2014, a total of 1,256 participants were recruited from three participating U.S. tribal colleges to complete an online survey addressing issues related to diet, physical activity, and weight perception. Reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI categories, and differences between BMI categories were examined. Gender differences related to accuracy of weight perception by BMI categories were also examined. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Based on self-reported height and weight, 68% of the sample was overweight or obese (BMI ≥25) and mean BMI was 28.9 (SD=6.9). Most did not meet recommendations for fruit intake (78.7%), vegetable intake (96.6%), or physical activity (65.6%). More than half (53.7%%) who were overweight/obese underestimated their weight category. Men more often underestimated their weight category (54.2%) than women (35.1%). Interventions are needed to improve weight-related lifestyle behaviors of AI tribal college students. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DEPRESSION AND GUILT IN INDIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN PATIENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Jambur; Engelsman, Frank; Ghadirian, A.M.; Wohl, Marcy; Shamasundara, Padmini; Narayanan, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs. PMID:21776166

  5. Food Security and Diet Among American Indians in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Kelly; Hale, Jason; Chase, Brian; Clark, Lauren; He, Jianghua; Daley, Christine M

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine levels of food security among American Indians (AI) living in the Midwest and possible correlations between food security levels and various health outcomes, diet, and demographic variables. This study used a cross-sectional design to determine health behaviors among AI. Participants (n = 362) were recruited by AI staff through various cultural community events in the Midwest, such as powwows and health fairs. Inclusion criteria included the following: age 18 years or older, self-identify as an AI, and willing to participate in the survey. Of all participants, 210 (58%) had either low or very low food security, with 96 in the very low category (26.5%). Participants with very low food security tended to have significantly more chronic conditions. Additional significant differences for very low food security existed by demographic variables, including having no insurance (p security levels and the consumption of fast food within the past week (p value = 0.0420), though no differences were found in fruit and vegetable consumption. AI in our sample had higher levels of food insecurity than those reported in the literature for other racial/ethnic groups. AI and non-Native health professionals should be aware of the gravity of food insecurity and the impact it has on overall health. Additional research is needed to determine specific aspects of food insecurity affecting different Native communities to develop appropriate interventions.

  6. Fatherhood roles and drug use among young American Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neault, Nicole; Mullany, Britta; Powers, Julia; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Parker, Sean; Walkup, John; Barlow, Allison

    2012-09-01

    High rates of substance abuse among young American Indian (AI) fathers pose multigenerational challenges for AI families and communities. The objective of this study was to describe substance use patterns among young AI fathers and examine the intersection of substance use with men's fatherhood roles and responsibilities. As part of a home-visiting intervention trial for AI teen mothers and their children, in 2010 we conducted a descriptive study of fatherhood and substance use on three southwestern reservations. Substance use and parenting data were collected from n = 87 male partners of adolescent mothers using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Male partners were on average 22.9 years old, primarily living with their children (93%), unmarried (87%), and unemployed (70%). Lifetime substance use was high: 80% reported alcohol; 78% marijuana; 34% methamphetamines; 31% crack/cocaine; and 16% reported drinking binge in the past 6 months. Substance use was associated with history of alcohol abuse among participants' fathers (but not mothers); participants' poor relationships with their own fathers; unemployment status; and low involvement in child care. Drug and alcohol abuse may be obstructing ideal fatherhood roles among multiple generations of AI males. Targeting drug prevention among young AI men during early fatherhood may provide special opportunity to reduce substance use and improve parenting. Intergenerational approaches may hold special promise.

  7. Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

  8. Making science education meaningful for American Indian students: The effect of science fair participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Cynthia Ann

    Creating opportunities for all learners has not been common practice in the United States, especially when the history of Native American educational practice is examined (Bull, 2006; Chenoweth, 1999; Starnes, 2006a). The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) is an organization working to increase educational opportunity for American Indian students in science, engineering, and technology related fields (AISES, 2005). AISES provides pre-college support in science by promoting student science fair participation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to describe how American Indian student participation in science fairs and the relationship formed with their teacher affects academic achievement and the likelihood of continued education beyond high school. Two former American Indian students mentored by the principal investigator participated in this study. Four ethnographic research methods were incorporated: participant observation, ethnographic interviewing, search for artifacts, and auto-ethnographic researcher introspection (Eisenhart, 1988). After the interview transcripts, photos documenting past science fair participation, and researcher field notes were analyzed, patterns and themes emerged from the interviews that were supported in literature. American Indian academic success and life long learning are impacted by: (a) the effects of racism and oppression result in creating incredible obstacles to successful learning, (b) positive identity formation and the importance of family and community are essential in student learning, (c) the use of best practice in science education, including the use of curricular cultural integration for American Indian learners, supports student success, (d) the motivational need for student-directed educational opportunities (science fair/inquiry based research) is evident, (e) supportive teacher-student relationships in high school positively influences successful transitions into higher education. An

  9. The Role of Bias by Emergency Department Providers in Care for American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puumala, Susan E.; Burgess, Katherine M.; Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Zook, Heather G.; Castille, Dorothy M.; Pickner, Wyatt J.; Payne, Nathaniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indian children have high rates of emergency department (ED) use and face potential discrimination in health care settings. Objective Our goal was to assess both implicit and explicit racial bias and examine their relationship with clinical care. Research Design We performed a cross-sectional survey of care providers at five hospitals in the Upper Midwest. Questions included American Indian stereotypes (explicit attitudes), clinical vignettes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Two IATs were created to assess implicit bias toward the child or the parent/caregiver. Differences were assessed using linear and logistic regression models with a random effect for study site. Results A total of 154 care providers completed the survey. Agreement with negative American Indian stereotypes was 22–32%. Overall, 84% of providers had an implicit preference for non-Hispanic white adults or children. Older providers (≥ 50 years) had lower implicit bias than those middle aged (30–49 years), (p = 0.01). American Indian children were seen as increasingly challenging (p = 0.04) and parents/caregivers less compliant (p = 0.002) as the proportion of American Indian children seen in the ED increased. Responses to the vignettes were not related to implicit or explicit bias. Conclusions The majority of ED care providers had an implicit preference for non-Hispanic white children or adults compared to those who were American Indian. Provider agreement with negative American Indian stereotypes differed by practice and respondents’ characteristics. These findings require additional study to determine how these implicit and explicit biases influence healthcare or outcomes disparities. PMID:26974675

  10. Chronic disease risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M

    2011-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P < .001). After adjustment for income, education, and other demographic variables, American Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.

  11. American Indian Reference Works of 1986: Some of the Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. Edward

    1986-01-01

    Favorably reviews six reference works: (1) Klein's encyclopedia; (2) Ancient America atlas, Coe and colleagues; (3) Littlefield and Parins' analysis of America Indian newspaper publishing; (4) Kutsch's guide to Cherokee documents; (5) Malval's guide to Hampton Institute archives; and (6) Clements' guide to Indian folklore in nineteenth century…

  12. Wechsler Scale Performance Patterns of American Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Damian Anthony; Plas, Jeanne M.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical Analysis of WISC, WISC-R, and WPPSI subtest scores uncovered evidence of an Indian Wechsler Scale performance pattern different from that found in normal and learning disabled groups. The Indian pattern finds spatial abilities more well-developed than sequencing skills, which are superior to conceptual and acquired knowledge…

  13. Affirming Identity: The Role of Language and Culture in American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhner, Jon

    2017-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the United States spent millions upon millions of dollars in a largely unsuccessful effort to close the academic achievement gap between American-Indian and some other ethnic minorities and mainstream Americans. NCLB's focus on teacher quality and evidence-based curriculum and…

  14. Breast Cancer--Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2009-01-01

    A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…

  15. Reframing Diabetes in American Indian Communities: A Social Determinants of Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Felicia M.

    2012-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…

  16. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  17. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  18. The American Indian Social Studies Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, Esther

    Designed to provide supplementary information on American Indians for the teaching of American history, the activity guide for grades 9-12 offers background knowledge and suggested discussion topics for students. Contents of the guide include: a historical timeline outlining major events from 15,000 B.C. to the present; Hollywood's influence on…

  19. Caregiving among American Indians and Alaska Natives with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Van Dyke, Emily; Omidpanah, Adam; Russo, Joan E; Tsosie, Ursula; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-06-01

    Caregivers are an important source of support for oncology patients during cancer diagnosis and treatment, often helping patients manage barriers to care. Our study had three goals: to describe the characteristics of caregivers for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) oncology patients, to assess the similarities and differences between the perceptions of caregivers and patients regarding barriers to cancer care, and to compare AI/AN caregivers to non-AI/AN caregivers on perceived barriers to cancer care. We conducted a structured interview that assessed perceived barriers to cancer care with a paired sample of 98 adult caregivers and 98 AI/AN oncology patients and to assess the degree of agreement between these two groups. We also investigated whether AI/AN and non-AI/AN caregivers had differing perceptions of barriers to cancer care. Caregivers reported that their role was very meaningful and not highly stressful. Caregivers and patients agreed 70 % of the time on specific barriers to cancer care. Both groups overwhelmingly reported financial and family or work issues as major barriers to care, whereas trust in providers was the least frequently endorsed barrier. A comparison of AI/AN and non-AI/AN caregivers revealed that AI/AN caregivers identified confidentiality among clinical staff as a significant barrier, whereas non-AI/AN caregivers perceived financial barriers as more significant. Finances, family, and work are perceived as the largest barriers to the receipt of cancer care for AI/AN oncology patients. Both patients and caregivers trusted health-care providers. Assessing barriers to care early in the assessment process may result in better engagement with cancer treatment by patients and their caregivers.

  20. Patterns of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Two Culturally Distinct American Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Shalini; Wen, Yang; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Choi, Won; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To better understand patterns of initiation among American Indians we examined age-related patterns of smoking initiation during adolescence and young adulthood in 2 American Indian tribes. Methods. We used log-rank comparison and a Cox proportional hazard regression model to analyze data from a population-based study of Southwest and Northern Plains American Indians aged 18 to 95 years who initiated smoking by age 18 years or younger. Results. The cumulative incidence of smoking initiation was much higher among the Northern Plains Indians (47%) than among the Southwest Indians (28%; P < .01). In the Southwest, men were more likely than women to initiate smoking at a younger age (P < .01); there was no such difference in the Northern Plains sample. Northern Plains men and women in more recent birth cohorts initiated smoking at an earlier age than did those born in older birth cohorts. Southwest men and women differed in the pattern of smoking initiation across birth cohorts as evidenced by the significant test for interaction (P = .01). Conclusion. Our findings underscore the need to implement tobacco prevention and control measures within American Indian communities. PMID:19820215

  1. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians

  2. The income and health effects of tribal casino gaming on American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara; Jakubowski, Jessica; Haveman, Robert; Courey, Marissa

    2012-05-01

    The legalization of American Indian casino gaming in the late 1980s allows examination of the relationship between income and health in a quasi-experimental way. Revenue from gaming accrues to individual tribes and has been used both to supplement tribe members' income and to finance tribal infrastructure. We assembled annual data from 1988-2003 on tribal gaming, health care access (from the Area Resource File), and individual health and socioeconomic characteristics data (from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System). We use this information within a structural, difference-in-differences framework to study the effect of casino gaming on tribal members' income, health status, access to health care, and health-related behaviors. Our difference-in-differences framework relies on before-after comparisons among American Indians whose tribe has at some time operated a casino and with-without comparisons between American Indians whose tribe has and those whose tribe has not initiated gaming. Our results provide identified estimates of the positive effect of gaming on American Indian income and on several indicators of American Indian health, health-related behaviors, and access to health care.

  3. American indians and spiritual needs during hospitalization: developing a model of spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Wolosin, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    Although spirituality is typically intertwined with health in Native cultures, little research has examined the relationship between American Indians' spiritual needs and overall satisfaction with service provision during hospitalization. This study examined this relationship, in tandem with the effects of 8 potential mediators, to develop a model of spiritual care for older hospitalized American Indians. Structural equation modeling was used with a sample of American Indians (N = 860), aged 50 and older, who were consecutively discharged from hospitals across the United States over a 12-month period. As posited, addressing spiritual needs was positively associated with overall satisfaction with service provision. The relationship between spiritual needs and satisfaction was fully mediated by 4 variables: nursing staff, the discharge process, physicians, and visitors. As the first study to develop and test a model of spiritual care for older hospitalized American Indians, this study provides practitioners with the information to provide more effective, culturally relevant services to older American Indians. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Field Independence and the Effect of Background Music on Film Understanding and Emotional Responses of American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raburn, Josephine

    Fifty-five Indian students between the ages of 16 and 22 years were selected from the junior and senior English classes at the Fort Sill Indian School to examine the effects of background music in helping lower socio-economic American Indians understand film content and in manipulating their emotions. This study also looked at how cognitive style…

  5. Strengthening the Emerging American-Indian Partnership in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    needs to formulate a strategy concerning increasing trade with India. Recent trade initiatives such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership ( TPP ) and...eliminate tariff and regulatory barriers that penalize Indian consumers, while improving market access for Indian exports.”77 The TPP has the ability to...as Canada, Chile, and Mexico . Additionally, the United States needs to apply pressure on other nations to include India in other forums. For

  6. An evaluation of the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartaroli, Marylynn

    During centuries of geographic, economic, and cultural domination, the federal government held the responsibility for the management of environmental issues on tribal lands. Today, tribes are reasserting their sovereignty in many ways, including the development of their own environmental programs. Tribal agencies desperately search for tribal members who are qualified to make decisions for the benefit of the tribes from both Western scientific and traditional cultural viewpoints. To meet this need, the American Indian Air Quality Training Program (AIAQTP) offers technical and regulatory training courses that are both scientifically up-to-date and culturally responsive to this community. This study is an evaluation of these courses. To supplement data from existing program documents and databases, I also observed five courses, sent follow-up questionnaires, and interviewed lead instructors and course participants to develop an understanding of their perceptions of the training received. Computer analysis of this quantitative and qualitative data revealed patterns and themes; an external reviewer also independently analyzed the data set. The training courses offered by AIAQTP were judged to have merit and value by the course instructors, the participants, the external evaluator, and me. Designed to be both culturally responsive and technically rigorous, these courses provided relevant and useful information and skills to the tribal environmental professionals in attendance, meeting the demands of their jobs. Although not all training needs or expectations were met, the study participants indicated their intentions to continue their education and training in air quality and other environmental media. A significant benefit of attendance at AIAQTP training courses was the development of a network of tribal professionals across the nation that acts as a support system for the implementation and continuation of changes in the professional practice for the trainees and

  7. Working for India or against Islam? Islamophobia in Indian American Lobbies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Therwath

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the Indian American community has gained an unprecedented visibility in the international arena. It is indeed often projected as a model community and now constitutes growing and influential ethnic lobbies in Washington. But, in the face of its sheer division, Islamophobia did provide a unifying force sometimes bigger than the interest of Indian Americans or of their country of origin. Other factors can also be summoned. Among them, a leniency of many post-1965 migrants towards Hindu nationalist ideology and the wish to align with Jewish pressure groups in the context of the war against terrorism and to further the India-Israel-US strategic partnership play a major role in explaining Islamophobic overtones in the Indian American lobbies.

  8. Settler colonial power and the American Indian sovereignty movement: forms of domination, strategies of transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The article extends the multi-institutional model of power and change through an analysis of the American Indian Sovereignty Movement. Drawing upon cultural models of the state, and articulating institutionalist conceptions of political opportunities and resources, the analysis demonstrates that this framework can be applied to challenges addressing the state as well as nonstate fields. The rational-legal diminishment of tribal rights, bureaucratic paternalism, commonsense views of tribes as racial/ethnic minorities, and the binary construction of American and Indian as oppositional identities diminished the appeal of "contentious" political action. Instead, to establish tribes' status as sovereign nations, tribal leaders aggressively enacted infrastructural power, transposed favorable legal rulings across social fields to legitimize sovereignty discourses, and promoted a pragmatic coexistence with state and local governments. Identifying the United States as a settler colonial society, the study suggests that a decolonizing framework is more apt than racial/ethnicity approaches in conceptualizing the struggle of American Indians.

  9. Cultural identification and smoking among American Indian adults in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Sarah; Harris, Kari Jo; Golbeck, Amanda; Swaney, Gyda

    2009-06-01

    Among American Indians (AIs), an important relationship has been theorized between cultural identification and substance abuse, including smoking. We investigated the relationship between cultural identification and smoking among AI adults. Using the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS), we examined the relationship between AI and White cultural identification and cigarette use in a sample of AI recruited at an urban Indian center (n=217). We found that high AIs identification predicted smoker status and high White identification predicted non-smoker status when controlling for age and reservation residence. Orthogonal cultural identification status (categorized as high White/high AI, high White/low AI, low White/high AI, or low White/low AI) did not predict smoker status when controlling for age and reservation residence. OCIS item analysis revealed that positive responses to the individual OCIS items 'My family lives by the American Indian way of life,' 'I live by the American Indian way of life,' and 'I am a success in the American Indian way of life' predicted smoker status when controlling for age and reservation residence. Our data suggest that, among some groups of urban AIs, recreational smoking is associated with AI cultural identification.

  10. Culture-broker and medical decoder: contributions of caregivers in American Indian cancer trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Cadogan, Mary; Itty, Tracy Line; Williams, Angela; Finney, Arneta

    2016-05-01

    Caregivers play a special role in the management and control of cancer-related pain. For American Indians with cancer, caregivers can contribute to patient education, medication compliance, and can facilitate communication between the patient and the provider and the patient and the family. To identify the role(s) of caregivers of American Indian cancer survivors. As a part of a large randomized intervention designed to improve barriers to cancer symptom management, 13 focus groups were held among American Indian cancer survivors and their caregivers at Southwest reservations and urban sites. Focus groups, audiotaped and transcribed, used constant comparative methods in the analysis of caregiver dialogues. Caregivers are patient educators and provider culture-brokers and their communication strategies use a combination of cultural and conventional strategies in their care of American Indian cancer patients. Cultural communication styles include "talk stories" (storytelling), group (talking circles), and dialogue to manage cancer pain, educate the patient and community, and to protect the patient from stigma, reduce barriers to care, and provide support to patients and families. Active discussion with providers "re-packaged" the patient's reporting/responses to specific clinical measures (pain measure scores) and identified the need for pain medication and compliance-related issues. Findings are not generalizable to the American Indian population outside of the sites and focus groups from which data were collected. Caregivers are "cultural brokers" who inform providers of the cultural nuances associated with American Indian patient care. However, caregivers voiced that cultural restriction for not discussing illness openly was a sanction and an important barrier. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  11. Tobacco Industry Promotional Strategies Targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and Exploiting Tribal Sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2018-03-12

    American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at the Truth Tobacco Documents Library (https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/). Tobacco companies used promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands that leveraged the federally-recognized Tribes' unique sovereign status exempting them from state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws, and exploited some Tribes' existing traditional uses of ceremonial tobacco and poverty. Tactics included price reductions, coupons, giveaways, gaming promotions, charitable contributions and sponsorships. Additionally, tobacco companies built alliances with Tribal leaders to help improve their corporate image, advance ineffective "youth smoking prevention" programs, and defeat tobacco control policies. The industry's promotional tactics likely contribute to disparities in smoking prevalence and smoking-related diseases among American Indians//Alaska Natives. Proven policy interventions to address these disparities including tobacco price increases, cigarette taxes, comprehensive smokefree laws, and industry denormalization campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-related disease could be considered by Tribal communities. The sovereign status of federally-recognized Tribes does not prevent them

  12. The Central Nervous System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum aims to present a framework for alcohol…

  13. The Digestive System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum presents a framework for alcohol education…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Cultural Identity and Culture-Based Educational Programs for Urban American Indian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    Extant survey data collected from 240 urban American Indian students were used to examine the impact of culture-based and universally accepted effective practices in education on American Indian educational outcomes. The results found that culture-based programs had a largely indirect effect, affecting students' educational outcomes via universal…

  15. Across Generations: Culture, History, and Policy in the Social Ecology of American Indian Grandparents Parenting Their Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Cross, Suzanne L.; Stutzky, Glenn R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of ecological factors related to the experience of American Indian grandparents raising their grandchildren. Elements of American Indian culture and history, and United States policy, were used to generate explanatory hypotheses that were subjected to a thematic analysis of qualitative interview data. This…

  16. 43 CFR 30.186 - Are renunciations that predate the American Indian Probate Reform Act of 2004 valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... American Indian Probate Reform Act of 2004 valid? 30.186 Section 30.186 Public Lands: Interior Office of... renunciations that predate the American Indian Probate Reform Act of 2004 valid? Any renunciation filed and... Probate Reform Act of 2004 remains valid. ...

  17. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  18. Leadership in the Era of the Trump Presidency: Implications for the Education of American Indian Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Susan C.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript, I outline what I perceive to be the potential implications of the Trump presidency for the education of American Indian children and youth. In doing so, I argue that failure to provide adequate educational programs and services for American Indian children and youth represents an abrogation of the federal government's trust…

  19. Cooperation, decision time, and culture: Online experiments with American and Indian participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Christakis, Nicholas A; Rand, David G

    2017-01-01

    Two separate bodies of work have examined whether culture affects cooperation in economic games and whether cooperative or non-cooperative decisions occur more quickly. Here, we connect this work by exploring the relationship between decision time and cooperation in American versus Indian subjects. We use a series of dynamic social network experiments in which subjects play a repeated public goods game: 80 sessions for a total of 1,462 subjects (1,059 from the United States, 337 from India, and 66 from other countries) making 13,560 decisions. In the first round, where subjects do not know if connecting neighbors are cooperative, American subjects are highly cooperative and decide faster when cooperating than when defecting, whereas a majority of Indian subjects defect and Indians decide faster when defecting than when cooperating. Almost the same is true in later rounds where neighbors were previously cooperative (a cooperative environment) except decision time among Indian subjects. However, when connecting neighbors were previously not cooperative (a non-cooperative environment), a large majority of both American and Indian subjects defect, and defection is faster than cooperation among both sets of subjects. Our results imply the cultural background of subjects in their real life affects the speed of cooperation decision-making differentially in online social environments.

  20. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents from 3 diverse American Indian cultural groups in the western United States. Trajectories of self-esteem were clearly related to academic achievement; cultural identity, in contrast, was largely unrelated, with no direct effects and only very small indirect effects. The relationships between self-esteem and success were mediated by personal resources and problem behaviors.

  1. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the western U.S. Trajectories of self-esteem were clearly related to academic achievement; cultural identity, in contrast, was largely unrelated, with no direct effects and only very small indirect effects. The relationships between self-esteem and success were mediated by personal resources and problem behaviors. PMID:19209979

  2. Predictors of Relapse for American Indian Women after Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…

  3. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  4. Incorporating the Culture of American Indian/Alaska Native Students into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Raphael M.; Williams, Garnet L.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with educators and stakeholders for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, including teachers, elementary and high school principals, tribal community leaders, and parents, to determine a global definition of culture and ways of infusing culture into curriculum to better educate AI/AN students. Focus…

  5. Culture, context, and sexual risk among Northern Plains American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Carol E; Desserich, Jennifer; Big Crow, Cecelia K; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Keane, Ellen; Mitchell, Christina M

    2007-05-01

    American Indian adolescents have two to four times the rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) compared to whites nationally, they shoulder twice the proportion of AIDS compared to their national counterparts, and they have a 25% higher level of teen births. Yet little is known about the contemporary expectations, pressures, and norms that influence American Indian youth or how those might be shaped by today's lived cultural experiences, which frustrates attempts to mitigate the apparent disparity in sexual health. This paper used data from focus groups, in-depth interviews, and surveys with American Indian adolescents and young male and female adults from a Northern Plains tribe to contextualize sexual risk (and avoidance). Placing the findings within an adapted indigenist stress-coping framework, we found that youth faced intense pressures for early sex, often associated with substance use. Condoms were not associated with stigma, yet few seemed to value their importance for disease prevention. Youth encountered few economic or social recriminations for a teen birth. As such, cultural influences are important to American Indian sexual health and could be a key part of prevention strategies.

  6. Scientific Discourse in the Academy: A Case Study of an American Indian Undergraduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study explores how an American Indian woman experienced scientific discourse and the issues of language, power, and authority that occurred while she was an undergraduate student at a university in the southwestern United States. This ethnographic research, using a phenomenological perspective, describes her experiences as she searched…

  7. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  8. "In Our Voice": Lessons Learned from a Cardiovascular Disease Curriculum for American Indian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, D.; Burgoyne, K.; Vallie, D. La; Buchwald, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: American Indian children and adolescents are at risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and smoking, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To address these health issues, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a culturally appropriate cardiovascular disease curriculum…

  9. Perceptions and Practices of Culturally Relevant Science Teaching in American Indian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Roehrig, Gillian; Kern, Anne; Reynolds, Bree

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions of culturally relevant science teaching of 35 teachers of American Indian students. These teachers participated in professional development designed to help them better understand climate change science content and teaching climate change using both Western science and traditional and cultural knowledge. Teacher…

  10. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  11. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  12. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  13. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  14. A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression in Rural American Indian Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listug-Lunde, Lori; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Rural American Indian (AI) middle school students with depressive symptoms who participated in a culturally modified version of the Adolescent Coping with Depression (CWD-A) course (n = 8) reported significant improvement in depressive symptoms at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. There was also a nonsignificant but clinically relevant…

  15. The Dream Catcher Meditation: a therapeutic technique used with American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a short-term treatment insight-oriented model for American Indian adolescents, called Dream Catcher Meditation. It is aimed at helping clients' express unconscious conflicts and to facilitate differentiation and healthy mutuality. Though its duration can vary, twelve sessions are outlined here. Session descriptions include goals and sample questions. Also included are anecdotal material and reflections about cultural relevancy.

  16. American Indian Women and Screening Mammography: Findings from a Qualitative Study in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…

  17. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Extending a Popular Explanation to American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that American Indian (AI) adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain AI delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…

  18. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  19. It Takes a Community To Create an American Indian Business and Management Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Helen Juliette

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of tribal economic development, a business management course was developed by faculty and American Indian students. The course integrates culture and business through case studies of organizations that developed their own culturally relevant business practices. Community involvement is an essential element. (SK)

  20. Warrior Spirit: Soul Wound and Coping among American Indians in Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Leah M. Rouse; Davis, Amileah R.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study examined the role vocation played for American Indian non-Tribal law enforcement officers in adaptively coping with historical trauma, or "Soul Wound." Participants' views of career in relationship to its perceived congruence with their Nations' warrior societies and how this vocation may facilitate or constrain…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Image: Indian, American, Australian, and Irish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Padma

    1978-01-01

    American and Australian adolescents scored higher on the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire than did Indian and Irish adolescents. The Questionnaire measured 11 conflict areas: impulse control, emotional tone, body and self-image, social attitudes, morals, sexual attitudes, family relations, external mastery, vocational and educational goals,…

  2. Development of the American Indian Enculturation Scale to assist counseling practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterowd, Carrie; Montgomery, Diane; Stumblingbear, Glenna; Harless, Desi; Hicks, Kaycie

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the extent of commitment to and identification with traditional cultural experiences is essential for working with American Indian (AI) people (Whitbeck, 2006). The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a practical measure of enculturation for AI people by examining its reliability and validity within the context of three previous studies.

  3. Development of the "American Indian Enculturation Scale" to Assist Counseling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winderowd, Carrie; Montgomery, Diane; Stumblingbear, Glenna; Harless, Desi; Hicks, Kaycie

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the extent of commitment to and identification with traditional cultural experiences is essential for working with American Indian people (Whitbeck, 2006). The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a practical measure of enculturation for AI people by examining its reliability and validity within the context of…

  4. Tailoring a Web-Based Weight Maintenance Intervention for Northern Plains American Indian Public University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingson, Kaitlyn; Lucchesi, Roxanne; Droke, Elizabeth; Kattelmann, Kendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High levels of obesity-related health disparities are common among US American Indian (AI) populations. AI public university students often face unique challenges that may contribute to weight gain and related consequences. Few weight maintenance interventions have been developed that meet the needs of AI public university students. The…

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in South American Indians (Mapuches) from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, J; Diaz, P; Saunier, C

    1991-01-01

    The seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies was investigated in 405 serum samples from healthy South American Indians (Mapuches) from Chile, using enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA), Western immunoblot (WB) and radioimmuno precipitation assay (RIPA). Six samples were positive by ELISA; 3 of them were confirmed by WB/RIPA. Thus, we observed a seroprevalence of 0.7% for HTLV-1 antibodies in healthy Mapuches.

  6. Reconciling Leadership Paradigms: Authenticity as Practiced by American Indian School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, David; Carjuzaa, Jioanna; Ruff, William G.

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the complexity American Indian K-12 school leaders face on reservations in Montana, USA The study described how these leaders have to reconcile their Westernized educational leadership training with their traditional ways of knowing, living, and leading. Three major themes emerged that enabled these leaders to…

  7. Strategies for Successful Retention of Alaska Native and American Indian Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Diana; Leston, Jessica; Asay, Elvin; Ferucci, Elizabeth; Etzel, Ruth; Lanier, Anne P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the strategies used to track and follow 3,828 Alaska Native and American Indian study participants in the city of Anchorage and more rural areas of Alaska and provides characteristics of respondents and non-respondents. Over 88% were successfully followed-up, with 49% of respondents completed in three or fewer attempts.…

  8. Turkish, Indian, and American Chemistry Textbooks Use of Inscriptions to Represent "Types of Chemical Reactions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi; Sinha, Somnath; Izci, Kemal; Volkmann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate inscriptions used in "Types of Chemical Reactions" topic in Turkish, Indian, and American chemistry textbooks. We investigated both the types of inscriptions and how they were used in textbooks to support learning. A conceptual analysis method was employed to determine how those textbooks use…

  9. Solution-Focused Therapy as a Culturally Acknowledging Approach with American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie D.; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2013-01-01

    Limited literature is available applying specific theoretical orientations with American Indians. Solution-focused therapy may be appropriate, given the client-identified solutions, the egalitarian counselor/client relationship, the use of relationships, and the view that change is inevitable. However, adaption of scaling questions and the miracle…

  10. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  11. Balancing Culture and Professional Education: American Indians/Alaska Natives and the Helping Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Hilary N.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys of 132 American Indian social workers, nurses, psychologists, and college students in those fields examined their experiences of professional education. Themes included extent of cultural content within professional training; types of support for indigenous identities; and struggles with stereotypes, institutional and faculty insensitivity…

  12. Examining Correlates of Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in Pregnant American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…

  13. Teaching the Role of the Indian in American History and Upgrading Curricula. A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert

    Presented in this document is a discussion of the need for an ongoing evaluation of the accuracy and adequacy of materials pertaining to American Indians in textbooks and reference books in use, or being produced for use, in the nation's schools. During this ongoing evaluation, to be done by a recognized permanent national committee of Indian…

  14. Reasoning about Family Honour among Two Generations of Hindu Indian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Adam

    2012-01-01

    To investigate reasoning about family honour, 128 first generation (mean age = 27.2 years) and second generation Hindu Indian-American adults (mean age = 24.7 years) were presented hypothetical scenarios in which male or female protagonists defied common Hindu customs (e.g., arranged marriage, intra-religion marriage and premarital sexual…

  15. Death Beliefs and Practices from an Asian Indian American Hindu Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…

  16. Weaving dreamcatchers: mothering among American Indian women who were teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  18. Look local: the value of cancer surveillance and reporting by American Indian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Strickland, Rick; Stephenson, Laura; Pierce-Hudson, Kimmine; Matloub, Jacqueline; Waukau, Jerry; Adams, Alexandra; Kaur, Judith; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-11-27

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates for American Indians in the Northern Plains region of the United States are among the highest in the nation. Reliable cancer surveillance data are essential to help reduce this burden; however, racial data in state cancer registries are often misclassified, and cases are often underreported. We used a community-based participatory research approach to conduct a retrospective ascertainment of cancer cases in clinic medical records over a 9-year period (1995-2003) and compared the results with the state cancer registry to evaluate missing or racially misclassified cases. Six tribal and/or urban Indian clinics participated in the study. The project team consisted of participating clinics, a state cancer registry, a comprehensive cancer center, an American Indian/Alaska Native Leadership Initiative on Cancer, and a set of diverse organizational partners. Clinic personnel were trained by project staff to accurately identify cancer cases in clinic records. These records were then matched with the state cancer registry to assess misclassification and underreporting. Forty American Indian cases were identified that were either missing or misclassified in the state registry. Adding these cases to the registry increased the number of American Indian cases by 21.3% during the study period (P = .05). Our results indicate that direct reporting of cancer cases by tribal and urban Indian health clinics to a state cancer registry improved the quality of the data available for cancer surveillance. Higher-quality data can advance the efforts of cancer prevention and control stakeholders to address disparities in Native communities.

  19. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Tomayko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Methods Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2–5 years old from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. Results A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61% and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05. Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p < 0.05 and higher intakes of fruit juice (<0.001, other sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05, and fried potatoes (p < 0.001 than food secure adults. Food insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p < 0.05, soda (p = 0.01, and sports drinks (p < 0.05. Focus group participants indicated different strategies were used by urban and rural households to address food insecurity. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity in

  20. Jim Thorpe, The Story of an American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Robert

    Fifty years after the death of Black Hawk, the greatest warrior of the Sac and Fox tribe, his great-great-grandson was born: Jim Thorpe, one of the greatest athletes of all time. This biography opens with Black Hawk and a brief history of the Sac and Fox Indians. Then Jim's story begins, in a simple log cabin in Oklahoma, in 1888. Even in his…

  1. Reproductive rights denied: the Hyde Amendment and access to abortion for Native American women using Indian health service facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Shaye Beverly

    2014-10-01

    Restrictions on the use of federal funds to provide abortions have limited the access to abortion services for Native American women receiving care at Indian Health Service facilities. Current data suggest that the vast majority of Indian Health Service facilities are unequipped to provide abortions under any circumstances. Native American women experience disproportionately high rates of sexual assault and unintended pregnancy. Hyde Amendment restrictions systematically infringe on the reproductive rights of Native American women and present a pressing public health policy concern.

  2. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  3. Tribal Colleges and Universities/American Indian Research and Education Initiatives Advanced Manufacturing Technical Assistance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The overall goal of this project is to establish a network of TCUs with essential advanced manufacturing (AM) facilities, associated training and education programs, and private sector and federal agency partnerships to both prepare an American Indian AM workforce and create economic and employment opportunities within Tribal communities through design, manufacturing, and marketing of high quality products. Some examples of high quality products involve next generation grid components such as mechanical energy storage, cabling for distribution of energy, and electrochemical energy storage enclosures. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is tasked to provide technical advising, planning, and academic program development support for the TCU/American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) Advanced Manufacturing Project. The TCUs include Bay Mills Community College (BMCC), Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC), Navajo Technical University (NTU), Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), and Salish Kooteani College. AIHEC and Sandia, with collaboration from SIPI, will be establishing an 8-week summer institute on the SIPI campus during the summer of 2017. Up to 20 students from TCUs are anticipated to take part in the summer program. The goal of the program is to bring AM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) awareness and opportunities for the American Indian students. Prior to the summer institute, Sandia will be providing reviews on curriculum plans at the each of the TCUs to ensure the content is consistent with current AM design and engineering practice. In addition, Sandia will provide technical assistance to each of the TCUs in regards to their current AM activities.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  5. Child maltreatment prevalence and mental disorders outcomes among American Indian women in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Bonnie; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sanders, Margaret; Waitzkin, Howard; Skipper, Betty; Yager, Joel

    2004-02-01

    To examine (1) the prevalence, types, and severity of child abuse and neglect (CAN) and (2) the relationship between CAN and lifetime psychiatric disorders among American Indian women using primary care services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 234 American Indian women, age 18-45 who presented for outpatient ambulatory services at a community-based Indian Health Service Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dependent measures included mood, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. CAN was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Approximately three-quarters of respondents (76.5%; 95% CI = 70.4, 81.7) reported some type of childhood abuse or neglect; over 40% reported exposure to severe maltreatment. Severity of child maltreatment was associated in a dose response manner with lifetime diagnosis of mental disorders. After adjusting for social and demographic correlates, severe child maltreatment was strongly associated with lifetime PTSD (prevalence ratio [PR] 3.9; 95% CI = 1.9, 8.0); and was moderately associated with lifetime substance use disorders (PR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.3); mood disorders (PR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.4, 3.2); and with two or more disorders (PR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.4). CAN was common in our sample of American Indian women in primary care and was positively associated with lifetime psychiatric disorders outcomes. Screening for CAN and psychiatric disorders would enhance the treatment of patients seeking primary care services. Primary prevention of child maltreatment might reduce the high prevalence of mental disorders among American Indian women.

  6. Indian boarding school experience, substance use, and mental health among urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Campbell, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Systematic efforts of assimilation removed many Native children from their tribal communities and placed in non-Indian-run residential schools. To explore substance use and mental health concerns among a community-based sample of 447 urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska Native adults who had attended boarding school as children and/or who were raised by someone who attended boarding school. Eighty-two respondents who had attended Indian boarding school as children were compared to respondents with no history of boarding school with respect to mental health and substance use. Former boarding school attendees reported higher rates of current illicit drug use and living with alcohol use disorder, and were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide and experienced suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to non-attendees. About 39% of the sample had been raised by someone who attended boarding school. People raised by boarding school attendees were significantly more likely to have a general anxiety disorder, experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to others.

  7. 78 FR 54678 - Establishment of the Attorney General's Advisory Committee of the Task Force on American Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... to issues of trauma that AI/AN children who have been convicted and sentenced to incarceration in the... American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and... Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence (hereinafter, the ``AI/AN Advisory Committee''). The AI...

  8. A Few Cautions at the Millennium on the Merging of Feminist Studies with American Indian Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihesuah, Devon A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses possible intersections between feminist studies and American Indian women's studies, noting the complexity of identity politics when most contemporary Indians have mixed blood. No single authoritative Native women's position or feminist theory of Native women exists. These labels are often umbrella terms that inadequately represent those…

  9. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2013. Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau News. CB13-FF.26

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The first American Indian Day was celebrated in May 1916 in New York. Red Fox James, a Blackfeet Indian, rode horseback from state to state, getting endorsements from 24 state governments, to have a day to honor American Indians. In 1990, President George H.W. Bush signed a joint congressional resolution designating November 1990 as "National…

  11. Establishing Survey Validity and Reliability for American Indians Through “Think Aloud” and Test–Retest Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L.; Burgess, Katherine M.; Puumala, Susan E.; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a “think aloud” methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test–retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test–retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population. PMID:25888693

  12. Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

  13. Self-Efficacy About Sexual Risk/Protective Behaviors: Intervention Impact Trajectories Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M; Kaufman, Carol E; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Keane, Ellen M

    2017-09-01

    For adolescents, normative development encompasses learning to negotiate challenges of sexual situations; of special importance are skills to prevent early pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Disparities in sexual risk among American Indian youth point to the importance of intervening to attenuate this risk. This study explored the impact of Circle of Life (COL), an HIV prevention intervention based on social cognitive theory, on trajectories of self-efficacy (refusing sex, avoiding sexual situations) among 635 students from 13 middle schools on one American Indian reservation. COL countered a normative decline of refusal self-efficacy among girls receiving the intervention by age 13, while girls participating at age 14 or older, girls in the comparison group, and all boys showed continuing declines. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amy J.; White Hat, Emily R.; Angal, Jyoti; Grey Owl, Victoria; Puumala, Susan E.; Baete Kenyon, DenYelle

    2015-01-01

    The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH) was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects), three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology), six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years. PMID:26703683

  15. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING QUALITY OF INDIAN AND AMERICAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Munshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The content analysis method has been adopted to study the pattern of reporting on sustainability indicators by 10 American and 10 Indian manufacturing firms in their sustainability reports prepared as per the GRI framework and published during 2011-2013. Scores of 2, 1 and 0 have been respectively assigned for full, partial and non disclosure of sub clauses of economic, environmentand social indicators to compute a SDI (sustainability disclosure index. Independent t test found a significant difference in the quality of sustainability disclosure of the sampled American and Indian manufacturing firms during 2011-13. The improvement/ deterioration in the quality of disclosure over the period were correlated with changes in performance parameters like EPS and ROA to examine if betterment in quality of sustainability reporting translates into financial performance of the firms. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the variables which explain the variation in the sustainability reporting quality of firms.

  16. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Elliott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects, three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology, six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  17. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized ove...

  18. Academic achievement of American Indian and Alaska native students: Does social-emotional competence reduce the impact of poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Chain, J; Shapiro, VB; LeBuffe, PA; Bryson, AMK

    2017-01-01

    © Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health. Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between socialemotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to det ermine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emo...

  19. American Indian Parents’ Assessment of and Concern About Their Kindergarten Child’s Weight Status, South Dakota, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is highly prevalent among American Indians, and effective prevention efforts require caregiver involvement. We examined American Indian (AI) parents' assessment of and level of concern about their kindergarten child's weight status. Methods We collected baseline data (fall of 2005 and fall of 2006) on children and their parents or caregivers for a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on an AI reservation in South Dakota. The current study uses 413 parent-c...

  20. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  1. Urban Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girls’ Beliefs Regarding Health Care Access and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Saftner, Melissa A.; Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people, specifically American Indians (AI), have historically had a greater mistrust of the medical system compared to their White counterparts. The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about health care providers, health care systems, and access to health care as related to sexual health care. Using grounded theory methodology, twenty 15-19 year old AI girls participated in talking circles and individual interv...

  2. Relationships Between Smoking Behaviors and Cotinine Levels Among Two American Indian Populations With Distinct Smoking Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Julie-Anne; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Buchwald, Dedra; Howard, Barbara V; Henderson, Patricia Nez; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2018-03-06

    Smoking prevalence, cigarettes per day (CPD), and lung cancer incidence differ between Northern Plains (NP) and Southwest (SW) American Indian populations. We used cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure to biochemically characterize NP and SW smokers and nonsmokers and to investigate factors associated with variation in tobacco exposure. American Indians (N = 636) were recruited from two different tribal populations (NP and SW) as part of a study conducted as part of the Collaborative to Improve Native Cancer Outcomes P50 project. For each participant, a questionnaire assessed smoking status, CPD, second-hand smoke exposure, and traditional ceremonial tobacco use; plasma and/or salivary cotinine was measured. Cotinine levels were (mean ± 95% confidence interval [CI]) 81.6 ± 14.1 and 21.3 ± 7.3 ng/ml among NP smokers and non-mokers, respectively, and 44.8 ± 14.4 and 9.8 ± 5.8 ng/ml among SW smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Cotinine levels correlated with CPD in both populations (p smoke exposure was associated with higher cotinine among NP non-smokers (P smoke exposure was associated with smoking more CPD in both populations (p = 0.03-0.29). Linear regression modeling mirrored these findings. High prevalence of smoking in the Northern Plains and high cotinine levels among nonsmokers in both regions highlights the tribal populations' risk for tobacco-related disease. There is a high prevalence of smoking in Northern Plains American Indians. Among Northern Plains and Southwest nonsmokers, relatively high cotinine levels, representative of high tobacco exposure, suggest considerable exposure to second-hand smoke. It is critical to highlight the extent of second-hand smoke exposure among the Northern Plains and Southwest American Indians and to enhance efforts to initiate smoke-free policies in tribal communities, which are not subject to state-level polices.

  3. Genetic variants and risk of asthma in an American Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; Azure, Crystal; Segarra, Alexandre; Enright, Kendra J; Hamley, Shawn; Jerome, Dara; O'Leary, Marcia A; O'Leary, Rae A; Parisien, Ashley; Trottier, Kayana; Yracheta, Joseph M; Torgerson, Dara G

    2017-07-01

    Asthma is recognized as a complex, multifactorial disease with a genetic component that is well recognized. Certain genetic variants are associated with asthma in a number of populations. To determine whether the same variants increase the risk of asthma among American Indian children. The electronic medical records of an Indian Health Service facility identified all children between 6 and 17 years of age with case-defining criteria for asthma (n = 108). Control children (n = 216), matched for age, were also identified. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to genotype 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6 genetic loci. Genotypic distributions among cases and controls were evaluated by χ 2 and logistic regression methods. A variant at 5q22.1 revealed a statistically significant imbalance in the distribution of genotypes between case-control pairs (rs10056340, P < .001). In logistic regression analyses, the same variant at 5q22.1 and a variant at 17q21 were associated with asthma at P < .05 (rs10056340 and rs9303277). Inclusions of age, body mass index, and atopy in multivariate models revealed significant associations between rs10056340 (odds ratio, 2.020; 95% confidence interval, 1.283-3.180; P = .002) and all 5 17q21 SNPs and asthma in this population. In analyses restricted to atopic individuals, the association of rs10056340 was essentially unchanged, whereas among nonatopic individuals the trend was in the same direction but nonsignificant. The reverse was true for the 17q21 SNPs. These findings demonstrate that many variants commonly associated with asthma in other populations also accompany this condition among American Indian children. American Indian children also appear to have an increased risk of asthma associated with obesity. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…

  5. Institute of American Indian Arts. To Amend the Act of August 27, 1935, to Provide for the Administration, Maintenance, and Operation of the Institute of American Indian Arts by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. Hearing Before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 6850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    The Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs met July 1, 1980, to take testimony on Bill H.R. 6850 which proposed specific statutory authorization for the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA), transferred administrative control from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to the Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB), and reserved the BIA educational…

  6. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  7. Crystal methamphetamine use among American Indian and White youth in Appalachia: Social context, masculinity, and desistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine ("meth") in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth's pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption.

  8. American Indian culture as substance abuse treatment: pursuing evidence for a local intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P; Looking, Patrick E Calf

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary tribal commitments to traditional cultural reclamation and revitalization find continued expression by recent generational cohorts of American Indians who, when it comes to matters of recovery, healing, and wellness in the context of substance abuse, routinely assert that "our culture is our treatment." And yet, empirical investigations of this culture-as-treatment hypothesis--namely, that a (post)colonial return to indigenous cultural orientations and practices is sufficient for effecting abstinence and recovery from substance use disorders for many American Indians--have yet to appear in the scientific literature. Preliminary activities of a research partnership dedicated to the empirical exploration of this hypothesis for reducing Native American substance use disorders are summarized. Specifically, collaboration between a university-based research psychologist and a reservation-based substance abuse treatment program staff has thus far resulted in a detailed blueprint for a radically alternative, culturally-grounded intervention developed for reservation residents. This proposed alternative intervention--a seasonal cultural immersion camp designed to approximate the day-to-day experiences of prereservation ancestors--was designed for eventual implementation and evaluation with adult clients referred for residential treatment on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. It is anticipated that the proposed intervention will eventually afford empirical evaluation of the culture-as-treatment hypothesis.

  9. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanayagam, Ch.; Shankar, A.; Sabanayagam, Ch.; Buchwald, D.; Goins, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged =55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of CVD among those with sleep duration =5 h was 2.89 (1.17-7.16). Similarly, the multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD was 4.45 (1.85-10.72) and 2.60 (1.25-5.42) for daytime sleepiness >2 h and difficulty falling asleep often/always. Conclusion. Symptoms of insomnia including short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep are independently associated with CVD in American Indians aged =55 years

  10. Knowledge and screening of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers.

  11. Association between Obesity and History of Abuse among American Indians in Rural California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia; Stemmler, M Susan; Nandy, Karabi

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with obesity among American Indians. A cross-sectional survey of American Indian adults (N=459) was conducted at 13 rural reservation sites in California. Participants responded to a survey about their health and wellness perceptions. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to assess obesity. A predictive model for BMI was built using a generalized regression model. Having high blood pressure and having a history of verbal abuse in childhood were significant predictors of higher BMI. Participants with high blood pressure were likely to have 3.2 units of BMI higher on average than those who do not have high blood pressure (p-value history of childhood verbal abuse were likely to have 1.9 units higher BMI on average compared to those with no such history. Having a history of diabetes or sexual abuse in childhood trend towards increased BMI, although not statistically significant. Identifying childhood trauma and its impact on adult obesity rates among American Indians provides new avenues for intervention. Efforts to reduce over weight and obesity should include culturally sensitive interventions to ameliorate and repair what is lost through personal violations of stigma, abuse or neglect.

  12. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  13. Schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms in families of two American Indian tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaugh Bernard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of schizophrenia is thought to be higher in population isolates that have recently been exposed to major and accelerated cultural change, accompanied by ensuing socio-environmental stressors/triggers, than in dominant, mainstream societies. We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of schizophrenia in 329 females and 253 males of a Southwestern American Indian tribe, and in 194 females and 137 males of a Plains American Indian tribe. These tribal groups were evaluated as part of a broader program of gene-environment investigations of alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Methods Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to allow diagnoses utilizing standardized psychiatric diagnostic criteria, and to limit cultural biases. Study participants were recruited from the community on the basis of membership in pedigrees, and not by convenience. After independent raters evaluated the interviews blindly, DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned by a consensus of experts well-versed in the local cultures. Results Five of the 582 Southwestern American Indian respondents (prevalence = 8.6 per 1000, and one of the 331 interviewed Plains American Indians (prevalence = 3.02 per 1000 had a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence rates of schizophrenia within these two distinct American Indian tribal groups is consistent with lifetime expectancy rates reported for the general United States population and most isolate and homogeneous populations for which prevalence rates of schizophrenia are available. While we were unable to factor in the potential modifying effect that mortality rates of schizophrenia-suffering tribal members may have had on the overall tribal rates, the incidence of schizophrenia among the living was well within the normative range. Conclusion The occurrence of schizophrenia among members of these two tribal population groups is consistent with prevalence rates reported for

  14. Age of onset of first alcohol intoxication and subsequent alcohol use among urban American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L; McDonald, James N; Oetting, Eugene R; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Beauvais, Fred

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of early onset intoxication on subsequent alcohol involvement among urban American Indian youth. The data come from the American Indian Research (AIR) project, a panel study of urban Indian youth residing in King County, Washington. Data were collected annually from the adolescent and his/her primary caregiver from the 1988-89 school year to the 1996-97 school year, providing a total of nine waves of data. Early intoxication (by age 14) was related to delinquency, family history of alcohol abuse or dependence, poverty, broken family structure, less family cohesiveness, and more family conflict. The effects of these characteristics were, therefore, partialed out in testing effects of early intoxication on later alcohol involvement. Two-part latent growth models of alcohol use and alcohol problems were specified. Effects of early onset intoxication on these trajectories, as well as lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence by the transition to young adulthood, were examined. Findings indicate that adolescents who experienced their first intoxication early (by age 14), used alcohol more heavily from the ages of 16 to 18, experienced more problems related to the alcohol's use from the ages of 16 to 18, and were more likely to have a diagnosed alcohol disorder by the final wave of data collection. Congruent with similar studies in the general population, early intoxication appears to be associated with a deleterious course of alcohol involvement during adolescence and into the transition to young adulthood among urban American Indian youth. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  15. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  16. Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs: Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Alice C.

    This volume describes and gives instructions for Native American dances and games as gathered by, and in some cases adapted by, an anthropologist working among native peoples at the beginning of the 20th Century. Part I contains dances and songs. The first is called "The Life of the Corn," a drama in five dances. Also included are three…

  17. Program Sustainability: Hearing Loss and Tinnitus Prevention in American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William Hal; Sobel, Judith L; Griest, Susan E; Howarth, Linda C; Becker, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    An important goal of any health promotion effort is to have it maintained in delivery and effectiveness over time. The purpose of this study was to establish a community-based noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus prevention program in three different types of American Indian communities and evaluate them for evidence of long-term sustainability. The target population was fourth- and fifth-grade students from three different models of American Indian communities. The evidenced-based Dangerous Decibels ® program was adapted to include local media, classroom education, family and community outreach, and web-based activities. Sustainability was attempted by promoting funding stability, political support, partnerships, organizational capacity, program adaptation, program evaluation, communications, public health impacts, and strategic planning. Currently, there is evidence suggesting that the hearing health promotion program is self-sustaining in all three American Indian communities. The intervention was effective at changing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in the target population, but program adoption and self-sustenance faced challenges that required patience, persistence, and creativity by the program team. Components of the intervention continue to be delivered by local members of each community. Critical factors that led to self-sustaining programs included approval of community leaders and engagement of community members in the design, administration, and evaluation of the effort; use of a well-developed, evidence-based intervention; and high-level training of local participants who could confidently and effectively continue delivering the program following a gradual transition to independence. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  19. King Philip’s war: American Indians in British colonial society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterov Dmitriy Aleksandrovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the problem of the perception of the North American Indians by the British colonial community during the King Philip’s war; this is the first time when the problem is considered in Russian historiography. The author pays attention to events that means a starting point for the formation of public opinion of the British colonies’ inhabitants towards to the Indian population and its modifications, which is connected with King Philip’s war. The preconditions, causes and implications of these changes are identified in this article. Also there is the direct dependence of views of any part of British society from its social status and position which were among of the factors that determined and affected to the behaviour of the British. All the author’s conclusions are supported by appeals to historical sources.

  20. Student Snapshots: An Alternative Approach to the Visual History of American Indian Boarding Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Strathman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Photographs of American Indian boarding school students have often been usedto illustrate the federal forced assimilation practices of the 1870s–1930s. Taken by officialschool photographers, these propagandistic images were produced to emphasize the“civilizing” benefits of the boarding school system. Although some Native studentsobtained cameras and recorded their own boarding school experiences, the visual historystill relies on the institutionally-produced images. Using a collection of photographscreated by Parker McKenzie (Kiowa and his classmates while attending Rainy Mountainand Phoenix Indian Schools, this paper intends to rectify that exclusion through a readingof these snapshots as examples of visual sovereignty. The concept of visual sovereigntyinvolves examining Native self-representations as the (reclaiming of indigenous identitiesin order to counter colonial imagery that has dominated the archives.

  1. Problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska native adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Family Conflict and Anger on Alcohol Use Among American Indian Students: Mediating Effects of Outcome Expectancies.

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    Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R

    2018-01-01

    Identification of etiologic mechanisms underlying alcohol use among American Indian adolescents is essential because of higher rates of use and earlier initiation. One path links positive outcome expectancies to increased use for reduction of negative affect. This study estimates relationships between two aspects of distress among American Indian high school students-family conflict and anger-and alcohol involvement, and it investigates whether outcome expectancies serve as a mediator between these facets of distress and alcohol use. Structural equation modeling evaluated study hypotheses among 975 female and 936 male American Indian 9th- through 12th-grade students residing on or near reservations. Students were from 17 high schools recruited across six geographic regions where American Indians on reservations reside. Separate models were assessed for male and female students. Outcome expectancies mediated the relationship between both anger and family conflict for female students, but only for anger among male students. Full mediation was found for all significant effects. For female American Indian high school students, anger and family conflict operate in large degree through outcome expectancies for alcohol use. A similar effect is found for male students for anger.

  3. The Association of Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Major Depression With Smoking in American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  4. IBC CARe microarray allelic population prevalences in an American Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle G Best

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of variant alleles among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is not well known for many minority populations. These population allele frequencies (PAFs are necessary to guide genetic epidemiology studies and to understand the population specific contribution of these variants to disease risk. Large differences in PAF among certain functional groups of genes could also indicate possible selection pressure or founder effects of interest. The 50K SNP, custom genotyping microarray (CARe was developed, focusing on about 2,000 candidate genes and pathways with demonstrated pathophysiologic influence on cardiovascular disease (CVD. METHODS: The CARe microarray was used to genotype 216 unaffected controls in a study of pre-eclampsia among a Northern Plains, American Indian tribe. The allelic prevalences of 34,240 SNPs suitable for analysis, were determined and compared with corresponding HapMap prevalences for the Caucasian population. Further analysis was conducted to compare the frequency of statistically different prevalences among functionally related SNPs, as determined by the DAVID Bioinformatics Resource. RESULTS: Of the SNPs with PAFs in both datasets, 9.8%,37.2% and 47.1% showed allele frequencies among the American Indian population greater than, less than and either greater or less than (respectively the HapMap Caucasian population. The 2,547 genes were divided into 53 functional groups using the highest stringency criteria. While none of these groups reached the Bonferroni corrected p value of 0.00094, there were 7 of these 53 groups with significantly more or less differing PAFs, each with a probability of less than 0.05 and an overall probability of 0.0046. CONCLUSION: In comparison to the HapMap Caucasian population, there are substantial differences in the prevalence among an American Indian community of SNPs related to CVD. Certain functional groups of genes and related SNPs show possible evidence of

  5. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  6. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  7. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  8. Culture and environment as predictors of alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms in American Indian youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2007-10-01

    This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spirituality predicted fewer alcohol symptoms, and, importantly, religious affiliation moderated the effects of problematic peers and family members on adolescent alcohol symptoms. The findings suggest further study of intervention and prevention efforts regarding the benefits from consideration of the complex relationships among multiple environmental variables.

  9. "Tribes sharing life": an organ donation educational intervention for American Indian tribal college and university students.

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    Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Belitz, Christine; Keckler, Arliss

    2011-11-01

    "Tribes Sharing Life" is an educational intervention about deceased organ donation for American Indian Tribal College and University (TCU) students. The classroom and web-based program was derived from cultural values and beliefs, and the Transtheoretical Model. The aim of this study was to develop and formatively evaluate the intervention for acceptability and satisfaction among advisory council members (n = 10) and TCU students (n = 22). Council evaluation results were strong. All items met the TCU student evaluation of the revised intervention resulted in overall mean scores that met criterion for acceptability and satisfaction. Tribes Sharing Life is a formatively evaluated intervention that should undergo efficacy testing.

  10. Creating an instrument to measure people's perception of community capacity in American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, John; Wallerstein, Nina; Solimon, Audrey; Garcia, Bruce; Siemon, Mark; Adeky, Sarah; Apachito, Gracie; Caston, Elissa; Finster, Carolyn; Belone, Lorenda; Tafoya, Greg

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of community capacity for American Indian communities. The study included development and testing phases to ensure face, content, construct, and predictive validity. There were 500 participants in two southwest tribes who completed a detailed community profile, which contained 21 common items in five dimensions (communication, sense of community, youth, elders, and language/culture). In addition, subscales of women and leadership were included in one tribe each. Confirmatory factor analysis primarily supported the factorial structure of the instruments, and the seven dimensions were found to correlate with previously validated measures of social capital, historical trauma, community influence, and physical health in expected directions.

  11. Understanding gender roles in teen pregnancy prevention among American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2014-11-01

    To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.

  12. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-03-28

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  13. Historical loss thinking and symptoms of depression are influenced by ethnic experience in American Indian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Wingate, LaRicka R; O'Keefe, Victoria M

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has indicated that historical loss may play an important role in the experience of depression symptoms in American Indian/Alaska Native people. Increased frequency of historical loss thinking has been related to symptoms of depression and other pervasive psychological outcomes (i.e., substance abuse) in American Indian and Canadian First Nations communities. The current study investigated how aspects of ethnic minority experience relate to the incidence of historical loss thinking and symptoms of depression in American Indian adults. Data are presented from 123 self-identified American Indian college students (ages 18-25, 67.50% female) who participated in the study in return for course credit and/or entrance into a raffle for gift cards. Participants completed the Adolescent Historical Loss Scale (AHLS), Scale of Ethnic Experiences (SEE), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Indirect effects of ethnic experience on symptoms of depression through historical loss thinking were calculated with nonparametric bootstrapping procedures. Results indicated that a strong ethnic identification, desire to predominantly socialize with other American Indians, and perceptions of discrimination were associated with increased historical loss thinking. Feelings of comfort and assimilation with the mainstream American culture were negatively related to historical loss thinking. Only perception of discrimination was directly related to symptoms of depression; however, ethnic identification and the preference to predominantly socialize with other American Indians were both indirectly related to elevated depressive symptoms through increased historical loss thinking. The clinical implications for these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Obesity and Overweight in American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ann; Sheff, Karen; Moore, Kelly; Manson, Spero

    2017-09-01

    To estimate obesity and overweight prevalence in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children across genders, ages, and geographic regions in the Indian Health Service active clinical population. We obtained data from the Indian Health Service National Data Warehouse. At least 184 000 AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years had body mass index data for each year studied, 2006 to 2015. We calculated body mass index percentiles with the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years was 18.5% and 29.7%, respectively. Boys had higher obesity prevalence than girls (31.5% vs 27.9%). Children aged 12 to 19 years had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than younger children. The AI/AN children in our study had a higher prevalence of obesity than US children overall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results for 2006 through 2014 were similar. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among AI/AN children in this population may have stabilized, while remaining higher than prevalence for US children overall.

  15. Circle Of Life cancer education: giving voice to American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Octavia; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca; Eschiti, Valerie; Samos, Markos; Wiener, Diane; Ohlander, Kerstin; Royals, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    The Circle Of Life (COL) was first developed in 1991 as a breast health program through a partnership between the American Cancer Society and a committee of lay and professional volunteers in Oklahoma, with representation from Oklahoma American Indian tribal communities. In 2008, The Society was awarded funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to expand and enhance COL. Since then, The Society has engaged a variety of tribal health and education leaders and Society staff to comprise a COL advisory workgroup. The workgroup's mission was to make recommendations and provide guidance in the revision of COL. Four cultural values emerged from the engagement of the workgroup: (1) the value of visual communication, (2) the value of interconnected generations, (3) the value of storytelling, and (4) the value of experiential learning. These four concepts greatly shaped the revision of the COL educational tools and resources.

  16. Assessment training for practice in American Indian and Alaska Native settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James

    2002-10-01

    The collaborative assessment model is extended as a training model. The experience of psychological assessment in American Indian and Alaska Native communities is often negative due to culturally inappropriate services and test interpretation. It is productive to address this negative experience, using it as a catalyst for learning. Training in measurement and construct validation provides initial basis for critique of negative experience. Training in collaborative assessment procedures then focuses on culturally appropriate assessment service practices, cultural orientation's affect on test interpretation, and multicultural assessment ethics. Writing skills are emphasized, including procedures in report writing for description of local adaptations, norms, and interpretative rules, and integration of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) cultural formulation. Development of local norms and emic tests are emphasized.

  17. Integrating American Indian/alaska Native culture into shared storybook intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglebret, Ella; Jones, Carla; Pavel, D Michael

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this clinical exchange is to provide information for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) so they will be able to provide culturally responsive intervention for young children of American Indian and Alaska Native heritage. The focus is on a particular strategy--the integration of culturally based stories into shared storybook intervention. The use of culturally based stories is presented as it relates to sociocultural theory and the expressed priority of Native peoples to revitalize their cultural teaching and learning practices, inclusive of storytelling. Strategies are presented that SLPs can follow in preparing for the use of culturally based stories, as well as in ensuring that the stories that are selected for use are authentic and appropriate for the children involved. The strategies discussed represent the collaborative efforts of Native and non-Native professionals to link a review of pertinent scholarly literature with ancestral knowledge that is derived from tribal elders and tradition bearers of the Southern Puget Salish peoples. The article concludes by illustrating the application of these strategies to a program involving young children of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. SLPs can integrate culturally based stories into their language and literacy intervention to encourage American Indian and Alaska Native children.

  18. Social Marketing Risk-Framing Approaches for Dental Sealants in Rural American Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S; Champine, Dorothy; Hoyt, Dee; Lin, Lillian; Salois, Emily; Silvas, Sharon; Tail, Terri Weasel; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To compare three variants of a culturally relevant and theoretically based message to determine the most influential risk-framing approach for improving intention to place dental sealants for preschool children. A convenience sample of adult, American Indian participants (n = 89) attending a community health fair were assigned to view a gain-framed, loss-framed, or mix-framed dental sealant message. We compared participants' scores on a 46-item survey to determine the relative effect of the frame assignment on seven indices of behavior change. The mean difference in participants' stage-of-change scores (x = 1.17, n = 89, SD = 1.90) demonstrated a significant improvement for all groups after watching the dental sealant message t88  = 5.81, p mix-framed message resulted in the highest scores. The gain-framed message was the least influential on four constructs. This finding is in contrast to findings that gain-framed oral health messages are most influential (Gallagher & Updegraff, 2012; O'Keefe & Jensen, 2007). Community advisory board members determined to use the mix-framed approach in an oral health social marketing campaign with a rural, American Indian audience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  20. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  1. Culture and context: buffering the relationship between stressful life events and risky behaviors in American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Brown, Betty G; Wayment, Heidi A; Nez, Ramona Antone; Brelsford, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    The Sacred Mountain Youth Project was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors related to alcohol and drug use among American Indian youth. Findings indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with depressed mood, substance use, and risky behavior; cultural identity had no direct effects, but a secondary model showed that social support and protective family and peer influences were related to cultural identity. These findings suggest that the relationships between stressors and their negative sequelae are complex. Emphasis on protective processes that are culturally specific to American Indian youth may lead to effective alcohol and drug use prevention programs.

  2. Potential use of food/activity, parenting style, and caregiver feeding style measurement tools with American Indian families: A brief report

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five ...

  3. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  4. Needs and Concerns of Family Caregivers of American Indians, African Americans, and Caucasians With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lisa J; Bakas, Tamilyn; Poe, G Doug; Hull, Margie A; Ongwela, Loice A; Miller, Wendy R

    2016-04-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness affecting the entire family, scant literature exists in this area. This study's purpose was to identify needs of family caregivers of persons with type 2 diabetes across cultures. Using a semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions, a convenience sample of 33 family caregivers of American Indians (n = 14), African Americans (n = 11), and Caucasians (n = 8) with type 2 diabetes were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative content analysis was conducted based on five pre-determined categories derived from an existing conceptual model. Results were similar across groups and provided support for the conceptual model with themes emerging within the five pre-determined categories: (a) information about type 2 diabetes, (b) managing emotions and behaviors, (c) physical care, (d) instrumental care, and (e) personal responses to caregiving. No additional themes emerged. Although small and exploratory, findings provide information that may be useful to the future development of culturally based interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Rates of delay and probability discounting of northern plains American Indians discounting Indian and majority culture-specific outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; McDonald, J Douglas; Derenne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Discounting occurs when the value of an outcome changes because its delivery is delayed or uncertain. Discounting provides insight into how individuals make decisions, with rates of discounting being related to a number of behavioral disorders. In this study, 39 American Indians (AIs), 29 female, were recruited from the psychology department participant pool at a university in the Northern Plains to complete an acculturation inventory and delay- and probability-discounting tasks related to money, health care, and education reform. Results from ANOVAs showed that participants did not differentially discount the delayed outcomes, but discounted the probabilistic monetary outcomes to a greater extent than probabilistic outcomes involving education reform, suggesting that participants were more risk averse with the monetary, than the education, outcomes. Differences in discounting were not observed as a function of whether the outcome would occur on or off a tribal reservation. Results from regression analyses showed that participants' affiliation with the majority culture was also related to how they discounted probabilistic monetary outcomes. The present study represents the first attempt to measure probability discounting in AI participants and is the first to show differences in this type of decision making. The results, therefore, represent a step forward in understanding when risk-averse versus risk-prone decisions (i.e., a small but certain outcome vs. a better but uncertain outcome) may be made, and how those decisions are related to acculturation in AIs.

  6. A longitudinal study of tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska Native tribal college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American Indians (AI have the highest smoking rates of any ethnic group in the US (40.8%, followed most closely by African Americans (24.3% and European Americans (23.6%. AI smokers also have more difficulty quitting smoking compared to other ethnic groups, evidenced by their significantly lower quit ratios, and are among the least successful in maintaining long term abstinence. While health disparities like these have existed for years among AI, the epidemiology of smoking and nicotine dependence has not been optimally described among this underserved population. Our overarching hypothesis is that the susceptibility of AI to cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence and its consequences has both an underlying nicotine metabolism component as well as psychosocial, cultural, and environment causes. We are well-positioned to explore this issue for the first time in this population. Our objective is to establish a cohort of AI tribal college/university students to determine the predictors of smoking initiation (non-use to experimentation, progression (experimentation to established use, and cessation (established use to cessation. Much of what is known about the process of smoking initiation and progression comes from quantitative studies with non-Native populations. Information related to smoking use among AI tribal college/university (TCU students is entirely unknown and critically needs further investigation. This study will be the first of its kind among AI college students who are at the highest risk among all ethnic groups for tobacco dependence. Methods/design First year students at Haskell Indian Nations University in Kansas will be recruited over four consecutive years and will be surveyed annually and repeatedly through year 5 of the study. We will use both longitudinal quantitative surveys and qualitative focus group methods to examine key measures and determinants of initiation and use among this high risk group.

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS): school-based treatment on a rural American Indian reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsette, Aaron; Swaney, Gyda; Stolle, Darrell; Schuldberg, David; van den Pol, Richard; Young, Melissa

    2009-03-01

    This study examines a pilot school-based treatment program for American Indian adolescents residing on a reservation who presented with symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of depression. This is the first study directed at treating American Indian children with trauma; seven case studies demonstrate our findings that a manualized cognitive behavior therapy intervention delivered in group format for 10 weeks has potential for helping some children who experience PTSD symptoms and depression. The findings generally replicate previous research conducted with groups of non-Indian adolescents in urban settings. PTSD and depressive symptoms decreased for three of the four students who completed treatment. Directions for future research include the need to understand and control attrition and to address cultural influences, including making adaptations in the cognitive behavioral formulations and techniques regarding feelings as operant behaviors. Results contribute to knowledge of feasibility and acceptability of cultural adaptations of CBT for trauma in an under-served population.

  8. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as we...

  9. An empirical examination of the Indian Child Welfare Act and its impact on cultural and familial preservation for American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Gordon E; Chance, Toni; Brown, Eddie F

    2004-12-01

    Cultural and familial ties are crucial for the overall well-being of children. Extant research and permanency planning practices support the reunification of children with their families when possible. In 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was enacted to promote cultural and familial preservation for Indian children, but sparse empirical research has examined the implementation and outcomes associated with this landmark legislation. This article examines the relationship between compliance with ICWA in one Southwestern state and the rate of reunification of Indian children with family or tribal members following out-of-home placement. Public child protection records were reviewed for 49 ICWA-eligible children who were placed in alternate care. Data were collected on compliance with placement type, use of qualified expert witnesses, and incorporation of Indian culture and resources. Additionally, 78 state caseworkers and 16 tribal workers were surveyed regarding knowledge and attitudes about three areas of compliance. Case record reviews indicated that the majority (83%) of Indian children were placed according to preferences outlined by ICWA. Almost all cases included a court finding that active efforts were applied to prevent family breakup. While state workers reported limited understanding of many ICWA's requirements, both state and tribal workers reported a high level of state-tribal cooperation in working with Indian families and children. Results of this study point to two major patterns of findings: (1) individual case record reviews suggest compliance with ICWA; and (2) differences exist in knowledge and perceptions of ICWA by state and tribal workers. Furthermore, state child protection systems should follow the American Indian lead in further emphasizing cultural and familial ties for children. Highlighting such ties acknowledges the importance of reunification and cultural and familial preservation to enable children to have a clear sense of

  10. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…

  11. Persistence among American Indians and Alaska Natives at a Bible College: The Importance of Family, Spirituality, and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Joseph J.; Rendon, Laura I.

    2004-01-01

    Research on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students indicates that only about 47% persist to complete their freshman year, meaning that one of out two students drops out before the sophomore year. Using a focus group methodology, the study reported in this paper examined the extent to which in- and out-of-class academic, social, and…

  12. The Voices of Female Mental Health Professionals Working with American Indians with Co-Occurring Disorders: A Constructivist Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Faith G.

    2013-01-01

    The robust number of co-occurring disorders among American Indian (AI) populations within the United States constitutes a significant impact on AI communities. While this issue has been discussed in depth in academic literature, there is little discussion regarding how to treat these illnesses and no evidence-based practice. In order to identify…

  13. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  14. Understanding suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents in New Mexico: modifiable factors related to risk and resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Michelle; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    To examine correlates of suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents living on reservations in New Mexico. Cross-sectional American Indian adolescents attending school in New Mexico, grades 6 to 12. Data from the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life Attitudes and Behaviors survey related to suicide attempts and student assets and risk behaviors. Hypothesized predictor variables derived from 39 survey questions were tested against one outcome variable relating to prior suicide attempts. Of 690 American Indian students included in the study, 24.2% indicated having attempted suicide one or more times in their lives. Salient assets included having neighbors who cared about them, adults who made them feel important, and having friends who did well in school. Notable risk factors were feeling depressed, drug and alcohol use, and having been the victim of violence. Adolescent suicide continues to be a major concern for American Indians. A focus on strengthening parent-child relationships and community support for families may increase resiliency among youth at risk.

  15. Conceptualizing American Indian/Alaska Native College Student's Classroom Experiences: Negotiating Cultural Identity between Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Nanci M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. dominant culture's values and ways of knowing depicted in college curriculum assume that American Indian/Alaska Native college students will assimilate to dominant cultural beliefs and values in order to acquire a degree in higher education. Representative of this hegemonic pedagogical paradigm is the prescribed basic communication course…

  16. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  17. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  18. 78 FR 10636 - Task Force on Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Center for Disease Control's 2010 General Population National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence... develop and implement a program of research on violence against American Indian and Alaska Native women, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and murder. The program will...

  19. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  20. EFFECT OF JOB SKILLS TRAINING ON EMPLOYMENT AND JOB SEEKING BEHAVIORS IN AN AMERICAN INDIAN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, K; Pallas, D; Forcehimes, A A; Houck, J M; Bogenschutz, M P; Keyser-Marcus, L; Svikis, D

    2010-10-26

    Employment difficulties are common among American Indian individuals in substance abuse treatment. To address this problem, the Southwest Node of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network conducted a single-site adaptation of its national Job Seekers Workshop study in an American Indian treatment program, Na'Nizhoozhi Center (NCI). 102 (80% men, 100% American Indian) participants who were in residential treatment and currently unemployed were randomized to (1) a three session, manualized program (Job seekers workshop: JSW) or (2) a 40-minute Job Interviewing Video: JIV). Outcomes were assessed at 3-month follow up: 1) number of days to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program, and 2) total hours working or enrolled in a job-training program. No significant differences were found between the two groups for time to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program. There were no significant differences between groups in substance use frequency at 3-month follow-up. These results do not support the use of the costly and time-consuming JSW intervention in this population and setting. Despite of the lack of a demonstrable treatment effect, this study established the feasibility of including a rural American Indian site in a rigorous CTN trial through a community-based participatory research approach.

  1. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  2. 78 FR 69876 - Hearing of the Advisory Committee of the Attorney General's Task Force on American Indian/Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... issues of domestic violence, and child physical and sexual abuse. The final agenda is subject to... American Indian/Alaska Native Children Exposed to Violence AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and... Native Children Exposed to Violence (hereafter referred to as the AIAN Advisory Committee). The AIAN...

  3. Multivariate family factors in lifetime and current marijuana use among American Indian and white adolescents residing on or near reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R

    2016-12-01

    Rates of marijuana use are consistently high among reservation-based American Indian adolescents. The roles of family are unique in this ethnic group and can serve as sources of both risk and protection for substance use. To assess the relationships between distal and proximal family factors and lifetime and current marijuana use among American Indian and white middle and high school students who attend the same schools on or near reservations. In-school surveys were administered to 3380 American Indian and 1562 white students from 35 middle schools and 17 high schools regarding levels of marijuana use and family characteristics. Three logistic regression models (Control, Control+Distal; Control+Distral+Proximal) estimated effects of multiple family variables on lifetime and current marijuana use. Strong effects were found for family structure, parental monitoring, family conflict, and family sanctions against marijuana use. Weaker effects were found for family participation in school events, and no relationship was found for family communication about marijuana. Anumber of similar results were found across ethnicity and middle and high school students. Family variables exert strong and largely consistent effects across reservation-based American Indian and white youth on lifetime and current marijuana use. Interventions that include a broad range of targeted family components may serve to both limit uptake and forestall increases in adolescent marijuana use in these two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in Perinatal and Infant Health Disparities Between Rural American Indians and Alaska Natives and Rural Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C.; Murowchick, Elise; Larson, Eric H.; Hollow, Walter B.; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Freeman, William L.; Hart, L. Gary

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in perinatal care, birth outcomes, and infant health between rural American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) persons and rural Whites over time. Methods. We compared perinatal and infant health measures for 217 064 rural AIAN births and 5 032 533 rural non-Hispanic White births. Results. Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, unadjusted rates of inadequate prenatal care (1985–1987, 36.3%; 1995–1997, 26.3%) and postneonatal death (1985–1987, 7.1 per 1000; 1995–1997, 4.8 per 1000) improved significantly. However, disparities between American Indians and Alaska Natives and Whites in adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of postneonatal death (1985–1987, AOR = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 1.71; 1995–1997, AOR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.64) and adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) of inadequate prenatal care (1985–1987, ARR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.65, 1.69; 1995–1997, ARR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.81, 1.87) persisted. Conclusions. Despite significant decreases in inadequate prenatal care and postneonatal death among American Indians and Alaska Natives, additional measures are needed to close persistent health gaps for this group. PMID:18703453

  5. Depression symptoms associated with cannabis dependence in an adolescent American Indian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently comorbid, and represent major health burdens in the general US population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. This study used the Children's Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Understanding comorbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Implementation of the REACH model of dementia caregiver support in American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Tah, Tina; Finke, Bruce; LaCounte, Cynthia; Higgins, Barbara J; Nichols, Linda O

    2017-09-01

    The Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health in the VA (REACH VA) dementia caregiving intervention has been implemented in the VA, in community agencies, and internationally. As identified in the 2013 and 2015 National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, REACH is being made available to American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Implementation activities are carried out by local Public Health Nursing programs operated by Indian Health Service and Tribal Health programs, and Administration for Community Living/Administration on Aging funded Tribal Aging program staff already working in each community. The implementation is described using the Fixsen and Blasé implementation process model. Cultural, community, health system, and tribe-specific adaptations occur during the six implementation stages of exploration and adoption, program installation, initial implementation, full operation, innovation, and sustainability. Adaptations are made by local staff delivering the program. Implementation challenges in serving AI/AN dementia caregivers include the need to adapt the program to fit the unique communities and the cultural perceptions of dementia and caregiving. Lessons learned highlight the importance of using a clinically successful intervention, the need for support and buy-in from leadership and staff, the fit of the intervention into ongoing routines and practices, the critical role of modifications based on caregiver, staff, and organization needs and feedback, the need for a simple and easily learned intervention, and the critical importance of community receptivity to the services offered.

  7. Urban American Indian Community Perspectives on Resources and Challenges for Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Rachel L; Gone, Joseph P; Momper, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    American Indian (AI) youth have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group in the United States, and the majority of AI youth live in urban areas away from tribal communities. As such, understanding the resources available for suicide prevention among urban AI youth is critical, as is understanding the challenges involved in accessing such resources. Pre-existing interview data from 15 self-identified AI community members and staff from an Urban Indian Health Organization were examined to understand existing resources for urban AI youth suicide prevention, as well as related challenges. A thematic analysis was undertaken, resulting in three principal themes around suicide prevention: formal resources, informal resources, and community values and beliefs. Formal resources that meet the needs of AI youth were viewed as largely inaccessible or nonexistent, and youth were seen as more likely to seek help from informal sources. Community values of mutual support were thought to reinforce available informal supports. However, challenges arose in terms of the community's knowledge of and views on discussing suicide, as well as the perceived fit between community values and beliefs and formal prevention models. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Molluscum contagiosum in a pediatric American Indian population: incidence and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M McCollum

    Full Text Available Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV causes an innocuous yet persistent skin infection in immunocompetent individuals and is spread by contact with lesions. Studies point to atopic dermatitis (AD as a risk factor for MCV infection; however, there are no longitudinal studies that have evaluated this hypothesis.Outpatient visit data from fiscal years 2001-2009 for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children were examined to describe the incidence of molluscum contagiosum (MC. We conducted a case-control study of patients <5 years old at an Indian Health Service (IHS clinic to evaluate dermatological risk factors for infection.The incidence rate for MC in children <5 years old was highest in the West and East regions. MC cases were more likely to have a prior or co-occurring diagnosis of eczema, eczema or dermatitis, impetigo, and scabies (p<0.05 compared to controls; 51.4% of MC cases had a prior or co-occurring diagnosis of eczema or dermatitis.The present study is the first demonstration of an association between AD and MC using a case-control study design. It is unknown if the concurrent high incidence of eczema and MC is related, and this association deserves further investigation.

  9. Urban Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girls' Beliefs Regarding Health Care Access and Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, Melissa A; Martyn, Kristy K; Momper, Sandra L

    2014-08-01

    Indigenous people, specifically American Indians (AI), have historically had a greater mistrust of the medical system compared to their White counterparts. The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about health care providers, health care systems, and access to health care as related to sexual health care. Using grounded theory methodology, twenty 15-19 year old AI girls participated in talking circles and individual interviews. Two distinct themes emerged related to sexual health care: 1) AI adolescent girls trust their health care providers and the health care system; and 2) Access to health care is critical to practicing safe sex and obtaining information about healthy sexual practices. These findings are unique and may help health care providers and social workers providing care and support to the urban adolescent AI girl.

  10. The prostitution and trafficking of American Indian/Alaska Native women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Melissa; Deer, Sarah; Golding, Jacqueline M; Matthews, Nicole; Lopez, Guadalupe; Stark, Christine; Hudon, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    We examined social and physical violence experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in prostitution and their impacts on the mental and physical health of 105 women (81% Anishinaabe, mean age = 35 years) recruited through service agencies in three Minnesota cities. In childhood, abuse, foster care, arrests, and prostitution were typical. Homelessness, rape, assault, racism, and pimping were common. The women's most prevalent physical symptoms included muscle pain, impaired memory or concentration, and headaches. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation were common, with more severe psychological symptoms associated with worse health. Most of the women wanted to leave prostitution and they most often identified counseling and peer support as necessary to accomplish this. Most saw colonization and prostitution of AI/AN women as connected.

  11. AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE BOYS: EARLY CHILDHOOD RISK AND RESILIENCE AMIDST CONTEXT AND CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle; Tafoya, Greg; Croy, Calvin D; Hill, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescent and adult men experience a range of health disparities relative to their non-AIAN counterparts and AIAN women. Given the relatively limited literature on early development in tribal contexts, however, indicators of risk during early childhood specific to AIAN boys are not well-known. The current article reviews sources of strength and challenge within AIAN communities for AIAN children in general, including cultural beliefs and practices that support development, and contextual challenges related to socioeconomic and health disparities and historical trauma affecting the AIAN population as a whole. The research literature on early development is reviewed, highlighting what this literature reveals about early gender differences. The article concludes with calls to action on behalf of AIAN boys that align with each of the five tiers of R. Frieden's (2010) Public Health Pyramid. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Advancing American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse research: current science and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etz, Kathleen E; Arroyo, Judith A; Crump, Aria D; Rosa, Carmen L; Scott, Marcia S

    2012-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have disproportionately high rates of substance abuse yet there is little empirical research addressing this significant public health problem. This paper is an introduction to a special issue that includes cutting edge science in this research area. We identify several areas that require consideration in this field and indicate how the papers in the special issue address these gaps. These overarching areas of need, which should be considered in any substantive research, include attention to heterogeneity within the population, research that has tangible health benefits, continued work on research methods and strategies, increased focus on strength based and community oriented approaches, and the need for strong research partnerships. The special issue marks a major step forward for AI/AN substance abuse research. However, articles also highlight where more work is need to improve public health in AI/AN communities by addressing identified gap areas.

  13. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2014-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a self-managed group. The guided group attends intervention meetings that comprise education and experience with the following components: diet, exercise, AI culture, and attention to emotional wellbeing. The self-managed group receives printed CVD prevention materials that are generally available. The duration of the intervention is 24 months. Several outcome variables will be compared between the two groups to assess the effectiveness of the intervention program. PMID:22941041

  14. A traditional American Indian death ritual: Developing nursing knowledge through aesthetic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau-Dahlen, Barbara K

    2018-01-01

    The theoretical and practical application of Boykin and Schoenhofer's Nursing as Caring: A Model for Transforming Practice (2001) provided a framework for the exploration of an aesthetic project of quilting, which was undertaken in order to explain the death journey for a cherished mentor of American Indian nursing students. In particular, the nursing situation was used to guide the making of the quilt sampler. Aesthetics nested into the teaching-learning process became another way to help students solidify their professional self-identity as caring persons. This research has implications for the intentional development of studying quilting as an aesthetic way to express valuable lessons learned while caring for patients and telling stories. This idea of quilting opens up a line of enquiry into caring that can be expressed through a new and creative medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. American Indian Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs About Smokeless Tobacco: A Comparison of Two Focus Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Kathryn; Lewis, Charley; Goeckner, Ryan; Pacheco, Joseph; Smith, T Edward; Hale, Jason; Daley, Sean Makosky; Choi, Won S; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2017-12-01

    Though smokeless tobacco (SLT) use has decreased in many communities, concern for American Indian (AI) SLT use remains, as this population continues to be disproportionally affected by SLT-related diseases. Tobacco has cultural significance to many AI tribes, therefore tobacco cessation messages portraying tobacco as entirely negative may be ineffective. As a part of our formative research for an SLT cessation intervention, we sought to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about SLT among AI community members. We describe two independent focus group studies conducted in Montana (ten focus groups, 54 participants) and Kansas (six focus groups, 27 participants). Predominant themes emerged from three major topic areas (SLT use, program development, and recreational SLT use) during the discussions from both studies. The formative approach and data from these studies will allow us to more appropriately address SLT-related health disparities across multiple AI communities.

  16. Decolonizing Strategies for Mentoring American Indians and Alaska Natives in HIV and Mental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Jane M.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) scholars in the fields of mental health and HIV face formidable barriers to scientific success. These include justifiable mistrust of historically oppressive educational systems, educational disparities, role burdens within academe, the devaluation and marginalization of their research interests, and outright discrimination. Research partners can work to dismantle these barriers by embracing indigenous worldviews, engaging in collaborative research partnerships, building research capacity within universities and tribal communities, changing reward systems, and developing mentoring programs. At the individual level, aspiring AIAN scholars must build coalitions, reject internalized colonial messages, and utilize indigenous ethical frames. The creation of a cadre of AIAN researchers is crucial to improving the health of AIAN peoples. PMID:19246668

  17. Alternative Knowledges and the Future of Community Psychology: Provocations from an American Indian Healing Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2016-12-01

    In the early years of this globalized century, alternative health knowledges and wellness traditions circulate faster and farther than ever before. To the degree that community psychologists seek collaboration with cultural minority and other marginalized populations in support of their collective wellbeing, such knowledges and traditions are likely to warrant attention, engagement, and support. My purpose in this article is to trace an epistemological quandary that community psychologists are ideally poised to consider at the interface of hegemonic and subjugated knowing with respect to advances in community wellbeing. To this end, I describe an American Indian knowledge tradition, its association with specific indigenous healing practices, its differentiation from therapeutic knowledge within disciplinary psychology, and the broader challenge posed by alternative health knowledges for community psychologists. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  18. A longitudinal study of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes among American Indian young adults, 1994-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Tennille L; Metzger, Molly W

    2015-05-07

    American Indian young adults have higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes than the general US population. They are also more likely than the general population to have higher rates of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes, such as poverty, frequent changes of residence, and stress. The objective of this study was to investigate possible links between these 2 sets of problems. Data from the American Indian subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to examine potential links between obesity and type 2 diabetes and structural risk factors such as neighborhood poverty, housing mobility, and stress. We used logistic regression to explore explanatory factors. American Indians in the subsample had higher rates of poor health, such as elevated hemoglobin A1c levels, self-reported high blood glucose, self-reported diabetes, and overweight or obesity. They also had higher rates of structural risk factors than non-Hispanic whites, such as residing in poorer and more transient neighborhoods and having greater levels of stress. Self-reported stress partially mediated the increased likelihood of high blood glucose or diabetes among American Indians, whereas neighborhood poverty partially mediated their increased likelihood of obesity. Neighborhood poverty and stress may partially explain the higher rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among American Indian young adults than among non-Hispanic white young adults. Future research should explore additional neighborhood factors such as access to grocery stores selling healthy foods, proximity and safety of playgrounds or other recreational space, and adequate housing.

  19. Barriers and Strategies for Healthy Food Choices among American Indian Tribal College Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jill F; Stastny, Sherri; Brunt, Ardith; Agnew, Wanda

    2017-10-20

    American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals experience disproportionate levels of chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and overweight and obesity that are influenced by dietary patterns and food choices. Understanding factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students can enrich education and programs that target dietary intake. To build an understanding of factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students at increased risk for college attrition. A nonexperimental cohort design was used for qualitative descriptive analysis. Participants (N=20) were purposively sampled, newly enrolled, academically underprepared tribal college students enrolled in a culturally relevant life skills course at an upper Midwest tribal college between September 2013 and May 2015. Participant demographic characteristics included various tribal affiliations, ages, and number of dependents. Participant responses to qualitative research questions about dietary intake, food choices, self-efficacy for healthy food choices, psychosocial determinants, and barriers to healthy food choices during telephone interviews were used as measures. Qualitative analysis included prestudy identification of researcher bias/assumptions, audiorecording and transcription, initial analysis (coding), secondary analysis (sorting and identifying meaning), and verification (comparative pattern analysis). Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of themes and subthemes about healthy food choices. Main themes related to barriers included taste, food gathering and preparation, and difficulty clarifying healthy food choices. Main themes related to strategies included taste, cultural traditions and practices, and personal motivation factors. Qualitative analysis identified barrier and strategy themes that may assist nutrition and dietetics practitioners working with tribal/indigenous communities, tribal college educators and health specialists, and tribal

  20. Low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological functioning in American Indian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Clint R; Noonan, Carolyn; Garroutte, Eva M; Navas-Acien, Ana; Verney, Steven P; Buchwald, Dedra

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic at high and prolonged doses is highly neurotoxic. Few studies have evaluated whether long-term, low-level arsenic exposure is associated with neuropsychological functioning in adults. To investigate the association between long-term, low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological functioning among American Indians aged 64-95. We assessed 928 participants in the Strong Heart Study by using data on arsenic species in urine samples collected at baseline (1989-1991) and results of standardized tests of global cognition, executive functioning, verbal learning and memory, fine motor functioning, and speed of mental processing administered during comprehensive follow-up evaluations in 2009-2013. We calculated the difference in neuropsychological functioning for a 10% increase in urinary arsenic with adjustment for sex, age, education, and study site. The sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species (∑As) in urine was associated with limited fine motor functioning and processing speed. A 10% increase in ∑As was associated with a .10 (95% CI -.20, -.01) decrease on the Finger Tapping Test for the dominant hand and a .13 decrease (95% CI -.21, -.04) for the non-dominant hand. Similarly, a 10% increase in ∑As was associated with a .15 (95% CI -.29, .00) decrease on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Coding Subtest. ∑As was not associated with other neuropsychological functions. Findings indicate an adverse association between increased urinary arsenic fine motor functioning and processing speed, but not with other neuropsychological functioning, among elderly American Indians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. American Indians with substance use disorders: treatment needs and comorbid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; McCarty, Dennis; Kovas, Anne; Spicer, Paul; Bray, Joe; Gilbert, Steve; Mercer, Jacqueline

    2012-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience significant disparities in health status and access to care. Furthermore, only limited data are available on substance use, mental health disorders, and treatment needs for this population. Addressing such disparities and developing culturally relevant, effective interventions for AI/AN communities require participatory research. The Western States Node of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network partnered with two American Indian substance abuse treatment programs: an urban health center and a reservation-based program to assess client characteristics, drug use patterns, and treatment needs. Data collected by staff members at the respective programs from urban (n = 74) and reservation (n = 121) clients were compared. Additional sub-analysis examined patients reporting regular opioid use and mood disorders. Findings indicate that urban clients were more likely to report employment problems, polysubstance use, and a history of abuse. Reservation-based clients reported having more severe medical problems and a greater prevalence of psychiatric problems. Clients who were regular opioid users were more likely to report having a chronic medical condition, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, polysubstance abuse, and IV drug use. Clients who reported a history of depression had twice as many lifetime hospitalizations and more than five times as many days with medical problems. Findings from this project provide information about the patterns of substance abuse and the importance of comprehensive assessments of trauma and comorbid conditions. Results point to the need for integrative coordinated care and auxiliary services for AI/AN clients seeking treatment for substance use disorders.

  2. Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory A; Conti, Sarah G; Dahlke, Dennis; Daw, Raymond; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Fleming, Candace; Love, Craig; Masis, Kathleen; Spicer, Paul

    2011-06-16

    A variety of forces are now shaping a passionate debate regarding the optimal approaches to improving the quality of substance abuse services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. While there have been some highly successful efforts to meld the traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes with that of 12-step approaches, some American Indian and Alaska Natives remain profoundly uncomfortable with the dominance of this Euro-American approach to substance abuse treatment in their communities. This longstanding tension has now been complicated by the emergence of a number of evidence-based treatments that, while holding promise for improving treatment for American Indian and Alaska Natives with substance use problems, may conflict with both American Indian and Alaska Native and 12-step healing traditions. We convened a panel of experts from American Indian and Alaska Native communities, substance abuse treatment programs serving these communities, and researchers to discuss and analyze these controversies in preparation for a national study of American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse services. While the panel identified programs that are using evidence-based treatments, members still voiced concerns about the cultural appropriateness of many evidence-based treatments as well as the lack of guidance on how to adapt them for use with American Indians and Alaska Natives. The panel concluded that the efforts of federal and state policymakers to promote the use of evidence-based treatments are further complicating an already-contentious debate within American Indian and Alaska Native communities on how to provide effective substance abuse services. This external pressure to utilize evidence-based treatments is particularly problematic given American Indian and Alaska Native communities' concerns about protecting their sovereign status. Broadening this conversation beyond its primary focus on the use of evidence-based treatments to other

  3. Telepsychiatric care of American Indian veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder: bridging gaps in geography, organizations, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jay H; Manson, Spero M

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a weekly telepsychiatry clinic treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Northern Plains American Indian Veterans. The clinic represents a unique partnership of five different organizations, including two agencies within the Veterans Affairs Administration, a tribal veterans program, the Indian Health Service, and a university medical center. It is the first report of a telepsychiatry clinic targeting American Indians, as well as the first account of a telepsychiatry clinic focusing on PTSD treatment. A total of 50 telehealth clinic interactions occurred during the first 7 months, consisting of ongoing group psychotherapy, individual therapy, and medication management. Quality control measures exhibited a high degree of patient satisfaction and comfort with the clinic. Although the findings presented here are preliminary, this clinic represents a viable model for the delivery of telepsychiatric services. Future research is needed regarding the process and outcomes of delivering psychiatric care by this means for rural, isolated, American Indians, as well as of the treatment of PTSD via real-time, interactive videoconferencing.

  4. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  5. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems. Images p634-a p635-a p635-b PMID:2511598

  6. Indian Ledger Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  7. Far from the Reservation: The Transracial Adoption of American Indian Children. A Study Conducted Under the Auspices of the Child Welfare League of America, New York, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshel, David

    The objectives of this study were (1) to develop systematic knowledge about the characteristics of couples who adopted American Indian children and (2) to describe the experiences encountered by the families and children for a 5-year period after the Indian children were placed in adoptive homes. The experiences of 97 families who adopted Indian…

  8. Toward an Ideal Democracy: The Impact of Standardization Policies on the American Indian/Alaska Native Community and Language Revitalization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erik; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the impact of standardization policies of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 on the American Indian/Alaska Native community and the ability of educational policy to promote sovereignty, liberty and equity within indigenous communities. Examining current research and data generated from the National Indian Education…

  9. Homicide Among American Indians/Alaska Natives, 1999-2009: Implications for Public Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herne, Mose A; Maschino, Alexandra C; Graham-Phillips, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    We determined estimates of homicide among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) compared with non-Hispanic white people to characterize disparities and improve AI/AN classification in incidence and mortality reporting. We linked 1999-2009 death certificate data with Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration data to examine death rates from homicide among AI/AN and non-Hispanic white people. Our analysis focused primarily on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties and excluded Hispanic people to avoid underestimation of incidence and mortality in AI/ANs and for consistency in our comparisons. We used age-adjusted death rates per 100,000 population and stratified our analyses by sex, age, and IHS region. Death rates per 100,000 population from homicide were four times higher among AI/ANs (rate = 12.1) than among white people (rate = 2.8). Homicide rates for AI/ANs were highest in the Southwest (25.6 and 6.9 for males and females, respectively) and in Alaska (17.7 and 10.3 for males and females, respectively). Disparities between AI/ANs and non-Hispanic white people were highest in the Northern Plains region among men (rate ratio [RR] = 9.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.3) and among those aged 25-44 years (RR59.0, 95% CI 7.5, 10.7) and 0-24 years (RR57.4, 95% CI 6.1, 8.9). Death rates from homicide among AI/ANs were higher than previously reported and varied by sex, age, and region. Violence prevention efforts involving a range of stakeholders are needed at the community level to address this important public health issue.

  10. Homicide Among American Indians/Alaska Natives, 1999–2009: Implications for Public Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschino, Alexandra C.; Graham-Phillips, Anita L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We determined estimates of homicide among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) compared with non-Hispanic white people to characterize disparities and improve AI/AN classification in incidence and mortality reporting. Methods We linked 1999–2009 death certificate data with Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration data to examine death rates from homicide among AI/AN and non-Hispanic white people. Our analysis focused primarily on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties and excluded Hispanic people to avoid underestimation of incidence and mortality in AI/ANs and for consistency in our comparisons. We used age-adjusted death rates per 100,000 population and stratified our analyses by sex, age, and IHS region. Results Death rates per 100,000 population from homicide were four times higher among AI/ANs (rate = 12.1) than among white people (rate = 2.8). Homicide rates for AI/ANs were highest in the Southwest (25.6 and 6.9 for males and females, respectively) and in Alaska (17.7 and 10.3 for males and females, respectively). Disparities between AI/ANs and non-Hispanic white people were highest in the Northern Plains region among men (rate ratio [RR] = 9.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.3) and among those aged 25–44 years (RR59.0, 95% CI 7.5, 10.7) and 0–24 years (RR57.4, 95% CI 6.1, 8.9). Conclusion Death rates from homicide among AI/ANs were higher than previously reported and varied by sex, age, and region. Violence prevention efforts involving a range of stakeholders are needed at the community level to address this important public health issue. PMID:27453605

  11. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  12. Bioactive vegetables integrated into ethnic “Three Sisters Crops” garden targeting foods for type 2 diabetes-associated health disparities of American Indian communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh K. Mishra

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Such health-targeted models based on local and ethnic food systems concept can contribute significantly to addressing health disparities in American Indian communities of the northern plains and other parts of the North America.

  13. Assessment of elder mistreatment in two American Indian samples: psychometric characteristics of the HS-EAST and the Native Elder Life-Financial Exploitation and -Neglect measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2014-04-01

    Although elder mistreatment among ethnic minorities is increasingly gaining attention, our empirical knowledge of this phenomenon among American Indians remains quite limited, especially with respect to measurement. The Shielding American Indian Elders (SAIE) Project used a collaborative approach to explore culturally informed measurement of elder mistreatment in two American Indian elder samples (a Northern Plains reservation and a South Central metropolitan area). The project sought to investigate the performance characteristics of the commonly used Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS-EAST), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure developed to capture culturally salient aspects of mistreatment in American Indian contexts--the Native Elder Life Scale (NELS). Using methods and samples comparable to those in the literature, the HS-EAST performed adequately in these Native samples. The NELS also shows promise for use with this population and assesses different aspects of elder mistreatment than does the HS-EAST.

  14. [National Congress of American Indians]: Final 1985-1986 progress report, March 1, 1986-October 7, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of the National Congress of American Indians NCAI Fund program to disseminate information and provide technical assistance to American Indian governments regarding nuclear waste management, site selection and transportation issues. The report covers the grant period March 1, 1986, to October 7, 1986, which includes the no-cost extension granted in March of 1986 and the grant amendment for July 3 to October 3, 1986. During this period, the project held three national meetings of the National Indian Nuclear Waste Policy Committee (NINWPC); monitored the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program and congressional activity and provided information to the tribes; published five issues of the Sentinel/Bulletin - NCAI News, which included a number of articles on nuclear waste; provided informational mailings to the NINWPC representatives; attended and coordinated meetings between the tribes, Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Sandia National Laboratories; and provided speakers to conferences and groups

  15. Socialization of Culture and Coping with Discrimination Among American Indian Families: Examining Cultural Correlates of Youth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth; Ball, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the interrelations between observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination, and youth outcomes among a sample of 92 American Indian adolescents and their parents in a rural reservation. Path analysis is used to examine the relationships among observed parental socialization (cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination), and youth-reported perceived discrimination, ethnic identity and depression. Findings reveal that higher levels of observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination predict lower levels of depression as reported by youth 1 year later. Path analyses also show that observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination are positively associated with youth ethnic identity. These findings point to the importance of integrating familial socialization of culture and coping with discrimination in fostering resilience among American Indian youth.

  16. Conduct disorder, war zone stress, and war-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in American Indian Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.

  17. Socialization of Culture and Coping with Discrimination Among American Indian Families: Examining Cultural Correlates of Youth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth; Ball, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The current study examines the interrelations between observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination, and youth outcomes among a sample of 92 American Indian adolescents and their parents in a rural reservation. Method Path analysis is used to examine the relationships among observed parental socialization (cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination), and youth-reported perceived discrimination, ethnic identity and depression. Results Findings reveal that higher levels of observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination predict lower levels of depression as reported by youth 1 year later. Path analyses also show that observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination are positively associated with youth ethnic identity. Conclusions These findings point to the importance of integrating familial socialization of culture and coping with discrimination in fostering resilience among American Indian youth. PMID:28503256

  18. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI) gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Arcan, Chrisa; Smyth, Mary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and wei...

  19. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  20. “Alcohol is Something That Been With Us Like a Common Cold”: Community Perceptions of American Indian Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Eaves, Emery R.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Bletzer, Keith; Goldman, David

    2010-01-01

    This study examined tribal members’ perspectives on alcohol, risk factors, consequences, and community responses. Focus groups were conducted with five American Indian tribes between 1997 and 2001. Participants were knowledgeable of the cultural lives of their reservation communities. Although there was agreement regarding the pervasiveness of heavy drinking, participants reported different opinions about the meaning of alcohol and appropriate intervention strategies. Three dilemmas were iden...

  1. Cultural basis for diabetes-related beliefs among low- and high-education African American, American Indian, and white older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Ip, Eddie H; Nguyen, Ha T; Saldana, Santiago; Reynolds, Teresa; Bell, Ronny A; Kirk, Julienne K; Quandt, Sara A

    2012-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes and subsequent complications are often attributed to culture; however, previous diabetes disparities research is restricted to in-depth ethnic-specific samples or to comparative study designs with limited belief assessment. The goal of our study was to improve understanding of the cultural basis for variation in diabetes beliefs. Cross-sectional. Rural North Carolina. Older adults (aged 60+) with diabetes, equally divided by ethnicity (White, African American, American Indian) and sex (N=593). Guided by Explanatory Models of Illness and Cultural Consensus research traditions, trained interviewers collected data using 38 items in four diabetes belief domains: causes, symptoms, consequences, and medical management. Items were obtained from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory (CSMDI). Beliefs about diabetes. Response options for each diabetes belief item were "agree," "disagree" and "don't know." Collected data were analyzed using Anthropac (version 4.98) and Latent Gold (version 4.5) programs. There is substantial similarity in diabetes beliefs among African Americans, American Indians and Whites. Diabetes beliefs were most similar in the symptoms and consequences domains compared to beliefs pertaining to causes and medical management. Although some discrete beliefs differed by ethnicity, systematic differences by ethnicity were observed for specific educational groups. Socioeconomic conditions influence diabetes beliefs rather than ethnicity per se.

  2. A framework for conducting a national study of substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Moore, Laurie A; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E

    2012-09-01

    Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n ≈ 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies.

  3. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Sandra W; Hill, Wade G; Linkenbach, Jeff W; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-08-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  4. Social engagement and physical and cognitive health among American Indian participants in the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lonnie A; Noonan, Carolyn J; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2013-12-01

    Social engagement has many demonstrated benefits for aging non-Hispanic Whites in the U.S. This study examined data from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study to determine whether these benefits were similar among American Indians and Alaska Natives older than 50 years. Linear regression techniques were used to examine the associations between level of social engagement, scores for memory and mental status, and self-reported health among 203 American Indian and Alaska Native elders who participated in the Health and Retirement Study and had data available between 1998 and 2010. Level of social engagement was significantly associated with memory, mental status, and self-reported health. However, only the association of social engagement with mental status and self-reported health remained significant (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, number of known health conditions, and scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Level of social engagement was not associated with patterns of decline across time in cognitive or physical health. Higher levels of social engagement are associated with better physical and cognitive functioning in American Indian and Alaska Native elders. Future studies should examine whether this association acts through cognitive stimulation, increase in physical activity resulting from social engagement, or access to resources that support physical and cognitive health.

  5. Discrimination, historical loss and enculturation: culturally specific risk and resiliency factors for alcohol abuse among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Whitbeck, B; Chen, Xiaojin; Hoyt, Dan R; Adams, Gary W

    2004-07-01

    This report investigates the effects of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation on meeting diagnostic criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse among American Indians who share a common culture in the upper Midwest. We introduce an empirical measure of historical loss and hypothesize that historical loss will mediate the effects of discrimination on meeting 12-month diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse. We also hypothesize that enculturation will be negatively associated with 12-month alcohol abuse and mediate or moderate the effects of discrimination. A sample of 452 (351 women) American-Indian parents/caretakers (mean age: women = 39 years, men = 42 years) of children ages 10 to 12 years participated in diagnostic interviews for lifetime and 12-month alcohol abuse. The subjects' perceptions of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation were also measured. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate direct and potential mediating effects of latent constructs of enculturation (a resiliency factor) and historical loss (a risk factor) on the relationship between discrimination and meeting criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse. Historical loss mediated the effects of discrimination on 12-month alcohol abuse among women. Enculturation neither mediated nor moderated the effects of discrimination but had an independent negative effect on alcohol abuse. In a combined model comprising both enculturation and historical loss, the effects of discrimination on 12-month alcohol abuse were mediated. This study presents important new evidence that historical loss affects American-Indian alcohol abuse. It also provides evidence for the resiliency effects of enculturation on alcohol abuse.

  6. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  7. Assessment of parental oral health knowledge and behaviors among American Indians of a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne; Brega, Angela G; Batliner, Terrence S; Henderson, William; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Fehringer, Karen; Gallegos, Joaquin; Daniels, Dallas; Albino, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Investigate the relationship between sociodemographic variables and oral health knowledge and behaviors of American Indian (AI) parents as the initial step in a program aimed at reducing caries experience among AI children. Survey data were collected from a sample of 147 AI parents of children ages 0-7 years who are residents of a Northern Plains reservation. Questions addressed sociodemographic variables for parents/their children and parent oral health knowledge and behavior. Overall knowledge was measured as percentage of items answered correctly. Overall behavior was measured as percentage of items reflecting behavior consistent with accepted oral health recommendations. Oral health knowledge and behaviors, and the relationship between them, were evaluated across groups defined by quartiles. Parent sociodemographic variables were not significantly associated with behavior scores. Female gender, higher level of education, and higher income were significantly and positively associated with mean knowledge scores. Behavior and knowledge scores were significantly correlated. On average, survey participants identified the best answer for 75 percent of knowledge items and engaged in 58 percent of optimal oral health behaviors. Participants in higher oral health knowledge quartiles had greater adherence with recommended oral health behaviors than those in lower quartiles. Surveyed AI parents had reasonably high levels of knowledge about oral health and caries prevention for their children but engaged at relatively lower levels in parental behaviors necessary to promote oral health. Strategies focused on behavior change, rather than knowledge alone, may be most likely to affect oral health outcomes for AI children. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. American Indian Diabetes Beliefs and Practices: Anxiety, Fear, and Dread in Pregnant Women With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, L D; Henderson, J Neil; King, Kama; Kleszynski, Keith; Thompson, David M; Mayer, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes among American Indian (AI) people is a health disparities condition that creates excessive morbidity and mortality. This research delineated culturally constructed models of type 2 diabetes among 97 pregnant women in two large AI nations in Oklahoma. The data analysis of explanatory models of type 2 diabetes revealed the participants' intense anxiety, fear, and dread related to the condition. The sample was further stratified by combinations of diabetes status: 1) absence of type 2 diabetes (n = 66), 2) type 2 diabetes prior to pregnancy (n = 4), and 3) gestational diabetes (n = 27). Patients were interviewed regarding perceptions of the etiology, course, and treatment of diabetes. The research incorporated an integrated phenomenologic and ethnographic approach using structured and semi-structured interviews to yield both quantitative and qualitative data. General findings comprised three main categories of patients' concerns regarding type 2 diabetes as an illness: 1) mechanical acts (i.e., injections), 2) medical complications, and 3) the conceptual sense of diabetes as a "severe" condition. Specific findings included significant fear and anxiety surrounding 1) the health and well-being of the unborn child, 2) the use of insulin injections, 3) blindness, 4) amputation, and 5) death. Paradoxically, although there was only a slight sense of disease severity overall, responses were punctuated with dread of specific outcomes. The latter finding is considered consistent with the presence of chronic diseases that can usually be managed but present risk of severe complications if not well controlled.

  9. Perceptions and Concerns Regarding Diabetes Mellitus During Pregnancy Among American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, L D; Henderson, J Neil; King, Kama; Kleszynski, Keith; Thompson, David M; Mayer, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes among American Indian (AI) people is a. condition that creates excessive morbidity and mortality and is a significant health disparity. This research delineated culturally constructed models of diabetes mellitus (DM) among 97 pregnant women in 2 large AI Nations to Oklahoma. Analysis of data revealed intense anxiety, fear, and dread related to DM during pregnancy. The sample was stratified by DM status: (a) absence of DM ( n = 66), (b) DM prior to pregnancy ( n = 4), and (c) gestational ( n = 27). Structured and semistructured interviews elicited patient culturally based explanatory models (EMs) of etiology, course, and treatment. The research incorporated an integrated phenomenologic and ethnographic approach and yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. General findings comprised the following main categories of patients' concerns regarding DM as an illness: (a) care-seeking behaviors, (b) medical management, (c) adherence and self-management, (d) complications, and (e) the conceptual sense of DM as a "severe" and feared condition. Many findings varied according to acculturation status, but all included significant fear and anxiety surrounding (a) the health and well-being of the unborn child, (b) the use of insulin injections, (c) blindness, (d) amputation, and (e) death, but with (f) a paradoxically lowered anxiety level about diabetes severity overall, while at the same time expressing extreme dread of specific outcomes. The latter finding is considered consistent with the presence of chronic conditions that can usually be managed, yet still having risk if severe.

  10. How can an Education Workshop Serve as an Intervention for American Indian Screening Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhansstipanov, Linda; Harjo, Lisa; Kaur, Judith Salmon

    2017-11-20

    American Indians (AIs) continue to have elevated cancer incidence and mortality, and most have issues accessing cancer screening services. During 2013-2014, Mayo and its partners created Native Cancer 101 Module 10 "Prevention and Early Cancer Detection" education workshop. A community-based AI organization implemented nine of these workshops during 2014-2015 via diverse venues. Nearly all participants eligible for at least one type of cancer screening participated in a workshop and consented to follow-up within 3 to 6 months to determine if screenings had been completed or scheduled. Native Cancer 101 Module 10 workshops were conducted with 150 community members of whom 6 had recently completed cancer screening (n = 144). The workshops had a 25.20% increase in knowledge, and 97.1% of subjects responded that they would recommend the workshop to their friends and family. Most (136 of 144) submitted a consent form to be contacted 3 to 6 months following the workshop. Patient navigators reached 86 (63.2%) of the consented participants in the follow-up calls after the workshop, and 63 (46.3%) self-reported that they had completed at least one cancer screening test for which they were eligible. The single implementation of the workshop influenced community participants' completion of cancer screening.

  11. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Walls

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available American Indian (AI communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose–response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.

  12. Using motivational interviewing to promote HIV testing at an American Indian substance abuse treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin; Duran, Bonnie; Morris, Priscilla; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou; Baxter, Bonita; Harrison, Melvin; Shurley, Maynard; Shorty, Ed; Joe, Darrell; Iralu, Jonathan; Davidson-Stroh, Lynn; Foster, Larry; Begay, Mae-Gilene; Sonleiter, Nancy

    2005-09-01

    Alcohol and drug use are associated with increased risk of HIV/AIDS. American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have high rates of alcohol and other drug use, as well as a high incidence of unsafe sex behaviors and injection drug use practices. Indicators of AI/AN HIV risks involving sexual activity include high rates of STDs, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Despite these facts, the prevalence of HIV infection among AI/AN is not well known. The present study is part of a HRSA-funded SPNS HIV/AIDS health initiative, one goal of which is to increase the number of HIV-positive individuals who know their HIV status. To meet the goal of the SPNS project, patients in an inpatient alcohol and drug treatment center were provided with an HIV prevention educational presentation followed by one-on-one HIV counseling. Motivational interviewing was used in the counseling sessions to aid participants in recognizing their risk status and making a decision to be HIV tested. Results show that of the 134 who agreed to one-on-one HIV counseling and 105 (78%) returned for their results.

  13. Identifying Barriers and Pathways to Success for Renewable Energy Development on American Indian Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necefer, Len Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Jones, Thomas Elisha [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    American Indian tribes possess lands rich with renewable energy (RE) resources. Tribes have great potential and need to develop these resources, yet face a host of barriers that continue to impede development. Understanding these challenges as well as the pathways that can be taken to overcome them may facilitate more economic development to meet community needs and better position tribes to play a role in securing a low-carbon energy future for the United States. This paper presents the results of an expert elicitation of 24 tribal energy experts from federal, tribal, academic, and private industry backgrounds to identify barriers and opportunities for federally recognized tribes in the lower 48 states. Experts identified a number of unique challenges facing tribes including financing and funding, infrastructure, tribal leadership and staff, state-level influence, and partnerships. Cultural factors were seen only to be of concern with large-scale development. Tribal sovereignty is a significant motivation for RE development and has yet to be fully realized. Cultural considerations are critical to the success of future projects; smaller residential and community-scale projects may be a better fit. Improving partnerships between tribes and the private sector can increase RE deployment and overcome historical distrust. States can have a double-ended influence on projects within tribal lands through taxation.

  14. Barriers to and Facilitators of South Asian Indian-Americans' Engagement in Advanced Care Planning Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong

    2017-05-01

    To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy-tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers' or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Trauma-related nightmares among American Indian veterans: views from the dream catcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jay H; Orton, Heather; Manson, Spero M

    2009-01-01

    Dreams hold particular relevance in mental health work with American Indians (AIs). Nightmares are a common sequelae of trauma and a frequent defining feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite mounting evidence of the prevalence of trauma and PTSD among AIs and the important cultural role of dreams, no work to date has directly examined nightmares in trauma. Drawing from epidemiological and clinical sources, data are presented about nightmares among Northern Plains AI veterans. Nightmares are common among these veterans: 97% of combat veterans with PTSD report nightmares. These rates are higher than rates among other veteran populations. The frequency of nightmares and sleep disturbances increases with trauma and PTSD severity in this population. Qualitative materials, in the form of a brief cultural overview and a case presentation, are included to illustrate clinical and cultural contexts of nightmares in the Northern Plains. Clinicians working with this population should be aw are of the high frequency and cultural context of nightmares for AI veterans. In order to improve culturally appropriate care, further research is needed to better understand the frequency, meaning, and context of nightmares in trauma and PTSD for AI populations.

  16. Acupuncture Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in an American Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bailey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN develops in 30% of type 2 diabetes patients, increases the risk for foot ulcers and amputation, and is a significant source of disability and medical costs. Treatment remains challenging, propelling research to focus on therapeutic methods that aim to improve blood circulation or ameliorate oxidative stress that drives development of DPN. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for DPN symptoms and lower extremity arterial circulation in people with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-five patients seen at a Southern California Tribal Health Center who reported a threshold level of diabetic neuropathy symptoms in the lower extremities during the previous 4 weeks received acupuncture treatment once per week over a 10-week period between 2011 and 2013. The Neuropathy Total Symptom Scale (NTSS-6, Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS, and laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF were used for assessment at baseline and 10 weeks. A total of 19 of 25 study participants completed the study and reported a significant reduction in the NTSS symptoms of aching pain, burning pain, prickling sensation, numbness, and allodynia. Lancinating pain did not decrease significantly. LDF measures improved but not significantly. Acupuncture may effectively ameliorate selected DPN symptoms in these American Indian patients.

  17. Civic engagement and political participation among American Indians and Alaska natives in the US†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyser, Kimberly R.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Vargas, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Within the growing literature seeking to understand civic and political engagement among racial and ethnic minorities, our understanding of political behavior among American Indian and Alaska Native’s (AI/AN) remains limited. We use the Current Population Survey Civic Engagement and Voting and Registration supplements (2006-2012) to compare AI/AN voter registration, voting, and overall civic engagement to other racial and ethnic groups and to assess whether factors that predict higher levels of civic engagement vary across these populations. We find a few key socio-economic status indicators that predict civic and political engagement uniquely for AI/ANs, but they are not consistently significant across all years or all types of political participation. We find marital status, age, household size, education, and veteran status to be important in predicting civic engagement for AI/ANs. However, for voting and registration, we find that family income, age, marital status, household size, and residential stability to be important contributors. Although we find AI/ANs are less likely to register and vote compared to non-Hispanic whites, we find that the difference is not statistically significant in congressional years, which may suggest that AI/ANs are engaged in local politics and vote for representatives that will represent their tribal interests in national politics. PMID:29226016

  18. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  1. Prevalence of ATM Sequence Variants in Northern Plains American Indian Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grant Petereit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify sequence variants of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM gene and establish their prevalence rate among American Indian (AI as compared with non-AI cancer patients. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from blood samples collected from 100 AI and 100 non-AI cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, and a blinded assessment of the ATM sequence was conducted. Quantitative PCR assessment of copy number for each exon was also performed. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of ATM variants in the two patient populations. Results: No statistically significant differences for total prevalence of ATM variants among AI and non-AI patients were found. Of the 25 variants identified, five variants had a prevalence of >2%, of which 4 occurred at a rate of >5% in one or both groups. The prevalence of these four variants could meaningfully be compared between the two groups. The only statistically significant difference among the groups was the c.4138C>T variant which is predicted not to affect protein function, seen in 8% of AI versus 0% of non-AI patients (P=0.007. No exonic copy number changes were found in these patients. Conclusions: This study is the first to determine the prevalence of ATM variants in AIs.

  2. Female Sterilization and Poor Mental Health: Rates and Relatedness among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The HLA polymorphism of two distinctive South-American Indian tribes: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S

    1993-05-01

    The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.

  4. Extracurricular activity availability and participation and substance use among American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L; Markstrom, Carol A; Jones, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    School-based extracurricular activity involvement has been associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents from various populations; however, these associations have only been slightly examined among American Indian (AI) adolescents. Building from various theoretical perspectives, it was hypothesized that AI adolescents' perceived access to and the intensity (i.e., frequency) of participation in extracurricular activities would be associated with lower substance use and less engagement in risky substance use behaviors (i.e., being drunk or high at school, riding/driving with an intoxicated driver, and selling drugs). The moderating influences of sex, age, reservation residence, and metropolitan status also were examined. Data from the 2010 Arizona Youth Survey were analyzed for 5,701 8th, 10th, and 12th grade AI adolescents (49.1% female). The expected protective effects of extracurricular participation were demonstrated, such that high levels of perceived availability and intensity of participation consistently predicted low levels of all outcomes. Some of these associations were moderated by one or more demographic factors, with unique patterns emerging for each behavior. Ultimately, the findings suggest that AI adolescents benefit from the availability of extracurricular activities and intensity of participation in them, but the degree of the effect is contingent upon other individual and contextual characteristics.

  5. Perinatal and Infant Health Among Rural and Urban American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Grossman, David C.; Casey, Susan; Hollow, Walter; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Freeman, William L.; Hart, L. Gary

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide a national profile of rural and urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) maternal and infant health. Methods. In this cross-sectional study of all 1989–1991 singleton AI/AN births to US residents, we compared receipt of an inadequate pattern of prenatal care, low birthweight (< 2500 g), infant mortality, and cause of death for US rural and urban AI/AN and non-AI/AN populations. Results. Receipt of an inadequate pattern of prenatal care was significantly higher for rural than for urban mothers of AI/AN infants (18.1% vs 14.4%, P ≤ .001); rates for both groups were over twice that for Whites (6.8%). AI/AN postneonatal death rates (rural = 6.7 per 1000; urban = 5.4 per 1000) were more than twice that of Whites (2.6 per 1000). Conclusions. Preventable disparities between AI/ANs and Whites in maternal and infant health status persist. PMID:12197982

  6. Spatial Epidemiology of Alcohol- and Drug-Related Health Problems Among Northern Plains American Indians: Nebraska and South Dakota, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Gaidus, Andrew; Gruenewald, Paul J; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S; Davids, Sharice; Tilsen, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012. We constructed zip code counts for 10 categories of hospitalization with diagnoses or injury causation commonly associated with alcohol or drug use. We related these to community sociodemographic characteristics using Bayesian Poisson space-time regression models and examined associations with and without controls for whether each zip code was located within an American Indian reservation. Controlling for other demographic and economic characteristics, zip codes with greater percentage of American Indians exhibited greater incidence for all 10 substance abuse-related health outcomes (9 of 10 well supported); zip code areas within American Indian reservations had greater incidence of self-inflicted injury and drug dependence and abuse, and reduced incidence of alcohol cirrhosis and prescription opioid poisoning. However, the analyses generally demonstrated no well-supported differences in incidence associated with local residence percentages of American Indian versus African American. In our analyses, ethnicity or heredity alone did not account for alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations among Native populations. Aspects of social, economic, and political dimensions of Native lives must be considered in the etiology of alcohol- and drug-related problems for rural-dwelling indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Sociocultural perspective on organ and tissue donation among reservation-dwelling American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Stabnow, Wendy

    2005-11-01

    To discover the sociocultural patterns that influence decisions about organ and tissue donation among American Indian (AI) adults. This qualitative ethnographic study used a social-ecological framework. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 21 Oglala Lakota Sioux participants (age >or= 19 years) living on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from the social-ecological perspective of Stokols (1992). Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were categorized into construct codes to identify concepts and to discover emerging themes. Personal and environmental themes regarding organ and tissue donation emerged. There were two personal themes: uncertain knowledge and the diabetes crisis. Participants knew very little about organ and tissue donation but there was a basic understanding of donor/recipient compatibility. The prevalence of diabetes in the community is contributing to a dire need for kidney donors. The diabetes crisis was acknowledged by every participant. There were three environmental themes: cultural transitions, healthcare system competence and outreach efforts. Traditional cultural beliefs such as entering the spirit world with an intact body were acknowledged. However, conversations reflected re-examination of traditional beliefs because of the need for kidney donors. The healthcare environmental context of organ and tissue donation emerged as a theme. Participants were not confident that the local health system was prepared to either address traditional beliefs about organ and tissue donation or implement a donation protocol. The final theme was the environmental context of outreach efforts. Participants desired relevant outreach targeted to the community and disseminated through local communication networks including the family, the media and tribal leaders. Sociocultural factors relevant to the personal and environmental context of the

  8. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A

    2018-03-27

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.

  9. The role of goal representations, cultural identity, and dispositional optimism in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.

  10. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David J.; Villhauer, Alissa L.; Warren, John J.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores E.; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Results Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS) scores (p=0.0007). Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers. PMID:25840611

  11. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  12. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  13. Community-based game intervention to improve South Asian Indian Americans' engagement with advanced care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Jillapalli, Regina; Saxena, Shubhada; Kim, Miyong T

    2017-07-27

    Advance care planning (ACP) allows individuals to express their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become incapable of making their own decisions. This study assessed the efficacy of a conversation game intervention for increasing South Asian Indian Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in ACP behaviors as well as the game's acceptability and cultural appropriateness among SAIAs. Eligible community-dwelling SAIAs were recruited at SAIA cultural events held in central Texas during the summer of 2016. Pregame questionnaires included demographics and the 55-item ACP Engagement Survey. Played in groups of 3-5, the game consists of 17 open-ended questions that prompt discussions of end-of-life issues. After each game session, focus groups and questionnaires were used to examine the game's cultural appropriateness and self-rated conversation quality. Postintervention responses on the ACP Engagement Survey and rates of participation in ACP behaviors were collected after 3 months through phone interviews or online surveys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and paired t-tests comparing pre/post averages at a .05 significance level. Of the 47 participants, 64% were female, 62% had graduate degrees, 92% had lived in the U.S. for >10 years, 87% were first-generation immigrants, and 74% had no advance directive prior to the game. At the 3-month follow-up, 58% of participants had completed at least one ACP behavior, 42% had discussed end-of-life issues with loved ones, 15% did so with their healthcare providers, and 18% had created an advanced directive. ACP Engagement Survey scores increased significantly on all four of the process subscales by 3 months postgame. SAIA individuals who played a conversation game had a relatively high rate of performing ACP behaviors 3 months after the intervention. These findings suggest that conversation games may be useful tools for motivating people from minority communities to engage in ACP behaviors.

  14. Humoral immune factors and asthma among American Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; O'Leary, Rae A; O'Leary, Marcia A; Yracheta, Joseph M

    2016-06-13

    Asthma is recognized as intimately related to immunologic factors and inflammation, although there are likely multiple phenotypes and pathophysiologic pathways. Biomarkers of inflammation may shed light on causal factors and have potential clinical utility. Individual and population genetic factors are correlated with risk for asthma and improved understanding of these contributions could improve treatment and prevention of this serious condition. A population-based sample of 108 children with clinically defined asthma and 216 control children were recruited from a small community in the northern plains of the United States. A complete blood count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, total IgE and specific antibodies to 5 common airborne antigens (CAA), in addition to basic demographic and anthropomorphic data were obtained. Logistic regression was primarily used to determine the association between these humoral factors and risk of asthma. The body mass index (BMI) of those with asthma and their total leukocyte counts, percentage of eosinophils, and levels of total IgE were all greater than corresponding control values in univariate analysis. The presence of detectable, specific IgE antibodies to five common airborne antigens was more likely among cases compared with controls. In multivariate analysis, total IgE was independently associated with asthma; but not after inclusion of a cumulative measure of specific IgE sensitization. Many previously reported associations between anthropomorphic and immune factors and increased risk of asthma appear to be also present in this American Indian population. In this community, asthma is strongly associated with sensitization to CAA.

  15. Community-Based Study Recruitment of American Indian Cigarette Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana Mowls; Brame, Lacy S; Stephens, Lancer D; Wagener, Theodore L; Campbell, Janis E; Beebe, Laura A

    2018-02-01

    Data on the effectiveness of strategies for the recruitment of American Indians (AIs) into research is needed. This study describes and compares methods for identifying and recruiting AI tobacco users into a pilot study. Community-based strategies were used to recruit smokers (n = 35), e-cigarette users (n = 28), and dual users (n = 32) of AI descent. Recruitment was considered proactive if study staff contacted the individual at a pow wow, health fair, or vape shop and participation on-site or reactive if the individual contacted the study staff and participation occurred later. Screened, eligible, participated and costs and time spent were compared with Chi square tests. To understand AI descent, the relationship between number of AI grandparents and AI blood quantum was examined. Number of participants screened via the proactive strategy was similar to the reactive strategy (n = 84 vs. n = 82; p-value = 0.8766). A significantly greater proportion of individuals screened via the proactive than the reactive strategy were eligible (77 vs. 50%; p-value = 0.0002) and participated (75 vs. 39%; p-value = < 0.0001). Per participant cost and time estimated for the proactive strategy was $89 and 87 min compared to $79 and 56 min for the reactive strategy. Proportion at least half AI blood quantum was 32, 33, and 70% among those with 2, 3, and 4 AI grandparents, respectively (p = 0.0017). Proactive strategies resulted in two-thirds of the sample, but required more resources than reactive strategies. Overall, we found both strategies were feasible and resulted in the ability to reach sample goals. Lastly, number of AI biological grandparents may be a good, non-invasive indicator of AI blood quantum.

  16. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Expectant AI women (mean age = 18.15; N = 47) were randomized (1:1) to either the Living in Harmony program (LIH, an 8 lesson cognitive-behaviorally based program) or an Educational-Support program (ES, an 8 lesson education program). Both interventions were delivered by AI paraprofessionals. Adolescents were evaluated during their pregnancy at baseline, at post-intervention, and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome measure was the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Additional measures of depression included the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD; assessed via computerized diagnostic interview) and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Secondary outcomes included changes in mothers' global functioning and social support. RESULTS: At all post intervention assessments, mothers in both groups showed similar reductions in depressive symptoms and similar rates of MDD (0 and 6% in LIH and ES respectively). Both groups of participants also showed similar improvements in global functioning. No changes in either group were found on the measure of social support. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that both paraprofessional-delivered interventions may reduce symptoms of depression among AIs. Replication with a larger sample, a usual care control condition, blinded evaluators, and a longer follow-up is needed.

  17. Associations Between Bullying Involvement, Protective Factors, and Mental Health Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla

    2017-08-17

    Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  19. Development of a Culturally Informed Child Safety Curriculum for American Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Ryan M; Tomayko, Emily J; Cronin, Kate A; Prince, Ronald J; Parker, Tassy; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    American Indian (AI) children are disproportionately affected by unintentional injuries, with injury mortality rates approximately 2.3 times higher than the combined rates for all children in the United States. Although multiple risk factors are known to contribute to these increased rates, a comprehensive, culturally informed curriculum that emphasizes child safety is lacking for this population. In response to this need, academic and tribal researchers, tribal community members, tribal wellness staff, and national child safety experts collaborated to develop a novel child safety curriculum. This paper describes its development and community delivery. We developed the safety curriculum as part of a larger randomized controlled trial known as Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 (HCSF2), a family-based intervention targeting obesity prevention in early childhood (2-5 years). During the development of the HCSF2 intervention, participating tribal communities expressed concern about randomizing enrolled families to a control group who would not receive an intervention. To address this concern and the significant disparities in injuries and unintentional death rates among AI children, we added an active control group (Safety Journey) that would utilize our safety curriculum. Satisfaction surveys administered at the 12-month time point of the intervention indicate 94% of participants (N = 196) were either satisfied or very satisfied with the child safety curriculum. The majority of participants (69%) reported spending more than 15 min with the curriculum materials each month, and 83% thought the child safety newsletters were either helpful or very helpful in making changes to improve their family's safety. These findings indicate these child safety materials have been well received by HCSF2 participants. The use of community-engaged approaches to develop this curriculum represents a model that could be adapted for other at-risk populations and serves as an initial

  20. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lynch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods: We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR. Results: Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS scores (p=0.0007. Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion: These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers.

  1. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petereit, Daniel G.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  2. "We never was happy living like a Whiteman" : mental health disparities and the postcolonial predicament in American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2007-12-01

    In the context of increasing attention to disparities in health status between U.S. ethnoracial groups, this article examines the dilemma of divergent cultural practices for redressing disparities in mental health status in American Indian communities. Drawing upon an ethnographic interview with a tribal elder from a northern Plains Indian reservation, a prototypical discourse of distress is presented and analyzed as one exemplar of the divergence between the culture of the clinic and the culture of the community. Situated in the context of continuing power asymmetries between tribal nations and the U.S. federal government, the implications of this cultural divergence for the efforts of mental health professionals, practitioners, and policymakers are identified as a predicament that only the conventions and commitments of a robust community psychology have the potential to resolve.

  3. History, law, and policy as a foundation for health care delivery for American Indian and Alaska native children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Judith; Brenneman, George; Rhoades, Everett; Chilton, Lance

    2009-12-01

    Most American Indian and Alaska Native Children (AIAN) receive health care that is based on the unique historical legacy of tribal treaty obligations and a trust relationship of sovereign nation to sovereign nation. From colonial America to the early 21st century, the wellbeing of AIAN children has been impacted as federal laws were crafted for the health, education and wellbeing of its AIAN citizens. Important public laws are addressed in this article, highlighting the development of the Indian Health Service (IHS), a federal agency designed to provide comprehensive clinical and public health services to citizens of federally recognized tribes. The context during which various acts were made into law are described to note the times during which the policy making process took place. Policies internal and external to the IHS are summarized, widening the lens spanning the past 200 years and into the future of these first nations' youngest members.

  4. Self-Determination and American Indian Education: An Illusion of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Guy

    1986-01-01

    Self-determination and community control of education as envisioned in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 have been severely compromised, the author maintains. Flaws in the law and its administration are discussed. (MT)

  5. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.

  6. "It's bad around here now": tobacco, alcohol and other drug use among American Indians living on a rural reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Mary Kate; Momper, Sandra L

    2012-01-01

    Using data about members of a midwestern American Indian reservation in eight focus groups that were conducted like "talking circles," the authors describe the participants' (N = 49) views of the current use and abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Results indicate that the use of tobacco is pervasive; that the use of alcohol and other drugs, especially marijuana and oxycodone, are problems on this reservation because they are detrimental to health and well-being; and appropriate, available, and accessible treatment is scarce, nonexistent, or underfunded. Culturally sensitive substance abuse treatment and increased funding for treatment are major health issues for this population.

  7. Shaping a Stories of Resilience Model from urban American Indian elders' narratives of historical trauma and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Attakai, Agnes; Kahn, Carmella B; Whitewater, Shannon; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have experienced traumatizing events but practice remarkable resilience to large-scale and long-term adversities. Qualitative, community-based participatory research served to collect urban AI elders' life narratives on historical trauma and resilience strategies. A consensus group of 15 elders helped finalize open-ended questions that guided 13 elders in telling their stories. Elders shared multifaceted personal stories that revealed the interconnectedness between historical trauma and resilience, and between traditional perceptions connecting past and present, and individuals, families, and communities. Based on the elders' narratives, and supported by the literature, an explanatory Stories of Resilience Model was developed.

  8. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  9. gidakiimanaaniwiagamig, an informal science camp for mixed age American Indian students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Kowalczak, C.; Dalbotten, D. M.; Pellerin, H.; Greensky, L.

    2016-12-01

    Gidakiimanaaniwiagamig('Our Earth Lodge' in Ojibwe; gidaa, for short) camp program at Fond du Lac Reservation was started in 1989 by Pellerin and Greensky to help reservation students stay in school and graduate from middle school. As more students successfully completed middle school, the purpose of the program evolved to help students graduate from high school and go to college. Starting in 2003, various NSF awards funded the camps and STEM focus became explicit. The current gidaa camps are funded by NASA (Kowalczak) and NSF (Ito & Dalbotten) funds and focus on learning about the effect of climate change on the reservation and treaty lands. From its inception, the gidaa camps served a mixed age group of students (K through 12) who were mentored by elders, local school teachers and college students (camp alumni). A few university scientists provided support and acted as resources. The inclusion of students of all ages and their families is a deliberate one, based on the American Indian learning practice that "everyone teaches and everyone learns". This approach supports the development of the whole person and not just increased climate or general STEM literacy. Evidence for the success of this approach can be seen in 100% high school graduation rate of students who have been with the camp for more than a few years even if they did not attend every camp. Currently, weekend gidaa camps meet 6 times during the academic year with an additional week-long summer camp. Reservation Natural Resource managers share their concerns about the effect of climate change and what they already see and how they try to mitigate or adjust to these effects. Students thus immediately grasp the relevance of climate change to their lives while simultaneously being introduced to the work being done to help protect their land. Students are divided into small color groups (each group is of mixed ages) and group members help each other learn new concepts and vocabulary assisted by 1 or 2

  10. Reflections on End of Life: Comparison of American Indian and Non-Indian Peoples in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Susan L.; Nelson, Margot L.; Eidsness, LuAnn M.

    2009-01-01

    During the past century, dramatic changes have occurred in the way death is experienced in the United States. A death in 1900 typically occurred as a result of sudden illness and injury among the young at home. Today, Americans are more likely to die from long-term, chronic illness in later life, often in institutional settings. In addition to the…

  11. Potential Use of Food/Activity, Parenting Style, and Caregiver Feeding Style Measurement Tools with American Indian Families: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Hayes, Jenna T; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; VanBrackle, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Objective To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Methods Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five states. Using previously validated instruments, means, standard deviations, and ranges for general parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices were explored. Results In general, most caregivers reported healthy feeding practices. Most caregivers scored higher on responsive compared to restrictive or permissive in general parenting. Of the sample, 12 caregivers (52.2 %) were classified in the indulgent feeding style category, 5 caregivers (21.7 %) were classified as authoritative, 5 (21.7 %) uninvolved, and 1 (4.3 %) authoritarian. Conclusions More investigations are needed to explore questions raised by this study about using common tools that measure childhood obesity with American Indian families.

  12. Lifetime history of traumatic events in an American Indian community sample: heritability and relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Gizer, Ian R; Gilder, David A; Yehuda, Rachael

    2013-02-01

    American Indians appear to experience a higher rate of traumatic events than what has been reported in general population surveys. American Indians also suffer higher alcohol related death rates than any other ethnic group in the U.S. population. Therefore efforts to delineate factors which may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance use disorders (SUD) over the lifetime in American Indians are important because of the high burden of morbidity and mortality that they pose to American Indian communities. Participants were American Indians recruited from reservations that were assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA), family history assessment and the stressful-life-events scale. Of the 309 participants, equivalent numbers of men and women (94%) reported experiencing traumas; however, a larger proportion of women received a PTSD diagnosis (38%) than men (29%). Having experienced multiple trauma and sexual abuse were most highly associated with PTSD. Having experienced assaultive trauma and having PTSD symptoms were both found to be moderately heritable (30-50%). Logistic regression revealed that having an anxiety and/or affective disorder and having a substance dependent diagnosis, but not having antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder, were significantly correlated with having a diagnosis of PTSD. These studies suggest that trauma is highly prevalent in this American Indian community, it is heritable, is associated with PTSD, affective/anxiety disorders and substance dependence. Additionally, trauma, PTSD and substance dependence appear to all co-emerge in early adulthood in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the efficacy of a brief sexual risk reduction intervention among high-risk American Indian adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Chambers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American Indian adults are more likely to experience co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders than adults of other racial/ethnic groups and are disproportionately burdened by the most common sexually transmitted infections, namely chlamydia and gonorrhea. Several behavioral interventions are proven efficacious in lowering risk for sexually transmitted infection in various populations and, if adapted to address barriers experienced by American Indian adults who suffer from mental health and substance use problems, may be useful for dissemination in American Indian communities. The proposed study aims to examine the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based intervention to increase condom use and decrease sexual risk-taking and substance use among American Indian adults living in a reservation-based community in the Southwestern United States. Methods/Design The proposed study is a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based intervention compared to a control condition. Participants will be American Indian adults ages 18–49 years old who had a recent episode of binge substance use and/or suicide ideation. Participants will be randomized to the intervention, a two-session risk-reduction counseling intervention or the control condition, optimized standard care. All participants will be offered a self-administered sexually transmitted infection test. Participants will complete assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months follow-up. The primary outcome measure is condom use at last sex. Discussion This is one of the first randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based intervention for reducing sexual risk behaviors among AI adults with substance use and mental health problems. If proven successful, there will be an efficacious program for reducing risk behaviors among high-risk adults that can be disseminated in American Indian communities as well as other

  14. American Education Policy Towards Indian Tribes (the End of the 18th – Beginning of 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.

  15. A Return to "The Clinic" for Community Psychology: Lessons from a Clinical Ethnography in Urban American Indian Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E; St Arnault, Denise M; Gone, Joseph P

    2018-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) abandoned the clinic and disengaged from movements for community mental health (CMH) to escape clinical convention and pursue growing aspirations as an independent field of context-oriented, community-engaged, and values-driven research and action. In doing so, however, CP positioned itself on the sidelines of influential contemporary movements that promote potentially harmful, reductionist biomedical narratives in mental health. We advocate for a return to the clinic-the seat of institutional power in mental health-using critical clinic-based inquiry to open sites for clinical-community dialogue that can instigate transformative change locally and nationally. To inform such works within the collaborative and emancipatory traditions of CP, we detail a recently completed clinical ethnography and offer "lessons learned" regarding challenges likely to re-emerge in similar efforts. Conducted with an urban American Indian community behavioral health clinic, this ethnography examined how culture and culture concepts (e.g., cultural competence) shaped clinical practice with socio-political implications for American Indian peoples and the pursuit of transformative change in CMH. Lessons learned identify exceptional clinicians versed in ecological thinking and contextualist discourses of human suffering as ideal partners for this work; encourage intense contextualization and constraining critique to areas of mutual interest; and support relational approaches to clinic collaborations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  16. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. American Indian Assessments. Volume 1, Appendix G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Native American Resource Document is a summary of opinions expressed by the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations (CGTO) regarding the Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Other Off-Site Locations within the State of Nevada (NTS EIS). The document contains (a) general concerns regarding long-term impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) operations on the NTS and (b) a synopsis of specific comments made by the American Indian Writers Subgroup (AIWS) for various chapters of the NTS EIS. The Native American Resource Document was produced in response to consultation required for the NTS EIS, in accordance with DOE Order 1230.2, American Indian Tribal Government Policy. The consultation focused specifically on four alternative management decisions concerning the future mission of the NTS and related off-site locations in Nevada. However, the present CGTO's response to this consultation is not limited to EIS alternatives, but also integrates relevant recommendations made by Indian people for previous DOE projects in which American Indians participated

  17. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R; Gilder, David A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-01-15

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as well as other psychiatric disorders. EEGs were collected from six cortical sites and spectral power determined in five frequency bands (delta 1.0-4.0 Hz, theta 4.0-7.5 Hz, alpha 7.5-12.0 Hz, low beta 12.0-20.0 Hz and high beta/gamma 20-50 Hz). The estimated heritability (h(2)) of the EEG phenotypes was calculated using SOLAR, and ranged from 0.16 to 0.67. Stepwise linear regression was used to detect correlations between MJ and ALC dependence and the spectral characteristics of the EEG using a model that took into account: age, gender, Native American Heritage (NAH) and a lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality and/or conduct disorder (ASPD/CD). Increases in spectral power in the delta frequency range, were significantly correlated with gender (pEEG delta and high beta/gamma activity are correlated with MJ dependence and alcohol dependence, respectively, in this community sample of Native Americans. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-Cultural Studies of Depression among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, James H.; Manson, Spero M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the differences between Western and indigenous concepts of depression. Describes several culture-specific Indian depression syndromes. Notes the rising incidence of Native behavior. Describes several theories of depression etiology. Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines Road, Portland, Oregon 97201.…

  19. 77 FR 39464 - American Indian and Alaska Native Consultation and Coordination Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... exists between Indian tribes and the Department of Commerce to support Tribes in the development of..., which together define the unique legal relationship between Tribal governments and the Federal Government. 03. The Department and operating units will seek and promote cooperation within the Department...

  20. 75 FR 11926 - Workforce Investment Act (WIA)-Indian and Native American Employment and Training Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... individuals take advantage of those opportunities, and pay participant education/training costs, whether... with the principles of the Indian Determination Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, 25 U.S... information sources including consultation with Tribal economic development programs and Tribal colleges...

  1. 77 FR 61780 - Preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    .... to 12:30 p.m. MST-- Holiday Inn Rushmore Plaza 505 North 5th Street, Rapid City, South Dakota. The... population, by gender, eligible for the services which the Secretary provides to Indian people. The report... location but may still be eligible for services? (b) If people are in an area where they may receive...

  2. The Dynamics of American Indian Diplomacy in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Shkwegnaabi, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the nineteenth century Anishinaabeg leaders from the Great Lakes met in treaty councils with U.S. commissioners. Trained for years as astute listeners and eloquent speakers, these diplomats put their skills to the test as they negotiated with their non-Indian counterparts, whose primary responsibility was to serve the interests of the…

  3. Cultural Adaptation of the Skills Training Model: Assertion Training with American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Rowe, Wayne

    A skills training approach provides a conceptual framework from which human services can be provided for the personal and emotional needs of Indian people without the subtle, culturally erosive effect of traditional psychotherapy. Some 30 tribal groups and agencies participated in a cultural adaptation of an assertive coping-skills training…

  4. Access to the Indian health service care system is not associated with early enrollment in medicaid for American Indian and Alaska Natives with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N; Bensink, Mark E; Berry, Kristin; Mummy, David G; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Korenbrot, Carol; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    For uninsured American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AIAN) diagnosed with cancer, prompt enrollment in Medicaid may speed access to treatment and improve survival. We hypothesized that AIANs who were eligible for the Indian Health Service Care System (IHSCS) at cancer diagnosis may be enrolled in Medicaid sooner than other AIANs. Using Washington, Oregon, and California State Cancer Registries, we identified AIANs with a primary diagnosis of lung, breast, colorectal, cervical, ovarian, stomach, or prostate cancer between 2001 and 2007. Among AIANs enrolled in Medicaid within 365 days of a cancer diagnosis, we linked cancer registry records with Medicaid enrollment data and used a multivariate logistic regression model to compare the odds of delayed Medicaid enrollment between those with (n = 223) and without (n = 177) IHSCS eligibility. Among AIANs who enrolled in Medicaid during the year following their cancer diagnosis, approximately 32% enrolled >1 month following diagnosis. Comparing those without IHSCS eligibility to those with IHSCS eligibility, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for moderately late Medicaid enrollment (between 1 and 6 months after diagnosis) relative to early Medicaid enrollment (≤1 month after diagnosis) was 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.95] and for very late Medicaid enrollment (>6 months to 12 months after diagnosis), OR was 1.14 (CI, 0.54-2.43). IHSCS eligibility at the time of diagnosis does not seem to facilitate early Medicaid enrollment. Because cancer survival rates in AIANs are among the lowest of any racial group, additional research is needed to identify factors that improve access to care in AIANs.

  5. Improving cancer care for American Indians with cervical cancer in the Indian Health Service (IHS) system - Navigation may not be enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Lauren E; Motwani, Anita; Ding, Kai; Doescher, Mark; Dvorak, Justin D; Moore, Kathleen N; Holman, Laura L

    2018-04-01

    Patient navigation programs have been shown to positively impact cancer outcomes for minority populations. Little is known regarding the effects of these programs on American Indian (AI) populations. The purpose of this study is to characterize the impact of a patient navigation program on AI cervical cancer patients at a tertiary care center. A retrospective review of all AI cervical cancer patients receiving navigation services and a cohort of AI patients treated prior to navigation services was performed. Additional comparisons were made between those with and without Indian Health Service (IHS) funding. Summary statistics were used to describe demographic, clinical characteristics, treatment, and survivorship across groups. Of 55 patients identified, 34 received navigation and 21 did not. In navigated patients, median age was 46years (27-80years) compared with 42years (17-68years) in pre-navigation patients (p=0.53). There was no difference between stage at diagnosis (p=0.73). No difference was noted in treatment received between groups (p=0.48). Distance traveled for treatment between groups did not differ (p=0.46). Median time to initiation of treatment was not different between groups, 30.5days vs. 27.5days (p=0.18). Among patients with IHS funding, navigation services did not alter time to initiation of treatment (p=0.57), and there was no difference in completion of prescribed therapy between groups (92% navigated vs 100% pre-navigation). Navigation services for AI cervical cancer patients did not alter initiation or completion of treatment. Navigation programs may provide less tangible benefits to AI cervical cancer patients and further study is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Indian Legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  7. Effects of obesity and body fat distribution on lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Hannah, J; Gray, R S; Jablonski, K A; Henderson, J A; Robbins, D C; Lee, E T; Welty, T K; Howard, B V

    2000-09-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity and lipoprotein profiles and compare the effects of total obesity and central adiposity on lipids/lipoproteins in American Indians. Participants were 773 nondiabetic American Indian women and 739 men aged 45 to 74 years participating in the Strong Heart Study. Total obesity was estimated using body mass index (BMI). Central obesity was measured as waist circumference. Lipoprotein measures included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Partial and canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between obesity and lipids/ lipoproteins. Women were more obese than men in Arizona (median BMI 32.1 vs. 29.2 kg/m2) and South Dakota and North Dakota (28.3 vs. 28.0 kg/m2), but there was no sex difference in waist circumference. Men had higher apoB and lower apoAI levels than did women. In women, when adjusted for center, gender, and age, BMI was significantly related to HDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23, p correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, p correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.35, p HDL cholesterol decreased with waist circumference (r = -0.36, p correlation analysis, waist circumference received a greater weight (0.86) than did BMI (0.17) in women. However, the canonical weights were similar for waist (0.46) and BMI (0.56) in men. Only HDL cholesterol (-1.02) carried greater weight in women, whereas in men, triglycerides (0.50), and HDL cholesterol (-0.64) carried a large amount of weight. All the correlation coefficients between BMI, waist circumference, and the first canonical variable of lipids/lipoproteins or between the individual lipid/lipoprotein variables and the first canonical variable of obesity were smaller in women than in men. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol showed clinically meaningful changes with BMI and waist circumference in men. All

  8. A Study of the Effects of a Culturally-Based Dance Education Model on Identified Stress Factors in American Indian College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skye, Ferial Deer; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Finds that, among 39 American Indian college women, those who participated in a 4-week dance education program incorporating cultural support symbols showed significantly lower posttest trait anxiety than controls but did not differ from controls in posttest state anxiety. Reports stress factors identified from subjects' questionnaire responses.…

  9. A research experience for American Indian undergraduates: Utilizing an actor-partner interdependence model to examine the student-mentor dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; McMahon, Tracey R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2017-03-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students' skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates.

  10. Incorporating Traditional Healing Into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available for urban AI communities do not exist in the literature, this community-based project convened 4 focus groups consisting of 26 members of a midwestern urban AI community to better understand traditional healing practices of interest and how they might be integrated into the mental health and substance abuse treatment services in an Urban Indian Health Organization (UIHO). Qualitative content analysis of focus group transcripts revealed that ceremonial participation, traditional education, culture keepers, and community cohesion were thought to be key components of a successful traditional healing program. Potential incorporation of these components into an urban environment, however, yielded 4 marked tensions: traditional healing protocols versus the realities of impoverished urban living, multitribal representation in traditional healing services versus relational consistency with the culture keepers who would provide them, enthusiasm for traditional healing versus uncertainty about who is trustworthy, and the integrity of traditional healing versus the appeal of alternative medicine. Although these tensions would likely arise in most urban AI clinical contexts, the way in which each is resolved will likely depend on tailored community needs, conditions, and mental health objectives. PMID:22731113

  11. The Relationship between Diabetes Self-efficacy and Diabetes Self-care in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Mary Turner; Trahan, Lisa H; Eliza, Jessenia M; Wagner, Aimee E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how American Indian/Alaska Natives' (AI/ANs') attitudes and beliefs might influence how they experience and manage diabetes, with particular attention paid to their attitudes about disease causality. An AI/AN sample of 119 participants completed an anonymous survey that examined the impact of judgments of personal responsibility for disease onset, anger, self-blame, social support, and diabetes self-efficacy on diabetes self-care. Our primary model was tested using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that, while many participants considered themselves almost entirely responsible for their disease onset, this judgment did not predict anger. Anger was strongly related to self-blame and social support, while diabetes self-efficacy was strongly related to diabetes self-care. These psychosocial variables accounted for 70% of the variability in self-reported disease management.

  12. "Our culture is medicine": perspectives of Native healers on posttrauma recovery among American Indian and Alaska Native patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Deborah; Tsosie, Ursula; Nannauck, Sweetwater

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (Native) people experience more traumatic events and are at higher risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder compared with the general population. We conducted in-depth interviews with six Native healers about their perspectives on traumatic injury and healing. We analyzed the interviews using an inductive approach to identify common themes. We categorized these themes into four categories: causes and consequences of traumatic injury, risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to care. The implications of our study include a need for improving cultural competence among health care and social services personnel working with Native trauma patients. Additional cumulative analyses of Native healers and trauma patients would contribute to a much-needed body of knowledge on improving recovery and promoting healing among Native trauma patients.

  13. Academic Achievement of American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Does Social Emotional Competence Reduce the Impact of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Jennifer; Shapiro, Valerie B; LeBuffe, Paul A; Bryson, Ann McKay

    2017-01-01

    Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between social-emotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emotional competence, and the schoolwide percentage of students by race. Data are from 335 students across 6 schools. This study suggests that promoting social-emotional competence among AI/AN students could be a strategy for reducing disparities in academic achievement and the consequences of these disparities.

  14. Patterns of Food Consumption are Associated with Obesity, Self-Reported Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Five American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela C B; Kharmats, Anna; Jock, Brittany; Liu, Debra; Lee, Katherine; Martins, Paula Andrea; Pardilla, Marla; Swartz, Jaqueline; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dietary patterns and chronic disease is underexplored in indigenous populations. We assessed diets of 424 American Indian (AI) adults living in 5 rural AI communities. We identified four food patterns. Increased prevalence for cardiovascular disease was highly associated with the consumption of unhealthy snacks and high fat-food patterns (OR 3.6, CI=1.06, 12.3; and OR 6.0, CI=1.63, 22.1), respectively. Moreover, the food-consumption pattern appeared to be different by community setting (p<.05). We recommend culturally appropriate community-intervention programs to promote healthy behavior and to prevent diet-related chronic diseases in this high-risk population.

  15. "We're Changing Our Ways": Women's Coping Strategies for Obesity Risk-reducing Behaviors in American Indian Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors.

  16. Diabetes prevention among American Indians: the role of self-efficacy, risk perception, numeracy and cultural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa W. Simonds

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA framework, classifying people according to their perceptions of disease risk and their self-efficacy beliefs allows us to predict their likelihood for engaging in preventive behaviors. Health interventions can then be targeted according to RPA group. We applied the framework to type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors among American Indians and expanded it to include culture and numeracy. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of Northern Plains American Indians in a reservation community setting on self-reported perceptions of diabetes risk, objective diabetes risk, self-efficacy, engagement in healthy behaviors, knowledge of diabetes risk factors, and covariates including demographics, numeracy, and cultural identity. We used the RPA framework to classify participants into four groups based on their perceptions of risk and self-efficacy. Analyses of variance and covariance estimated inter-group differences in behaviors associated with type 2 diabetes prevention. Results Among 128 participants, our only finding consistent with the RPA framework was that self-efficacy and risk perception predicted knowledge about diabetes risk factors. We found limited evidence for the influence of cultural identity within the RPA framework. Overall, participants had lower numeracy skills which tended to be associated with inaccurate perceptions of higher levels of risk. Conclusions The theoretical framework may benefit from inclusion of further contextual factors that influence these behaviors. Attention to numeracy skills stands out in our study as an important influence on the RPA framework, highlighting the importance of attending to numeracy when targeting and tailoring risk information to participants segmented by the RPA framework.

  17. Diabetes prevention among American Indians: the role of self-efficacy, risk perception, numeracy and cultural identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Omidpanah, Adam; Buchwald, Dedra

    2017-10-02

    According to the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) framework, classifying people according to their perceptions of disease risk and their self-efficacy beliefs allows us to predict their likelihood for engaging in preventive behaviors. Health interventions can then be targeted according to RPA group. We applied the framework to type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors among American Indians and expanded it to include culture and numeracy. Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of Northern Plains American Indians in a reservation community setting on self-reported perceptions of diabetes risk, objective diabetes risk, self-efficacy, engagement in healthy behaviors, knowledge of diabetes risk factors, and covariates including demographics, numeracy, and cultural identity. We used the RPA framework to classify participants into four groups based on their perceptions of risk and self-efficacy. Analyses of variance and covariance estimated inter-group differences in behaviors associated with type 2 diabetes prevention. Among 128 participants, our only finding consistent with the RPA framework was that self-efficacy and risk perception predicted knowledge about diabetes risk factors. We found limited evidence for the influence of cultural identity within the RPA framework. Overall, participants had lower numeracy skills which tended to be associated with inaccurate perceptions of higher levels of risk. The theoretical framework may benefit from inclusion of further contextual factors that influence these behaviors. Attention to numeracy skills stands out in our study as an important influence on the RPA framework, highlighting the importance of attending to numeracy when targeting and tailoring risk information to participants segmented by the RPA framework.

  18. Disparities in Prostate, Lung, Breast, and Colorectal Cancer Survival and Comorbidity Status among Urban American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Marc A; Banegas, Matthew P; Chawla, Neetu; Achacoso, Ninah; Alexeeff, Stacey E; Adams, Alyce S; Habel, Laurel A

    2017-12-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AIAN), although cancer survival information in this population is limited, particularly among urban AIAN. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared all-cause and prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer-specific mortality among AIAN ( n = 582) and non-Hispanic white (NHW; n = 82,696) enrollees of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) diagnosed with primary invasive breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer from 1997 to 2015. Tumor registry and other electronic health records provided information on sociodemographic, comorbidity, tumor, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted survival curves and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). AIAN had a significantly higher comorbidity burden compared with NHW ( P cancer-specific mortality were significantly higher for AIAN than NHW patients with breast cancer (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13-1.92) or with prostate cancer (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.14-3.06) but not for AIAN patients with lung and colorectal cancer. Despite approximately equal access to preventive services and cancer care in this setting, we found higher mortality for AIAN than NHW with some cancers, and a greater proportion of AIAN cancer patients with multiple comorbid conditions. This study provides severely needed information on the cancer experience of the 71% of AIANs who live in urban areas and access cancer care outside of the Indian Health Services, from which the vast majority of AIAN cancer information comes. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6770-6. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Search for the periodicity of the prime Indian and American stock exchange indices using date-compensated discrete Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadder, Swetadri; Ghosh, Koushik; Basu, Tapasendra

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of Indian stock markets has a persistent close association with the behaviour of American stock exchange. The present work is an effort in this direction and the purpose of the present work is to investigate the periodicity of the two prime Indian stock market indices viz. SENSEX and NIFTY and the prime American stock market indices viz. DOW-JONES and S&P500. To serve the present purpose we have here used SENSEX logarithmic daily close data during the period from 1st January, 1990 to 31st December, 2013, NIFTY logarithmic daily close data during the period from 3rd July, 1990 to 31st December, 2013, DOW-JONES logarithmic daily close data during the period from 10th January, 1928 to 31st December, 2013 and S&P500 logarithmic daily close data during the period 3rd January, 1950 to 31st December, 2013. For the present analysis we have first used double exponential smoothing on all the four time series in order to remove the trend and next we have generated monthly averages of the smoothed time series in order to remove the irregular fluctuations. At the final stage Ferraz-Mello method of date-compensated discrete Fourier transform (DCDFT) has been applied on the present four double-smoothed monthly averaged time series. Study reveals periods for SENSEX of 11, 53 and 142 months; for NIFTY periods of 22, 38, 52 and 139 months; for DOW-JONES periods of 23, 25, 27, 30, 59, 107, 138, 194 and 494 months and for S&P500 periods of 28, 66, 74, 149 and 384 months. With this specific periodic behaviour we have also observed some pseudo-periods in the present four financial time series which certainly adds to the uncertainty in the process of prediction for the same

  20. Item response theory analysis of lifetime cannabis-use disorder symptom severity in an American Indian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A; Lau, Philip; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to use Item Response Theory to assess Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R), lifetime cannabis-use disorder (CUD) symptom severity and its relationship to first cannabis use before age 15 years, male gender, and childhood conduct disorder in an American Indian community sample. The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism was used to determine demographic information, age at first use, and DSM-III-R childhood conduct disorder and lifetime CUD symptoms in a community sample of 349 American Indian participants who had used cannabis at least 21 times in a single year. Two-parameter Item Response Theory models generated marginal maximum likelihood estimates for discrimination (a) and threshold (b) parameters for nine DSM-III-R CUD symptoms along an underlying latent CUD severity continuum. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis was used to assess for differences in symptom severity in groups defined by presence versus absence of age at first use before 15 years, male gender, and childhood conduct disorder. CUD symptoms of "use in larger amounts or over longer periods of time," "activities given up," and "role failure" were the most severe symptoms. All CUD symptoms fell on the moderate portion of the severity continuum. "Time spent" was more severe in individuals who first used cannabis after age 15 years, "hazardous use" was more severe in females, and "use in larger amounts or over longer periods of time" was more severe in individuals with co-morbid childhood conduct disorder. Specific risk factors for the development of lifetime CUD are associated with increased severity of several CUD symptoms in this high-risk group.

  1. 'We usually just start dancing our Indian dances': urban American Indian (AI) female youths' negotiation of identity, health and the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Shannon; Roberts, Erica Blue

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we utilise qualitative research techniques to explore how 14 urban American Indian (AI) females (aged 11-17) living in the state of Maryland discursively construct and experience health and the body, as well as how/if traditional culture shapes their understandings. In doing so, we address a significant gap in the knowledge base concerning the health beliefs of urban AI youth, and build upon research utilising a decolonising approach. Using a two-step process of thematic analysis and poststructuralist discourse analysis, we arrived at three key findings: (1) while youths are taught (and learn) mainstream lessons about health and bodily norms (mostly at school), they negotiate these lessons in complex and at times contradictory ways; (2) they do not view their AI status as conferring more or less risk upon them or their community; and (3) AI identity appears to be fluid in nature, becoming more salient, even a resource, in certain situations. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of spaces within the urban context in shaping youths' embodied subjectivities, and in particular, contrast the space of the school with that of the urban AI community centre. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  2. Relationship outcomes in Indian-American love-based and arranged marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C; Lakhanpal, Saloni; Anguiano, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    The meaning and purpose of marriage, and the manner in which spouses are selected, varies across cultures. Although many cultures have a tradition of arranged marriage, researchers interested in marital dynamics generally have focused on love-based marriages. Consequently, there is little information on relational outcomes within arranged marriages. This study compared relationship outcomes in love-based and arranged marriages contracted in the U.S. A community sample of 58 Indian participants living in the U.S. (28 arranged marriages, 30 love-based marriages) completed measures of marital satisfaction, commitment, companionate love, and passionate love. Men reported greater amounts of commitment, passionate love, and companionate love than women. Unexpectedly, no differences were found between participants in arranged and love-based marriages; high ratings of love, satisfaction, and commitment were observed in both marriage types. The overall affective experiences of partners in arranged and love marriages appear to be similar, at least among Indian adults living in contemporary U.S. society.

  3. Through the Lens of TEK - Building GeoScience Pathways for American Indian/Alaska Native Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W. J.; van Cooten, S.; Wrege, B.; Wildcat, D.

    2017-12-01

    Native American or American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students come from diverse communities with indigenous knowledges, perspectives and worldviews. These communities and the students they send into our nation's education systems have cultural connectivity to oral histories, documents, and artwork that details climate cycles and weather events prior to colonization through eras of forced relocation and assimilation. Today, these students are the trailblazers as tribal governments exercise their ownership rights to natural resources and the welfare of their citizens as sovereign nations. In universities, especially tribal colleges, our nation's indigenous students are bridge builders. Through the lens of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), these students have a unique yet overlooked perspective to merge mainstream research with indigenous knowledge systems to develop practical sustainable solutions for local, regional and international resource management issues. The panel will discuss barriers, such as underdeveloped geophysical science curricula at tribal colleges, that limit the pool of indigenous geoscience graduates and examine possible strategies such as entry point opportunities and partnerships, mentoring, and community relevant research experiences, to eliminate barriers that limit the influx of TEK in resiliency planning.

  4. Epidemiology of asthma hospitalizations among American Indian and Alaska Native people and the general United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Steiner, Claudia A; Bartholomew, Michael L; Singleton, Rosalyn J

    2014-09-01

    Asthma, a common chronic disease among adults and children in the United States, results in nearly one-half million hospitalizations annually. There has been no evaluation of asthma hospitalizations for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people since a previous study using data for 1988-2002. In this study, we describe the epidemiology and trends for asthma hospitalizations among AI/AN people and the general US population for 2003-2011. Hospital discharge records with a first-listed diagnosis of asthma for 2003-2011 were examined for AI/AN people, using Indian Health Service (IHS) data, and for the general US population, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Average annual crude and age-adjusted hospitalization rates were calculated. The average annual asthma hospitalization rates for AI/AN people and the general US population decreased from 2003-2005 to 2009-2011 (32% and 11% [SE, 3%], respectively). The average annual age-adjusted rate for 2009-2011 was lower for AI/AN people (7.6 per 10,000 population) compared with the general US population (13.2 per 10,000; 95% CI, 12.8-13.6). Age-specific AI/AN rates were highest among infants and children 1 to 4 years of age. IHS regional rates declined in all regions except Alaska. Asthma hospitalization rates are decreasing for AI/AN people and the general US population despite increasing prevalence rates. AI/AN people experienced a substantially lower age-adjusted asthma hospitalization rate compared with the general US population. Although the rates for AI/AN infants and children 1 to 4 years of age have declined substantially, they remain higher compared with other age groups. Improved disease management and awareness should help to further decrease asthma hospitalizations, particularly among young children.

  5. Cultural Strategies for Teaching HIV/AIDS Prevention to American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Dannette R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe what tools and strategies Native Americans who live in Oklahoma believe are important in learning about HIV/AIDS, to determine if culturally specific information is important in developing prevention programs, and to ascertain learning strategies. Data collection was a two-part process. First, the Cultural…

  6. "Wait a Second. Who Are You Anyways?": The Insider/Outsider Debate and American Indian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Robert Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presses the virtues of insider research, suggesting that Native American studies might profit from a deeper engagement with the broader debates that have taken place in other disciplines and fields. Insider research, he suggests, can generate questions not available to those with outsider perspectives. Participating in…

  7. Is There an 'Indian' in Your Classroom? Working Successfully with Urban Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little Soldier, Lee

    1997-01-01

    To understand urban Native American students more fully, teachers must grasp the contrast between rural/reservation living and urban life (generally more hostile) for these students and their families. Teachers should determine students' home language and their degree of facility in school English. Teachers should also recognize Native American…

  8. "In the End, Our Message Weighs": "Blood Run," NAGPRA, and American Indian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Penelope; Carpenter, Cari M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors juxtapose Allison Hedge Coke's poetry collection "Blood Run" (2006) with the larger context in which Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) operates in order to investigate how "Blood Run" exposes the limitations of repatriation legislation, most significantly, how NAGPRA's…

  9. Impacts of casinos on key pathways to health: qualitative findings from American Indian gaming communities in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kodish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades ago, casino gaming on sovereign American Indian lands was legalized with differential economic and social implications. While casinos have improved the incomes of tribal communities, there have been both positive and negative findings in relation to health impacts. We sought to understand the perceived pathways by which casinos impact individual and community health through voices of the community. Methods We conducted semi-structured, interviews with tribal leaders (n =12 and tribal members (n =24 from tribal communities (n = 23 representing different regions of California. We inductively analyzed textual data drawing from Grounded Theory, first using line-by-line coding to identify analytic categories from emergent themes in consideration of the study objective. Then, focused codes were applied to identify salient themes, which we represented through exemplar quotes and an overall conceptual framework. Data were managed and coded using Dedoose software. Results American Indian-owned casinos are perceived to influence the health of tribal communities through three pathways: 1 improving the tribal economy 2 altering the built environment, and 3 disrupting the the social landscape. Forming these pathways are a series of interrelated health determinants. Improvement of the tribal economy, through both job creation for tribal members and improved tribal cash flow, was perceived by participants to both influence health. Specifically, improved cash flow has resulted in new wellness programs, community centers, places for recreation, and improved social services. Higher disposable incomes have led to better financial stability, increased access to healthy food, and more opportunities for physical activity. Yet, higher disposable incomes were perceived to also contribute to negative health behaviors, most notably increased drug and alcohol abuse. Casinos were also perceived to alter built environments, resulting in

  10. Intervention effects on kindergarten and 1st grade teachers’ classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ri...

  11. Resilience among Urban American Indian Adolescents: Exploration into the Role of Culture, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…

  12. The Oglala Sioux Tribe CHOICES Program: Modifying an Existing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy Intervention for Use in an American Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D. Hanson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol-exposed pregnancies are a health issue for many American Indian communities. The goal of this manuscript is to outline how an existing alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program with non-pregnant women (Project CHOICES was modified to fit the needs and norms of an American Indian community. The Oglala Sioux Tribe CHOICES Program was developed and implemented using community feedback through initial meetings, reviewing materials, gathering input into recruitment and intervention logistics, and conducting interviews to evaluate the program. The intervention was implemented and has been enrolling non-pregnant American Indian women for the past several years. While data collection is ongoing, it has shown preliminary success in changing behaviors and in impacting how the community views the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Overall, this study highlights the potential to expand this prevention program to other sites and with other populations, such as adolescents. By the end of this article, readers will comprehend the steps necessary to replicate such a program at other tribal and rural sites.

  13. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Traditional Practices to Address Alcohol and Drug Use Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Brown, Ryan A; Johnson, Carrie L; Schweigman, Kurt; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited. The current study addresses a critical gap in the delivery of culturally appropriate AOD use programs for urban AI/AN youth, and outlines the development of a culturally tailored AOD program for urban AI/AN youth called Motivational Interviewing and Culture for Urban Native American Youth (MICUNAY). We conducted focus groups among urban AI/AN youth, providers, parents, and elders in two urban communities in northern and southern California aimed at 1) identifying challenges confronting urban AI/AN youth and 2) obtaining feedback on MICUNAY program content. Qualitative data were analyzed using Dedoose, a team-based qualitative and mixed methods analysis software platform. Findings highlight various challenges, including community stressors (e.g., gangs, violence), shortage of resources, cultural identity issues, and a high prevalence of AOD use within these urban communities. Regarding MICUNAY, urban AI/AN youth liked the collaborative nature of the motivational interviewing (MI) approach, especially with regard to eliciting their opinions and expressing their thoughts. Based on feedback from the youth, three AI/AN traditional practices (beading, AI/AN cooking, and prayer/sage ceremony) were chosen for the workshops. To our knowledge, MICUNAY is the first AOD use prevention intervention program for urban AI/AN youth that integrates evidence-based treatment with traditional practices. This program addresses an important gap in services for this underserved population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agumanu McOliver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  15. A review of the experience, epidemiology, and management of pain among American Indian, Alaska Native, and Aboriginal Canadian peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Nathalia; Garroutte, Eva; Kundu, Anjana; Morales, Leo; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-05-01

    Substantial literature suggests that diverse biological, psychological, and sociocultural mechanisms account for differences by race and ethnicity in the experience, epidemiology, and management of pain. Many studies have examined differences between Whites and minority populations, but American Indians (AIs), Alaska Natives (ANs), and Aboriginal peoples of Canada have been neglected both in studies of pain and in efforts to understand its biopsychosocial and cultural determinants. This article reviews the epidemiology of pain and identifies factors that may affect clinical assessment and treatment in these populations. We searched for peer-reviewed articles focused on pain in these populations, using PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and the University of New Mexico Native Health Database. We identified 28 articles published 1990 to 2009 in 3 topic areas: epidemiology of pain, pain assessment and treatment, and healthcare utilization. A key finding is that AI/ANs have a higher prevalence of pain symptoms and painful conditions than the U.S. general population. We also found evidence for problems in provider-patient interactions that affect clinical assessment of pain, as well as indications that AI/AN patients frequently use alternative modalities to manage pain. Future research should focus on pain and comorbid conditions and develop conceptual frameworks for understanding and treating pain in these populations. We reviewed the literature on pain in AI/ANs and found a high prevalence of pain and painful conditions, along with evidence of poor patient-provider communication. We recommend further investigation of pain and comorbid conditions and development of conceptual frameworks for understanding and treating pain in this population. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooperative Strategies to Develop Effective Stroke and Heart Attack Awareness Messages in Rural American Indian Communities, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Tadios, Fawn; Doore, Velva; Bell, Doreen S.; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction National initiatives to improve the recognition of heart attack and stroke warning signs have encouraged symptomatic people to seek early treatment, but few have shown significant effects in rural American Indian (AI) communities. Methods During 2009 and 2010, the Montana Cardiovascular Health Program, in collaboration with 2 tribal health departments, developed and conducted culturally specific public awareness campaigns for signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke via local media. Telephone surveys were conducted before and after each campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaigns. Results Knowledge of 3 or more heart attack warning signs and symptoms increased significantly on 1 reservation from 35% at baseline to 47% postcampaign. On the second reservation, recognition of 2 or more stroke signs and symptoms increased from 62% at baseline to 75% postcampaign, and the level of awareness remained at 73% approximately 4 months after the high-intensity campaign advertisements ended. Intent to call 9-1-1 did not increase in the heart attack campaign but did improve in the stroke campaign for specific symptoms. Recall of media campaigns on both reservations increased significantly from baseline to postcampaign for both media outlets (ie, radio and newspaper). Conclusion Carefully designed, culturally specific campaigns may help eliminate disparities in the recognition of heart attack and stroke warning signs in AI communities. PMID:23680509

  17. Cooperative strategies to develop effective stroke and heart attack awareness messages in rural american Indian communities, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oser, Carrie S; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C; Tadios, Fawn; Doore, Velva; Bell, Doreen S; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

    2013-05-16

    National initiatives to improve the recognition of heart attack and stroke warning signs have encouraged symptomatic people to seek early treatment, but few have shown significant effects in rural American Indian (AI) communities. During 2009 and 2010, the Montana Cardiovascular Health Program, in collaboration with 2 tribal health departments, developed and conducted culturally specific public awareness campaigns for signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke via local media. Telephone surveys were conducted before and after each campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaigns. Knowledge of 3 or more heart attack warning signs and symptoms increased significantly on 1 reservation from 35% at baseline to 47% postcampaign. On the second reservation, recognition of 2 or more stroke signs and symptoms increased from 62% at baseline to 75% postcampaign, and the level of awareness remained at 73% approximately 4 months after the high-intensity campaign advertisements ended. Intent to call 9-1-1 did not increase in the heart attack campaign but did improve in the stroke campaign for specific symptoms. Recall of media campaigns on both reservations increased significantly from baseline to postcampaign for both media outlets (ie, radio and newspaper). Carefully designed, culturally specific campaigns may help eliminate disparities in the recognition of heart attack and stroke warning signs in AI communities.

  18. "Attached at the umbilicus": barriers to educational success for Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwynne C

    2008-01-01

    Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students receiving services from a 3-year Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant called ALCANCE responded every semester to a semistructured interview protocol about their program experiences. Eighteen Anglo student volunteers also participated in one such interview. Comparison of the transcribed interview sets using methods outlined by (Miles, M. Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.) revealed differences in perceptions of (1) potential occupations other than nursing, (2) barriers to educational success, (3) welcome and peer relationships, (4) service to family and community after graduation, and (5) fear of academic failure. ALCANCE students were less likely than the Anglo students to (1) come from well-educated families, (2) view their future in terms of a profession, (3) rely on friends in preference to their family, and (4) complain about curricular issues. They were more likely to recognize issues of power and privilege, and they also worried more about academic failure and their family and community obligations than Anglo students did. A "caring curriculum" could be used as a framework for establishing communities with an ever-developing understanding of culture among faculty and students. Faculty development in cultural issues is the foundation for such a caring curriculum because if faculty do not understand such differences, the curriculum cannot change.

  19. EXPANDING URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN YOUTHS’ REPERTOIRE OF DRUG RESISTANCE SKILLS: PILOT RESULTS FROM A CULTURALLY ADAPTED PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Dustman, Patricia A.; Brown, Eddie F.; Martinez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the drug resistance strategies used by urban American Indian (UAI) middle school students during a pilot test of a substance use prevention curriculum designed specifically for UAI youth, Living in 2 Worlds (L2W). L2W teaches four drug resistance strategies (refuse, explain, avoid, leave [R-E-A-L]) in culturally appropriate ways. Data come from 57 UAI students (53% female; mean age = 12.5 years) who participated in L2W during an academic enrichment class for Native youth at two Phoenix schools. Students completed a pre-test questionnaire before the L2W lessons and a post-test 7 months later. Questions assessed the use of R-E-A-L and alternative strategies commonly reported by UAI youth (change the subject, use humor). Tests of mean differences from pre-test to post-test showed significant increases in use of refuse, R-E-A-L repertoire. Use of more passive strategies (avoid, use humor) did not change significantly, except for change the subject, which increased. Changes in the use of strategies did not differ significantly by gender, age, school grades, parental education, or length of urban residence. The L2W curriculum appears effective in teaching culturally relevant communication strategies that expand UAI youths’ repertoire of drug resistance skills. PMID:23529769

  20. The Association Between Positive Relationships with Adults and Suicide-Attempt Resilience in American Indian Youth in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Courtney A; Fullerton, Lynne; Green, Dan; Hall, Meryn; Peñaloza, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community. The language spoken at home was used as a proxy measure for cultural connectedness. Positive relationships with adults were negatively associated with the prevalence of past-year suicide attempts in bivariate analysis. However, language spoken at home was not associated with the prevalence of suicide attempts. Multivariate analysis showed that among girls, relationships with adults at home, at school, and in the community were independently associated with lower suicide-attempt prevalence. Among boys, only relationships with adults at home showed such an association. These results have important implications for the direction of future research about protective factors associated with AI/AN youth suicide risk as well as in the design of suicide intervention and prevention programs.

  1. A computer-assisted data collection system for use in a multicenter study of American Indians and Alaska Natives: SCAPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger L; Edwards, Sandra L; Bryner, James; Cunningham, Kelly; Rogers, Amy; Slattery, Martha L

    2008-04-01

    We describe a computer-assisted data collection system developed for a multicenter cohort study of American Indian and Alaska Native people. The study computer-assisted participant evaluation system or SCAPES is built around a central database server that controls a small private network with touch screen workstations. SCAPES encompasses the self-administered questionnaires, the keyboard-based stations for interviewer-administered questionnaires, a system for inputting medical measurements, and administrative tasks such as data exporting, backup and management. Elements of SCAPES hardware/network design, data storage, programming language, software choices, questionnaire programming including the programming of questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), and participant identification/data security system are presented. Unique features of SCAPES are that data are promptly made available to participants in the form of health feedback; data can be quickly summarized for tribes for health monitoring and planning at the community level; and data are available to study investigators for analyses and scientific evaluation.

  2. A computer-assisted data collection system for use in a multicenter study of American Indians and Alaska Natives: SCAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger L; Bryner, James; Cunningham, Kelly; Rogers, Amy; Slattery, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a computer-assisted data collection system developed for a multicenter cohort study of American Indian and Alaska Natives. The Study Computer-Assisted Participant Evaluation System or SCAPES is built around a central database server that controls a small private network with touch screen workstations. SCAPES encompasses the self-administered questionnaires, the keyboard-based stations for interviewer-administered questionnaires, a system for inputting medical measurements, and administrative tasks such as data exporting, backup and management. Elements of SCAPES hardware/network design, data storage, programming language, software choices, questionnaire programming including the programming of questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self interviewing (ACASI), and participant identification/data security system are presented. Unique features of SCAPES are that data are promptly made available to participants in the form of health feedback; data can be quickly summarized for tribes for health monitoring and planning at the community level; and data are available to study investigators for analyses and scientific evaluation. PMID:18207604

  3. Abuse, mastery, and health among lesbian, bisexual, and two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M

    2009-07-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or "two-spirit" appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women.

  4. The effect of visual impairment on vision-related quality of life in American Indian/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Tina M; Choi, Dongseok; Becker, Thomas; Cioffi, George A; Mansberger, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    To determine if National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) scores decrease with worsening visual acuity (VA) in American Indian/Alaska Natives (Al/AN), as well as determine the other associated explanatory factors for vision-related quality of life. The study included 414 randomly selected AI/AN tribal members aged 40 years or older from the Pacific Northwest. We excluded candidates who were deceased, seriously ill, had dementia, or otherwise were unable to perform subjective testing such as visual field testing. The participants completed the NEI-VFQ-25, as well as a detailed eye examination. We defined visual impairment as presenting distance VA 20/40 or worse in the better-seeing eye. The main outcome measures were NEI-VFQ-25 composite and subscale scores. We compared median NEI-VFQ-25 composite and subscale scores in those with visual impairment to those without visual impairment. Visual impairment occurred in 53 (12.8%, Cl: 9.6-16.0) participants. The NEI-VFQ-25 median composite score was significantly lower in those with visual impairment as compared to those without visual impairment (77.5 vs. 90.1, p = .001). A univariate analysis showed VA to be significantly (p vision-related quality of life in AI/AN.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Being Physically Active on a Rural U.S. Northern Plains American Indian Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jahns

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among American Indian adults living on a rural, U.S. Northern Plains reservation using the nominal group technique (NGT. NGT is a method of data generation and interpretation that combines aspects of qualitative (free generation of responses and quantitative (systematic ranking of responses methodologies. Adults participated in one of two NGT sessions asking about either barriers to (n = 6, or facilitators of (n = 5, being physically active. Participants nominated and ranked 21 barriers and 18 facilitators. Barriers indicated lack of knowledge of how to fit physical activity into a daily schedule, work, caring for family members, and prioritizing sedentary pursuits. Other responses included environmental barriers such as lack of access and transportation to a gym, unsafe walking conditions, and inclement weather. Facilitators to following recommendations included knowledge of health benefits of physical activity and the perception of physical activity as enjoyable, including feeling good when working out. Environmental facilitators included being outdoors walking and biking as well as parks and exercise facilities. Responses provided direction for locally designed community-based programs to promote facilitators and decrease barriers to individual’s engagement in physical activity.

  6. Early life trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and allostatic load in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McDonell, Michael; Nelson, Lonnie; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero

    2017-05-06

    Among American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated. We evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197). Physiological systems were analyzed individually as well as in a composite measure of allostatic load. We found early life trauma was related to PTSD, which in turn was related to elevated allostatic load in adulthood. Among the various components of allostatic load, the neuroendocrine system was the only one significantly related to early life stress and subsequent PTSD development. Changes in allostatic load might reflect adaptive adjustments that maximize short-term survival by enhancing stress reactivity, but at a cost to later health. Interventions should focus on improving access to resources for children who experience early life trauma in order to avoid PTSD and other harmful sequelae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

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    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  8. A NASA Community of Practice for Scientists and Educators Working with American Indians and Alaskan Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Sparrow, E. B.; Johnson, T. A.; Allen, J. E.; Gho, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    One size does not fit all. This is especially true in education, where each learner meets new information from a unique standpoint, bringing prior experiences and understandings to the learning space. It is the job of the educator to be sensitive to these unique perspectives, and work with them to bring learners to new levels of knowledge. This principle is foundational to conducting science education with Native American communities, as they have a distinct history in the US, especially where education is concerned. Many scientists and educators at agencies like NASA are engaging in science education with Native communities across the US, and are approaching the work from varied prior experiences, levels of knowledge of the history of Native America, and desired outcomes. Subsequently, there are varied levels of success, and in some cases, oppressive patterns may be perpetuated. It is therefore the responsibility of the science educator to become informed and sensitized to the unique situation of Native Americans and their history with education and science. It is incumbent on science educators to ensure that the goals they have for Native youth are derived from the goals Native leaders have for their youth, and programming is co-created with Native partners. Toward supporting its science education community to do this, NASA's Science Mission Directorate has initiated a Working Group of individuals, teams, and organizations that are involved in science education with Native American communities via K-12 and/or tribal college programming, and/or grant-making. The purpose is to cultivate a Community of Practice through the sharing of information, knowledge, wisdom, ideas, experience, and best practices, and through the leveraging of resources, assets, and networks. The ultimate goal is the improvement and increased cultural competence of the programs implemented and managed by the group's members.

  9. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianduan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and weight measured in four rounds of data collection (yielded three intervals: kindergarten, summer vacation, and first grade as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start in a Northern Plains Indian Reservation. Demographic variables were collected at baseline from parent surveys. Growth velocities (Z-score units/year for BMI, weight, and height were estimated and compared for each interval using generalized linear mixed models. Results The children were taller and heavier than median of same age counterparts. Height Z-scores were positively associated with increasing weight status category. The mean weight velocity during summer was significantly less than during the school year. More rapid growth velocity in height during summer than during school year was observed. Obese children gained less adjusted-BMI in the first grade after gaining more than their counterparts during the previous two intervals. No statistically significant interval effects were found for height and BMI velocities. Conclusions There was no indication of a significant summer effect on children's BMI. Rather than seasonal or school-related patterns, the predominant pattern indicated by weight-Z and BMI-Z velocities might be related to age or maturation. Trial registration Bright Start: Obesity Prevention in American Indian Children Clinical Trial Govt ID# NCT00123032

  10. 75 FR 17370 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) to Invite Applications for the American Indian and Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... agriculture crops, poultry and livestock enterprises, or aquaculture. Federally-Recognized Indian Tribal... involved in the project will be identified by the collaborative entity. 8. Innovative Solutions to...

  11. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Foote

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose: Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results: The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01 and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01. The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8. The Alaska (38.9 and Southwest regions (27.3 had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions: Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  12. The Return of Napoleon Chagnon: On American “Cowboys” and Amazonian Indians, again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Gorunović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The immediate motive for the writing of this paper is the renewed interest in the controversial anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon, whose name, scientific work and authority (or the dubious value thereof is firmly linked to the Yanomami people of South America. The image of the “paleolithic -neolithic” warrior culture of the Yanomami in the contemporary world, which was construed by the American anthropologist through his books and ethnographic films, was received by millions of people all over the world, including members of the Yanomami community. At the turn of the 21st century, this image backfired at its author, his ethnographic subjects and the discipline itself, and began to disintegrate. The ensuing controversies are the topic of this paper.

  13. Advantages of video questionnaire in estimating asthma prevalence and risk factors for school children: findings from an asthma survey in American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Fawn; Rhoades, Everett R; Tarpay, Martha; Eichner, June E

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among a sample of American Indian youth and to evaluate survey instruments used in determining asthma prevalence and risk factors. Three hundred and fifty-two adolescents aged 9 to 21 years enrolled in an Indian boarding school completed an asthma screening. The survey instruments were a written questionnaire and a video-illustrated questionnaire prepared from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), school health records, and a health questionnaire. Participants also underwent spirometry testing. The prevalence of self-reported asthma varied from 12.7% to 13.4% depending upon the instrument used and the questions asked. A history of hay fever, respiratory infections, and family history of asthma were found to be risk factors for asthma by all instruments. Female gender and living on a reservation were significantly associated with asthma by some, but not all, instruments. Airway obstruction was highly associated with one asthma symptom (wheeze) shown in the video questionnaire. Associations for most risk factors with asthma were strongest for the video questionnaire. The prevalence of self-reported asthma among these American Indian youth was similar to rates reported for other ethnic groups. The video-based questionnaire may be the most sensitive tool for identifying individuals at risk for asthma.

  14. 76 FR 39007 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations- Definition of “Indian Tribe”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., the NAGPRA definition does not. According to the legislative history of NAGPRA, the definition of... and Repatriation Act Regulations-- Definition of ``Indian Tribe'' AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... definition of ``Indian tribe,'' because it is inconsistent with the statutory definition of that term. DATES...

  15. American Indian perspectives on evidence-based practice implementation: results from a statewide Tribal Mental Health Gathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Whitener, Ron; Trupin, Eric W; Migliarini, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices (EBP) within American Indian and Alaskan Natives communities is currently an area of debate and contention. There is considerable concern about expanding EBP policy mandates to AI/AN communities as these mandates, either through funding restrictions or other de facto policies, recall past histories of clinical colonization and exploitation by the state and federal government. As a response, work is being done to evaluate indigenous programs and examine strategies for culturally-sensitive implementation. While the literature reflects the perspectives of AI/AN populations on EBP generally, no one has yet reported the perspectives of AI/AN communities on how to feasibly achieve widespread EBP implementation. We report the findings of a statewide Tribal Gathering focused on behavioral health interventions for youth. The Gathering participants included AI/AN individuals as well as staff working with AI/AN populations in tribal communities. Participants identified strengths and weaknesses of the five legislatively fundable programs for youth delinquency in Washington State and discussed strategies likely to be effective in promoting increased uptake within tribes. Analysis of these discussions resulted in many useful insights in program-specific and community-driven strategies for implementation. In addition, two major themes emerged regarding widespread uptake: the importance of a multi-phase engagement strategy and adopting a consortium/learning community model for implementation. The findings from this Gathering offer important lessons that can inform current work regarding strategies to achieve a balance of program fidelity and cultural-alignment. Attending to engagement practices at the governance, community and individual level are likely to be key components of tribal-focused implementation. Further, efforts to embed implementation within a consortium or learning community hold considerable promise as a strategy for

  16. Assessing Differences in the Availability of Opioid Addiction Therapy Options: Rural Versus Urban and American Indian Reservation Versus Nonreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Murphy, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Opioid misuse is a large public health problem in the United States. Residents of rural areas and American Indian (AI) reservation/trust lands represent traditionally underserved populations with regard to substance-use disorder therapy. Assess differences in the number of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) facilities and physicians with Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) waivers for rural versus urban, and AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas in Washington State. The unit of analysis was the ZIP code. The dependent variables were the number of OAT facilities and DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 residents aged 18-64 in a ZIP code. A region was defined as a ZIP code and its contiguous ZIP codes. The independent variables were binary measures of whether a ZIP code was classified as rural versus urban, or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions with robust standard errors were estimated. The number of OAT clinics in a region per 10,000 ZIP-code residents was significantly lower in rural versus urban areas (P = .002). This did not differ significantly between AI reservation/trust land and non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .79). DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 ZIP-code residents was not significantly different between rural and urban (P = .08), or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .21). It appears that the potential for Washington State residents of rural and AI reservation areas to receive OAT is similar to that of residents outside of those areas; however, difficulties in accessing therapy may remain, highlighting the importance of expanding health care insurance and providing support for DATA-waivered physicians. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Use of evidence-based treatments in substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Croy, Calvin D; Moore, Laurie A; Rieckmann, Traci

    2016-04-01

    Research and health surveillance activities continue to document the substantial disparities in the impacts of substance abuse on the health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. While Evidence-Based Treatments (EBTs) hold substantial promise for improving treatment for AI/ANs with substance use problems (as they do for non-AI/ANs), anecdotal reports suggest that their use is limited. In this study, we examine the awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of EBTs in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Data are drawn from the first national survey of tribal substance abuse treatment programs. Clinicians or clinical administrators from 192 programs completed the survey. Participants were queried about their awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of 9 psychosocial and 3 medication EBTs. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (82.2%), Motivational Interviewing (68.6%), and Relapse Prevention Therapy (66.8%) were the most commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs; medications for psychiatric comorbidity was the most commonly implemented medication treatment (43.2%). Greater EBT knowledge and use were associated with both program (e.g., funding) and staff (e.g., educational attainment) characteristics. Only two of the commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs (Motivational Interviewing and Relapse Prevention Therapy) were endorsed as culturally appropriate by a majority of programs that had implemented them (55.9% and 58.1%, respectively). EBT knowledge and use is higher in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities than has been previously estimated. However, many users of these EBTs continue to have concerns about their cultural appropriateness, which likely limits their further dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of a Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention for American Indian Adolescents on Predictors of Condom Use Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Chambers, Rachel; Rosenstock, Summer; Lee, Angelita; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere, Francene

    2017-03-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents experience inequalities in sexual health, in particular, early sexual initiation. Condom use intention is an established predictor of condom use and is an important construct for evaluating interventions among adolescents who are not yet sexually active. This analysis evaluated the impact of Respecting the Circle of Life (RCL), a sexual and reproductive health intervention for AI adolescents, on predictors of condom use intention. We utilized a cluster randomized controlled trial design to evaluate RCL among 267 AIs ages 13-19. We examined baseline psychosocial and theoretical variables associated with condom use intention. Generalized estimating equation regression models determined which baseline variables predictive of condom use intention were impacted. Mean sample age was 15.1 years (standard deviation 1.7) and 56% were female; 22% had initiated sex. A larger proportion of RCL versus control participants had condom use intention post intervention (relative risk [RR] = 1.39, p = .008), especially younger (ages 13-15; RR = 1.42, p = .007) and sexually inexperienced adolescents (RR = 1.44, p = .01); these differences attenuated at additional follow-up. Baseline predictors of condom use intention included being sexually experienced, having condom use self-efficacy, as well as response efficacy and severity (both theoretical constructs). Of these, the RCL intervention significantly impacted condom use self-efficacy and response efficacy. Results demonstrate RCL intervention efficacy impacting variables predictive of condom use intention at baseline, with greater differences among younger, sexually inexperienced adolescents. To sustain intervention impact, future RCL implementation should reinforce education and training in condom use self-efficacy and response efficacy and recruit younger, sexually inexperienced AI adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Jock, Brittany; Redmond, Leslie; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Eckmann, Thomas; Bleich, Sara N; Loh, Hong; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Gadhoke, Preety; Swartz, Jacqueline; Pardilla, Marla; Caballero, Benjamin

    2017-01-23

    Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI) populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC) interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA) environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools), and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media). Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system); use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees); emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources) and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016).

  20. Electronic nicotine delivery system use behaviour and loss of autonomy among American Indians: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana Mowls; Wagener, Theodore L; Thompson, David M; Stephens, Lancer D; Peck, Jennifer D; Campbell, Janis E; Beebe, Laura A

    2017-12-19

    American Indians (AI) have a high prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use. However, little information exists on (ENDS) use, either alone or in combination with cigarettes (dual use), among AI. The objective of this small-scaled study was to examine use behaviours and dependence among exclusive ENDS users and dual users of AI descent. Exclusive smokers were included for comparison purposes. Oklahoma, USA. Adults of AI descent who reported being exclusive ENDS users (n=27), dual users (n=28) or exclusive cigarette smokers (n=27). Participants completed a detailed questionnaire on use behaviours. The Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) was used to assess loss of autonomy over cigarettes and was reworded for ENDS. Dual users completed the HONC twice. Sum of endorsed items indicated severity of diminished autonomy. Comparisons were made with non-parametric methods and statistical significance was defined as Pautonomy over ENDS was similar among ENDS and dual users (medians: 4 vs 3; P=0.6865). Among dual users, severity of diminished autonomy was lower for ENDS than cigarettes (medians: 3 vs 9; P=autonomy (4 vs 8; P=0.0077). Comparing dual users with smokers, median severity of diminished autonomy over cigarettes did not differ (P=0.6865). Severity of diminished autonomy was lower for ENDS than cigarettes in this small sample of AI. Future, adequately powered studies should be conducted to fully understand ENDS use patterns and dependence levels in this population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Association of depressive symptomology and psychological trauma with diabetes control among older American Indian women: Does social support matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L

    2017-04-01

    Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NATIVE-It's Your Game: Adapting a Technology-Based Sexual Health Curriculum for American Indian and Alaska Native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Craig Rushing, Stephanie; Gorman, Gwenda; Jessen, Cornelia; Torres, Jennifer; Lane, Travis L; Gaston, Amanda; Revels, Taija Koogei; Williamson, Jennifer; Peskin, Melissa F; D'Cruz, Jina; Tortolero, Susan; Markham, Christine M

    2017-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate, the consequences of early sexual activity. While effective curricula exist, there is a dearth of curricula with content salient to AI/AN youth. Further, there is a lack of sexual health curricula that take advantage of the motivational appeal, reach, and fidelity of communication technology for this population, who are sophisticated technology users. We describe the adaptation process used to develop Native It's Your Game, a stand-alone 13-lesson Internet-based sexual health life-skills curriculum adapted from an existing promising sexual health curriculum, It's Your Game-Tech (IYG-Tech). The adaptation included three phases: (1) pre-adaptation needs assessment and IYG-Tech usability testing; (2) adaptation, including design document development, prototype programming, and alpha testing; and (3) post-adaption usability testing. Laboratory- and school-based tests with AI/AN middle school youth demonstrated high ratings on usability parameters. Youth rated the Native IYG lessons favorably in meeting the needs of AI/AN youth (54-86 % agreement across lessons) and in comparison to other learning channels (57-100 %) and rated the lessons as helpful in making better health choices (73-100 %). Tribal stakeholders rated Native IYG favorably, and suggested it was culturally appropriate for AI/AN youth and suitable for implementation in tribal settings. Further efficacy testing is indicated for Native IYG, as a potential strategy to deliver HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention to traditionally underserved AI/AN middle school youth.

  3. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. Methods OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools, and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media. Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Discussion Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system; use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees; emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016

  4. Prevalence and Disparities in Tobacco Product Use Among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Garrett, Bridgette E; Agaku, Israel T

    2017-12-22

    An overarching goal of Healthy People 2020 is to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health among all groups.* Although significant progress has been made in reducing overall commercial tobacco product use, † disparities persist, with American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) having one of the highest prevalences of cigarette smoking among all racial/ethnic groups (1,2). Variations in cigarette smoking among AI/ANs have been documented by sex and geographic location (3), but not by other sociodemographic characteristics. Furthermore, few data exist on use of tobacco products other than cigarettes among AI/ANs (4). CDC analyzed self-reported current (past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types among AI/AN adults from the 2010-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); results were compared with six other racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic; non-Hispanic white [white]; non-Hispanic black [black]; non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NHOPI]; non-Hispanic Asian [Asian]; and non-Hispanic multirace [multirace]). Prevalence of current tobacco product use was significantly higher among AI/ANs than among non-AI/ANs combined for any tobacco product, cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Among AI/ANs, prevalence of current use of any tobacco product was higher among males, persons aged 18-25 years, those with less than a high school diploma, those with annual family income <$20,000, those who lived below the federal poverty level, and those who were never married. Addressing the social determinants of health and providing evidence-based, population-level, and culturally appropriate tobacco control interventions could help reduce tobacco product use and eliminate disparities in tobacco product use among AI/ANs (1).

  5. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Clemma J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235 or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246. Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01 and reported more sexual partners (p p p = 0.001. Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001. AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

  6. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations. Objective: To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI population. Design: In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and triple therapy with a protease inhibitor. For individuals treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, the effect of patient characteristics on response was also examined. Results: Sustained virologic response (SVR with standard interferon was 16.7% (3/18 and with standard interferon and ribavirin was 29.7% (11/37. Of 119 persons treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, 61 achieved SVR (51.3%, including 10 of 46 with genotype 1 (21.7%, 38 of 51 with genotype 2 (74.5% and 13 of 22 with genotype 3 (59.1%. By multivariate analysis, SVR in the pegylated interferon group was associated with female sex (p=0.002, estimated duration of infection (p=0.034 and HCV genotype (p<0.0001. There was a high discontinuation rate due to side effects in those treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 1 (52.2%. Seven of 15 genotype 1 patients treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir achieved SVR (46.7%. Conclusions: We had success with pegylated interferon-based treatment of AN/AI people with genotypes 2 and 3. However, there were low SVR and high discontinuation rates for those with genotype 1.

  7. A Review of the Experience, Epidemiology, and Management of Pain among American Indian, Alaska Native, and Aboriginal Canadian Peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Nathalia; Garroutte, Eva; Kundu, Anjana; Morales, Leo; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    Substantial literature suggests that diverse biological, psychological, and sociocultural mechanisms account for differences by race and ethnicity in the experience, epidemiology, and management of pain. Many studies have examined differences between Whites and minority populations, but American Indians (AIs), Alaska Natives (ANs), and Aboriginal peoples of Canada have been neglected both in studies of pain and in efforts to understand its bio-psychosocial and cultural determinants. This article reviews the epidemiology of pain and identifies factors that may affect clinical assessment and treatment in these populations. We searched for peer-reviewed articles focused on pain in these populations, using PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and the University of New Mexico Native Health Database. We identified 28 articles published 1990-2009 in 3 topic areas: epidemiology of pain, pain assessment and treatment, and healthcare utilization. A key finding is that AI/ANs have a higher prevalence of pain symptoms and painful conditions than the U.S. general population. We also found evidence for problems in provider-patient interactions that affect clinical assessment of pain, as well as indications that AI/AN patients frequently use alternative modalities to manage pain. Future research should focus on pain and comorbid conditions and develop conceptual frameworks for understanding and treating pain in these populations. Perspective We reviewed the literature on pain in AI/ANs and found a high prevalence of pain and painful conditions, along with evidence of poor patient-provider communication. We recommend further investigation of pain and comorbid conditions and development of conceptual frameworks for understanding and treating pain in this population. PMID:21330217

  8. Geographic variation in trends and characteristics of teen childbearing among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Phyllis A; Lesesne, Catherine A; Smith, Ruben A; de Ravello, Lori; Espey, David K; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G; Tucker, Myra; Thierry, Judith

    2012-12-01

    To study teen birth rates, trends, and socio-demographic and pregnancy characteristics of AI/AN across geographic regions in the US. The birth rate for US teenagers 15-19 years reached a historic low in 2009 (39.1 per 1,000) and yet remains one of the highest teen birth rates among industrialized nations. In the US, teen birth rates among Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are consistently two to three times the rate among non-Hispanic white teens. Birth certificate data for females younger than age 20 were used to calculate birth rates (live births per 1,000 women) and joinpoint regression to describe trends in teen birth rates by age (teens varied across geographic regions. Among 15-19-year-old AI/AN, rates ranged from 24.35 (California) to 123.24 (Aberdeen). AI/AN teen birth rates declined from the early 1990s into the 2000s for all three age groups. Among 15-17-year-olds, trends were approximately level during the early 2000s-2007 in six regions and declined in the others. Among 18-19-year-olds, trends were significantly increasing during the early 2000s-2007 in three regions, significantly decreasing in one, and were level in the remaining regions. Among AI/AN, cesarean section rates were lower in Alaska (4.1%) than in other regions (16.4-26.6%). This is the first national study to describe regional variation in AI/AN teen birth rates. These data may be used to target limited resources for teen pregnancy intervention programs and guide research.

  9. Circle of life: rationale, design, and baseline results of an HIV prevention intervention among young American Indian adolescents of the Northern Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Carol E; Mitchell, Christina M; Beals, Janette; Desserich, Jennifer A; Wheeler, Cindy; Keane, Ellen M; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Sam, Angela; Sedey, Cory

    2010-03-01

    In spite of significant disparities in sexual health outcomes for American Indian youth, no studies exist examining the effectiveness of HIV-prevention interventions. Circle of Life is an HIV-prevention intervention specifically developed for American Indian middle-school youth. We describe the rationale, methodology, and baseline results of a longitudinal randomized trial of Circle of Life conducted among American Indian youth aged 11-15 in a reservation community. The innovative design includes two pre-intervention waves to determine patterns of behavior prior to the intervention that might be associated with a differential impact of the intervention on sexual risk. We used one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests to test for significant differences between randomized group assignment at each baseline wave and generalized estimating equations (GEE) to test significant differences in the rate of change in outcomes by group longitudinally. We present the collaborative and adaptive strategies for consenting, assenting, and data collection methodology in this community. Achieved response rates are comparable to other similar studies. Results from the two baseline waves indicate that few outcomes significantly varied by randomized intervention assignment. Ten percent of youth reported having had sex at Wave 1, rising to 15% at Wave 2. Among those who had had sex, the majority (>70%) reported using a condom at last sex. The project is well positioned to carry out the longitudinal assessments of the intervention to determine the overall impact of the Circle of Life and the differential impact by pre-intervention patterns of behavior across youth.

  10. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  11. The Efficacy of an American Indian Culturally-Based Risk Prevention Program for Upper Elementary School Youth Residing on the Northern Plains Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usera, John J

    2017-04-01

    Culturally-based risk behavior prevention programs for American Indian elementary school children are sparse. Thus a group of American Indian educators collaborated in the creation of a program that helps children make healthy decisions based on their cultural and traditional value system. In this paper the effectiveness of Lakota Circles of Hope (LCH), an elementary school culturally-based prevention program was studied and evaluated. Three cohorts of fourth and fifth graders participated in a mixed methods quasi-experimental evaluative research design that included focus groups and surveys prior to and following the intervention. Five research questions regarding the program's impact on students' self-esteem and self-efficacy, Lakota identity, communication, conflict resolution and risk behaviors were addressed in this study. Participants were compared to non-participants in three American Indian reservation school sites. Educators completed a survey to record their observations and feedback regarding the implementation of the program within their respective school sites. The study provides preliminary evidence that, when delivered with fidelity, LCH contributes to statistically significant changes in risk behaviors, Lakota identity, respect for others, and adult and parent communication. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance with post hoc analysis of data collected from the LCH participants (N = 1392) were used to substantiate a significant increase in respect for others and a decrease in risk behaviors which included alcohol, tobacco, and substance use at the 0.10 alpha level. Significant positive improvements in parent and adult communication and an increased Lakota identity at the 0.01 alpha level were obtained. There were no significant differences in self-esteem and conflict resolution from pre to post intervention and in comparison with non LCH participating students.

  12. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRIC PROPORTIONS IN INDIAN AMERICAN WOMEN. Evaluación de varias proporciones antropométricas en mujeres indio-americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthy Marx Sadacharan

    2016-03-01

    female face can be made by various linear measurements, angles and ratios. The aim of this study was to investigate various facial ratios in Indian American women and to compare them with the Indian and Caucasian norms. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate whether these values satisfy golden and silver ratios. Direct facial anthropometric measur-ements were made using a digital caliper in 100 Indian American women students (18 - 30 years at the American University of Antigua (AUA, Antigua. A set of facial ratios were calculated and compared with Indian and Caucasian norms. Coefficients of variation of the ratios were also calculated. All the facial ratios were found to be similar with previous reports on Indian women. Most of the facial ratios had small coefficients of variation thus making them highly reliable due to reduced intra-sample variability. The upper face-face height index, mandibulo-lower facial height and upper face height-biocular width index were close to golden ratios whereas the nasal index was close to a silver proportion. There was significant difference in most of the values when compared to Indian and Caucasian data using unpaired t test. The present facial ratios data can be used as a reference value for Indian American women.

  13. Resilience among urban American Indian adolescents: exploration into the role of culture, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S C

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was accounted for by enculturation, self-esteem, and social support, while 34% of the variance in resilience was contributed by enculturation, subjective well-being, and social support. However, social support from friends remained the strongest predictor.

  14. Mixed Media: Blending the Traditional and Contemporary in Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFramboise, Clifford; Watt, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Describes the different approaches to art by the American Indian and western cultures and the approach of students at the Institute of American Indian Arts, combining elements from each to create new Indian art forms. Discusses the Indian Arts and Crafts Bill of 1990 and its definition of Indian art and artists. (DLM)

  15. Intergenerational differences in smoking among West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African blacks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod G. Hamilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995–2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants. Specifically, we investigate these differences among all black immigrants and then provide separate analyses for individuals with ancestry from the English-speaking Caribbean (West Indies, Haiti, Latin America, and Africa—the primary sending regions of black immigrants to the United States. We also explore differences in smoking behavior by gender. The results show that, relative to third/higher generation blacks, first-generation black immigrants are less likely to report being current smokers. Within the first-generation, immigrants who migrated after age 13 have a lower probability of smoking relative to those who migrated at or under age 13. Disparities in smoking prevalence among the first-generation by age at migration are largest among black immigrants from Latin America. The results also suggest that second-generation immigrants with two foreign-born parents are generally less likely to smoke than the third/higher generation. We find no statistically significant difference in smoking between second-generation immigrants with mixed nativity parents and the third or higher generation. Among individuals with West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African ancestry, the probability of being a current smoker increases with each successive generation

  16. Indian and United States paramedic students: comparison of examination performance for the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Tress; Delasobera, B Elizabeth; Strehlow, Matthew; Camacho, Jolyn; Koskovich, Mary; D'Souza, Peter; Gilbert, Gregory; Mahadevan, S V

    2012-08-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) course is taught worldwide. The ACLS course is designed for consistency, regardless of location; to our knowledge, no previous study has compared the cognitive performance of international ACLS students to those in the United States (US). As international health educational initiatives continue to expand, an assessment of their efficacy is essential. This study assesses the AHA ACLS curriculum in an international setting by comparing performance of a cohort of US and Indian paramedic students. First-year paramedic students at the Emergency Management and Research Institute, Hyderabad, India, and a cohort of first-year paramedic students from the United States comprised the study population. All study participants had successfully completed the standard 2-day ACLS course, taught in English. Each student was given a 40-question standardized AHA multiple-choice examination. Examination performance was calculated and compared for statistical significance. There were 117 Indian paramedic students and 43 US paramedic students enrolled in the study. The average score was 86% (± 11%) for the Indian students and 87% (± 6%) for the US students. The difference between the average examination scores was not statistically significant in an independent means t-test (p=0.508) and a Wilcoxon test (p=0.242). Indian paramedic students demonstrated excellent ACLS cognitive comprehension and performed at a level equivalent to their US counterparts on an AHA ACLS written examination. Based on the study results, the AHA ACLS course proved effective in an international setting despite being taught in a non-native language. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of cell phones and computers for health promotion and tobacco cessation by American Indian college students in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jo Ann W; Nelson, Lonnie A; Young, Sara L; Buchwald, Dedra; Roll, John

    2017-01-01

    Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men and women reporting current smoking. The literature on the availability and use of cell phones and computers, or the acceptability of use in health promotion among AIs and ANs, is scant. The authors report findings from a survey of AI students regarding their cell phone and computer access and use. The survey was conducted to inform the development and implementation of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention modeled on a program developed and used in Australia. A 22-item paper and pencil survey was administered to students at tribal colleges in rural Montana. The survey questions included cell phone ownership and access to service, use of cell phones and computers for health information, demographics, tobacco use habits, and interest in an intervention study. The study was reviewed and determined exempt by the institutional review boards at the tribal colleges and the lead research university. The study was conducted by researchers at the tribal colleges. Survey respondents received $10 when the survey was completed and returned. Data analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Among 153 AI respondents, the mean age was 29 years, range was 18-64 years. Overall, 40% reported smoking cigarettes with a mean age of 16 years at initiation. A total of 131 participants (86%) had cell phones and, of those, 122 (93%) had unlimited text messaging. A total of 104 (68%) had smart phones (with internet access), although 40% of those with smart phones reported that

  18. Failing American Indian Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the mediating role of scholarly expectations and the unexpected in the management--and transcendence--of failure/success as these concepts relate to language revitalization. Deloria remarks that, "expectations tend to assume a status quo defined around failure, the result of some innate limitation on the part of…

  19. Building research capacity with members of underserved American Indian/Alaskan Native communities: training in research ethics and the protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Yarborough, Mark; Cassady, Diana L; Styne, Dennis M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a research ethics training course for American Indian/Alaskan Native health clinic staff and community researchers who would be conducting human subjects research. Community-based participatory research methods were used in facilitated discussions of research ethics centered around topics included in the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative research ethics course. The community-based participatory research approach allowed all partners to jointly develop a research ethics training program that was relevant for American Indian/Alaskan Native communities. All community and clinic partners were able to pass the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative course they were required to pass so that they could be certified to conduct research with human subjects on federally funded projects. In addition, the training sessions provided a foundation for increased community oversight of research. By using a collaborative process to engage community partners in research ethics discussions, rather than either an asynchronous online or a lecture/presentation format, resulted in significant mutual learning about research ethics and community concerns about research. This approach requires university researchers to invest time in learning about the communities in which they will be working prior to the training. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  1. Racial discrimination and racial identity attitudes in relation to self-rated health and physical pain and impairment among two-spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Walters, Karina L

    2009-04-01

    We examined associations between racial discrimination and actualization, defined as the degree of positive integration between self-identity and racial group identity, and self-rated health and physical pain and impairment. We used logistic regressions to analyze data from 447 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and other sexual-minority American Indians/Alaska Natives. Greater self-reported discrimination was associated with higher odds of physical pain and impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.78); high levels of actualization were associated with lower odds of physical pain and impairment (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.35, 0.99) and self-rated fair or poor health (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.90). Actualization also moderated the influence of discrimination on self-rated health (t = -2.33; P = .020). Discrimination was positively associated with fair or poor health among participants with low levels of actualization, but this association was weak among those with high levels of actualization. Among two-spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives, discrimination may be a risk factor for physical pain and impairment and for fair or poor self-rated health among those with low levels of actualization. Actualization may protect against physical pain and impairment and poor self-rated health and buffer the negative influence of discrimination.

  2. Challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska native communities: perspectives of staff from 18 treatment centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance abuse continues to exact a significant toll, despite promising advancements in treatment, and American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities remain disproportionately impacted. Understanding the challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment to AI/AN communities could ultimately result in more effective treatment interventions, but no multi-site studies have examined this important issue. Methods This qualitative study examined the challenges of providing substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted key informant interviews and focus groups at 18 substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Seventy-six service participants (21 individuals in clinical administrative positions and 55 front-line clinicians) participated in the project. Interview transcripts were coded to identify key themes. Results We found that the challenges of bringing effective substance abuse treatment to AI/AN communities fell into three broad categories: challenges associated with providing clinical services, those associated with the infrastructure of treatment settings, and those associated with the greater service/treatment system. These sets of challenges interact to form a highly complex set of conditions for the delivery of these services. Conclusions Our findings suggest that substance abuse treatment services for AI/AN communities require more integrated, individualized, comprehensive, and longer-term approaches to care. Our three categories of challenges provide a useful framework for eliciting challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment in other substance abuse treatment settings. PMID:24938281

  3. Effect of severe obesity in childhood and adolescence on risk of type 2 diabetes in youth and early adulthood in an American Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Reddy, Sanil P; Chambers, Melissa A; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-12-28

    The risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes associated with the severity of obesity in youth is not well understood. This study aims to determine metabolic alterations and type 2 diabetes risk among American Indian children who are obese or severely obese. Incidence rates of diabetes before 20 years (youth-onset) and 45 years were computed in 2728 children who were from 5 to Obesity was defined as age-sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile, and its severity was quantified as the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ). In the younger cohort, 0.9% of those non-obese and 2.9% of those with 100% to obese and 9.8% of those with 100% to youth-onset diabetes was 3.8 and 4.9/1000 person-years in the child and adolescent cohorts, respectively, and before the age of 45 was 12.3 and 16.8/1000 person-years, respectively. Incidence rates of youth-onset diabetes in those with the most severe obesity (≥140%BMI p95 ) were 2.3 to 5.1 times as high as in those with the least severe obesity (100 to obesity in an American Indian population is a major driver of type 2 diabetes developing in adolescents and young adults. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the 561...

  5. The American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) at UC Irvine: A Two-Week Residential Summer Program for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. R.; Polequaptewa, N.; Leon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Native Americans remain severely underrepresented in the geosciences, despite a clear need for qualified geoscience professionals within Tribal communities to address critical issues such as natural resource and land management, water and air pollution, and climate change. In addition to the need for geoscience professionals within Tribal communities, increased participation of Native Americans in the geosciences would enhance the overall diversity of perspectives represented within the Earth science community and lead to improved Earth science literacy within Native communities. To address this need, the Department of Earth System Science and the American Indian Resource Program at the University California have organized a two-week residential American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) for high-school students (grades 9-12) from throughout the nation. The format of the AISESS program is based on the highly-successful framework of a previous NSF Funded American Indian Summer Institute in Computer Science (AISICS) at UC Irvine and involves key senior personnel from the AISICS program. The AISESS program, however, incorporates a week of camping on the La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians reservation in Northern San Diego County, California. Following the week of camping and field projects, the students spend a week on the campus of UC Irvine participating in Earth System Science lectures, laboratory activities, and tours. The science curriculum is closely woven together with cultural activities, native studies, and communication skills programs The program culminates with a closing ceremony during which students present poster projects on environmental issues relevant to their tribal communities. The inaugural AISESS program took place from July 15th-28th, 2012. We received over 100 applications from Native American high school students from across the nation. We accepted 40 students for the first year, of which 34 attended the program. The

  6. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Culture in Early Care and Education Programs on a Native American Indian Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rita; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Four early childhood preservice teachers interviewed and observed teachers and children in early learning centers on the Salish and Kootenai Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of preservice teachers versus those of the caregivers (in-service teachers) regarding the presence of family…

  7. Frequency of platelet-specific antigens PlA1, Baka, Yuka, Yukb, and Bra in South American (Mapuches) Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, J; Kiefel, V; Mueller-Eckhardt, C

    1988-01-01

    One hundred twelve unrelated Mapuches Indians from the area of Temuco, Chile were studied for the prevalence of five platelet-specific antigens. The prevalences found were: PlA1 (Zwa), greater than 99 percent; Baka, 89.3 percent; Yuka (Penb), 0.9 percent; Yukb (Pena), greater than 99 percent; and Bra, 4.9 percent.

  8. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by…

  9. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  10. Leadership Challenges in Indian Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horse, Perry

    2002-01-01

    American Indian leaders must meld the holistic and cyclical world view of Indian peoples with the linear, rational world view of mainstream society. Tribal leaders need to be statesmen and ethical politicians. Economic and educational development must be based on disciplined long-range planning and a strong, Indian-controlled educational base.…

  11. Project h[schwa]li?dx[superscript w]/Healthy Hearts across Generations: Development and Evaluation Design of a Tribally Based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Intervention for American Indian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karina L.; LaMarr, June; Levy, Rona L.; Pearson, Cynthia; Maresca, Teresa; Mohammed, Selina A.; Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Fryberg, Sheryl; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations are disproportionately at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and obesity, compared with the general US population. This article describes the h[schwa]li?dx[superscript w]/Healthy Hearts Across Generations project, an AIAN-run, tribally based randomized controlled trial (January…

  12. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Remote Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes…

  13. Development of Native American Culture and Art. Hearing before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on S. 2l66 (Sante Fe, New Mexico, April 14, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    On April 14, 1980, the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs heard testimony in Santa Fe, New Mexico, regarding S. 2166, a bill to establish a National Institute of Native American Culture and Arts Development. Forty-two witnesses appeared before the committee to note strengths and weaknesses of the bill, suggest changes in wording, and voice…

  14. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  15. "India's Rasputin"?: V.K. Krishna Menon and Anglo–American misperceptions of Indian foreign policymaking, 1947–1964

    OpenAIRE

    McGarr, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    From 1947 until his political demise in late 1962, Vengalil Krishanan Krishna Menon stood at the forefront of India's international relations. One of Indian Premier Jawaharlal Nehru's closest political confidantes, Menon served variously as India's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, leader of its delegation to the United Nations, self-styled mediator in the Korea, Indo–China, and Suez crises of the 1950s and, from 1957, his country's Defence Minister. Vilified in the West as “India's Ra...

  16. IT OUTSOURCING AND REDEFINITION OF THE SUBSIDIARY ROLE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE BRAZILIAN AND THE INDIAN SUBSIDIARIES OF AN AMERICAN MULTINATIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Global outsourcing, also known as offshoring, has become a major phenomenon in the IT industry. Responsibilities have been transferred to IT suppliers worldwide. A key element of this strategic change occurred in the IT sector is the growing importance of emerging economies, such as Brazil and India, as offshoring suppliers. A stream of the literature on international business has analysed which factors may affect the evolution of a subsidiary within a multinational. This paper aims to analyse how exporting outsourcing IT services can redefine the role of a subsidiary within a corporation and, consequently change its strategic relevance. Empirical research compared the offshoring activities of two subsidiaries –Brazilian and Indian – of an American IT multinational. In particular, the empirical research focussed on how subsidiary choice, head office assignment and environment determinism factors interact to each other in order to determine the evolution of each subsidiary. The results have demonstrated that the Indian subsidiary trajectory was essentially determined by the development of its resources, innovation, governmental support and entrepreneurship. The Brazilian subsidiary trajectory in turn was mostly influenced by head office assignment and subsidiary performance. A comparative analysis between the two cases has demonstrated how these aspects have altogether determined why these subsidiaries have evolved differently from each other. Most importantly, this paper argues that management capacity and subsidiary leadership are critical elements to understand the evolution of a multinational subsidiary trajectory.

  17. Permanent first molar eruption and caries patterns in American Indian and Alaska Native children: challenging the concept of targeting second grade for school-based sealant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Ricks, Timothy L; Blahut, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    To describe first permanent molar eruption and caries patterns among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children in order to identify the appropriate target grade for school-based sealant programs. We used data from the 2011-2012 Indian Health Service oral health surveillance survey of AI/AN children in kindergarten through third grade. Children were screened by trained examiners. Cavitated lesions were classified as decayed, and teeth with any portion of the crown exposed were considered erupted. We screened 15,611 AI/AN children in 186 schools. The percentage with four erupted first molars was 27 percent of kindergarten, 76 percent of first, 96 percent of second, and 99 percent of third-grade children. About 7 percent of kindergarteners had decayed, missing, or filled molars compared with 20 percent, 30 percent, and 38 percent of first, second, and third graders, respectively. School-based sealant programs for AI/AN children should target kindergarten and first grade with follow-up programs for second-grade children. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults: Is Andersen's Behavioral Model a Good Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Martin, James I; Lawler, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen's Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults' help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Breaking the cycle/mending the hoop: adverse childhood experiences among incarcerated American Indian/Alaska Native women in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ravello, Lori; Abeita, Jessica; Brown, Pam

    2008-03-01

    Incarcerated American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have multiple physical, social, and emotional concerns, many of which may stem from adverse childhood experiences (ACE). We interviewed 36 AI/AN women incarcerated in the New Mexico prison system to determine the relationship between ACE and adult outcomes. ACE assessment included physical neglect, dysfunctional family (e.g., household members who abused substances, were mentally ill or suicidal, or who were incarcerated), violence witnessed in the home, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. The most prevalent ACE was dysfunctional family (75%), followed by witnessing violence (72%), sexual abuse (53%), physical abuse (42%), and physical neglect (22%). ACE scores were positively associated with arrests for violent offenses, lifetime suicide attempt(s), and intimate partner violence.

  20. Meeting the needs of regional minority groups: the University of Washington's programs to increase the American Indian and Alaskan native physician workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, David; Olsen, Polly

    2006-10-01

    Minority populations in the United States are growing rapidly, but physician workforce diversity has not kept pace with the needs of underserved communities. Minorities comprised 26.4% of the population in 1995; by 2050, these groups will comprise nearly half. Medical schools must enlist greater numbers of minority physicians and train all physicians to provide culturally responsive care. The University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSOM) is the nation's only medical school that serves a five-state region (Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho). Its mission addresses the need to serve the region, rectify primary care shortages, and meet increasing regional demands for underserved populations. The UWSOM Native American Center of Excellence (NACOE) was established as one important way to respond to this charge. The authors describe pipeline and minority recruitment programs at UWSOM, focusing on the NACOE and other activities to recruit American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) applicants to medical schools. These programs have increased the numbers of AI/AN medical students; developed the Indian Health Pathway; worked to prepare students to provide culturally responsive care for AI/AN communities; researched health disparities specific to AI/AN populations; provided retention programs and services to ensure successful completion of medical training; developed mentorship networks; and provided faculty-development programs to increase entry of AI/AN physicians into academia. Challenges lie ahead. Barriers to the pipeline will continue to plague students, and inadequate federal funding will have a significant and negative impact on achieving needed physician-workforce diversity. Medical schools must play a larger role in resolving these, and continue to provide pipeline programs, retention programs, and minority faculty development that can make a difference.