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Sample records for american house dust

  1. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  2. Effects of five insect growth regulators on laboratory populations of the North American house-dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, A S; Wright, C G; Farrier, M H

    1990-08-01

    The potential of insect growth regulators (methoprene, hydroprene, fenoxycarb, diflubenzuron and triflumuron) to control populations of the North American house-dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) was assessed in laboratory bioassays. Methoprene was most effective at suppressing population growth, especially at concentrations of 1.0% (10,000 ppm) and 5.0% (5000 ppm) active ingredient. Hydroprene, structurally related to methoprene, also suppressed house-dust mite populations but not as consistently as methoprene. Fenoxycarb may be effective at controlling house-dust mites but at greater concentrations than were tested. Diflubenzuron and triflumuron, two chitin-synthesis inhibitors, failed to suppress mite numbers and may, in fact, stimulate reproduction in some cases. Almost all concentration of the insect growth regulators were shown to be ineffective when assayed 90 days after treatment. PMID:2226070

  3. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  4. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably endot

  5. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  6. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan;

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  7. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

    OpenAIRE

    Abhey

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral ...

  8. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral hospital. MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty patients of allergic rhinitis and well matched controls were subjected to intradermal skin tests to house dust and house dust mite allergen. The skin tests were graded as per standard norms and the responses matched after correlating with different parameters. Statistical analysis was done and the results evaluated. RESULTS: House dust mite was the main allergen, as compared to house dust, responsible for causing allergic rhinitis. The allergen reactivity potential of house dust mite was significantly more as compared to house dust. And, as such there was no statistically significant cross - allergenicity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: House dust mite rather than house dust is the main culprit in causing allergic rhinitis. Hence, precautionary and preventive measures to control the exposure to house dust mite can be undertaken

  9. House dust mites, our intimate associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadchatram, M

    2005-06-01

    House dust mites have lived in human contact from time immemorial. Human dander or dead skin constitutes the major organic component of the house dust ecosystem. Because the mites feed on dander, dust mites and human association will continue to co-exist as part of our environment. Efficient house-keeping practice is the best form of control to reduce infestation. However, special precautions are important when individuals are susceptible or sensitive to dust mites. House dust mites are responsible for causing asthma, rhinitis and contact dermatitis. The respiratory allergies are caused by the inhalation of dead or live mites, their faecal matter or other byproducts. Immune factors are of paramount importance in the development of dust related or mite induced respiratory diseases. House dust mites were found in some 1,000 samples of dust taken from approximately 330 dwellings in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Mattresses, carpets, corners of a bedroom, and floor beneath the bed are favourable dust mite habitats. The incriminating species based on studies here and elsewhere, as well as many other species of dust mites of unknown etiological importance are widely distributed in Malaysian homes. Density of dust mites in Malaysia and Singapore is greater than in temperate countries. Prevention and control measures with reference to subjects sensitive to dust mite allergies, including chemical control described in studies conducted in Europe and America are discussed. However, a cost free and most practical way to remove mites, their faecal matter and other products is to resort to sunning the bedding and carpets to kill the living mites, and then beaten and brushed to remove the dust and other components.

  10. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. Chemical, physical and combined methods of reducing mite allergen levels are intended to reduce asthma symptoms in people who are sensitive to house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite...... antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites......), the standardised mean difference was 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10). There were no statistically significant differences either in number of patients improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0...

  11. Lead in Chinese villager house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan

    2016-04-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to children's blood Pb. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with geometric mean and median concentration of 54 mg/kg and 42 mg/kg, respectively. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decorative materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decorative materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Pb bearing particles appeared as cylindrical, flaky and irregular aggregates with the particle size ranging from about 10 to 800 μm. The energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) suggested that Pb in the dust particles may be associated with calcium compounds. But the major fraction of Pb in the household dust samples was found to be strongly bound to Fe-Mn oxide phases (37%) while Pb present in minor fractions individually making up between 14 and 18% was characterized in falling order as residual, carbonate, organic/sulphide and exchangeable fractions by the sequential extraction method applied. Bioaccessible Pb making up an average proportion of 53% in the household dusts was significantly correlated to the Fe-Mn oxide phases of Pb.

  12. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  13. Do other components of bedding dust affect sensitisation to house dust mites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Stanley, Thorsten; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Bedding dust is a mixture of many components, of which the house dust mite (HDM) allergen, Der p 1, is the most allergenic. There has been little work to investigate the effect of other bedding dust components on HDM sensitisation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of endotoxin in bedding dust on the allergic response in HDM-sensitised individuals. Twenty-nine house dust mite-sensitised adults were skin prick and allergen patch tested against a sterile solution of their own bedding dust and against a solution containing the same concentration of Der p 1 as the bedding solution for comparison. There was no significant difference in wheal size between the diluted house dust mite solution and the bedding dust in spite of their high levels of endotoxin. Symptomatic subjects had larger, but not statistically significant, responses to commercial house dust mite solution than asymptomatic subjects. Allergen patch test responses were negative in 22/29 of subjects using either bedding dust solutions or comparable diluted house dust mite solutions. An individual's own bedding dust does not appear to contain factors that enhance skin prick test or atopy patch test responses to house dust mites.

  14. Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OConnor Barry M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt is significantly (p = 0.019 smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt, a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites.

  15. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  16. House dust mite control measures for asthma: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. We performed a systematic review of the randomized trials that had assessed the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma, and had compared active interventions with placebo...... improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80-1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardized mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.07) or in medication usage (standardized mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07). Chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens cannot...

  17. [House dust mites and their allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessot, J-C; Pauli, G

    2011-02-01

    The taxonomy, anatomy, life cycle and ecology of Pyroglyphidae mites and storage mites (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, B. tropicalis) are described. Pyroglyphidae and storage mites have similar morphologies: they are octopods, with characteristic gnathosoma and sensory hairs. Salivary glands and the mid gut produce most of the allergens excreted, which are enzymatic proteins. Biological cycles and development are similar, although fecundity is superior in storage mites compared to the Pyroglyphides. Relative humidity is the main parameter, which regulates mite development, with a higher degree of temperature and humidity required for storage mites. Bedding is the ecological niche of Pyroglyphidae, which feed on human skin. Moulds and food products are the storage mite biotope from which they spread in the dwelling. Initially considered as rural mites, storage mites are also present in urban dwellings. B. tropicalis, in tropical regions is a true domestic mite. Because of this, it is justified to denominate Pyroglyphidae "house dust mites" and storage mites "domestic mites". In addition to the respiratory allergic symptoms, the storage mites can also cause occupational contact dermatoses.

  18. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carresse Gerald; Christi McPherson; Tha’Mes McDaniel; Zhigang Xu; Bryce Holmes; Leonard Williams; Niki Whitley; Jenora Turner Waterman

    2014-01-01

    The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building d...

  19. Bioaccessibility of Fipronil Sorbed to Soil and House Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide with uses ranging from soil treatment, to the control of household pests and ectoparasites on pets. Soils and house dusts readily sorb fipronil and when these soils and dusts are ingested, the fipronil may become bioaccessible for uptake ...

  20. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, ...

  1. House dust in seven Danish offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  2. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carresse Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building dust will provide insight into understanding exposures experienced by animals, workers and farm visitors. The goal was to characterize biophysiochemical features of livestock dusts from swine, small ruminant, equine, poultry and cattle husbandry units. Settled dust samples were collected from livestock and poultry housing units at the University Farm and other livestock farms across the state. Morphological features were determined by electron microscopy and gravimetry. Biochemical evaluation consisted of pH determination and trace metal detection via mass spectrometry. Biological assessment centered on bacterial characterization via selective media, DNA analysis and endotoxin quantitation. Morphological analyses revealed higher levels of respirable and thoracic particles in poultry, swine, small ruminant and equine units compared to the dairy unit (p<0.01. Dusts were slightly acidic with the exception of the NCAT small ruminant unit (p<0.05. Dust endotoxin levels were consistent and bacterial species detected include Listeria and Escherichia coli. These findings suggest animal husbandry buildings harbor higher levels of smaller respirable and thoracic dust particles compared to inhalable particles. This information may be helpful in understanding dust exposures experienced by animals, farmers and agricultural workers.

  3. Aerial dust concentration in cage-housed, floor-housed, and aviary facilities for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouquin, S; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Martin, S; Michel, V

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (≤4 μm) of 0.37 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m(3) [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. PMID:24135584

  4. Mite antigen and allergen contents of house dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii,Akira

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen and allergen contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with enzyme-labelled anti-human IgE and anti-mite rabbit IgG antibodies. Antigen content was high in dust samples from homes of patients with allergy but not in samples from homes of patients with Kawasaki disease or of normal control subjects. Allergen content was high in dust samples from homes of Kawasaki disease patients. However, the values overlapped, and we considered these differences to be of little ecological significance, although the assay method itself is useful.

  5. Association of House Dust Allergen Concentrations With Residential Conditions in City and in Rural Houses

    OpenAIRE

    Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Pełka, Jolanta; Korzon, Leszek; Kaczała, Magdalena; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Gwardys, Tomasz; Kowalski, Marek L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between house dust mite, cat and dog allergen levels with household characteristics in the houses of children living in urban and rural areas in central Poland. Methods Dust samples were collected from 141 urban and 191 rural houses. Der f1 + Der p1, Can f 1, and Fel d1 levels were measured and associated with residential conditions and atopy-related health outcomes assessed by clinical examination and skin prick testing. Result...

  6. Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA; SIR; LER

    2004-01-01

    The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the contaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil material, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated house dust. It

  7. Associations between bacterial communities of house dust and infant gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, T; Koster, B; Maughan, H; Escobar, M; Azad, M B; Guttman, D S; Sears, M R; Becker, A B; Brook, J R; Takaro, T K; Kozyrskyj, A L; Scott, J A

    2014-05-01

    The human gut is host to a diverse and abundant community of bacteria that influence health and disease susceptibility. This community develops in infancy, and its composition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, notably perinatal anthropogenic exposures such as delivery mode (Cesarean vs. vaginal) and feeding method (breast vs. formula); however, the built environment as a possible source of exposure has not been considered. Here we report on a preliminary investigation of the associations between bacteria in house dust and the nascent fecal microbiota from 20 subjects from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study using high-throughput sequence analysis of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Despite significant differences between the dust and fecal microbiota revealed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis, permutation analysis confirmed that 14 bacterial OTUs representing the classes Actinobacteria (3), Bacilli (3), Clostridia (6) and Gammaproteobacteria (2) co-occurred at a significantly higher frequency in matched dust-stool pairs than in randomly permuted pairs, indicating an association between these dust and stool communities. These associations could indicate a role for the indoor environment in shaping the nascent gut microbiota, but future studies will be needed to confirm that our findings do not solely reflect a reverse pathway. Although pet ownership was strongly associated with the presence of certain genera in the dust for dogs (Agrococcus, Carnobacterium, Exiguobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Leifsonia and Neisseria) and cats (Escherichia), no clear patterns were observed in the NMDS-resolved stool community profiles as a function of pet ownership.

  8. Non-targeted screening of house dust samples using accurate mass TOFMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    House dust exists as an environmental repository of chemicals to which we are exposed in our homes. A growing number of studies have targeted select persistent organic and inorganic pollutants found in house dust. Many have concluded that dust exists as an important human expos...

  9. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  10. Associations between bacterial communities of house dust and infant gut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konya, T.; Koster, B. [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Maughan, H. [Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto (Canada); Escobar, M. [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Azad, M.B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta (Canada); Guttman, D.S. [Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto (Canada); Sears, M.R. [Department of Medicine, McMaster University (Canada); Becker, A.B. [University of Manitoba (Canada); Brook, J.R. [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Environment Canada (Canada); Takaro, T.K. [Faculty of Health Science, Simon Fraser University (Canada); Kozyrskyj, A.L. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta (Canada); Scott, J.A., E-mail: james.scott@utoronto.ca [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    The human gut is host to a diverse and abundant community of bacteria that influence health and disease susceptibility. This community develops in infancy, and its composition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, notably perinatal anthropogenic exposures such as delivery mode (Cesarean vs. vaginal) and feeding method (breast vs. formula); however, the built environment as a possible source of exposure has not been considered. Here we report on a preliminary investigation of the associations between bacteria in house dust and the nascent fecal microbiota from 20 subjects from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study using high-throughput sequence analysis of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Despite significant differences between the dust and fecal microbiota revealed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis, permutation analysis confirmed that 14 bacterial OTUs representing the classes Actinobacteria (3), Bacilli (3), Clostridia (6) and Gammaproteobacteria (2) co-occurred at a significantly higher frequency in matched dust–stool pairs than in randomly permuted pairs, indicating an association between these dust and stool communities. These associations could indicate a role for the indoor environment in shaping the nascent gut microbiota, but future studies will be needed to confirm that our findings do not solely reflect a reverse pathway. Although pet ownership was strongly associated with the presence of certain genera in the dust for dogs (Agrococcus, Carnobacterium, Exiguobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Leifsonia and Neisseria) and cats (Escherichia), no clear patterns were observed in the NMDS-resolved stool community profiles as a function of pet ownership.

  11. Associations between bacterial communities of house dust and infant gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human gut is host to a diverse and abundant community of bacteria that influence health and disease susceptibility. This community develops in infancy, and its composition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, notably perinatal anthropogenic exposures such as delivery mode (Cesarean vs. vaginal) and feeding method (breast vs. formula); however, the built environment as a possible source of exposure has not been considered. Here we report on a preliminary investigation of the associations between bacteria in house dust and the nascent fecal microbiota from 20 subjects from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study using high-throughput sequence analysis of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Despite significant differences between the dust and fecal microbiota revealed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis, permutation analysis confirmed that 14 bacterial OTUs representing the classes Actinobacteria (3), Bacilli (3), Clostridia (6) and Gammaproteobacteria (2) co-occurred at a significantly higher frequency in matched dust–stool pairs than in randomly permuted pairs, indicating an association between these dust and stool communities. These associations could indicate a role for the indoor environment in shaping the nascent gut microbiota, but future studies will be needed to confirm that our findings do not solely reflect a reverse pathway. Although pet ownership was strongly associated with the presence of certain genera in the dust for dogs (Agrococcus, Carnobacterium, Exiguobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Leifsonia and Neisseria) and cats (Escherichia), no clear patterns were observed in the NMDS-resolved stool community profiles as a function of pet ownership

  12. Tetrabromobisphenol A in Indoor Dust from Houses and Internet Cafes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Pythias B. Espino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A or TBBPA is a widely used brominated flame retardant in modern materials such as electronic products, plastics and building materials. TBBPA can leach out of flame retardant-treated products during production, use, reuse, and final disposal of these consumer products. It has thus become a contemporary environmental contaminant. This study reports the levels of TBBPA in indoor dust from houses (n=4 and internet cafes (n=5 in Angono and Quezon City, in the Philippines. TBBPA in indoor dust was analyzed by ultrasonication-assisted hexane extraction and HPLC-UV determination. The instrument and method detection limits were 0.004 ng uL-1 and 1275 ng g-1, respectively. The standard calibration solutions ranged from 0.03 to 0.30 ng uL-1 (r2=0.9956. The extraction recovery was 78% (n=3. TBBPA was found in six of the nine indoor dust samples studied where the concentrations ranged from not detected to 4916 ng g-1. The occurrence and levels of TBBPA in indoor dusts are significant and suggest the need for further investigations especially in other microenvironments where people may be exposed to this contaminant.

  13. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S;

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  14. Lead in Chinese villager house dust: Geographical variation and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2015-12-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to Pb exposure of children. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decoration materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with a median concentration of 42 mg/kg. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decoration materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that elemental compositions of the house dust were controlled by both anthropogenic and geogenic sources. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the Pb bearing particles in the house dust were also studied.

  15. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  16. Modeling responses to respiratory house dust mite exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Elizabeth C; Fattouh, Ramzi; Johnson, Jill R; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Jordana, Manel

    2007-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is the most pervasive indoor aeroallergen source worldwide. Allergens derived from HDM are associated with sensitization and allergic asthma. Allergic asthma is an immunologically driven disease characterized by a Th2-polarized immune response, eosinophilic inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, and remodeling. Animal models of asthma utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) exposure have afforded us considerable insight with respect to the mediators and cell types involved in allergic airway inflammation. However, OVA preparations and HDM are two vastly different materials. This chapter is specifically concerned with modeling responses to HDM exposure in mice. These studies have furnished new information and unlocked new lines of inquiry regarding biological responses to common aeroallergens. The complexity of HDM as an allergen source, with its plethora of protein and nonprotein immunogenic components, may influence the mechanisms underlying sensitization, inflammation and remodeling. Here, we will discuss this issue, along with giving critical thought to the use of experimental models. PMID:17684332

  17. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louton, H; Bergmann, S; Reese, S; Erhard, M H; Rauch, E

    2016-07-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated "normally." Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  18. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  19. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  20. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  1. Is House-Dust Nicotine a Good Surrogate for Household Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    WHITEHEAD, TODD; Metayer, Catherine; Ward, Mary H; Nishioka, Marcia G.; Gunier, Robert; Colt, Joanne S.; Reynolds, Peggy; Selvin, Steve; Buffler, Patricia; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The literature is inconsistent regarding associations between parental smoking and childhood leukemia, possibly because previous studies used self-reported smoking habits as surrogates for children's true exposures to cigarette smoke. Here, the authors investigated the use of nicotine concentrations in house dust as measures of children's exposure to cigarette smoke in 469 households from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (1999–2007). House dust was collected by using high-volu...

  2. Concentration and determinants of molds and allergens in indoor air and house dust of French dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, Arnaud; Le Cann, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Chevrier, Cécile; Costet, Nathalie; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blanchard, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Molds and allergens are common indoor biocontaminants. The aims of this study were to assess the concentrations of common molds in indoor air and floor dust and the concentrations of house dust mite, cat and dog allergens in mattress dust in French dwellings, and to assess predictors of these concentrations. A sample of 150 houses in Brittany (western France) was investigated. Airborne Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in more than 90% of the dwellings, Aspergillus in 46% and Alternaria in only 6% of the housings. Regarding floor dust samples, Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in 92 and 80% of the housings respectively, Aspergillus in 49% and Alternaria in 14%. House dust mite allergens Der p1 and Der f1 were detected in 90% and 77% of the mattress dust samples respectively and Can f1 and Fel d1 in 37% and 89% of the homes. Airborne and dustborne mold concentrations, although not statistically correlated (except for Aspergillus) shared most of their predictors. Multivariate linear models for mold levels, explaining up to 62% of the variability, showed an influence of the season, of the age of the dwelling, of aeration habits, presence of pets, smoking, signals of dampness, temperature and relative humidity. Allergens in the dust of the mattress were strongly related to the presence of pets and cleaning practices of bedsheets, these factors accounting for 60% of the variability. This study highlights ubiquitous contamination by molds and underlines complex interaction between outdoor and indoor sources and factors. PMID:26094801

  3. Non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants in Canadian indoor house dust: sampling, analysis, and occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat E; Wu, Fang

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 18 novel halogenated flame retardants in house dust. Sample preparation was based on ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and clean up with solid phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) chemical ionization mode. Baseline data from 351 fresh (active) dust samples collected under the Canadian House Dust Study (CHDS) revealed that five out of 18 target chemicals were present with detection frequencies higher than 90 %. Median (range) concentrations for these five compounds were as follows: 104 (detection limits (MDLs). In addition, the method was also applied to the analysis of the targeted compounds in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM 2585, organic contaminants in house dust). Results from the current study could contribute to the potential certification of target chemicals in SRM 2585. PMID:26780041

  4. Application of neutral electrolyzed water spray for reducing dust levels in a layer breeding house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weichao; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhanyong

    2012-11-01

    Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in northern China. A multipoint sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared with the control treatment (without spray), airborne dust level was reduced 34% in the 3 hr after spraying 216 mL m(-2) neutral electrolyzed water in the breeding house. The dust concentration was significantly higher during the periods of feed distribution (1.13 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) and artificial insemination (0.72 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) compared with after spray (0.47 +/- 0.09 mg m(-3)) and during lights-off period (0.29 +/- 0.08 mg m(-3)) in the three consecutive testing days (P cage area was divided into four zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to the evaporative cooling pad and zone 4 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and dust concentration were measured at the sampling points of the four zones in 3 consecutive days and mortality of the birds for the duration of a month were investigated. The results showed that the air temperature, airflow rate, dust concentration, and number of dead birds increase from zone 1 to zone 4 in the tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house. PMID:23210224

  5. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Phan

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B. Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils, increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance. We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  6. 77 FR 19154 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... Native American Programs, Office of Public and Indian Housing, Department of Housing and Urban... statutory amendments to the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25...

  7. 77 FR 57544 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 1996: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... Housing Block Grant program authorized by the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act...

  8. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus and other mites were retrieved. We included alignments and evaluated conserved/ variable regions along sequences, constructed their phylogenetic tree and estimated overall mean distances. Then, followed by with prediction of linear B-cell epitope based on different approaches, and besides in-silico evaluation of IgE epitopes allergenicity (by SVMc, IgE epitope, ARPs BLAST, MAST and hybrid method. Finally, comparative analysis of results by different approaches was made.Results: Alignment results revealed near complete identity between D. farina and D. pteronyssinus members, and also there was close similarity among Dermatophagoides spp. Most of the variations among mites' tropomyosin were approximately located at amino acids 23 to 80, 108 to 120, 142 to 153 and 220 to 230. Topology of tree showed close relationships among mites in tropomyosin protein sequence, although their sequences in D. farina, D. pteronyssinus and Psoroptes ovis are more similar to each other and clustered. Dermanyssus gallinae (AC: Q2WBI0 has less relationship to other mites, being located in a separate branch. Hydrophilicity and flexibility plots revealed that many parts of this protein have potential to be hydrophilic and flexible. Surface accessibility represented 7 different epitopes. Beta-turns in this protein are with high probability in the middle part and its two terminals. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method analysis represented 11 immunogenic epitopes between amino acids 7-16. From

  9. Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingliang; Webster, Thomas F; Gooden, David; Cooper, Ellen M; McClean, Michael D; Carignan, Courtney; Makey, Colleen; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-05-01

    With the phase-out of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, the use of new and alternate flame retardants has been increasing. 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate, known as V6, is a flame retardant applied to polyurethane foam commonly found in furniture and automobile foam. However, to the authors' knowledge, no research has been conducted on V6 levels in the environment. The intention of this study was to measure the concentration of V6 in foam collected from baby products where it was recently detected and measure levels in dust samples collected from homes and automobiles in the Boston, MA area. To accomplish this, a pure V6 commercial standard was purchased from a Chinese manufacturer and purified (>98%). An analytical method to measure V6 in dust samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was developed. Extraction was conducted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and extracts were purified using an ENVI-Florisil SPE column (500 mg, 3 mL). V6 was measured in foam samples collected from baby products with a concentration ranging from 24,500,000 to 59,500,000 ng/g of foam (n = 12, average ± sd: 46,500,000 ± 12,000,000 ng/g; i.e., on average, 4.6% of the foam mass was V6). V6 was also detected in 19 of 20 car dust samples and 14 of 20 house dust samples analyzed. The concentration of V6 in the house dust ranged from <5 ng/g to 1110 ng/g with a median of 12.5 ng/g, and <5 ng/g to 6160 ng/g in the car dust with a median of 103.0 ng/g. Concentrations in car dust were significantly higher than in the house dust potentially indicating higher use of V6 in automobiles compared to products found in the home. Furthermore, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a known carcinogen, was found in the V6 commercial mixture (14% by weight) as an impurity and was consistently detected with V6 in the foam samples analyzed. A significant correlation was also observed between V6 and TCEP in

  10. Molecular mechanisms of dust-induced toxicity in human corneal epithelial cells: Water and organic extract of office and house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Liu, Rong-Yan; Sun, Hong-Jie; Han, Yong-He; He, Rui-Wen; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-01-01

    Human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells are continually exposed to dust in the air, which may cause corneal epithelium damage. Both water and organic soluble contaminants in dust may contribute to cytotoxicity in HCE cells, however, the associated toxicity mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, indoor dust from residential houses and commercial offices in Nanjing, China was collected and the effects of organic and water soluble fraction of dust on primary HCE cells were examined. The concentrations of heavy metals in the dust and dust extracts were determined by ICP-MS and PAHs by GC-MS, with office dust having greater concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs than house dust. Based on LC50, organic extract was more toxic than water extract, and office dust was more toxic than house dust. Accordingly, the organic extracts induced more ROS, malondialdehyde, and 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine and higher expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8), and AhR inducible genes (CYP1A1, and CYP1B1) than water extracts (pdust presented greater suppression of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity than those of house dust. In addition, exposure to dust extracts activated NF-κB signal pathway except water extract of house dust. The results suggested that both water and organic soluble fractions of dust caused cytotoxicity, oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and activation of AhR inducible genes, with organic extracts having higher potential to induce adverse effects on primary HCE cells. The results based on primary HCE cells demonstrated the importance of reducing contaminants in indoor dust to reduce their adverse impacts on human eyes.

  11. Evolution of the American Zero Energy House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Russell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in reducing energy use in buildings began in the U.S. in the 1930 with work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on solar heated structures. With the energy crises in the 1970s, efforts were made to reduce energy use in U.S. homes. Passive solar design involved insulated south oriented glazing systems, Trombe walls, sunspaces, flat plate collectors; thermal mass and optimally designed overhangs. It was discovered that by reducing building cooling and heating needs through energy conservation while implementing passive solar strategies the lowest energy use at a lower incremental cost could be achieved. Super-insulated homes were successful at minimizing heat loss and gain and the subsequent load on mechanical systems, but interest subsided as energy prices dropped in the 1980s. The passive solar homes and super-insulation movements, addressed passive heating and cooling, but other home energy end uses were not addressed. Throughout the late 1980s, the cost of solid state solar electricity production with photovoltaic cells declined and become affordable for individual house distributed generation. This paper is a survey of the evolution of the Zero Energy House in the U.S. and the related technologies from its experimental beginnings to its realization in several recent projects.

  12. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the shale shaker house during an offshore drilling operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.B.; Larsen, E.; Hansen, L.V.;

    1991-01-01

    chrome lignosulphonate and chrome lignite, was circulated between the borehole and the Shale Shaker House. The concentration of airborne dust in the atmosphere was determined and the elemental composition of the particles analysed by both PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) and ICP-MS (inductively......During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them...

  13. Initial results for urban metal distributions in house dusts of Syracuse, New York, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. L. Johnson; D. Prokhorova; L. Tidd; M. M. Millones; M. Vincent; J. Hager; A. Hunt; D. A. Griffith; S. Blount; S. Ellsworth; J. Hintz; R. Lucci; A. Mittiga

    2005-01-01

    A program of house dust sample collection and analysis has begun in Syracuse,New York, USA, in order to determine the feasibility of a geography-based exposure assessment for urban metals. The sampling program, and the protocols it employs, is described for two different types of wipe media, Ghost Wipes and Whatman Filters. Preliminary results show that strong spatial patterns of floor dust loading (mg dust per square foot) can be observed for data aggregated at a spatial scale of about 1600 m (~2.5 kin2). Floor dust metal concentrations were similar to those found in other urban environments, with some regional variation. The median floor dust Pb concentration was ~108 mg· kg-1 for this initial data set of ~264 sampled residential locations, and varied from 50 to 1100 mg Pb · kg-1.

  14. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread

  15. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh I; Mishra A; Kushwaha RKS

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , ...

  16. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust. PMID:27186877

  17. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust.

  18. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  19. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  20. Determinants of manganese levels in house dust samples from the CHAMACOS cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but at high exposure levels Mn is a neurotoxicant. The fungicides maneb and mancozeb are approximately 21% Mn by weight and more than 150,000 kg are applied each year to crops in the Salinas Valley, California. It is not clear, however, whether agricultural use of these fungicides increases Mn levels in homes. Materials and methods: We collected house dust samples from 378 residences enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study with a second sample collected approximately nine months later from 90 of the residences. House dust samples were analyzed for Mn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Information from interviews, home inspections, and pesticide use reports was used to identify potential predictors of Mn dust concentrations and loadings. Results: Mn was detectable in all dust samples. The median Mn concentration was 171 μg/g and median Mn loading was 1,910 μg/m2 at first visit. In multivariable models, Mn dust concentrations and loadings increased with the number of farmworkers in the home and the amount of agricultural Mn fungicides applied within three kilometers of the residence during the month prior to dust sample collection. Dust concentrations of Mn and other metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) were higher in residences located in the southern Salinas Valley compared those located in other areas of the Salinas Valley. Dust loadings of Mn and other metals were also higher in residences located on Antioch Loam soil than other soil types, and in homes with poor or average housekeeping practices. Conclusions: Agricultural use of Mn containing fungicides was associated with Mn dust concentrations and loadings in nearby residences and farmworker homes. Housekeeping practices and soil type at residence were also important factors related to dust metal concentrations and loadings. - Highlights: • Manganese dust

  1. Determinants of manganese levels in house dust samples from the CHAMACOS cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunier, R.B., E-mail: gunier@berkeley.edu [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jerrett, M. [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, D.R.; Jursa, T. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Yousefi, P.; Camacho, J.; Hubbard, A.; Eskenazi, B.; Bradman, A. [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but at high exposure levels Mn is a neurotoxicant. The fungicides maneb and mancozeb are approximately 21% Mn by weight and more than 150,000 kg are applied each year to crops in the Salinas Valley, California. It is not clear, however, whether agricultural use of these fungicides increases Mn levels in homes. Materials and methods: We collected house dust samples from 378 residences enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study with a second sample collected approximately nine months later from 90 of the residences. House dust samples were analyzed for Mn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Information from interviews, home inspections, and pesticide use reports was used to identify potential predictors of Mn dust concentrations and loadings. Results: Mn was detectable in all dust samples. The median Mn concentration was 171 μg/g and median Mn loading was 1,910 μg/m{sup 2} at first visit. In multivariable models, Mn dust concentrations and loadings increased with the number of farmworkers in the home and the amount of agricultural Mn fungicides applied within three kilometers of the residence during the month prior to dust sample collection. Dust concentrations of Mn and other metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) were higher in residences located in the southern Salinas Valley compared those located in other areas of the Salinas Valley. Dust loadings of Mn and other metals were also higher in residences located on Antioch Loam soil than other soil types, and in homes with poor or average housekeeping practices. Conclusions: Agricultural use of Mn containing fungicides was associated with Mn dust concentrations and loadings in nearby residences and farmworker homes. Housekeeping practices and soil type at residence were also important factors related to dust metal concentrations and loadings. - Highlights: • Manganese dust

  2. Efficacy of a House Dust Mite Sublingual Allergen Immunotherapy Tablet in Adults With Allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kuna, Piotr;

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is a potential novel treatment option for HDM allergy-related asthma. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of the HDM SLIT tablet vs placebo for asthma exacerbations during an inhaled corticos...

  3. Human apolipoprotein E genotypes differentially modify house dust mite-induced airway disease in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Xianglan; Dai, Cuilian; Fredriksson, Karin;

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an endogenous negative regulator of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and mucous cell metaplasia in experimental models of house dust mite (HDM)-induced airway disease. The gene encoding human apoE is polymorphic, with three common alleles (e2, e3, and e4) reflecting single ...

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling contributes to house dust mite-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I. H.; van Oosterhout, A.; Kapus, A.

    2010-01-01

    Impaired airway epithelial barrier function has emerged as a key factor in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We aimed to discern the involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in allergen-induced epithelial barrier impairment, as we previously observed that house dust mite (HDM) s

  5. House dust mite barrier bedding for childhood asthma: randomised placebo controlled trial in primary care [ISRCTN63308372

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Greta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The house dust mite is the most important environmental allergen implicated in the aetiology of childhood asthma in the UK. Dust mite barrier bedding is relatively inexpensive, convenient to use, and of proven effectiveness in reducing mattress house dust mite load, but no studies have evaluated its clinical effectiveness in the control of childhood asthma when dispensed in primary care. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of house dust mite barrier bedding in children with asthma treated in primary care. Methods Pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial conducted in eight family practices in England. Forty-seven children aged 5 to 14 years with confirmed house dust mite sensitive asthma were randomised to receive six months treatment with either house dust mite barrier or placebo bedding. Peak expiratory flow was the main outcome measure of interest; secondary outcome measures included asthma symptom scores and asthma medication usage. Results No difference was noted in mean monthly peak expiratory flow, asthma symptom score, medication usage or asthma consultations, between children who received active bedding and those who received placebo bedding. Conclusions Treating house dust mite sensitive asthmatic children in primary care with house dust mite barrier bedding for six months failed to improve peak expiratory flow. Results strongly suggest that the intervention made no impact upon other clinical features of asthma.

  6. Beta(1-->3)-glucan in house dust of German homes: housing characteristics, occupant behavior, and relations with endotoxins, allergens, and molds.

    OpenAIRE

    Gehring, U; Douwes, J; Doekes, G.; Koch, A.; Bischof, W; B. Fahlbusch; Richter, K.; Wichmann, H. E.; Heinrich, J.; ,

    2001-01-01

    beta(1-->3)-Glucans are potent proinflammatory agents that have been suggested to play a role in indoor-related respiratory health effects. The aim of this study was to assess whether beta(1-->3)-glucan concentrations in house dust are correlated with levels of endotoxins, allergens, and culturable mold spore counts in house dust. Further, the associations of beta(1-->3)-glucan with housing characteristics and occupant behavior were assessed. beta(1-->3)-Glucan was measured in settled house d...

  7. Shifting of Immune Responsiveness to House Dust Mite by Influenza A Infection: Genomic Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Garawi, A.

    2011-12-14

    Respiratory viral infections have been associated with an increased incidence of allergic asthma. However, the mechanisms by which respiratory infections facilitate allergic airway disease are incompletely understood.We previously showed that exposure to a low dose of house dust mite (HDM) resulted in enhanced HDM-mediated allergic airway inflammation, and, importantly, marked airway hyperreactivity only when allergen exposure occurred during an acute influenza A infection. In this study, we evaluated the impact of concurrent influenza infection and allergen exposure at the genomic level, using whole-genome micro-array. Our data showed that, in contrast to exposure to a low dose of HDM, influenza A infection led to a dramatic increase in gene expression, particularly of TLRs, C-type lectin receptors, several complement components, as well as FcεR1. Additionally, we observed increased expression of a number of genes encoding chemokines and cytokines associated with the recruitment of proinflammatory cells. Moreover, HDM exposure in the context of an influenza A infection resulted in the induction of unique genes, including calgranulin A (S100a8), an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern and TLR4 agonist. In addition, we observed significantly increased expression of serum amyloid A (Saa3) and serine protease inhibitor 3n (Serpina3n). This study showed that influenza infection markedly increased the expression of multiple gene classes capable of sensing allergens and amplifying the ensuing immune-inflammatory response. We propose that influenza A infection primes the lung environment in such a way as to lower the threshold of allergen responsiveness, thus facilitating the emergence of a clinically significant allergic phenotype. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE crossreactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-qing; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; Michael Dho Spangfort; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients.Methods The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches.Results Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females.Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients,88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der P sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach.Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  9. 75 FR 13243 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008. The primary... CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of Public...

  10. 75 FR 36022 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... to the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008. The... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American...

  11. 75 FR 14390 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... of the Native American Housing Assistance & Self-Determination Negotiated Rulemaking Committee. The... CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of Public...

  12. 75 FR 19920 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008. The primary... CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of Public...

  13. 75 FR 7559 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008. The primary.... Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of Public and Indian...

  14. 76 FR 71474 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Amendments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 RIN 2577-AC80 Native American Housing Assistance and Self... the procedures of the Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990, pursuant to the Native American Housing... INFORMATION CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of...

  15. 77 FR 71513 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Amendments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 RIN 2577-AC80 Native American Housing Assistance and Self... Rulemaking Act of 1990, pursuant to the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... INFORMATION CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of...

  16. 75 FR 29964 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 1000 Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination... pursuant to the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008. The.... Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of Public and Indian...

  17. 78 FR 45903 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996: Negotiated Rulemaking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Chapter IX Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of Public...-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Native American Housing and Assistance and...

  18. The Emergence of Gender-Neutral Housing on American University Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Larsen, Jeffrey K.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    American college housing is beginning to introduce gender-neutral housing, or the housing of students in the same room regardless of gender. This study provides a descriptive overview of gender-neutral housing from 148 universities and documents central areas of debate in current policy discussions. Information regarding gender-neutral housing…

  19. Inflammatory and Remodeling Events in Asthma with Chronic Exposure to House Dust Mites: A Murine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Joong Hyun; Kim, Chi Hong; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kim, Seung Joon; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Young Kyoon; Kim, Kwan Hyoung; Moon, Hwa Sik; Song, Jeong Sup; Park, Sung Hak; Kwon, Soon Seog

    2007-01-01

    Although animal models with ovalbumin have been used to study chronic asthma, there are difficulties in inducing recurrence as well as in maintaining chronic inflammation in this system. Using a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced bronchial asthma, we examined the airway remodeling process in response to the chronic exposure to HDM. During the seventh and twelfth weeks of study, HDM were inhaled through the nose for three consecutive days and airway responsiveness was measured. Twen...

  20. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef; Hartl, Arnulf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits t...

  1. Linking PBDEs in house dust to consumer products using X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; McClean, Michael D; Stapleton, Heather M; Webster, Thomas F

    2008-06-01

    The indoor environment is an important source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of fire retardants used in many household products. Previous attempts to link PBDE concentrations in house dust to consumer products have been hampered by the inability to determine the presence of PBDEs in otherwise similar products. We used a portable X-rayfluorescence (XRF) analyzer to nondestructively quantify bromine concentrations in consumer goods. In the validation phase, XRF-measured bromine was highly correlated with GC/MS-measured bromine for furniture foam and plastic from electronics (n = 29, r = 0.93, p XRF-measured bromine in room furniture was associated with pentaBDE concentrations in room dust in the bedroom (r = 0.68, p = 0.001) and main living area (r = 0.51, p = 0.02). We also found an association between XRF-measured bromine levels in electronics and decaBDE levels in dust, largely driven by the high levels in televisions (r = 0.64, p = 0.003 for bedrooms). For the main living area, predicting decaBDE in dust improved when we included an interaction effect between the bromine content of televisions and the number of persons in the house (p < 0.005), a potential surrogate for television usage. PMID:18589991

  2. Is permanent parasitism reversible?--critical evidence from early evolution of house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Pavel B; OConnor, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Long-term specialization may limit the ability of a species to respond to new environmental conditions and lead to a higher likelihood of extinction. For permanent parasites and other symbionts, the most intriguing question is whether these organisms can return to a free-living lifestyle and, thus, escape an evolutionary "dead end." This question is directly related to Dollo's law, which stipulates that a complex trait (such as being free living vs. parasitic) cannot re-evolve again in the same form. Here, we present conclusive evidence that house dust mites, a group of medically important free-living organisms, evolved from permanent parasites of warm-blooded vertebrates. A robust, multigene topology (315 taxa, 8942 nt), ancestral character state reconstruction, and a test for irreversible evolution (Dollo's law) demonstrate that house dust mites have abandoned a parasitic lifestyle, secondarily becoming free living, and then speciated in several habitats. Hence, as exemplified by this model system, highly specialized permanent parasites may drastically de-specialize to the extent of becoming free living and, thus escape from dead-end evolution. Our phylogenetic and historical ecological framework explains the limited cross-reactivity between allergens from the house dust mites and "storage" mites and the ability of the dust mites to inhibit host immune responses. It also provides insights into how ancestral features related to parasitism (frequent ancestral shifts to unrelated hosts, tolerance to lower humidity, and pre-existing enzymes targeting skin and keratinous materials) played a major role in reversal to the free-living state. We propose that parasitic ancestors of pyroglyphids shifted to nests of vertebrates. Later the nest-inhabiting pyroglyphids expanded into human dwellings to become a major source of allergens.

  3. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 μg g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 μg g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

  4. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGEN (Derp1 AND Blot5) LEVELS IN ASTHMATICS' HOME IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Sun; Adrian Wu; Albert Chan; Stanley Chik; Dorothy Wong; Nan-shan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To measure Derpl and Blot5 allergen levels in asthmatics' homes in Hongkong.Methods Seventy houses were enrolled for a mite indoor environment study. Dust samples were obtained from two sites of each patients' house: bed and floor. Derpl and Blot5 levels were quantified by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique.Results The levels of Derpl allergens found in bed (geometric mean (GM) 3.43 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 1.89-4.96 μg/g)and on the floor (GM 1.12 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.71-1.53 μg/g) indicated significant differences (P=0.005). However, the levels of Blot5 allergens found in bed (GM 19.00 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.89-38.90 μg/g) and on the floor (GM 6.14 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.40-11.90 μg/g) showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, in regards to the exposure index for Derpl and Blot5 allergens found in bed and on the floor, 17.6% in bed and 8.6% on the floor had levels of Blot5 ≥ 10 μg/g of dust, higher than those obtained for Derp1 (7.2% and 0% in bed and on the floor respectively, P< 0.05); higher percentages in bed and on the floor (25.0% and 35.7%) were observed for levels of Blot5 =0 μg/g of dust as compared with Derpl in bed and on the floor (4.3% and 14.5% respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusions Derpl and Blot5 are the major allergens found in this regional study, Blot5 is a more potent allergen in Hongkong, probably reflecting the high level of exposure to Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Bt and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergens should be included for precise diagnosis and effective immuno-therapeutic treatment of mite allergy in Hongkong.

  5. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND ALTERNATIVE FLAME RETARDANTS IN HOUSE DUST IN DENMARK – LEVELS, PATTERNS AND CHANGES OVER TIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Nielsen, Jesper Bo;

    2016-01-01

    House dust has been recognized as a source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular for children [1]. Since the EU ban of the commercial PBDE Penta- and OctaBDE mixtures in 2004 and the regulation of DecaBDE through the EU Restriction of Hazardous Substances (Ro......HS) Directive, replacements might have been in use [2]. Building on our previous results on PBDEs in house dust from Denmark and associations with perinatal exposure [3], the present study addresses i) PBDE levels in dust sampled in 2014 in comparison with 2007, ii) the occurrence of alternative flame...... previously observed for PBDEs, distributions were skewed with arithmetic means clearly higher than medians, suggesting that exposure might be much above average for certain individuals. Likewise, the FR composition in dust varied, with individual dust samples containing more BEHT-TEBP or BTBPE than DBDPE...

  6. The distribution of dust mite allergen in the houses of patients with asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an inhibition radioimmunoassay for the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (antigen P1), we studied the distribution of this dust allergen in the houses of patients with asthma. Both bed and floor dust samples contained a wide range of antigen P1, 100 to 100,000 ng/g of fine dust, and this concentration correlated well with the number of mite bodies (r . 0.81, p less than 0.001). We were unable to detect antigen P1 in the air of undisturbed rooms. However, during domestic activity, between 1 and 30 ng were collected on a filter than sampled air for 45 min at 17 L/min. Using a cascade impactor it was shown that greater than 80% of the airborne antigen P1 was associated with particles greater than 10 mu in diameter. Some of the particles containing allergen could be identified because they formed precipitin rings when impacted onto agarose containing rabbit antimite antiserum. These particles had the physical appearance of mite feces, which are the major source of antigen P1 in mite cultures. The results suggested that natural exposure to this dust allergen allows occasional fecal particles to enter the lungs and that these particles contain very concentrated allergen

  7. The Fate of Saharan Dust Across the Atlantic and Implications for a Central American Dust Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowottnick, E.; Colarco, P.; da Silva, A.; Hlavka, D.; McGill, M.

    2011-01-01

    Saharan dust was observed over the Caribbean basin during the summer 2007 NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) field experiment. Airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and satellite observations from MODIS suggest a barrier to dust transport across Central America into the eastern Pacific. We use the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric transport model with online aerosol tracers to perform simulations of the TC4 time period in order to understand the nature of this barrier. Our simulations are driven by the Modem Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological analyses. We evaluate our baseline simulated dust distributions using MODIS and CALIOP satellite and ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations. GEOS-5 reproduces the observed location, magnitude, and timing of major dust events, but our baseline simulation does not develop as strong a barrier to dust transport across Central America as observations suggest. Analysis of the dust transport dynamics and lost processes suggest that while both mechanisms play a role in defining the dust transport barrier, loss processes by wet removal of dust are about twice as important as transport. Sensitivity analyses with our model showed that the dust barrier would not exist without convective scavenging over the Caribbean. The best agreement between our model and the observations was obtained when dust wet removal was parameterized to be more aggressive, treating the dust as we do hydrophilic aerosols.

  8. The fate of Saharan dust across the Atlantic and implications for a Central American dust barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nowottnick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Saharan dust was observed over the Caribbean basin during the summer 2007 NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4 field experiment. Airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL and satellite observations from MODIS suggest a barrier to dust transport across Central America into the eastern Pacific. We use the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric transport model with online aerosol tracers to perform simulations of the TC4 time period in order to understand the nature of this barrier. Our simulations are driven by the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA meteorological analyses. We evaluate our baseline simulated dust distributions using MODIS and CALIOP satellite and ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations. GEOS-5 reproduces the observed location, magnitude, and timing of major dust events, but our baseline simulation does not develop as strong a barrier to dust transport across Central America as observations suggest. Analysis of the dust transport dynamics and lost processes suggest that while both mechanisms play a role in defining the dust transport barrier, loss processes by wet removal of dust are about twice as important as transport. Sensitivity analyses with our model showed that the dust barrier would not exist without convective scavenging over the Caribbean. The best agreement between our model and the observations was obtained when dust wet removal was parameterized to be more aggressive, treating the dust as we do hydrophilic aerosols.

  9. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of HDM...... allergen levels, thereby reducing the need for asthma medication in children with asthma and HDM allergy. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 60 children (age range, 6-15 years) with asthma and HDM allergy were randomized to active (allergy control) or placebo mattress...... children with asthma and HDM allergy....

  10. Exposure to house dust phthalates in relation to asthma and allergies in both children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Shibata, Eiji; Saito, Ikue; Araki, Atsuko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-07-01

    Although an association between exposure to phthalates in house dust and childhood asthma or allergies has been reported in recent years, there have been no reports of these associations focusing on both adults and children. We aimed to investigate the relationships between phthalate levels in Japanese dwellings and the prevalence of asthma and allergies in both children and adult inhabitants in a cross-sectional study. The levels of seven phthalates in floor dust and multi-surface dust in 156 single-family homes were measured. According to a self-reported questionnaire, the prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in the 2 years preceding the study was 4.7%, 18.6%, 7.6%, and 10.3%, respectively. After evaluating the interaction effects of age and exposure categories with generalized liner mixed models, interaction effects were obtained for DiNP and bronchial asthma in adults (Pinteraction=0.028) and for DMP and allergic rhinitis in children (Pinteraction=0.015). Although not statistically significant, children had higher ORs of allergic rhinitis for DiNP, allergic conjunctivitis for DEHP, and atopic dermatitis for DiBP and BBzP than adults, and liner associations were observed (Ptrendphthalates levels collected from multi-surfaces. This study suggests that the levels of DMP, DEHP, DiBP, and BBzP in floor dust were associated with the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in children, and children are more vulnerable to phthalate exposure via household floor dust than are adults. The results from this study were shown by cross-sectional nature of the analyses and elaborate assessments for metabolism of phthalates were not considered. Further studies are needed to advance our understanding of phthalate toxicity.

  11. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the worst-case scenario.

  12. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the worst-case scenario. PMID:26933964

  13. Lead and other elements in house dust of Japanese residences – Source of lead and health risks due to metal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of 25 elements in house dust collected from 100 general Japanese residences were measured. Factor analysis was applied on the multi-element data to explore source of Pb (median concentration 49.1 mg/kg) in house dust. Six factors were extracted and Pb was found to have great loading on the fifth factor with Sb and Sn, suggesting solder (Sn), and plastic and metals (Sb) may be the sources of Pb in the house dust of Japanese residences. No significant loading was found on soil-related factors indicating non-significant contribution of Pb in track-in soil. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn) were found in house dust at >10 times more condensed than crustal abundance. Health risk of these elements to children via the ingestion of house dust was estimated based on the comparison with tolerable daily intake and found to be non-significant for most of the elements. - Highlights: • Multi-element analysis was carried out for house dust from households in Japan. • Factor analysis was applied on the multivariate data set. • The abundance of lead had a close relationship with antimony and tin in house dust. • Health risk of heavy metals in house dust for children was not serious. - Major source of Pb in house dust of Japanese residences was not track-in soil but unknown materials that contain Pb and Sb and/or Sn

  14. Lead speciation in indoor dust: a case study to assess old paint contribution in a Canadian urban house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; MacLean, Lachlan C.W.; Rasmussen, Pat E. (Health Canada); (NRC)

    2012-10-23

    Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 {micro}m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {micro}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

  15. Evaluation of new sensitizations in asthmatic children monosensitized to house dust mite by specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanci, Koray; Razi, Cem H; Toyran, Muge; Kanmaz, Gozde; Cengizlier, Mehmet R

    2010-03-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is one of the treatment modalities recomended for the management of asthma and allergic rhinitis by international guidelines. A potential benefit of immunotherapy (IT) is to prevent the development of sensitisation to new allergens. There is stil no conclusion on this subject. One hundred twenty-two children 8-18 years old with intermittent asthma, with or without allergic rhinitis, all of whom were monosensitised to house dust mite (HDM) were selected. Sixty two of these children accepted to receive SIT with HDM extract for 4 years and the remaining 60 did not accept SIT and were treated with asthma medications only. This second group of children served as the control group. At the end of the 4-year study period, 36 of the 53 patients (67.9%) in the SIT group showed no new sensitizations, compared to 38 of 52 (73.0%) in the control group (p = 0.141). The most frequent new sensitizations at the end of the study were pollens, grasses and olive polen, followed by animal dander, alternaria and cockroach. In conclusion, SIT may not prevent the onset of new sensitizations in asthmatic children monosensitized to house dust mites. Further investigation is required to clarify the immunologic mechanisms and other factors by which SIT reduces or not the development of new sensitizations in monosensitized children. PMID:20527510

  16. Distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp., in different ecological localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, M K; Rifaat, M M

    1997-08-01

    The distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp. were studied in July, September and November, 1995 in three different localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Upper Egypt. During these months, 15 houses were sampled in each locality. 87% of riverside houses were infested with mites where D. pteronyssinus dominated (80%) over D. farinae. Sixty percent of the valley houses sampled were infested, where D. farinae was dominant (66%). Densities of both Dermatophagoides spp., were considerably higher in riverside than in valley houses. Live mites were not found in the lightly infested houses sampled in the desert area (54% positive). Relative humidity, which varied in houses located in different climatic localities in Esna City, was noted to be the principal limiting factor influencing the distribution and abundance of both species. Temperature did not appear to be an important factor influencing the distribution and abundance.

  17. Lead, arsenic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in Sydney Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, T.W. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Lane, S. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a lead and arsenic soil and dust study conducted in Sydney, Nova Scotia in August 2002. Whitney Pier, Ashby and North End are 3 communities surrounding the Sydney tar ponds, steel and coke oven sites that have been significantly impacted by the industrial activity of the past century. Lead and arsenic was found in the floor dust of every home evaluated. The neighbourhoods were also found to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There is a low but significant health risk from exposure to lead and arsenic in the soil and house dust, and all three communities must be remediated to prevent health impacts. This report by the Sierra Club criticizes an earlier report by the Joint Action Group (JAG), a tri-governmental process which never took into consideration the fact that people's yards and homes are contaminated and need to be remediated. This report criticizes that the JAG report neglected the issue of people's health and is calling on the federal Health Minister to take action on the environmental disaster. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. 75 FR 423 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2008... develop regulatory changes to programs authorized under the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996. Changes to these programs were made by the Native American Housing Assistance...

  19. 77 FR 39452 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996: Notice of Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Chapter IX Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of... Grant (IHBG) program authorized under the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act..., Deputy Assistant Secretary for Native American Programs, Office of Public and Indian Housing,...

  20. Contested visions of American democracy: citizenship, public housing, and the international arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argersinger, Jo Ann E

    2010-01-01

    This essay reexamines the history of public housing and the controversy it generated from the Great Depression to the Cold War. By recasting that history in the global arena, it demonstrates that the debate over public housing versus homeownership was also a debate over the meaning of American citizenship and democracy, pointing up starkly divergent notions about what was and was not American. Through an examination of national conflicts and neglected local struggles, this article further shows that the fight over public housing was far more meaningful and volatile than traditionally assumed. Both critics and advocates of public housing drew from international experiences and imagery in positioning the home as a constitutive feature of citizenship in American democracy. Fears of Bolshevism, fascism, and communism served to internationalize issues of race, space, and housing and together shaped the decision of whether a decent home was an American right or privilege.

  1. The crystal structure of recombinant proDer p 1, a major house dust mite proteolytic allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre; Thorsted, Peter B; Ipsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is among the most prevalent allergic diseases worldwide. Most house dust mite allergic patients react to Der p 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is a cysteine protease. To avoid heterogeneity in the sample used for crystallization, a modified recombinant...... molecule was produced. The sequence of the proDer p 1 allergen was modified to reduce glycosylation and to abolish enzymatic activity. The resulting rproDer p 1 preparation was homogenous and stable and yielded crystals diffracting to a resolution of 1.61 A. The active site is located in a large cleft on...... substrates. Sequence variations in related species are concentrated on the surface, which explains the existence of cross-reacting and species-specific antibodies. This study describes the first crystal structure of one of the clinically most important house dust mite allergens, the cysteine protease Der p 1....

  2. House dust mite allergen Der f enhanced bronchial epithelial cell cytokine expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO QING SUN; WEI TANG; ALBERT CHAN; ADRIAN WU; NAN SHAN ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    The house dust mites ( Dermatophagoides farinae, Der f) are the major source of aeroallergens implicated in the expression of atopic disorders, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In particular, strong circumstantial evidence suggests that house dust mite antigens are important precipitating factors of asthma. Many house dust mite allergens are proteases that can elicit airway inflammation by stimulating the release of cytokines from bronchial epithelial cells. To investigate whether Derf allergen proteases induced cytokine production from the epithelial cell line BEAS-2B,BEAS-2B cells were cultured with 4 different concentrations of Derf (0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 μg/ml) for 24-96 h, after which supernatants were assayed for interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 with ELISA. Reverse transcription-PCR was also performed. The cell sheets were intact throughout the observation in control group without any exposure to Derf antigen. In the experimental groups cells treated with Der f allergen showed changes in the anchorage status of the monolayer. There was a significant increase in the level of cytokine production compared with the untreated sample. The release of IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a concentration-dependent manner ( P < 0.05, respectively) with the addition of increasing dosage of Der f to the cell sheets. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 began to rise at 24 h and 48 h after allergen exposure, and they increased significantly in the supernatants at 72 h and 96 h. At the same time the concentration dependence of induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression as well as an increase in the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA manifested evidently. HDM-induced airway inflammation may include Der f-mediated release of inflammatory mediators, and the proteolytic activity of an allergen may stimulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines from human bronchial epithelium. It is suggested that IL-6 and IL-8 production by bronchial epithelial cells may play a role in the

  3. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I-Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Bruce; Moe, Randi Oppermann; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  4. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce David

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages or no access to litter (conventional cages. The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban.

  5. 78 FR 2278 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: 2013 American Housing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... conditions and the suitability of public policy initiatives. Academic researchers and private organizations... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: 2013 American...

  6. Gene silencing by RNA interference in the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Edward J; Sargison, Neil D; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Burgess, Stewart T G

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report of gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the European house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Trouessart, 1897. Using a non-invasive immersion method first developed for the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor, a significant reduction in the expression of D. pteronyssinus glutathione-S-transferase mu-class 1 enzyme (DpGST-mu1) was achieved following overnight immersion in double stranded RNA encoding DpGST-mu1. Although no detrimental phenotypic changes were observed following silencing, this technique can now be used to address fundamental physiological questions and assess the potential therapeutic benefit in silencing D. pteronyssinus target genes in selected domestic situations of high human-mite interface. PMID:26212476

  7. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  8. Requirements for acquiring a high-quality house dust mite extract for allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Cristoforo Incorvaia,2 Marie David,3 Silvia Scurati,3 Simona Seta,4 Guglielmo Padua,4 Eleonora Cattaneo,1 Carlo Cavaliere,5 Alessia Di Rienzo,6 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Paola Puccinelli11Medical and Scientific and Regulatory Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Ear, Nose and Throat Department, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 6Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Allergology Service, Frosinone, ItalyAbstract: The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with

  9. Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

  10. 78 FR 7443 - Request for Comment on the Redesign of the American Housing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... suitability of public policy initiatives. Academic researchers and private organizations use AHS data in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Request for Comment on the Redesign of the American Housing Survey AGENCY: Office...

  11. Risk assessments of PAHs and Hg exposure via settled house dust and street dust, linking with their correlations in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Fuyong; Zheng, Jinshu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-15

    Domestic energy, chemicals bioaccessibility and particle size were found as three critical factors for risk assessment of PAHs exposure via settled house dust (SHD) and street dust. ∑PAHs and Hg contained in SHD were significantly (p10(-4)) via SHD exposure. The highest accumulation trend of PAHs and Hg were found in PAHs led to a significant decrease on related cancer risks and decreased in the order of 1.9, 1.1, 0.6 and 0.4 μg g(-1) with the increase of particle sizes (PAHs (0.05-0.9 μg g(-1)) and Hg (0.04-1.6 μg g(-1)). Different PAHs profiles were found between PAHs in SHD and those of hair, indicating that exogenous exposure to PAHs adsorbed on dust was not the major source of hair PAHs.

  12. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lee Lim

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695. The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus and Der f 1 (from D. farinae allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035, any airway symptoms (p= 0.032, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005, current asthma (p= 0.007, current rhinitis (p= 0.021 and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001. Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021, wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033, any airway symptoms (p= 0.034, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010, current asthma (p= 0.020 and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042. Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033 especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001 and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001. In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  13. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations.

  14. Housing Quality Gap for Minorities and Immigrants in the U.S.: Evidence from the 2009 American Housing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kusum Mundra; Amarendra Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Using the data from the national American Housing Survey for the year 2009 this paper examines the housing quality gap for minorities and immigrants. Using logit model this paper finds that there is a significant quality gap for Blacks and Hispanics when compared to whites in the U.S. but not for immigrants relative to natives. The home quality has not changed over time among the homeowners in the U.S. However for immigrant homeowners the home quality dropped during the 1980s, potentially due...

  15. A study on the optimal design of a cyclone system for vacuum cleaner with the consideration of house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclone, a type of particle collector widely used in the field of ambient sampling and industrial particulate control, is the principal type of gas-solids separator that use a centrifugal force. The goal of this study is to transform conventional cyclone into a new type of cyclone that can be used for the household vacuum cleaners. To meet the goal, first, the analysis about local environment and dust is carried out. Second, it must have enough high-efficiency not to reduce suction power due to clogging of exhaust filter unit. Two single cyclones with central-hopper-dust-outlet and side-wall-dust-outlet and a twin cyclone are designed and fabricated to evaluate, and compare, their dust collection efficiencies and pressure drops. The measurements of separation efficiency for dust by using DMT test dust type 08 are carried out. House dust experiment is additionally performed to check the local matters applicability such as tissue papers, fur and hairs. The collection efficiency of the twin cyclone is found to be 3-6% greater than those of two single cyclones with the same body diameter, inlet and inner cylinder diameter. Twin cyclone with a large body diameter, a small inner cylinder diameter, a short inner cylinder, a narrow inlet has high separation efficiency. This result indicates the possibility of achieving higher collection efficiencies with a twin cyclone

  16. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m2 day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0. 024, and 0.023 microg/m2 day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home, and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  17. Allergy to house dust mites in primary health care subjects with chronic or recurrent inflammatory states of respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowski, Jacek; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent respiratory tract disorders are a frequent problem in general practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of hypersensitivity to house dust mites in respiratory tract diseases in general practice patients. We tried to assess the influence of determined risk factors exposure on development of respiratory tract allergy. Patients from family practitioners surgeries with chronic or recurrent respiratory tract symptoms who had no diagnosis of allergy were recruited to the study (n = 89). All patients responded to a questionnaire focused on history of symptoms, atopic conditions in family and exposure to determined environmental factors like dwelling conditions, obstetrician history, diet in the first year of life. All patients underwent skin prick test with common inhalant allergens. Families of the patients were asked to participate in the study. Families who agreed to take part also responded to the questionnaire and underwent skin tests. In patients and their families blood samples were taken to determine total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to mites allergens. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming of patients' bedroom carpets and mattresses to determine house dust mites allergens concentration. Data on 30 complete patients family sets of their brotherhood, mother and father were collected. Total and specific serum IgE antibodies were determined by disc enzyme-immunoassay (Analco). Mites allergens concentration in dust was measured by simple Acarex strip test (Nexter). The results of the assays (positive skin tests and/or elevated levels of specific IgE) showed allergy to house dust mites in 24 of 89 study patients from general practitioners surgeries (27%). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis, recurrent bronchitis, chronic or recurrent cough, wheezing, dyspnoea was higher in allergic than in nonallergic subjects. Patients with the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites had usually worse dwelling conditions. Especially

  18. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  19. Investigating relationships between biomarkers of exposure and environmental copper and manganese levels in house dusts from a Portuguese industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A P; Costa, S; Santos, I; Patinha, C; Noack, Y; Wragg, J; Cave, M; Sousa, A J

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on data obtained from a pilot survey focusing on house dust and toenail metal(loids) concentrations in residents living in the industrial city of Estarreja. The study design hereby described aims at investigating relationships between human toenails and both copper and manganese levels in settled house dusts. A total of 21 households and 30 individuals were recruited for the pilot study: 19 households corresponding to 27 residents living near the industrial complex, forming the exposed group, plus 2 households and 3 residents from residential areas with no anticipated environmental contaminants that were used for comparison. Factorial analysis was used for source identification purposes. Investigation on the potential influence of environmental factors over copper and manganese levels in the toenails was carried out via questionnaire data and multiple correspondence analysis. The results show that copper concentrations are more elevated in the indoor dusts, while manganese concentrations are more elevated in the outdoor dust samples. The geometrical relationships in the datasets suggest that the backyard soil is a probable source of manganese to the indoor dust. Copper and manganese contents in the toenail clippings are more elevated in children than in adults, but the difference between the two age groups is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Investigation of environmental factors influencing the exposure-biomarker association indicates a probable relationship between manganese contents in indoor dust and manganese levels in toenail clippings, a result that is partially supported by the bioaccessibility estimates. However, for copper, no relationship was found between indoor dusts and the biomarkers of exposure.

  20. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature.

  1. Home dampness, fungi and house dust mites, and respiratory symptoms in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Verhoeff (Arnoud Paul)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractDamp houses are common in the Netherlands. A study conducted in 1985 at the request of the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, among housing corporations that managed 1.6 million houses (almost one third of the total housing stock in the Netherlands at that time) show

  2. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azima Laili Hanifah; Siti Hazar Awang; Ho Tze Ming; Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Maizatul Hashima Omar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods: Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.Results:Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D.farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  3. Continuous exposure to house dust mite elicits chronic airway inflammation and structural remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill R; Wiley, Ryan E; Fattouh, Ramzi; Swirski, Filip K; Gajewska, Beata U; Coyle, Anthony J; Gutierrez-Ramos, José-Carlos; Ellis, Russ; Inman, Mark D; Jordana, Manel

    2004-02-01

    It is now fully appreciated that asthma is a disease of a chronic nature resulting from intermittent or continued aeroallergen exposure leading to airway inflammation. To investigate responses to continuous antigen exposure, mice were exposed to either house dust mite extract (HDM) or ovalbumin intranasally for five consecutive days, followed by 2 days of rest, for up to seven consecutive weeks. Continuous exposure to HDM, unlike ovalbumin, elicited severe and persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an accumulation of CD4+ lymphocytes in the lung with elevated expression of inducible costimulator a marker of T cell activation, and of T1/ST2, a marker of helper T Type 2 effector cells. We also detected increased and sustained production of helper T cell Type 2-associated cytokines by splenocytes of HDM-exposed mice on in vitro HDM recall. Histologic analysis of the lung showed evidence of airway remodeling in mice exposed to HDM, with goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, and peribronchial accumulation of contractile tissue. In addition, HDM-exposed mice demonstrated severe airway hyperreactivity to methacholine. Finally, these responses were studied for up to 9 weeks after cessation of HDM exposure. We observed that whereas airway inflammation resolved fully, the remodeling changes did not resolve and airway hyperreactivity resolved only partly. PMID:14597485

  4. Induction of vascular remodeling in the lung by chronic house dust mite exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Johnson, Jill R; Fattouh, Ramzi; Jordana, Manel; Erjefält, Jonas S

    2008-07-01

    Structural changes to the lung are associated with chronic asthma. In addition to alterations to the airway wall, asthma is associated with vascular modifications, although this aspect of remodeling is poorly understood. We sought to evaluate the character and kinetics of vascular remodeling in response to chronic aeroallergen exposure. Because many ovalbumin-driven models used to investigate allergic airway disease do so in the absence of persistent airway inflammation, we used a protocol of chronic respiratory exposure to house dust mite extract (HDME), which has been shown to induce persistent airway inflammation consistent with that seen in humans with asthma. Mice were exposed to HDME intranasally for 7 or 20 consecutive weeks, and resolution of the inflammatory and remodeling response to allergen was investigated 4 weeks after the end of a 7-week exposure protocol. Measures of vascular remodeling, including total collagen deposition, procollagen I production, endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation, smooth muscle area, and presence of myofibroblasts, were investigated histologically in lung vessels of different sizes and locations. We observed an increase in total collagen content, which did not resolve upon cessation of allergen exposure. Other parameters were significantly increased after 7 and/or 20 weeks of allergen exposure but returned to baseline after allergen withdrawal. We conclude that respiratory HDME exposure induces airway remodeling and pulmonary vascular remodeling, and, in accordance with airway remodeling, some components of these structural changes may be irreversible. PMID:18314535

  5. Orchestration of an uncommon maturation cascade of the house dust mite protease allergen quartet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve eDumez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite (HDM allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, groups 1 are cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6 and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6 and 9 through complex intra- or intermolecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6 and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation and interconnection.

  6. House dust mite Der p 1 downregulates defenses of the lung by inactivating elastase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan; Farmer, Kinley; MacDonald, Louise; Kalsheker, Noor; Pritchard, Dave; Haslett, Chris; Lamb, Jonathan; Sallenave, J-M

    2003-09-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of aeroallergens and in genetic susceptible individuals can cause symptoms ranging from atopic dermatitis to bronchial asthma. Der p 1, a major target of the human immune responses to HDM, through its enzymatic properties can modulate the adaptive immune system by the cleavage of CD23 and CD25. The consequences of this would be to promote allergic inflammatory responses. Furthermore, by disrupting epithelial tight junctions Der p 1 facilitates the transport of allergen across the epithelium. Here, we report that Der p 1 has additional effects on the innate defense mechanisms of the lung, by inactivating in vitro and ex vivo the elastase inhibitors human (h) alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (h-A1-Pi), mouse (m-), (but not human [h])-SLPI and h-elafin. We confirm that Der p 1 contain both cysteine and serine proteinases, and extend this finding to demonstrate for the first time that h-elafin is particularly sensitive to the biological activity of the latter. Because these elastase inhibitors have antimicrobial, as well as antielastase activity, our results suggest that inactivation of these innate components of the lung defense system by Der p 1 may increase the susceptibility of patients with allergic inflammation to infection. PMID:12689923

  7. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAAD El-Zemity; HUSSIEN Rezk; SAHER Farok; AHMED Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove,matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids,cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  8. A GM-CSF/IL-33 Pathway Facilitates Allergic Airway Responses to Sub-Threshold House Dust Mite Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Llop-Guevara; Chu, Derek K.; Walker, Tina D; Susanna Goncharova; Ramzi Fattouh; Silver, Jonathan S.; Cheryl Lynn Moore; Xie, Juliana L.; Paul M O'Byrne; Anthony J. Coyle; Roland Kolbeck; Humbles, Alison A.; Martin R Stämpfli; Manel Jordana

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM), we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We ...

  9. Der p 11 Is a Major Allergen for House Dust Mite-Allergic Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Srinita; Resch, Yvonne; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Blatt, Katharina; Novak, Natalija; Wickman, Magnus; Van Hage, Marianne; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Sibanda, Elopy N.; Ndlovu, Portia

    2014-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high-molecular-weight group 11 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 11) in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks, and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia col...

  10. Effect of an Air Cleaner with Electrostatic Filter on the Removal of Airborne House Dust Mite Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Kim, Hak-Joon; Lee, Yong Won; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The effects of air cleaners on the removal of airborne indoor allergens, especially house dust mites (HDM), are still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of an air cleaner with an electrostatic filter on the removal of airborne mite allergens. Materials and Methods A dried HDM culture medium that contained mite body particles and excretions was dispersed in a chamber equipped with an electrostatic air cleaner. The number of airborne particles was recor...

  11. Exposure assessment of organophosphorus and organobromine flame retardants via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizouchi, Shigekazu; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Miyajima, Toru; Kodama, Hiroki; Someya, Takashi; Ueno, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    To assess the exposure of flame retardants (FRs) for school-children, organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) and organobromine flame retardants (BFRs) were determined in the indoor dust samples collected from elementary schools and domestic houses in Japan in 2009 and 2010. PFRs were detected in all the dust samples analyzed and the highest concentration of total PFRs was thousand-fold higher than that of BFRs. Among the PFRs, tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP) showed the highest concentration with a median (med.) of 270,000 ng g(-1) dry weight (3700-5,500,000 ng g(-1) dry weight), followed by tris(methylphenyl)phosphate (TMPPs)>triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)=tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP)=tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP)=tris(2chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP)>ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP). Significantly higher concentrations of TBOEP, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), TPHP, TMPPs, and total-PFRs were found in dust samples from elementary schools than from domestic houses. It might be due to that higher concentrations of TBOEP (as leveling agent) were detected from the floor polisher/wax products collected in those elementary schools. On the other hand, significantly higher concentrations of TCEP, TCIPPs, and total chloroalkyl-PFRs were found in domestic houses than in elementary schools. Exposure assessments of PFRs via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses were conducted by calculating the hazard quotient (HQ). Among PFRs, HQs for TBOEP exceeded 1 (higher than reference dose: RfD) and its highest value was 1.9. To reduce the intake of TBOEP by school-children, it is recommended that the use of floor polisher/wax containing TBOEP be reduced in schools.

  12. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Jane Epps; Menninger, Holly L.; Nathan LaSala; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relativ...

  13. Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS Micro-XRF and Micro-XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L MacLean; S Beauchemin; P Rasmussen

    2011-12-31

    X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF), and micro-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) were used to determine the speciation of Pb in house dust samples from four Canadian urban homes having elevated Pb concentrations (>1000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). Linear combination fitting of the XAFS data, supported by {mu}XRF and {mu}XRD, shows that Pb is complexed in a variety of molecular environments, associated with both the inorganic and organic fractions of the dust samples. The inorganic species of lead identified were as follows: Pb metal, Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb oxide, and Pb adsorbed to iron oxyhydroxides. Pb carbonate and/or Pb hydroxyl carbonate occurred in all four dust samples and accounted for 28 to 75% of total Pb. Pb citrate and Pb bound to humate were the organic species identified. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of XAFS to identify Pb speciation in house dust and show the potential to identify Pb sources from new homes versus older homes. Understanding Pb speciation and how it influences bioaccessibility is important for human health risk assessment and risk management decisions which aim to improve indoor environmental health.

  14. Lead speciation in house dust from Canadian urban homes using EXAFS, micro-XRF, and micro-XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lachlan C W; Beauchemin, Suzanne; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2011-07-01

    X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF), and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) were used to determine the speciation of Pb in house dust samples from four Canadian urban homes having elevated Pb concentrations (>1000 mg Pb kg(-1)). Linear combination fitting of the XAFS data, supported by μXRF and μXRD, shows that Pb is complexed in a variety of molecular environments, associated with both the inorganic and organic fractions of the dust samples. The inorganic species of lead identified were as follows: Pb metal, Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb oxide, and Pb adsorbed to iron oxyhydroxides. Pb carbonate and/or Pb hydroxyl carbonate occurred in all four dust samples and accounted for 28 to 75% of total Pb. Pb citrate and Pb bound to humate were the organic species identified. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of XAFS to identify Pb speciation in house dust and show the potential to identify Pb sources from new homes versus older homes. Understanding Pb speciation and how it influences bioaccessibility is important for human health risk assessment and risk management decisions which aim to improve indoor environmental health. PMID:21591711

  15. The use of a sequential extraction procedure for heavy metal analysis of house dusts by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Huseyin; Dundar, Mustafa Sahin; Doganci, Secil; Celik, Muhammed; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, dust is considered as house or street dust. Indoor dust, as a contamination source, has been studied for many years. In this work, the original Community Bureau of Reference of the European Commission (BCR) three-stage sequential extraction procedure was applied to the fractionation of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in 20 house dust samples from five different areas of Sakarya, Turkey. Acetic acid, hydroxylammonium chloride, and hydrogen peroxide plus ammonium acetate were used for the first, second, and third steps of the BCR method, respectively. The extracts were analyzed for the studied heavy metals using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Validation of the results was performed by using a standard reference material (BCR 701 Sediment) to certify the experimental results obtained and to evaluate the reliability of the method used. The elemental loadings typically increased in magnitude according to the area order: Izmit Caddesi>Ankara Caddesi >Erenler>Karaman>Korucuk. The results were in agreement with values reported in the literature.

  16. Indoor Pollutant Hexabromocyclododecane Has a Modest Immunomodulatory Effect on House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz, Derya; Logiantara, Adrian; Hamers, Timo; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2016-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been recognized as an indoor pollutant. HBCD is added as a flame retardant to many consumer products and leaches from the products into house dust. HBCD might be potentially hazardous to the airways because of inhalation of house dust. Sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) is a risk factor for the development of allergic asthma. In this study, we examined whether HBCD can affect the immune response to HDM allergens. Bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were exposed simultaneously to HBCD and HDM in vitro. HBCD enhanced oxidative stress in HDM-pulsed BMDCs, which was accompanied by a higher production of Interleukin (IL)-6 and -10. Adoptive transfer of HDM/HBCD-exposed BMDCs into naı̈ve mice resulted in enhanced levels of IL-17A after inhalational challenge with HDM. Direct mucosal exposure to HBCD during HDM inhalation enhanced IL-4 or IL-17A production, depending on the HDM extract used, but did not aggravate the eosinophilic airway inflammation or airway hyper-reactivity. Our results indicate that exposure to HBCD can have a mild immune-modulating effect by enhancing the inflammatory cytokine production in response to inhaled HDM in mice. PMID:26633745

  17. Overview on relative importance of house dust ingestion in human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): International comparison and Korea as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Sang, Hee Hong

    2016-11-15

    Human exposure studies to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have reached different results about the relative importance of diet intake and house dust ingestion. In the present study, concentrations of PBDEs in Korean house dust (n=15) from geographically different cities were measured, which were in agreement with a previous result, and compared with those for 22 countries of five continents collected from the most recent scientific literature. Compared with other exposure pathways, diet intake was the most important contributor to total PBDEs exposure of Korean adults (i.e., 71% of overall intake). On global comparison, total PBDE levels in house dust differed by two to three orders of magnitude among the countries investigated, with a significant relationship with gross domestic product (GDP). Whereas, dietary daily intakes exhibited a narrow difference within one order of magnitude worldwide and no relationship with GDP. Consequently, the relative importance of major two pathways depended on the contamination extent of PBDEs in house dust, which may be associated with the amount of PBDE products in use. In most countries except for UK and USA, the contribution of house dust ingestion was less important than diet intake in the current and are expected to much more mitigate in the future. However, how fast the effect of regulation will be reflected to house dust and human exposure is necessary to be monitored steadily.

  18. Overview on relative importance of house dust ingestion in human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): International comparison and Korea as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Sang, Hee Hong

    2016-11-15

    Human exposure studies to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have reached different results about the relative importance of diet intake and house dust ingestion. In the present study, concentrations of PBDEs in Korean house dust (n=15) from geographically different cities were measured, which were in agreement with a previous result, and compared with those for 22 countries of five continents collected from the most recent scientific literature. Compared with other exposure pathways, diet intake was the most important contributor to total PBDEs exposure of Korean adults (i.e., 71% of overall intake). On global comparison, total PBDE levels in house dust differed by two to three orders of magnitude among the countries investigated, with a significant relationship with gross domestic product (GDP). Whereas, dietary daily intakes exhibited a narrow difference within one order of magnitude worldwide and no relationship with GDP. Consequently, the relative importance of major two pathways depended on the contamination extent of PBDEs in house dust, which may be associated with the amount of PBDE products in use. In most countries except for UK and USA, the contribution of house dust ingestion was less important than diet intake in the current and are expected to much more mitigate in the future. However, how fast the effect of regulation will be reflected to house dust and human exposure is necessary to be monitored steadily. PMID:27471979

  19. Housing the "Other" Half: American Studies' Global Urban Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Faflik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Over the course of its short lifetime, the discipline of American studies has utilized a series of self-defining metaphors. With each successive paradigm shift in the field, each of these disciplinary figures, in turn, has been found wanting, and so replaced. American studies’ current, if not consensual, metaphor—the “border”—resembles not a few of its predecessors in that it is spatial in nature and effectively doubles as a figuration of the greater nation. The premise of this paper is that the “border,” like the figures that came before it, has outlived its serviceable purpose for a discipline that continues to evolve.

    This essay proposes the global city, or, more accurately, the global slum, as a post-“border” metaphor peculiarly adapted to the principled transnationalism that now defines American studies for many subscribing students and professionals. On the one hand, the urban has become a prevailing demographic fact in this, the new century. Thus, the multiethnic, multinational world metropolis recommends itself as a more-than-metaphor for the dynamic cultural contact that typifies ascendant hemispheric conceptions of the Americas. On the other hand, the figure of the peripheral city similarly, and spatially, evokes the majority “center” and minority “margin” model of American studies that critics would claim inhibits total global integration among the discipline’s geoculturally diverse practitioners, many of whom reside outside the continental United States. This essay conceptually deploys the world city to explore beyond these professional/territorial “borders.” Its three condensed case studies—first, of Gilded Age Manhattan, second, of the modern Turkish metropolis, and third, of a reunified Germany’s ethnic ghetto—constitute a brisk figurative exercise in “marginal” urban migration, wherein resides an alternate model, and metaphor, of American studies praxis today.

  20. Gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Paz; Schwab-Richards, Rachel; Bauersachs, Stefan; Mueller, Ralf S

    2014-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial allergic skin disease in humans and dogs. Genetic predisposition, immunologic hyperreactivity, a defective skin barrier, and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to house dust mite antigens. Skin biopsy samples were collected from six sensitized and six nonsensitized Beagle dogs before and 6 hr and 24 hr after challenge using skin patches with allergen or saline as a negative control. Transcriptome analysis was performed by the use of DNA microarrays and expression of selected genes was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Expression data were compared between groups (unpaired design). After 24 hr, 597 differentially expressed genes were detected, 361 with higher and 226 with lower mRNA concentrations in allergen-treated skin of sensitized dogs compared with their saline-treated skin and compared with the control specimens. Functional annotation clustering and pathway- and co-citation analysis showed that the genes with increased expression were involved in inflammation, wound healing, and immune response. In contrast, genes with decreased expression in sensitized dogs were associated with differentiation and barrier function of the skin. Because the sensitized dogs did not show differences in the untreated skin compared with controls, inflammation after allergen patch test probably led to a decrease in the expression of genes important for barrier formation. Our results further confirm the similar pathophysiology of human and canine atopic dermatitis and revealed genes previously not known to be involved in canine atopic dermatitis.

  1. 78 FR 54416 - Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996: Announcement of Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Chapter IX Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of...) changed the way that housing assistance is provided to Native Americans. NAHASDA eliminated several..., Colorado, 80202. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rodger J. Boyd, Deputy Assistant Secretary for...

  2. Hazards in confinement housing--gases and dusts in confined animal houses for swine, poultry, horses and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, J

    1991-02-01

    Indoor atmospheres in swine or poultry confinement buildings, horse stalls or human dwellings contain gases, dusts and endotoxin in concentrations significantly in excess of those in outdoor environments. Although concentrations of such constituents differ appreciably between species, many of such differences may be related to differences in indoor mass loading and ventilation, or to the homogeneity of such ventilation. The high protein content of these indoor dust particles suggest they are of animal origin. Their ability to form bacterial colonies and to form or bind endotoxin suggest that the smallest and most respirable particles were manure particles containing enteric bacteria and endotoxin. Respiratory disease in swine, poultry and horses and in the workers who care for them may be caused by increased levels of carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, or indoor dust particles from feed and manure. The stagnant air of a well-insulated building causes the most active individual to attract these stagnant pockets, while the tendency of young animals to seek warmth may lead to the formation of additional pockets. Increased ventilation is an expensive solution to the problems associated with indoor air pollution. However, more thorough mixing of indoor air may reduce the effects of these clouds of pollutants.

  3. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities. PMID:21949948

  4. Dechlorane Plus in house dust from E-waste recycling and urban areas in South China: sources, degradation, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Chen, She-Jun; Zheng, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; An, Tai-Cheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-09-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) was measured in house dust from e-waste recycling and from urban and rural areas of South China, with geometric mean concentrations of 604, 14.5, and 2.89 ng/g, respectively. Dechlorane Plus in house dust in the e-waste area originated from e-waste recycling activities, whereas household appliances served as a major source of DP in urban house dust. The isomer ratios (f(anti) ) of DP in most dust samples from the e-waste area were significantly lower than those in the urban and rural dust samples and the commercial mixture. Several [-1Cl + H] and [-2Cl + 2H] dechloro-DPs were identified in house dust from the e-waste area, and an a-Cl(11) DP was qualified with concentrations of <55.1 ng/g. Photolytic degradation experiments were conducted by exposing anti-DP, syn-DP, and commercial DP solutions to ultraviolet (UV) light. The slight difference in isomeric half-life derived by photodegradation, as well as the lower f(anti) values in the e-waste combusted residue, suggest a significant influence of isomer-specific thermal degradation of DP during e-waste burning on isomer composition in house dust in the e-waste area. The average estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DP via house dust ranged from 0.06 to 30.2 ng/d for adults and 0.14 to 121 ng/d for toddlers in the studied area. The average EDIs of a-Cl(11) DP for adults and toddlers in the e-waste area were 0.07 and 0.18 ng/d, respectively.

  5. Effect of house dust mite immunotherapy on interleukin-10-secreting regulatory T cells in asthmatic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; XIANG Li; LIU Yong-ge; WANG Yong-hong; SHEN Kun-ling

    2010-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy has been demonstrated to be capable of inducing T-cell regulatory response.Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a crucial role in inducing allergen-specific tolerance.However the reports of the changes of IL-10 in house dust mite (HDM)-specific immunotherapy were varied.The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells in asthma children successfully treated with HDM immunotherapy.Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 27 patients following 1.5--2 years of HDM-specific immunotherapy (SIT, SIT group) and from 27 matched treated asthmatic children allergic to HDM (asthmagroup).After 48 hours of in vitro stimulation with HDM extracts, IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells were measured by four colour flow cytometry.Sera were tested for allergen-specific IgG4 and IgE using the Immuno CAP 100 assay.Results PBMCs from children undergoing immunotherapy following HDM extracts stimuli produced significantly more IL-10 compared with the asthma group.The frequency of iTreg cells and aTreg cells increased in SIT group after HDM stimulation, while it was not affected in the asthma group.Among the iTreg cells and aTreg cells, the frequency of CD4+CD25-Foxp3-IL-10+ Treg cells increased the most which was 2 times higher than that in unstimulated cultures in SIT group.The levels of HDM-specific IgG4 of SIT group was significiently higher compared with asthma group, but there was no correlation of the levels of HDM-specific IgG4 and IL-10 secreting Treg cells.Conclusions HDM-specific immunotherapy can successfully upregulate the frequency of IL-10-secreting Treg cells.CD4+CD25-Foxp3-IL-10+ Treg cells may play a key role in inducing the immune tolerance in HDM-specific immunotherapy.

  6. Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velden Joanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background House dust mite (HDM allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. Methods Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. Results Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. Conclusion This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis and human exposure assessment on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air, settled house dust, and diet: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuning; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the published literature on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor air, settled house dust, and food, and highlights geographical and temporal trends in indoor PAH contamination. In both indoor air and dust, ΣPAH concentrations in North America have decreased over the past 30 years with a halving time of 6.7±1.9years in indoor air and 5.0±2.3 years in indoor dust. In contrast, indoor PAH concentrations in Asia have remained steady. Concentrations of ΣPAH in indoor air are significantly (pAmerica. In studies recording both vapor and particulate phases, the global average concentration in indoor air of ΣPAH excluding naphthalene is between 7 and 14,300 ng/m(3). Over a similar period, the average ΣPAH concentration in house dust ranges between 127 to 115,817ng/g. Indoor/outdoor ratios of atmospheric concentrations of ΣPAH have declined globally with a half-life of 6.3±2.3 years. While indoor/outdoor ratios for benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalents (BaPeq) declined in North America with a half-life of 12.2±3.2 years, no significant decline was observed when data from all regions were considered. Comparison of the global database, revealed that I/O ratios for ΣPAH (average=4.3±1.3), exceeded significantly those of BaPeq (average=1.7±0.4) in the same samples. The significant decline in global I/O ratios suggests that indoor sources of PAH have been controlled more effectively than outdoor sources. Moreover, the significantly higher I/O ratios for ΣPAH compared to BaPeq, imply that indoor sources of PAH emit proportionally more of the less carcinogenic PAH than outdoor sources. Dietary exposure to PAH ranges from 137 to 55,000 ng/day. Definitive spatiotemporal trends in dietary exposure were precluded due to relatively small number of relevant studies. However, although reported in only one study, PAH concentrations in Chinese diets exceeded those in diet from other parts of the world, a pattern consistent with

  8. Concentrations of Surface-Dust Metals in Native American Jewelry-Making Homes in Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Melissa; Shah, Vallabh; Bobelu, Arlene; QUALLS, Clifford; Natachu, Kathy; Bobelu, Jeanette; Jamon, Eunice; Neha, Donica; Paine, Susan; Zager, Philip

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to identify the metals used by home-based Native American jewelry makers, to quantify the metals in dust samples taken from jewelers’ homes, and to compare these concentrations with background levels from control homes in which jewelry was not made. Participants were recruited from Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico. Surface dust samples were collected from the work and living areas of 20 jewelers’ homes, and from the living areas of 20 control homes. Silver, copper, tin, ...

  9. Modification of house dust mite allergens by monomethoxypolyethylene glycol. Allergenicity measured by in vitro and in vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbech, H; Dreborg, S; Påhlman, I; Stahl Skov, P; Steringer, I; Weeke, B

    1988-01-01

    In animal models, allergen modification by coupling to monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules can reduce allergenicity of the extract and makes the allergen capable of suppressing boosted IgE response. To investigate in a human system the degree of attenuation implied by a mPEG modification of a house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) extract, 55 adults with asthma caused by house dust mites were tested by skin prick test (SPT) and histamine release assay (HR). RAST inhibition was performed on sera from 6 additional patients. Modified extract containing 0.42 mmol mPEG/g protein was used for the analyses. In order to get the same response of the two extracts when assessed by HR and SPT, a median increase in concentration of 10-fold of the mPEG-modified extract compared to the unmodified extract was needed. Interindividual variation was limited. Sixty-four to 72% needed a dose increase within +/- half a decade from this value. In 42-49% of the patients, results from SPT and HR deviated less than half a decade. The relative potency of the modified extract as measured by RAST inhibition was reduced to 17-78% (mean 39%). Reduced allergenicity would by itself mean less side effects in immunotherapy. When planning such therapy it is important to know that mPEG modification reduces the allergenicity to a similar extent in a majority of patients. PMID:2448247

  10. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2013-11-01

    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants' residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans' and Central Americans' prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. PMID:24090862

  11. Brominated flame retardants in house dust from e-waste recycling and urban areas in South China: implications on human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Yun-Juan; Chen, She-Jun; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were examined in house dust from the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling and urban areas of South China. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range of 227-160,000 ng/g in the e-waste recycling area and 530-44,000 ng/g in the urban area. These values were much higher than other BFRs, except for novel decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) whose value of 100-47,000 ng/g was dominant in approximately 1/4 of the samples from the urban area. Urban dust PBDE levels were generally higher than those in many European and Asian countries and comparable to the values found in North America. Urban dust DBDPE levels were higher than those of other areas in the world. The distinct dust BFR profiles observed in the two studied areas were reflective of activities in these areas (electronics industry vs. e-waste recycling). The presence of BDE202, as well as the BDE197 to BDE201 and the nona-BDEs to deca-BDE ratios in the dust samples from the studied areas were probably indicative of environmental degradation of deca-BDE. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of average adult and toddler via house dust ranged from 37.0 to 304 ng/day for PBDEs and from 3.01 to 87.6 ng/day for all other BFRs in the studied areas. The EDIs via house dust were much higher than those via other indoor pathways (air, fish, human milk, and toys). Despite the potentially low deleterious risk of PBDE exposure via house dust as suggested by the hazard quotients, this exposure pathway should be of great concern because of the higher BFR exposures for children and the presence of other BFRs (such as DBDPE) which have not yet been fully investigated.

  12. Brominated flame retardants in house dust from e-waste recycling and urban areas in South China: implications on human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Yun-Juan; Chen, She-Jun; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were examined in house dust from the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling and urban areas of South China. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range of 227-160,000 ng/g in the e-waste recycling area and 530-44,000 ng/g in the urban area. These values were much higher than other BFRs, except for novel decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) whose value of 100-47,000 ng/g was dominant in approximately 1/4 of the samples from the urban area. Urban dust PBDE levels were generally higher than those in many European and Asian countries and comparable to the values found in North America. Urban dust DBDPE levels were higher than those of other areas in the world. The distinct dust BFR profiles observed in the two studied areas were reflective of activities in these areas (electronics industry vs. e-waste recycling). The presence of BDE202, as well as the BDE197 to BDE201 and the nona-BDEs to deca-BDE ratios in the dust samples from the studied areas were probably indicative of environmental degradation of deca-BDE. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of average adult and toddler via house dust ranged from 37.0 to 304 ng/day for PBDEs and from 3.01 to 87.6 ng/day for all other BFRs in the studied areas. The EDIs via house dust were much higher than those via other indoor pathways (air, fish, human milk, and toys). Despite the potentially low deleterious risk of PBDE exposure via house dust as suggested by the hazard quotients, this exposure pathway should be of great concern because of the higher BFR exposures for children and the presence of other BFRs (such as DBDPE) which have not yet been fully investigated. PMID:20452672

  13. Product screening for sources of halogenated flame retardants in Canadian house and office dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Golnoush; Saini, Amandeep; Goosey, Emma; Diamond, Miriam L

    2016-03-01

    Human exposure to halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their replacements, can be related to exposure to indoor dust and direct contact with HFR-containing products. This study aimed to identify electronic products that contributed to HFRs measured in indoor dust and to develop a screening method for identifying HFRs in hard polymer products. Concentrations of 10 PBDEs and 12 halogenated replacements in dust and surface wipe samples of hard polymer casings of electronic products plus Br in the surfaces of those casing measured using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were analyzed from 35 homes and 10 offices in Toronto (ON, Canada). HFR concentrations in dust and product wipes were positively correlated. Thus, we hypothesize that electronic products with the highest HFR concentrations contribute the most to concentrations in dust, regardless of the volatility of the HFR. Abundant HFRs in dust and product wipes were PBDEs (BDE-47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), TDCPP, DBDPE, EH-TBB and BEHTBP. Older CRT TVs had the highest concentration of BDE-209 of all products tested. This was followed by higher concentrations of HFRs in PCs, Audio/Video (A/V) devices, small household appliances (HHAs) and flat screen TVs. The removal of HFRs from polymer surfaces using wipes supports concerns that HFRs could be transferred from these surfaces to hands as a result of direct contact with HFR-containing products. Surface wipe testing shows promise for screening additive HFRs. In comparison, the Br-content obtained using a handheld XRF analyzer did not correspond to concentrations obtained from surface wipe testing. PMID:26747994

  14. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  15. Effective treatment of house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis with 2 doses of the SQ HDM SLIT-tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demoly, Pascal; Emminger, Waltraud; Rehm, Dorte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SQ HDM SLIT-tablet (ALK) has been developed for treatment of house dust mite (HDM)-induced respiratory allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: This trial investigated the efficacy and safety of the SQ HDM SLIT-tablet in adults with moderate-to-severe HDM-induced allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS......: The trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial conducted in 12 European countries including 992 adults with moderate-to-severe HDM-induced AR despite treatment with pharmacotherapy. Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to 1 year of daily treatment with placebo, 6 SQ-HDM, or 12 SQ......-HDM. The primary end point was the total combined rhinitis score (ie, the sum of rhinitis symptom and medication scores) during the efficacy assessment period (approximately the last 8 weeks of the treatment period). Key secondary end points were rhinitis symptoms, medication scores, quality of life...

  16. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. Objective To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Methods Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Results Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Conclusion Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy. PMID:27548813

  17. Using paired soil and house dust samples in an in vitro assay to assess the post ingestion bioaccessibility of sorbed fipronil

    Science.gov (United States)

    For children, ingestion of soils and house dusts can be an important exposure pathway for regulated organic compounds. Following ingestion, the extent to which compounds desorb and become bioaccessible is a critical determinant of systemic adsorption.We characterized the physicoc...

  18. Application of the phylogenetic species concept to Wallemia sebi from house dust and indoor air revealed by multi-locus genealogical concordance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Hai D T; Jančič, Sašo; Meijer, Martin; Tanney, Joey B; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Seifert, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    A worldwide survey of Wallemia occurring in house dust and indoor air was conducted. The isolated strains were identified as W. sebi and W. muriae. Previous studies suggested that the W. sebi phylogenetic clade contained cryptic species but conclusive evidence was lacking because only the internal t

  19. Regulatory T Cell Depletion Abolishes the Protective Effect of Dietary Galacto-Oligosaccharides on Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, Kim At; Braber, Saskia; Leusink-Muis, Thea; Thijssen, Suzan; Boon, Louis; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Willemsen, Linette Em

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a murine model for house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma, dietary galacto-oligosaccharides have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms. Previously, CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) induced by nondigestible oligosaccharides were found to protect against allergy development. OBJECTIV

  20. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, [No Value; Duivenvoorden, HJ; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, AJ; de Monchy, JGR; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, CAFM; van Wijk, R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy - allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) - shoul

  1. [Ecological data on house dust mites in the city of Semipalatinsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagofarov, F F; Galikeev, Kh L

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in flats of allergic patients depending on the type of the building structure, relative air humidity and season of the year was studied. The mites are most frequently encountered in houses of wood or adobe with high air humidity. Autumn is an optimum season for reproduction of mites.

  2. Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Yaghi, Basma

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) were collected from the workplace in Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE) in Oman. The samples were taken from 19 different industrial activities that represent major sources of particulate matter in the SIE. The collected samples were analyzed for 9 heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, V and Mo) by using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis (ICP-OES). Furthermore, the indoor TSP and heavy metal concentrations were measured inside 12 houses within Sohar residential area to determine the contributions of various industrial activities on nearby residential houses. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the TSP were too low to yield any known environmental health effects. In general, the results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the workplaces of SIE and its nearby houses were low compared to the guideline values. In addition, the values were low in comparison with other known sites around the world. Moreover, significant contribution from industrial sources at SIE was evidenced at nearby houses.

  3. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Epps

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung, a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap’s distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the

  4. A controlled intervention study concerning the effect of intended temperature rise on house dust mite load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2002-01-01

    C). Groups turned out not to be comparable with respect to initial (self-assessed) bedroom temperature (lowest in the intervention group). There was a significant seasonal variation, with doubled Der 1 concentrations in dust collected in July-November compared to January-May samples. No effect...... was analysed for allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 + Der m 1 = Der 1) by ELISA and HDMs were counted. Changes in mite and in mite allergen concentration were the same in the control and intervention groups, and measured temperatures did not differ during intervention period in the groups (18 degrees C and 19 degrees...... was obtained on mites or mite allergens, but this may be due either to a general lack of effect of increase in bedroom temperature, or to an insufficient increase in temperature in our intervention group. Seasonal variations in HDM and HDM allergens must be accounted for when data on exposure are interpreted....

  5. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in settled house dust from urban dwellings with resident preschool-aged children in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Ling; Pang, Shu-tao; Zhang, Xiao-ling; Li, Xi-ling; Sun, Yong-gang; Lu, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels and possible determinants of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the settled house-dust (SHD) of urban dwellings with resident preschool-aged children in Nanjing, China. The possible neurodevelopmental effects of house-dust PBDEs were also explored. SHD was collected from 216 urban houses. Levels of 8 PBDEs were measured by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The Child Behavior Checklist and the Gesell Development Inventory were used to evaluate the child's development. BDE47, BDE99, BDE153, BDE18, and BDE209 were detected in the SHD of >90 % of houses, of which BDE209 predominated. Most PBDEs were found at significantly greater levels in indoor than in outdoor dust (P geometric mean concentration, BDE209 and total BDEs showed significant risks for depressed behavior problems and lower personal social developmental quotients (DQs); BDE99 and BDE153 indicated a risk for lower personal social DQs. In conclusion, PBDEs (especially BDE209) are ubiquitous in urban SHD in Nanjing residences. Natural ventilation and floor materials potentially influence PBDE levels in SHD. The potential adverse effect of postnatal exposure to PBDEs on the behavior and neurodevelopment of preschool-age children requires follow-up in larger studies. PMID:25034333

  6. Genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis protect against house dust mite allergy in a BALB/c mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Ai

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccine based on lactic acid bacteria is an attractive concept for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, but their mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate how recombinant major dust mite allergen Der p2-expressing Lactococcus lactis as a mucosal vaccine induced the immune tolerance against house dust mite allergy in a mouse model.Three strains of recombinant L. lactis producing Der p2 in different cell components (extracellular, intracellular and cell wall were firstly constructed. Their prophylactic potential was evaluated in a Der p2-sensitised mouse model, and immunomodulation properties at the cellular level were determined by measuring cytokine production in vitro.Der p2 expressed in the different recombinant L. lactis strains was recognized by a polyclonal anti-Der p2 antibody. Oral treatment with the recombinant L. lactis prior sensitization significantly prevented the development of airway inflammation in the Der p2-sensitized mice, as determined by the attenuation of inflammatory cells infiltration in the lung tissues and decrease of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. In addition, the serum allergen-specific IgE levels were significantly reduced, and the levels of IL-4 in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes cell cultures were also markedly decreased upon allergen stimulation in the mice fed with the recombinant L. lactis strains. These protective effects correlated with a significant up-regulation of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes.Oral pretreatment with live recombinant L. lactis prevented the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation primarily by the induction of specific mucosal immune tolerance.

  7. A GM-CSF/IL-33 pathway facilitates allergic airway responses to sub-threshold house dust mite exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Llop-Guevara

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM, we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b(+ DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1α. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1α. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway.

  8. A GM-CSF/IL-33 pathway facilitates allergic airway responses to sub-threshold house dust mite exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop-Guevara, Alba; Chu, Derek K; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Fattouh, Ramzi; Silver, Jonathan S; Moore, Cheryl Lynn; Xie, Juliana L; O'Byrne, Paul M; Coyle, Anthony J; Kolbeck, Roland; Humbles, Alison A; Stämpfli, Martin R; Jordana, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM), we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b(+) DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1α. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1α. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway. PMID:24551140

  9. Influenza A facilitates sensitization to house dust mite in infant mice leading to an asthma phenotype in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Garawi, A; Fattouh, R; Botelho, F; Walker, T D; Goncharova, S; Moore, C-L; Mori, M; Erjefalt, J S; Chu, D K; Humbles, A A; Kolbeck, R; Stampfli, M R; O'Byrne, P M; Coyle, A J; Jordana, M

    2011-11-01

    The origins of allergic asthma, particularly in infancy, remain obscure. Respiratory viral infections and allergen sensitization in early life have been associated with asthma in young children. However, a causal link has not been established. We investigated whether an influenza A infection in early life alters immune responses to house dust mite (HDM) and promotes an asthmatic phenotype later in life. Neonatal (8-day-old) mice were infected with influenza virus and 7 days later, exposed to HDM for 3 weeks. Unlike adults, neonatal mice exposed to HDM exhibited negligible immune responsiveness to HDM, but not to influenza A. HDM responsiveness in adults was associated with distinct Ly6c+ CD11b+ inflammatory dendritic cell and CD8α+ plasmacytoid (pDC) populations that were absent in HDM-exposed infant mice, suggesting an important role in HDM-mediated inflammation. Remarkably, HDM hyporesponsiveness was overcome when exposure occurred concurrently with an acute influenza infection; young mice now displayed robust allergen-specific immunity, allergic inflammation, and lung remodeling. Remodeling persisted into early adulthood, even after prolonged discontinuation of allergen exposure and was associated with marked impairment of lung function. Our data demonstrate that allergen exposure coincident with acute viral infection in early life subverts constitutive allergen hyporesponsiveness and imprints an asthmatic phenotype in adulthood. PMID:21881572

  10. Proteolytic Activity Present in House-Dust-Mite Extracts Degrades ENA-78/CXCL5 and Reduces Neutrophil Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keglowich, Laura; Tamm, Michael; Zhong, Jun; Miglino, Nicola; Borger, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) are a major source of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines and chemokines, including VEGF and CXC-chemokines. CXC-chemokines act primarily on neutrophils, mediating their recruitment to and activation at the site of inflammation. In humans, house-dust mite (HDM) allergens can cause asthmatic exacerbations and trigger an inflammatory response through protease-dependent mechanisms. Objective. We investigated the effect HDM extract on the release of pro-angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines from BSMC. Methods. Human primary BSMC were stimulated with HDM extract in the absence or presence of fetal calf serum (FCS). Twenty angiogenic cytokines were detected by a specific antibody array and modified protein levels were confirmed by ELISA. Neutrophil migration was measured using a 96-well Boyden chamber. Results. ENA-78/CXCL5 protein levels in conditioned medium of BSMC stimulated with HDM extract were significantly reduced (n = 10, P ENA-78/CXCL5 mRNA levels. Recombinant ENA-78/CXCL5 was degraded after incubation with HDM extracts (n = 7, P ENA-78/CXCL5 was also reduced in the presence of HDM extract. Conclusion. HDM proteases degrade ENA-78/CXCL5. Thus exposure to HDM allergens may alter ENA-78/CXCL5 levels in the lungs and may affect angiogenesis and the inflammatory response in the airways of asthma patients.

  11. Der p 11 is a major allergen for house dust mite-allergic patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srinita; Resch, Yvonne; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Blatt, Katharina; Novak, Natalija; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Sibanda, Elopy N; Ndlovu, Portia; Thomas, Wayne R; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Tacke, Sebastian; Malkus, Ursula; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high-molecular-weight group 11 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 11) in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks, and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia coli and rDer p 11 purified to homogeneity as folded, alpha-helical protein as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using antibodies raised against rDer p 11 and immunogold electron microscopy, the allergen was localized in the muscle beneath the skin of mite bodies but not in feces. IgE reactivity of rDer p 11 was tested with sera from HDM-allergic patients from Europe and Africa in radioallergosorbent test-based dot-blot assays. Interestingly, we found that Der p 11 is a major allergen for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas it is only a minor allergen for patients suffering from respiratory forms of HDM allergy. Thus, rDer p 11 might be a useful serological marker allergen for the identification of a subgroup of HDM-allergic patients suffering from HDM-associated AD. PMID:24999597

  12. Effect of the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on allergic lung inflammation induced by repeated house dust mite administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Johannes D; Berkhout, Lea C; de Stoppelaar, Sacha F; Yang, Jack; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Meijers, Joost C M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-10-15

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways; asthma patients are hampered by recurrent symptoms of dyspnoea and wheezing caused by bronchial obstruction. Most asthma patients suffer from chronic allergic lung inflammation triggered by allergens such as house dust mite (HDM). Coagulation activation in the pulmonary compartment is currently recognized as a feature of allergic lung inflammation, and data suggest that coagulation proteases further drive inflammatory mechanisms. Here, we tested whether treatment with the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran attenuates allergic lung inflammation in a recently developed HDM-based murine asthma model. Mice were fed dabigatran (10 mg/g) or placebo chow during a 3-wk HDM airway exposure model. Dabigatran treatment caused systemic thrombin inhibitory activity corresponding with dabigatran levels reported in human trials. Surprisingly, dabigatran did not lead to inhibition of HDM-evoked coagulation activation in the lung as measured by levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimer. Repeated HDM administration caused an influx of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lungs, mucus production in the airways, and a T helper 2 response, as reflected by a rise in bronchoalveolar IL-4 and IL-5 levels and a systemic rise in IgE and HDM-IgG1. Dabigatran modestly improved HDM-induced lung pathology (P dabigatran in spite of adequate plasma levels, these results argue against clinical evaluation of dabigatran in patients with asthma.

  13. T cells are necessary for ILC2 activation in house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bobby W S; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Tindemans, Irma; Lukkes, Melanie; KleinJan, Alex; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2016-06-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways mediated by an adaptive type 2 immune response. Upon allergen exposure, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can be rapidly activated and represent an early innate source of IL-5 and IL-13. Here, we used a house dust mite (HDM)-driven asthma mouse model to study the induction of ILC2s in allergic airway inflammation. In BALF, lungs, and lymph nodes, ILC2 activation is critically dependent on prior sensitization with HDM. Importantly, T cells are required for ILC2 induction, whereby T-cell activation precedes ILC2 induction. During HDM-driven allergic airway inflammation the accumulation of ILC2s in BALF is IL-33 independent, although infiltrating ILC2s produce less cytokines in Il33(-/-) mice. Transfer of in vitro polarized OVA-specific OT-II Th2 cells alone or in combination with Th17 cells followed by OVA and HDM challenge is not sufficient to induce ILC2, despite significant eosinophilic inflammation and T-cell activation. In this asthma model, ILC2s are therefore not an early source of Th2 cytokines, but rather contribute to type 2 inflammation in which Th2 cells play a key role. Taken together, ILC2 induction in HDM-mediated allergic airway inflammation in mice critically depends on activation of T cells. PMID:27062360

  14. Influenza A facilitates sensitization to house dust mite in infant mice leading to an asthma phenotype in adulthood

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Garawi, A

    2011-08-31

    The origins of allergic asthma, particularly in infancy, remain obscure. Respiratory viral infections and allergen sensitization in early life have been associated with asthma in young children. However, a causal link has not been established. We investigated whether an influenza A infection in early life alters immune responses to house dust mite (HDM) and promotes an asthmatic phenotype later in life. Neonatal (8-day-old) mice were infected with influenza virus and 7 days later, exposed to HDM for 3 weeks. Unlike adults, neonatal mice exposed to HDM exhibited negligible immune responsiveness to HDM, but not to influenza A. HDM responsiveness in adults was associated with distinct Ly6c + CD11b + inflammatory dendritic cell and CD8α + plasmacytoid (pDC) populations that were absent in HDM-exposed infant mice, suggesting an important role in HDM-mediated inflammation. Remarkably, HDM hyporesponsiveness was overcome when exposure occurred concurrently with an acute influenza infection; young mice now displayed robust allergen-specific immunity, allergic inflammation, and lung remodeling. Remodeling persisted into early adulthood, even after prolonged discontinuation of allergen exposure and was associated with marked impairment of lung function. Our data demonstrate that allergen exposure coincident with acute viral infection in early life subverts constitutive allergen hyporesponsiveness and imprints an asthmatic phenotype in adulthood.

  15. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  16. Vaccination against IL-33 Inhibits Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a House Dust Mite Model of Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lei

    Full Text Available In several clinical and experimental studies IL-33 and its receptor have been found to play important roles in the development of asthma and allergic airway inflammation. We evaluated the effects of vaccination against IL-33 in a mouse model of airway inflammation induced by house dust mite (HDM allergen. Balb/c mice received the IL-33 vaccine subcutaneously, followed by intranasal administration of HDM for up to six weeks. Vaccination against IL-33 induced high titers of specific anti-IL-33 IgG antibodies that inhibited HDM-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in the conducting airways and tissue damping. The vaccination also attenuated the HDM-induced elevation in the numbers of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and suppressed the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airways. Furthermore, the levels of IL-17A, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in lung tissue homogenates were reduced by vaccination against IL-33. These observations demonstrate that vaccination against IL-33 inhibits HDM-induced development of AHR, airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines. The results also indicate an important role of IL-33 in the regulation of AHR of the distal lung compartments. Thus, administration of such a vaccine is potentially an effective therapeutic tool for treating allergic asthma.

  17. Correlates of Cumulative Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American Youth Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Voisin, Dexter

    2016-09-01

    African American youth and especially those who reside in public housing report high rates of sexually transmitted disease (STI) risk behaviors; however, too few studies have examined the correlates of cumulative sexual risk behaviors among this population. This study recruited 298 youth ages 11 to 21 and examined to what degree factors such as age, gender, self-efficacy, substance use, negative peer norms, and delinquency were correlated with cumulative sexual risk behaviors. Major findings indicated that gender, substance use, self-efficacy, and involvement with delinquent peer networks were independent correlates of cumulative sexual risk behaviors, with gender and self-efficacy being the strongest of these factors. Collectively, these findings suggest that gendered approaches to sexual risk reduction among this population are warranted with special content and attention focused on substance abuse risk reduction, improving self-efficacy and managing negative peer influences. PMID:27294733

  18. Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina); Rhoads, George G.

    2008-01-01

    Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wail-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency...

  19. Associations of allergic sensitization and clinical phenotypes with innate immune response genes polymorphisms are modified by house dust mite allergen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kurowski, Marcin; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Marek L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Polymorphisms within innate immunity genes are associated with allergic phenotypes but results are variable. These associations were not analyzed with respect to allergen exposure. We investigated associations of TLR and CD14 polymorphisms with allergy phenotypes in the context of house dust mite (HDM) exposure. Material and methods Children, aged 12-16 years (n=326), were recruited from downtown and rural locations and assessed by allergist. Skin prick tests, total and HDM-speci...

  20. Do Neighborhood Physical Activity Resources and Land Use Influence Physical Activity among African American Public Housing Residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nathan H; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kao, Dennis T; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined neighborhood influences on physical activity (PA) among low-income African Americans living in public housing. This study measured the associations of PA resources and land use with PA among 216 African Americans living in 12 low-income housing developments in Houston, Texas. Neighborhood measures included both detailed information from in-person audits and geographic information systems (GIS) data. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the associations of neighborhood PA resource availability and quality and land use density and diversity with individual-level, self-reported PA. Land use diversity was positively associated with walking among men after controlling for other neighborhood characteristics. Policies that promote land use diversity or improve the pedestrian environment in areas with diverse destinations may encourage PA among public housing residents. PMID:27524771

  1. 76 FR 2700 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; American Housing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... branches about housing conditions and the suitability of public policy initiatives. Academic researchers... advise executive and legislative branches about housing conditions and the suitability of public policy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  2. Acute, but not resolved, influenza A infection enhances susceptibility to house dust mite-induced allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Garawi, Amal A; Fattouh, Ramzi; Walker, Tina D; Jamula, Erin B; Botelho, Fernando; Goncharova, Susanna; Reed, Jennifer; Stampfli, Martin R; O'Byrne, Paul M; Coyle, Anthony J; Jordana, Manel

    2009-03-01

    The impact of respiratory viral infections on the emergence of the asthmatic phenotype is a subject of intense investigation. Most experimental studies addressing this issue have used the inert Ag OVA with controversial results. We examined the consequences of exposure to a low dose of the common aeroallergen house dust mite (HDM) during the course of an influenza A infection. First, we delineated the kinetics of the immune-inflammatory response in the lung of mice following intranasal infection with influenza A/PR8/34. Our data demonstrate a peak response during the first 10 days, with considerable albeit not complete resolution at day 39 postinfection (p.i.). At day 7 p.i., mice were exposed, intranasally, to HDM for 10 consecutive days. We observed significantly enhanced eosinophilic inflammation, an expansion in Th2 cells, enhanced HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 responses and increased mucous production. Furthermore, lung mononuclear cells produced enhanced IFN-gamma and IL-5, unchanged IL-13, and reduced IL-4. These immunologic and structural changes lead to marked lung dysfunction. This allergic phenotype occurs at a time when there is a preferential increase in plasmacytoid dendritic cells over myeloid dendritic cells, activated CD8(+) T cells, and increased IFN-gamma production, all of which have been proposed to inhibit allergic responses. In contrast, the inflammatory response elicited by HDM was reduced when exposure occurred during the resolution phase (day 40 p.i.). Interestingly, this was not associated with a reduction in sensitization. Thus, the proinflammatory environment established during an acute influenza A infection enhances Th2-polarized immunity to a low dose of HDM and precipitates marked lung dysfunction. PMID:19234206

  3. Intranasal exposure of mice to house dust mite elicits allergic airway inflammation via a GM-CSF-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Elizabeth C; Fattouh, Ramzi; Wattie, Jennifer; Inman, Mark D; Goncharova, Susanna; Coyle, Anthony J; Gutierrez-Ramos, José-Carlos; Jordana, Manel

    2004-11-15

    It is now well established that passive exposure to inhaled OVA leads to a state of immunological tolerance. Therefore, to elicit allergic sensitization, researchers have been compelled to devise alternative strategies, such as the systemic delivery of OVA in the context of powerful adjuvants, which are alien to the way humans are exposed and sensitized to allergens. The objectives of these studies were to investigate immune-inflammatory responses to intranasal delivery of a purified house dust mite (HDM) extract and to evaluate the role of GM-CSF in this process. HDM was delivered to BALB/c mice daily for 10 days. After the last exposure, mice were killed, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and samples were obtained. Expression/production of Th2-associated molecules in the lymph nodes, lung, and spleen were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Using this exposure protocol, exposure to HDM alone generated Th2 sensitization based on the expression/production of Th2 effector molecules and airway eosinophilic inflammation. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated expansion and activation of APCs in the lung and an influx of activated Th2 effector cells. Moreover, this inflammation was accompanied by airways hyper-responsiveness and a robust memory-driven immune response. Finally, administration of anti-GM-CSF-neutralizing Abs markedly reduced immune-inflammatory responses in both lung and spleen. Thus, intranasal delivery of HDM results in Th2 sensitization and airway eosinophilic inflammation that appear to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous GM-CSF production. PMID:15528378

  4. Effect of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on tryptase release from human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Q; Shen, Y Y; Xu, J H; Tang, H

    2016-07-14

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on the secretion of tryptase from the human mast cell line HMC-1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression levels of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the surface of HMC-1 cells. HMC-1 cells were treated with Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2 (PAR2 agonist), LRGILS-NH2 (control peptide for PAR2), or Der p 1 + FSLLRY (PAR2 antagonist), and the tryptase levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological functions of PAR2 were determined using the calcium green indicator, and intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity in the different groups (Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2, LRGILS- NH2, Der p 1 + FSLLRY, tryptase, tryptase + FSLLRY, or cell culture medium) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mast cells expressed PAR2 receptor on their surfaces. Der p 1 alone induced a significant release of intracellular calcium and tryptase in HMC-1 cells compared with the SLIGRL- NH2 treatment group and the control group. The combination of Der p 1 and FSLLRY partly inhibited intracellular calcium and tryptase release in HMC-1 cells compared with the Der p 1 treatment group. Moreover, tryptase induced a significant release of intracellular calcium in the HMC-1 cells. Der p 1 induced HMC-1 cell degranulation and the release of tryptase by activating the PAR2 receptor on the cell surfaces. Tryptase activated the PAR2 receptor and induced intracellular calcium release from the HMC-1 cells in a positive feedback loop.

  5. Proteolytic Activity Present in House-Dust-Mite Extracts Degrades ENA-78/CXCL5 and Reduces Neutrophil Migration

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    Laura Keglowich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC are a major source of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines and chemokines, including VEGF and CXC-chemokines. CXC-chemokines act primarily on neutrophils, mediating their recruitment to and activation at the site of inflammation. In humans, house-dust mite (HDM allergens can cause asthmatic exacerbations and trigger an inflammatory response through protease-dependent mechanisms. Objective. We investigated the effect HDM extract on the release of pro-angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines from BSMC. Methods. Human primary BSMC were stimulated with HDM extract in the absence or presence of fetal calf serum (FCS. Twenty angiogenic cytokines were detected by a specific antibody array and modified protein levels were confirmed by ELISA. Neutrophil migration was measured using a 96-well Boyden chamber. Results. ENA-78/CXCL5 protein levels in conditioned medium of BSMC stimulated with HDM extract were significantly reduced (n=10, P<0.05 but restored in the presence of 5% FCS. HDM extracts did not affect ENA-78/CXCL5 mRNA levels. Recombinant ENA-78/CXCL5 was degraded after incubation with HDM extracts (n=7, P<0.05 but restored after the addition of the serine protease AEBSF. Neutrophil migration towards recombinant ENA-78/CXCL5 was also reduced in the presence of HDM extract. Conclusion. HDM proteases degrade ENA-78/CXCL5. Thus exposure to HDM allergens may alter ENA-78/CXCL5 levels in the lungs and may affect angiogenesis and the inflammatory response in the airways of asthma patients.

  6. The Roles of Malassezia Yeast and House Dust Mites in Atopic Dermatitis with Head and Neck Involvement

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    Gökhan Okan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate to the effects of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinea and Pityrosporum ovale allergens on atopic dermatitis and to compare the patients with and without head and neck involvement. Moreover, the effect of P. ovale on atopic dermatitis according to different geographic conditions was also determined. Methods: Thirty-one patients with atopic dermatitis, who were admitted to İstanbul Medical Faculty Dermatology Clinic, were enrolled. Skin prick tests were performed for P. ovale and house dust mites (D. pteronyssinus ve D. farinea Results: Ten patients (32.3% showed positive reaction to D. pteronyssinus, nine patients (29% to D. farinea, and nine patients (29% to P. ovale. Head and neck involvement was observed in 22 patients. Head and neck involvement was mostly seen in the patients in the first two decades of life (48%. Eczema was significantly more severe in the patients with head and neck involvement compared to that in those without (p500 IU/mL were significantly higher in the head and neck involvement group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Although the effect of P. ovale on atopic dermatitis in head and neck involvement could not be demonstrated in the present study, it should not be ignored. The results of skin prick test for P. ovale might change according to age and disease severity. Geographical variations of Malassezia species distribution should be kept in mind while evaluating test results. Moreover, it should be remembered that inhalan allergens are also triggering factor in some patients with atopic dermatitis with head and neck involvement.

  7. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

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    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  8. Concentrations of surface-dust metals in Native American jewelry-making homes in Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Melissa; Shah, Vallabh; Bobelu, Arlene; Qualls, Clifford; Natachu, Kathy; Bobelu, Jeanette; Jamon, Eunice; Neha, Donica; Paine, Susan; Zager, Philip

    2004-05-01

    This pilot study was conducted to identify the metals used by home-based Native American jewelry makers, to quantify the metals in dust samples taken from jewelers' homes, and to compare these concentrations with background levels from control homes in which jewelry was not made. Participants were recruited from Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico. Surface dust samples were collected from the work and living areas of 20 jewelers' homes, and from the living areas of 20 control homes. Silver, copper, tin, boron, nickel, zinc, lead, and cadmium were significantly higher in work areas than in living areas of jewelry-making homes (p < or = 0.02). Silver, copper, nickel, and antimony were significantly higher in living areas of jewelers' homes compared with control homes (p < or = 0.04). Ventilation measures did not effectively reduce metal concentrations in jewelers' homes; concentrations in nonwork areas remained elevated. PMID:16201670

  9. Asian dust storm influence on North American ambient PM levels: observational evidence and controlling factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available New observational evidence of the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust and its contribution to the ambient particulate matter (PM levels in North America was revealed, based on the interannual variations between Asian dust storms and the ambient PM levels in western North America from year 2000 to 2006. A high correlation was found between them with an R2 value of 0.83. From analysis of the differences in the correlation between 2005 and 2006, three factors explain the variation of trans-Pacific transport and influences of Asian dust storms on PM levels in western North America. These were identified by modeling results and the re-analysis data. They were 1 Strength of frontal cyclones from Mongolia to north eastern China: The frontal cyclones in East Asia not only bring strong cold air outbreaks, generating dust storms in East Asia, but also lift Asian dust into westerly winds of the free troposphere for trans-Pacific transport; 2 Pattern of transport pathway over the North Pacific: The circulation patterns of westerlies over the North Pacific govern the trans-Pacific transport pattern. Strong zonal airflow of the westerly jet in the free troposphere over the North Pacific favor significant trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust; 3 Variation of precipitation in the North Pacific: The scavenging of Asian dust particles by precipitation is a major process of dust removal on the trans-Pacific transport pathway. Therefore, variation of precipitation in the North Pacific could affect trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  10. Asian dust storm influence on North American ambient PM levels: observational evidence and controlling factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available New observational evidence of the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust and its contribution to the ambient particulate matter (PM levels in North America was revealed, based on the interannual variations between Asian dust storms and the ambient PM levels in western North America from year 2000 to 2006. A high correlation was found between them with an R2 value of 0.83. From analysis of the differences in the correlation between 2005 and 2006, three factors explain the variation of trans-Pacific transport and influences of Asian dust storms on PM levels in western North America. These were identified by modeling results and the re-analysis data. They were 1 Strength of frontal cyclones from Mongolia to north eastern China: The frontal cyclones in East Asia not only bring strong cold air outbreaks, generating dust storms in East Asia, but also lift Asian dust into westerly winds of the free troposphere for trans-Pacific transport; 2 Pattern of transport pathway over the North Pacific: The circulation patterns of westerlies over the North Pacific govern the trans-Pacific transport pattern. Strong zonal airflow of the westerly jet in the free troposphere over the North Pacific favor significant trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust; 3 Variation of precipitation in the North Pacific: The scavenging of Asian dust particles by precipitation is a major process of dust removal on the trans-Pacific transport pathway; therefore, variation of precipitation in the North Pacific could affect trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  11. Impact of dust filter installation in ironworks and construction on brownfield area on the toxic metal concentration in street and house dust (Celje, Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibret, Gorazd

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the impact of the ecological investment in ironworks (dust filter installation) and construction works at a highly contaminated brownfield site on the chemical composition of household dust (HD) and street sediment (SS) in Celje, Slovenia. The evaluation is based on two sampling campaigns: the first was undertaken 1 month before the ecological investment became operational and the second 3 years later. The results show that dust filter installations reduced the content of Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, W and Zn on average by 58% in HD and by 51% in SS. No reduction was observed at sampling points in the upwind direction from the ironworks. By contrast, the impact of the construction works on the highly contaminated brownfield site was detected by a significant increase (on average by 37%) of elements connected to the brownfield contamination in SS. Such increase was not detected in HD.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: NORTH AMERICAN SALT COMPANY'S DUSTGARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  13. Cost-minimization analysis of sublingual immunotherapy versus subcutaneous immunotherapy for house dust mite respiratory allergic disease in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønborg, Steen; Johnsen, Claus R; Theilgaard, Sune; Winther, Anders; Hahn-Pedersen, Julie; Andreasen, Jakob Nørgaard; Olsen, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Currently, patients with persistent moderate-to-severe house dust mite (HDM) allergic rhinitis despite use of symptom-relieving medication can be offered subcutaneously administered allergy immunotherapy (SQ SCIT; Alutard SQ) as standard care of treatment in Denmark. Recently, a HDM sublingually administered allergy immunotherapy tablet (SQ SLIT-tablet; ACARIZAX) has been developed for at-home treatment. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the costs related to treatment and administration of SQ SLIT-tablet and SQ SCIT. Methods Assuming equal efficacy between ther SQ SLIT-tablet and SQ SCIT, the cost-minimization analysis was the most appropriate for the comparison. According to guidelines and Summary of Product Characteristics, the treatment duration of SQ SLIT-tablet is 3 years and 3-5 years for SQ SCIT. The courses of treatment vary among patients and, therefore, the costs of treatment have been calculated for an average patient with HDM respiratory allergic disease (RAD) receiving either SQ SLIT-tablet or SQ SCIT. All costs associated with allergy immunotherapy were collected, i.e., cost of medication, administration and treatment setting, and discounted according to Danish guidelines. Comprehensive univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results The treatment costs for an average patient with HDM RAD are €3094 for SQ SLIT-tablet and €3799 for SQ SCIT; however, when adding indirect costs to the calculations the total costs of the treatments are €3697 and €6717 for SQ SLIT-tablet and SQ SCIT, respectively. Therefore, if 2500 patients with HDM RAD were treated with SQ SLIT-tablet instead of SQ SCIT, it would elicit a saving to the healthcare system of ∼€1.8 million. The conclusion was robust to any changes in the sensitivity analysis. Conclusion With regards to the cost of treating Danish patients with HDM RAD, it is clearly cost-saving to treat patients with SQ SLIT-tablet compared to SQ SCIT. PMID:26909663

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart: a novel gene arrangement among arthropods

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    Vanholme Bartel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the Sarcoptiformes. In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the most important member of this largely neglected group. Results The mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus is a circular DNA molecule of 14,203 bp. It contains the complete set of 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes, usually present in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial gene order differs considerably from that of other Acari mitochondrial genomes. Compared to the mitochondrial genome of Limulus polyphemus, considered as the ancestral arthropod pattern, only 11 of the 38 gene boundaries are conserved. The majority strand has a 72.6% AT-content but a GC-skew of 0.194. This skew is the reverse of that normally observed for typical animal mitochondrial genomes. A microsatellite was detected in a large non-coding region (286 bp, which probably functions as the control region. Almost all tRNA genes lack a T-arm, provoking the formation of canonical cloverleaf tRNA-structures, and both rRNA genes are considerably reduced in size. Finally, the genomic sequence was used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis clustered D. pteronyssinus with Steganacarus magnus, forming a sistergroup of the Trombidiformes. Conclusion Although the mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus shares different features with previously characterised Acari mitochondrial genomes, it is unique in many ways. Gene

  15. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  16. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care: study design and recruitment

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    de Jongste Johan C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to establish the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen compared to placebo treatment in 6 to18-year-old children with allergic rhinitis and a proven house dust mite allergy in primary care. Described here are the methodology, recruitment phases, and main characteristics of the recruited children. Methods Recruitment took place in September to December of 2005 and 2006. General practitioners (in south-west Netherlands selected children who had ever been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Children and parents could respond to a postal invitation. Children who responded positively were screened by telephone using a nasal symptom score. After this screening, an inclusion visit took place during which a blood sample was taken for the RAST test. Results A total of 226 general practitioners invited almost 6000 children: of these, 51% was male and 40% Conclusion Our study was designed in accordance with recent recommendations for research on establishing the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy; 98% of the target sample size was achieved. This study is expected to provide useful information on sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen in primary care. The results on efficacy and safety are expected to be available by 2010. Trial registration the trial is registered as ISRCTN91141483 (Dutch Trial Register

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in paired samples of maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma and associations with house dust in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Thomsen, Cathrine; Frøshaug, May;

    2010-01-01

    determined in placental tissue from the same individuals, and the relationship with the external exposure from house dust from the participants' homes was explored. Samples of maternal and umbilical cord plasma from a cohort of 51 pregnant women from the Copenhagen area were collected. Paired maternal...... and umbilical cord plasma were analysed for BDE-28, 37, 47, 85, 99, 100, 119, 138, 153, 154, 183, 209 and the brominated biphenyl BB-153 using automated SPE extraction and GC-HRMS for the tri- to hepta-BDEs and GC-LRMS (ECNI) for BDE-209. PBDEs were detected in all maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples...

  18. House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Conjunctivitis, and Mycoplasma spp. Isolated from North American Wild Birds, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, David H; Hawley, Dana M; Geary, Steven J; Dhondt, André A

    2016-07-01

    Sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. Faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. Herein we report making M. gallisepticum isolates from House Finches almost every year since the disease emerged in 1994, and we now have 227 isolates from 17 states. Our wild bird host range for M. gallisepticum isolates includes Blue Jay ( Cyanocitta cristata ), American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis), Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus), Evening Grosbeak ( Coccothraustes vespertinus ), and herein first reports for Western Scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica ), and American Crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ). By collecting and identifying isolates from birds with clinical signs similar to those of House Finch conjunctivitis, we also expanded the known host range of Mycoplasma sturni and obtained isolates from additional wild bird species. Accumulating evidence shows that a diverse range of wild bird species may carry or have been exposed to M. gallisepticum in the US, as in Europe and Asia. Therefore, the emergence of a pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain in House Finches may actually be the exception that has allowed us to identify the broader epidemiologic picture.

  19. House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Conjunctivitis, and Mycoplasma spp. Isolated from North American Wild Birds, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, David H; Hawley, Dana M; Geary, Steven J; Dhondt, André A

    2016-07-01

    Sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. Faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. Herein we report making M. gallisepticum isolates from House Finches almost every year since the disease emerged in 1994, and we now have 227 isolates from 17 states. Our wild bird host range for M. gallisepticum isolates includes Blue Jay ( Cyanocitta cristata ), American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis), Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus), Evening Grosbeak ( Coccothraustes vespertinus ), and herein first reports for Western Scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica ), and American Crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ). By collecting and identifying isolates from birds with clinical signs similar to those of House Finch conjunctivitis, we also expanded the known host range of Mycoplasma sturni and obtained isolates from additional wild bird species. Accumulating evidence shows that a diverse range of wild bird species may carry or have been exposed to M. gallisepticum in the US, as in Europe and Asia. Therefore, the emergence of a pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain in House Finches may actually be the exception that has allowed us to identify the broader epidemiologic picture. PMID:27285414

  20. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.

    2000-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  1. Intensification of North American Megadroughts through Surface and Dust Aerosol Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.; Mason, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Tree-ring-based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) indicate that, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the central plains of North America experienced recurrent periods of drought spanning decades or longer. These megadroughts had exceptional persistence compared to more recent events, but the causes remain uncertain. The authors conducted a suite of general circulation model experiments to test the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface forcing on the MCA megadroughts over the central plains. The land surface forcing is represented as a set of dune mobilization boundary conditions, derived from available geomorphological evidence and modeled as increased bare soil area and a dust aerosol source (32deg-44degN, 105deg-95degW). In the experiments, cold tropical Pacific SST forcing suppresses precipitation over the central plains but cannot reproduce the overall drying or persistence seen in the PDSI reconstruction. Droughts in the scenario with dust aerosols, however, are amplified and have significantly longer persistence than in other model experiments, more closely matching the reconstructed PDSI. This additional drying occurs because the dust increases the shortwave planetary albedo, reducing energy inputs to the surface and boundary layer. The energy deficit increases atmospheric stability, inhibiting convection and reducing cloud cover and precipitation over the central plains. Results from this study provide the first model-based evidence that dust aerosol forcing and land surface changes could have contributed to the intensity and persistence of the central plains megadroughts, although uncertainties remain in the formulation of the boundary conditions and the future importance of these feedbacks.

  2. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals’ experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (panimals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (pwelfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  3. Determinants of house dust, endotoxin, and β-(1→3)-d-glucan in homes of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Gitte Juel; Høst, Arne; Doekes, G;

    2015-01-01

    ) assessed their determinants; (iv) Finally, we compared our findings with previous European studies. Bedroom floor dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-d-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding...

  4. African-American homeless and low-income housed mothers: comparison of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A

    1997-01-01

    The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed. PMID:9034020

  5. The Metropolitan Military : Navy Families and Housing in the American Sunbelt, 1941 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Reft, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "The Metropolitan Military" examines military family housing from 1941 to 2000 and argues post-World War II militarization shaped the processes of suburbanization and urbanization and concepts regarding citizenship. During the 1950s and 60s, real estate interests and municipalities opposed military housing on the grounds that it threatened segregation, promoted socialism, and competed unfairly with private business. After a decade of economic turmoil and tax revolts, individual homeowners too...

  6. Unheard and Unseen: How Housing Insecure African American Adolescents Experience the Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.

    2016-01-01

    This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…

  7. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  8. Safety, tolerability, and impact on allergic inflammation of autologous E.coli autovaccine in the treatment of house dust mite asthma - a prospective open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Johannes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is increasing worldwide and results from a complex immunological interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Autovaccination with E. coli induces a strong TH-1 immune response, thus offering an option for the treatment of allergic diseases. Methods Prospective open trial on safety, tolerability, and impact on allergic inflammation of an autologous E.coli autovaccine in intermittent or mild persistent house dust mite asthma. Determination of exhaled nitric monoxide (eNO before and after bronchial mite challenge initially and after nine months of autovaccination. Results In nine subjects and a total of 306 injections, we observed 101 episodes of local erythema (33.3%; median of maximal diameter 2.5 cm, 95 episodes of local swelling (31.1%; median of maximal diameter 3 cm, and 27 episodes of local pain (8.8%. Four subjects reported itching at the injection site with a total of 30 episodes (9.8%. Median eNO increase after autovaccination was significantly smaller (from 27.3 to 33.8 ppb; p = 0.334 compared to initial values (from 32.6 to 42.2 ppb; p = 0.046 (p = 0.034. We observed no serious adverse events. All organ functions (inclusive electrocardiogramm and laboratory testing of the blood (clinical chemistry, hematology and the urine (screening test, Β-microglobuline were within normal limits. Vital signs undulated within the physiological variability. Conclusion The administration of autologous autovacine for the treatment of house dust mite asthma resulted in a reduction of the eNO increase upon bronchial mite challenge. In nine subjects and 306 injections, only a few mild local reactions and no systemic severe adverse events were observed. Trial registration EudraCT Nr. 2005-005534-12 ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00677209

  9. Modification of the late asthmatic reaction by hyposensitization in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) or grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, H P; Bosmans, J; De Clerck, L S; Stevens, W J

    1988-07-01

    The frequency and severity of the late asthmatic reaction (LAR) was studied in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mite (HDM) or grass pollen (GP) with and without hyposensitization (HS). The four groups were comparable according to their severity of asthma. All children were allergic to HDM (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) or GP according to history, skin testing and specific IgE determination via the RAST. The LAR occurred less frequently (29% versus 73%) (P less than 0.001) and was less severe in children receiving HS. The difference was significant between the children allergic to HDM as well as between children allergic to GP. The immediate asthmatic reaction (IAR) was also less severe in children allergic to HDM who received HS, compared to those who never received HS, (P = 0.033) although the PD20 of the HDM challenge (PD20HDM) was not different between the two groups. In children allergic to GP, there was no difference in PD20 of the GP challenge (PD20GP) or in severity of the IAR, whether the children received HS or not. There was no difference between the PD20HDM in patients who developed a LAR and in patients who did not. There was no relation between the type of asthmatic reaction following the allergen provocation test and the level of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and the level of house dust mite-specific IgG (IgGHDM) or grass pollen-specific IgE (IgGGP) in the different groups, determined before the challenge. There was a decrease in the level of IgG containing CIC (IgGCIC) during the LAR. It is concluded that the LAR occurs less frequently and is less severe in asthmatic children who receive HS. PMID:3414914

  10. A Qualitative Examination of Health Barriers and Facilitators Among African American Mothers in a Subsidized Housing Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-09-01

    Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming. PMID:27091605

  11. A Qualitative Examination of Health Barriers and Facilitators Among African American Mothers in a Subsidized Housing Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-09-01

    Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming.

  12. 78 FR 39539 - Establishing the White House Council on Native American Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... necessary for successful and prospering communities. We further recognize that restoring tribal lands..., and promoting respect for tribal cultures. Sec. 2. Establishment. There is established the White House... Business Administration; (xxi) the Council of Economic Advisers; (xxii) the Office of National Drug...

  13. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience, environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001. Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001. Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001. There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138 and Asian (N = 117 species or between males (N = 54 and females (N = 201. The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05. The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  14. Savings associated with high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite immunotherapy in rhinitis and/or asthma patients in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Robaina, José Carlos; Polanco Sánchez, Carlos; Estella Pérez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the cost difference between conventional symptomatic treatment of mite allergy and specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Methods Observational, retrospective, and multicenter study was carried out in Spain in 2013. The medical records of 419 patients diagnosed with rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma for mite allergy were retrieved. Mean age was 24.9 years (standard deviation 14.4). The use of symptomatic medication (rescue and daily), diagnostic tests, unscheduled medical care, and sick leave days associated with SCIT treatment versus no-SCIT treatment was compared. Also measured was the SCIT treatment to no-SCIT treatment costs ratio: used resources (symptomatic medication, unscheduled medical care, diagnostic tests, and 3 years SCIT treatment and sick leave days) were quantified in euros. Efficacy (decreased resource usage) of first-year treatment was assumed during the remaining 2 years and also during the 3-year follow-up period. Results After a single year of SCIT, all quantified resources diminished significantly (P<0.05) from baseline. Estimated reduction in cost items included hospital resources (100% in hospitalizations, 82% in visits to the allergist, and 79% in emergency room visits), therapies (56% in rescue medication and 63% in daily medication), diagnostic tests (77%), and sick leave days (94%). Ratio of comparative calculation described as SCIT treatment versus non-SCIT treatment (or conventional symptomatic treatment) is 0.8. Conclusion Direct costs are reduced by 64% and indirect costs by 94%. SCIT of hypoallergenic preparation of dust mite (Acaroid®) allows cost savings versus conventional treatment. Estimated savings for the public National Health System are 5.7 times the cost of immunotherapy. PMID:27366098

  15. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses.

  16. Exposure to soil, house dust and decaying plants increases gut microbial diversity and decreases serum immunoglobulin E levels in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongrui; Zhang, Honglin; Bai, Zhimao; Zhang, Aidi; Bai, Futian; Luo, Xing; Hou, Yue; Ding, Xiao; Sun, Beili; Sun, Xiao; Ma, Ning; Wang, Cuifen; Dai, Xiaoniu; Lu, Zuhong

    2016-05-01

    To assess the impact of sanitation of a living environment on gut microbiota and development of the immune system, we raised BALB/c mice under three distinct environmental conditions: a specific pathogen-free animal room (SPF), a general animal room (XZ) and a farmhouse (JD). All other variables like diet, age, genetic background, physiological status and original gut microbiota were controlled for in the three groups. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that each mouse group had a specific structure of the gut microbial community. Groups JD and XZ harboured a significantly more diverse and richer gut microbiota than did group SPF. Bacteroidetes were significantly more abundant in groups XZ and JD than in group SPF, whereas Firmicutes showed the inverse pattern. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower in groups XZ and JD than in group SPF. There were no significant differences in gut microbiota diversity and serum IgE concentration between groups JD and XZ, but we found higher abundance of dominant genera in the gut microflora of group JD. We conclude that exposure to soil, house dust and decaying plant material enhances gut microbial diversity and innate immunity. Our results seem to provide new evidence supporting the hygiene hypothesis.

  17. Extracellular superoxide dismutase ameliorates house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation and inhibits mast cell activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sang; Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Han-Woong; Lee, Weontae; Kim, Woo Taek; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an enzyme that catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anions. It has multiple functions, such as reactive oxygen species scavenging, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antichemotatic and antitumor activities. Recently, we demonstrated that EC-SOD inhibits ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. However, the anti-allergic effect of EC-SOD on skin tissue and the role of EC-SOD in mast cells, which are important for allergic responses, have not been well studied. In this study, we investigated whether EC-SOD can alleviate atopic dermatitis in mice and inhibit mast cell activation. Treatment with human recombinant EC-SOD ameliorated house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis in mice. Furthermore, the levels of pro-allergic cytokine gene expression and histamine release increased in EC-SOD KO mast cells and decreased in EC-SOD overexpressing mast cells, suggesting that EC-SOD inhibits mast cell activation. Consistently, a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis experiment showed more blood leakage from EC-SOD KO mouse ear skin, implying that the lack of EC-SOD increases allergic responses. These results suggest that EC-SOD inhibits mast cell activation and atopic dermatitis and that the loss of EC-SOD causes more severe allergic responses, implying that EC-SOD might be a good drug candidate for treatment of allergic disorders, such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:27061078

  18. Immunomodulatory mechanisms of house dust extracts exposure on allergic asthma%屋尘提取物暴露对过敏性哮喘的免疫调节机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文涛; 杨朝崴; 郑晓宁; 李靖

    2016-01-01

    人们大部分时间是在室内度过的,特别是婴幼儿.室内环境对生命早期免疫的成熟影响极大.屋尘能够反映室内环境卫生状况以及各种刺激因子的暴露水平.动物实验研究表明,屋尘提取物既有Th2免疫佐剂效应,又有免疫保护效应,这取决于屋尘提取物暴露的持续时间和剂量.为进一步明确室内环境暴露与过敏性哮喘的关系并为早期防治提供更好的策略,文章分别从微生物成分与哮喘、屋尘提取物干预的哮喘动物模型、屋尘提取物对过敏性哮喘小鼠影响的激活路径等三个方面,综述屋尘提取物暴露对过敏性哮喘的免疫调节机制.%Every day people spend most of their time in the house,especially infant and toddler,indoor environment greatly affect people's health.And house dust can basically reflect the hygiene condition of the living environment and the exposure levels of a variety of stimulating factors.Animal studies have shown that house dust extracts (HDEs) both have Th2 adjuvant activities and tolerogenic activities in allergic asthma,depended on the exposure of the schedule and doses of the house dust extracts.In order to further establish the relationship between the house dust exposure and allergic asthma,and provide a better strategy of prevention and treatment for allergic asthma,we mainly discuss the following three aspects,microbial products and asthma,HDEs preparation and animal models,and the pathways of HDEs affecting the murine model of allergic asthma,review immunomodulatory mechanisms of house dust extracts exposure in murine with allergic asthma.

  19. Savings associated with high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite immunotherapy in rhinitis and/or asthma patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Robaina JC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available José Carlos García Robaina,1 Carlos Polanco Sánchez,2 Elvira Estella Pérez,2 1Allergy Department, University Hospital Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 2Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Corporate Affairs, Merck S.L., Madrid, Spain Objectives: To quantify the cost difference between conventional symptomatic treatment of mite allergy and specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT. Methods: Observational, retrospective, and multicenter study was carried out in Spain in 2013. The medical records of 419 patients diagnosed with rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma for mite allergy were retrieved. Mean age was 24.9 years (standard deviation 14.4. The use of symptomatic medication (rescue and daily, diagnostic tests, unscheduled medical care, and sick leave days associated with SCIT treatment versus no-SCIT treatment was compared. Also measured was the SCIT treatment to no-SCIT treatment costs ratio: used resources (symptomatic medication, unscheduled medical care, diagnostic tests, and 3 years SCIT treatment and sick leave days were quantified in euros. Efficacy (decreased resource usage of first-year treatment was assumed during the remaining 2 years and also during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: After a single year of SCIT, all quantified resources diminished significantly (P<0.05 from baseline. Estimated reduction in cost items included hospital resources (100% in hospitalizations, 82% in visits to the allergist, and 79% in emergency room visits, therapies (56% in rescue medication and 63% in daily medication, diagnostic tests (77%, and sick leave days (94%. Ratio of comparative calculation described as SCIT treatment versus non-SCIT treatment (or conventional symptomatic treatment is 0.8. Conclusion: Direct costs are reduced by 64% and indirect costs by 94%. SCIT of hypoallergenic preparation of dust mite (Acaroid® allows cost savings versus conventional treatment. Estimated savings for the public National Health

  20. Mental Health and the Elderly: Issues in Service Delivery to the American Indian and the Hispanic Communities. Part II. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Denver, Colorado).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This field hearing by the House Select Committee on Aging produced testimony on the mental health problems and service delivery needs of American Indian and Hispanic American elderly. A director of research and two American Indian advocates: (1) pointed out the high rate of depression among Indian elderly due to physical impairments and deprived…

  1. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  2. The House, the Street and the Brothel: Gender in Latin American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kuznesof

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be prevalent principally among the non-white and non-elite populations. From 1750 to 1930, profound and contradictory changes included a secularization process that caused women’s loss of many colonial protections. However, new opportunities developed for women’s employment and control of property. Women were essentially controlled within the private sphere during the colonial period, but that control moved to the workplace in the nineteenth century, and to the state in the early twentieth century. Gender was an important discourse in struggles to define the nation-state, with prostitution and disease as central themes. In the twentieth century social historians have demonstrated the differential gender impacts of economic and technological change brought by development projects, industrialization, and shifting strategies of multinational corporations. The most striking contributions of recent books on gender in Latin America include the continuing significance of honor after independence. Motherhood is another recurring theme in writings about women and their history in Latin America.

  3. Neutralization of TSLP inhibits airway remodeling in a murine model of allergic asthma induced by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang-Gui Chen

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. However, the initiating factor that links airway inflammation to remodeling is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, an epithelium-derived cytokine, can strongly activate lung dendritic cells (DCs through the TSLP-TSLPR and OX40L-OX40 signaling pathways to promote Th2 differentiation. To determine whether TSLP is the underlying trigger of airway remodeling in chronic allergen-induced asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extracts for up to 5 consecutive weeks. We showed that repeated respiratory exposure to HDM caused significant airway eosinophilic inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, goblet cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR to methacholine. These effects were accompanied with a salient Th2 response that was characterized by the upregulation of Th2-typed cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, as well as the transcription factor GATA-3. Moreover, the levels of TSLP and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 were also increased in the airway. We further demonstrated, using the chronic HDM-induced asthma model, that the inhibition of Th2 responses via neutralization of TSLP with an anti-TSLP mAb reversed airway inflammation, prevented structural alterations, and decreased AHR to methacholine and TGF-β1 level. These results suggest that TSLP plays a pivotal role in the initiation and persistence of airway inflammation and remodeling in the context of chronic allergic asthma.

  4. Innate immune response of alveolar macrophage to house dust mite allergen is mediated through TLR2/-4 co-activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fang Liu

    Full Text Available House dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p, is one of the major allergens responsible for allergic asthma. However, the putative receptors involved in the signalization of Der p to the innate immune cells are still poorly defined as well as the impact of their activation on the outcome of the allergen-induced cell response. We previously reported that the HDM activation of mouse alveolar macrophages (AM involves the TLR4/CD14 cell surface receptor complex. Here using a TLR ligand screening essay, we demonstrate that HDM protein extract engages the TLR2, in addition to the TLR4, in engineered TLR-transfected HEK cells but also in the MH-S mouse alveolar macrophage cell line model. Moreover we found that the concomitant recruitment of the MH-S cell's TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract activates the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and leads to the secretion of the NF-κB regulated pro-inflammatory factors NO and TNF-α. However unlike with the canonical TLR4 ligand (i.e. the bacterial LPS mobilization of TLR4 by the HDM extract induces a reduced production of the IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine and fails to trigger the expression of the T-bet transcription factor. Finally we demonstrated that HDM extract down-regulates LPS induced IL-12 and T-bet expression through a TLR2 dependent mechanism. Therefore, we propose that the simultaneous engagement of the TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract results in a cross regulated original activation pattern of the AM which may contribute to the Th2 polarization of the allergen-induced immune response. The deciphering of these cross-regulation networks is of prime importance to open the way for original therapeutic strategies taking advantage of these receptors and their associated signaling pathways to treat allergic asthma.

  5. Interleukin-33 from Monocytes Recruited to the Lung Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Hiroki; Takahashi, Koichiro; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Kato, Go; Kurata, Keigo; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-33 (IL-33) activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), resulting in T-helper-2 inflammation in bronchial asthma. Airway epithelial cells were reported as sources of IL-33 during apoptosis and necrosis. However, IL-33 is known to be from sources other than airway epithelial cells such as leukocytes, and the mechanisms of IL-33 production and release are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of IL-33 production by monocytes in airway inflammation. Methods BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with a house dust mite (HDM) preparation. Airway inflammation was assessed by quantifying inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels in lung. Immunohistochemistry for IL-33 in lung sections was also performed. Ly6c, CD11b, and CD11c expression was examined by flow cytometry. Clodronate liposomes were used in the HDM-airway inflammation model to deplete circulating monocytes. Results The IL-33, but not IL-25 or TSLP, level in lung homogenates was markedly increased in HDM mice compared to control mice. IL-33-positive cells in the lungs were identified using immunohistochemistry and were increased in areas surrounding bronchi and vasculature. Furthermore, IL-33 levels were increased in mononuclear cells derived from lungs of HDM mice compared to controls. The expression of Ly6c in mononuclear cells was significantly higher in HDM mice than in controls. Treatment with clodronate liposomes led to inhibition of not only inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, airway hyper reactivity and Th2 cytokines in lung, but also IL-33 in lung. Conclusion IL-33 from monocytes recruited to the lung may contribute to the pathogenesis of HDM-induced airway inflammation. PMID:27310495

  6. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  7. Interleukin-33 from Monocytes Recruited to the Lung Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tashiro

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 (IL-33 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2, resulting in T-helper-2 inflammation in bronchial asthma. Airway epithelial cells were reported as sources of IL-33 during apoptosis and necrosis. However, IL-33 is known to be from sources other than airway epithelial cells such as leukocytes, and the mechanisms of IL-33 production and release are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of IL-33 production by monocytes in airway inflammation.BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with a house dust mite (HDM preparation. Airway inflammation was assessed by quantifying inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP levels in lung. Immunohistochemistry for IL-33 in lung sections was also performed. Ly6c, CD11b, and CD11c expression was examined by flow cytometry. Clodronate liposomes were used in the HDM-airway inflammation model to deplete circulating monocytes.The IL-33, but not IL-25 or TSLP, level in lung homogenates was markedly increased in HDM mice compared to control mice. IL-33-positive cells in the lungs were identified using immunohistochemistry and were increased in areas surrounding bronchi and vasculature. Furthermore, IL-33 levels were increased in mononuclear cells derived from lungs of HDM mice compared to controls. The expression of Ly6c in mononuclear cells was significantly higher in HDM mice than in controls. Treatment with clodronate liposomes led to inhibition of not only inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, airway hyper reactivity and Th2 cytokines in lung, but also IL-33 in lung.IL-33 from monocytes recruited to the lung may contribute to the pathogenesis of HDM-induced airway inflammation.

  8. Lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells and airway vascularization is only partially dependant on eosinophils in a house dust mite-exposed mouse model of allergic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirooya Sivapalan

    Full Text Available Asthmatic responses involve a systemic component where activation of the bone marrow leads to mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. This traffic may be driven by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, a potent progenitor chemoattractant. We have previously shown that airway angiogenesis, an early remodeling event, can be inhibited by preventing the migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC to the lungs. Given intranasally, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that inhibits SDF-1 mediated effects, attenuated allergen-induced lung-homing of EPC, vascularization of pulmonary tissue, airway eosinophilia and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Since SDF-1 is also an eosinophil chemoattractant, we investigated, using a transgenic eosinophil deficient mouse strain (PHIL whether EPC lung accumulation and lung vascularization in allergic airway responses is dependent on eosinophilic inflammation.Wild-type (WT BALB/c and eosinophil deficient (PHIL mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM using a chronic exposure protocol and treated with AMD3100 to modulate SDF-1 stimulated progenitor traffic. Following HDM challenge, lung-extracted EPCs were enumerated along with airway inflammation, microvessel density (MVD and airway methacholine responsiveness (AHR.Following Ag sensitization, both WT and PHIL mice exhibited HDM-induced increase in airway inflammation, EPC lung-accumulation, lung angiogenesis and AHR. Treatment with AMD3100 significantly attenuated outcome measures in both groups of mice. Significantly lower levels of EPC and a trend for lower vascularization were detected in PHIL versus WT mice.This study shows that while allergen-induced lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells, increased tissue vascularization and development lung dysfunction can occur in the absence of eosinophils, the presence of these cells worsens the pathology of the allergic response.

  9. The effects of inhaled corticosteroids on intrinsic responsiveness and histology of airways from infant monkeys exposed to house dust mite allergen and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys were exposed by inhalation to (1) filtered air and saline, (2) house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + ozone and saline, (3) filtered air and ICS (budesonide) or (4) HDMA + ozone and ICS. Allergen/ozone exposures started at 1 month and ICS at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, methacholine-induced changes in luminal area of airways in proximal and distal lung slices were determined using videomicrometry, followed by histology of the same slices. Proximal airway responsiveness was increased by allergen/ozone and by ICS. Eosinophil profiles were increased by allergen/ozone in both proximal and distal airways, an effect that was decreased by ICS in distal airways. In both allergen/ozone- and air-exposed monkeys, ICS increased the number of alveolar attachments in distal airways, decreased mucin in proximal airways and decreased epithelial volume in both airways. ICS increased smooth muscle in air-exposed animals while decreasing it in allergen/ozone-exposed animals in both airways. In proximal airways, there was a small but significant positive correlation between smooth muscle and airway responsiveness, as well as between alveolar attachments and responsiveness. ICS change morphology and function in normal airways as well as allergen/ozone-exposed airways, suggesting that they should be reserved for infants with active symptoms

  10. Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System DesignBy: Ryan L. Shelby Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Alice M. Agogino, ChairOver the last quarter-century, the twin concepts of sustainability and sustainable development have emerged as a defining imperative of humanity that is situated at the nexus of science, ...

  11. House dust mite major allergens Der p 1 and Der p 5 activate human airway-derived epithelial cells by protease-dependent and protease-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmerman J André B

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract House dust mite allergens (HDM cause bronchoconstriction in asthma patients and induce an inflammatory response in the lungs due to the release of cytokines, chemokines and additional mediators. The mechanism how HDM components achieve this is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether HDM components of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus with protease activity (Der p 1 and unknown enzymatic activity (Der p 2, Der p 5 induce biological responses in a human airway-derived epithelial cell line (A549, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s of action. A549 cells were incubated with HDM extract, Der p 1, recombinant Der p 2 and recombinant Der p 5. Cell desquamation was assessed by microscopy. The proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, were measured by ELISA. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were assessed in A549 cells and in mouse fibroblasts expressing the human protease activated receptor (PAR1, PAR2 or PAR4. HDM extract, Der p 1 and Der p 5 dose-dependently increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. Added simultaneously, Der p 1 and Der p 5 further increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. The action of Der p 1 was blocked by cysteine-protease inhibitors, while that of Der p 5 couldn't be blocked by either serine- or cysteine protease inhibitors. Der p 5 only induced cell shrinking, whereas HDM extract and Der p1 also induced cell desquamation. Der p 2 had no effect on A549 cells. Der p 1's protease activity causes desquamation and induced the release of IL6 and IL-8 by a mechanism independent of Ca2+ mobilisation and PAR activation. Der p 5 exerts a protease-independent activation of A549 that involves Ca2+ mobilisation and also leads to the production of these cytokines. Together, our data indicate that allergens present in HDM extracts can trigger protease-dependent and protease-independent signalling pathways in A549 cells.

  12. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems.

  13. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems. PMID:24033508

  14. Anticipatory activity and stereotypical behaviour in American mink (Mustela vison) in three housing systems differing in the amount of enrichments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, C.M.; Bos, van den R.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure anticipatory activity in farmed mink (Mustela vison) to study the effects of the presence of environmental enrichments in three housing systems differing in cage structure and in the amount of enrichments. In studies on laboratory rats, anticipatory activity is use

  15. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  16. 硅铁除尘系统中螺旋输灰机构参数的选择%SELECTION OF PARAMETERS OF SCREW CONVEYOR IN BAG HOUSE DUST COLLECTOR IN FeSi FURNACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鹏翔

    2001-01-01

    The screw conveyor was adopted in bag house dust collector in 12.5MVA FeSi furnace,and its parameters were calculated and selected.The practice showed that the screw conveyor runned well,the service effect was good.%12.5MVA硅铁炉布袋反吸烟气净化系统中采用了螺旋输灰机构,并对输灰机构的参数进行了计算和选择。经生产中使用,螺旋输灰机运行良好,取得了较好的使用效果。

  17. Advances of nanoparticle-DNA vaccine of house dust mite%纳米粒子-DNA疫苗治疗屋尘螨抗原过敏的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔运勇; 杨慧

    2011-01-01

    Der p 1 and Der p 2 are the most characteristic allergic antigen during the research of house dust mite desensitization therapy, Der p 2 is substituting the former because of its stability and resistance to degradation. The traditional specific immunotherapy is limited because of long cure cycle,side effect and the lack of patients' compliance. Though oral DNA vaccine don't have these drawbacks, it's difficult to overcome the substance during GI tract. Nanoparticles-DNA vaccine is widely used in recent years,the main advantage of nanoparticles embed with DNA vaccines is it can effectively protect the DNA vaccine. This article is a review of the research of using nanoparticles in curing house dust mite allergy.%在屋尘螨多种变应原中,Der p1和Der p2是研制屋尘螨变应原疫苗主要的特异性抗原,而Der p2由于较Der p1更稳定和耐降解正逐渐取代后者.传统的过敏原特异性治疗的周期长、易产生不良反应、患者依从性差,口服DNA疫苗可以消除上述困难,但又难以克服消化道中的各种屏障,利用纳米粒子包被DNA疫苗可以有效保护DNA疫苗不被降解,因此得到了广泛认可.本文就纳米粒子-DNA疫苗治疗屋尘螨抗原过敏的研究进展作一综述.

  18. The effect of disodium cromoglycate, budesonide, and cyclosporin A on interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 secretions in Der p I-stimulated T cells from house dust mite-sensitive atopic and nonatopic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Yong

    2002-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), budesonide, and cyclosporin A (CsA) were the well-known immunomodulators for the allergic and immunologic diseases clinically. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of inhibition on cytokine synthesis of Der p I-stimulated T cells by the same inhibiting concentrations of DSCG, budesonide, and CsA in house-dust mite antigen (Der p I)-specific atopic and nonatopic healthy individuals. Seven house dust mite allergen specific patients were recruited for this study. Seven healthy volunteers were included on the basis of negative allergic manifestations and low serum immunoglobulin E values. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2 with or without budesonide, DSCG, CsA, and Der p I for 48 hours. Cells were stained with anti-CD4 fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and then anti-human IL-4 phycoerythrin, IL-5, or IL-13 monoclonal antibody, respectively, was added to both blocked and stained samples. Incubation of PBMC from atopics with each immunomodulator and Der p I resulted in the reduction of IL-4 secretion compared with Der p I alone stimulation. However, IL-4 secretion in PBMC from nonatopics was not reduced with DSCG and Der p I stimulation. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretions of PBMC from atopics were significantly decreased after incubation with each immunomodulator and Der p I, compared with after incubation with Der p I alone. These results might be considered to show either that DSCG has a selective inhibiting effect on cytokine production in T cells from atopics or is a weak inhibitor of cytokine secretions compared with budesonide and CsA at even strength for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in normal, healthy individuals. PMID:12001789

  19. Exposure to Beta-(1,3-D-glucan in house dust at age 7-10 is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and atopic asthma by age 11-14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharini Maheswaran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mould exposure has been linked to childhood asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Few studies have assessed beta-(1,3-d-glucan (beta-glucan, a significant fungal cell wall constituent, in relation to asthma in adolescence. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether house dust-derived beta-glucan exposure at age 7-10 is associated with the development and persistence of atopic and non-atopic asthma, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR by age 11-14. METHODS: Dust samples were collected from the 1995 Study of Asthma, Genes, and Environment (SAGE birth cohort. This cohort was derived from Manitoba provincial healthcare administrative records of children high and low risk for asthma. Samples were collected from the homes of 422 children at age 7-10 and analyzed using beta-glucan and endotoxin-specific Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assays. Asthma, atopy, and BHR status of each child were also assessed at ages 7-10 and 11-14. RESULTS: At age 7-10, beta-glucan dust levels in the home were associated with persistent atopic asthma at age 11-14 (OR 1.79 for each unit increase in levels, 95% CI 1.14-2.81, independent of endotoxin exposure, and Alternaria or Cladosporium sensitization. The likelihood of BHR almost doubled with unit increases in dust beta-glucan in asthmatic children. In children without asthma, exposure to high beta-glucan levels at age 7-10 also elevated risk for BHR in adolescence (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.89. New-onset atopic asthma was twice more likely following high beta-glucan exposure in children without asthma but the association did not reach statistical significance. No associations were evident with concurrent asthma phenotype at age 7-10 or non-atopic asthma at age 11-14. CONCLUSION: These findings implicate home beta-glucan exposure at school-age as a risk factor for persistent atopic asthma and new-onset BHR. The higher prevalence of BHR in urban adolescents may be propagated by this home exposure.

  20. Is There a Free-Market Economist in the House? The Policy Views of American Economic Association Members

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Daniel B.; Stern, Charlotta

    2006-01-01

    People often suppose or imply that free-market economists constitute a significant portion of all economists. We surveyed American Economic Association members and asked their views on 18 specific forms of government activism. We find that about 8 percent of AEA members can be considered supporters of free-market principles, and that less than 3 percent may be called strong supporters. The data is broken down by voting behavior (Democratic or Republican). Even the average Republican AEA membe...

  1. Native American Children, Youth, and Families. Part 3. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Albuquerque, NM, January 10, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    As part of a weeklong investigation into conditions among Native American families and children, the House of Representatives Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families met to hear testimony from tribal leaders, parents, young adults, and service providers from reservations and pueblos in New Mexico and Colorado. Topics include unemployment…

  2. AN ANALYSIS ON SOCIAL HOUSING POICIES IN SHENZHEN AND AMERICAN REFERENCES%深圳保障性住房政策分析及美国经验借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志丹; 白鹏; 宋彦; 黄斌; 赵凯茜

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the three major difficulties of Shenzhen's affordable housing system,including the issues with the housing planning system,financing,house units'supply.Then we introduce the effective experiences that how American cities response to the same set of issues.To enrich our housing policies and promote affordable housing development,we propose to integrate the housing planning system,broaden the funding sources(such as by community land trust),and use public policies such as inclusionary programs to expand the supply of affordable house units.%本文总结剖析了深圳市保障性住房在当前发展过程中遇到的制度、资金、实体房源三大困难,并通过介绍美国城市的住房政策应对上述困难的有效经验,提出完善住房规划体系、拓宽资金渠道(如利用社区土地信托制度),以及利用包容性区划等公共政策来扩大房源保障途径等建议,以丰富国内城市的住房政策和促进保障房建设。

  3. Improved poultry house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  4. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Miller

    Full Text Available For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  5. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele A.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Meehan, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health. PMID:27415763

  6. 美国联邦政府与种族居住隔离问题的探讨%An Investigation into the Issues of Racial Housing Segregation in Contemporary American Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玲

    2013-01-01

    通过分析美国联邦政府在实施公平住房政策中的做法和表现,指出联邦政府对当代美国社会依然盛行的种族居住隔离现状负有一定责任,并且在其消除种族居住隔离的实践中,也存在其它制约性因素。%The operation at the early period and activities during the enforcement of Fair Housing Policy indicate that the Federal Government is partly responsible for the present situation of racial housing segregation in contemporary American society.However, there are certain restrictive factors in its efforts to eliminate racial housing segregation .

  7. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  8. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg;

    2015-01-01

    term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points...

  9. Treg细胞在儿童过敏性哮喘SIT治疗过程中的变化%Change of treg cells during house dust mites specific immunotherapy for children with allergic asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊民; 李付广

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to observe house dust mite (HDM) allergic children with asthma allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) in peripheral blood CD4+CD25+CD127-Tcells accounted for the percentage of CD4+T cells changes and their role in the SIT treatment, preliminary study of children with allergic asthma SIT mechanism, so as to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Methods First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University pediatric clinic 48 cases of children with allergic asthma patients divided into two groups, one group for standardization SIT 1.5~2 years later, the two groups were collected peripheral blood. Each flow cytometry specimens CD4+CD25+CD127-T cells accounted for the percentage of CD4+Tcells, the results were statistically analyzed using statistical software. Results CD4+CD25+CD127-Tcells accounted for the percentage of CD4+T cells in HDM-SIT group was significantly higher. Conclusion The present study further confirmed SIT asthma treatment is effective;in HDM-SIT groupCD4+CD25+CD127-Tcells accounted for the percentage of CD4+Tcells increasedCD4+CD25+CD127-Tcells, suggesting that CD4+CD25+CD127-T cells may be specifically allergic asthma in children immunotherapy plays an important role.%目的:本研究通过观察对室尘螨(HDM)过敏的儿童哮喘患者,过敏原特异性免疫治疗(allergen specific immunotherapy, SIT)后外周血CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg细胞(regulatory T cell, Treg)细胞)占CD4+T cell的百分比的变化,以及它们在SIT治疗中的作用,初步探讨儿童过敏性哮喘SIT的机制,从而为哮喘的防治提供新思路。方法选取郑州大学第一附属医院儿科门诊48例儿童过敏性哮喘患者分两组,一组进行标准化SIT 1.5~2年后,采集两组患者的外周静脉血。用流式细胞仪检测每组标本中CD4+CD25+CD127-T细胞占CD4+T细胞的百分比,结果采用统计学软件进行统计学分析。结果CD4+CD25+CD127-T细胞占CD4+T

  10. Diez mitos que debilitan la política de vivienda en Latinoamerica/Ten Myths Undermining Latin American Housing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Gilbert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La política de vivienda de Latinoamérica no puede considerarse como un gran éxito. Las cifras oficiales muestran que el déficit de vivienda está incrementando en la mayoría de países. Por su puesto, resolver el problema de la vivienda es un asunto difícil, y el rápido crecimiento urbano junto con los altos niveles de pobreza hacen que sea aún más complicado. Sin embargo, hay muchas fallas en la política de vivienda actual, y este artículo identifica diez mitos que han infiltrado el léxico de la política de vivienda. Este artículo es una invitación a los gobiernos de la región para que consideren si alguno de los mitos identificados, o todos, aún persisten dentro de sus propias políticas, y si estos mitos son tan nocivos como se sugiere en este artículo. Housing policy in Latin America cannot be regarded as having been a huge success. Official figures show that the housing deficit is rising in most countries. Of course, solving the housing problem is difficult and complicated further by rapid urban growth and too much poverty. Nonetheless, there are many failings in current housing policy and the current paper identifies ten myths that have infiltrated the housing policy lexicon. This paper is an invitation to the region's governments to consider whether any or all of the identified myths persist within their own policies and whether those myths are as damaging as will be suggested here.

  11. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  12. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  13. Safety of specific immunotherapy with standardized house-dust mite vaccine in asthmatic children%标准化屋尘螨提取液治疗儿童支气管哮喘的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝创利; 陶慧; 沈美菊; 侯政

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过观察进行标准化屋尘螨特异性免疫治疗(脱敏治疗)的支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)患儿,在脱敏治疗过程中出现的不良反应,评价脱敏治疗的安全性.方法 对在苏州大学附属儿童医院哮喘专科门诊临床确诊的110例哮喘患儿,应用(丹麦ALK-Abell(o)公司安脱达)标准化屋尘螨提取液进行皮下注射脱敏治疗.观察每次注射后不良反应发生情况,统计脱敏治疗的不良反应发生率.结果 在110例患儿共接受免疫注射2332人次,发生局部不良反应291人次(发生率12.48%),其中速发型局部不良反应146人次(6.26%),迟发型局部不良反应145人次(6.22%).局部不良反应在20~800SQU、2000~80 000SQU、100 000 SQU阶段的发生率分别是:1.05%(6/569)、12.05%(97/805)和19.62%(188/958),差异有统计学意义.发生全身不良反应79人次(3.39%),1例次为3级非致命性全身反应,其余均为轻度全身反应(包括哮喘、过敏性鼻炎,过敏性结膜炎、过敏性皮炎),其中速发型全身不良反应49人次(2.10%).迟发型全身不良反应为30人次(1.29%).全身不良反应在20~800 SQU、2 000~80 000 SQU、100 000 SQU阶段的发生率分别是:0.35%(2/569)、6.71%(54/805)和2.51%(24/958),差异有统计学意义.结论 哮喘患儿对标准化屋尘螨提取液特异性免疫治疗耐受性良好.绝大多数局部不良反应为轻度,其发生率随注射提取物浓度增高而增高.全身不良反应绝大多数为轻度,以发生在2 000~80 000 SQU剂量明显上升阶段为最多,在此阶段多加注意.全身不良反应以注射浓度2 000~80 000 SQU为最高.而局部不良反应以100 000 SQU组为最高,提示局部不良反应和全身不良反应不平行.局部不良反应发生不提示全身不良反应发生.%Objective To evaluate the safety of specific immunotherapy(SIT)with standardized house dust mite(HDM)vaccine on allergic asthmatic children.Methods 110 patients with mild to moderate

  14. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247

  15. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  16. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  17. The Missing Link in Housing Sector Reforms in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akintunde Otubu

    2012-01-01

    Housing is a fundamental product for every human being irrespective of financial standing. World acclaimed American psychologist, Abraham Maslow ranked shelter as second only to food in his hierarchy of human needs. Despite the importance of housing to the socio-economic development of man and the nation, housing problems have remained endemic throughout the world. In today’s world, some 100 million persons are homeless and more than a billion are inadequately housed. In 2002 housing deficit...

  18. Housing Market and Housing Investment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    UNAYAMA Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explain why housing investment in Japan stagnated in the 2000s. Housing investment consists of two parts: replacement and a net increase of housing stock, which can be further decomposed into changes in the number of households and the housing utilization rate. Using the Housing and Land Survey, it is shown that all of the following factors caused the decrease in housing investment: house replacement decreased due to an increasing share of non-wooden houses and collective h...

  19. Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, A. S.; Middleton, N. J.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reviews recent work on the role of Saharan dust in environmental change, the location and strength of source areas, the transport paths of material away from the desert, the rates of Saharan dust deposition, the nature of that material (including PeriSaharan loess) and the changing rates of dust activity in response to long and short-term climatic changes. The Sahara produces more aeolian soil dust than any other world desert, and Saharan dust has an important impact on climatic processes, nutrient cycles, soil formation and sediment cycles. These influences spread far beyond Africa, thanks to the great distances over which Saharan dust is transported. The precise locations of Saharan dust source areas are not well known, but data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) suggest two major source areas: the Bodélé depression and an area covering eastern Mauritania, western Mali and southern Algeria. Trajectories of long-distance transport are relatively well documented, but the links between source areas and seasonal Saharan dust pathways are not. However, it is possible that Harmattan dust from the Bodélé depression may not be the source of the prominent winter plume over the tropical North Atlantic, as is often suggested in the literature. Few of the data on particle size characteristics of Saharan dust are derived from major source areas or from Africa itself. Saharan dusts sampled from the Harmattan plume and over Europe are dominated by SiO 2 and Al 2O 3, a characteristic they share with North American and Chinese dusts. The concentrations of these two major elements are similar to those found in world rocks. PeriSaharan loess is conspicuous by its relative absence, considering the Sahara's dominance of the global desert dust cycle both in the contemporary era and through the geological past. In recent decades, the frequency of Saharan dust events has varied markedly in response to climatic factors such as drought and anthropogenic

  20. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  1. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Bex-Capelle, Valérie; Huonnic, Didier; Balaine, Loïc; Guillam, Marie-Thérèse; Squizani, Fabrice; Ségala, Claire; Michel, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract 1. Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. 2. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 ?m) from cage and alternative system henhouses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experiment...

  2. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  3. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  4. House Slaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rising house prices in China’s major cities is a major headache for people taking a first step on the property ladder and has led to a growing number sacrificing quality of life just to have a home of their own Closely watching the family’s spend- ing a

  5. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Le Bouquin, S; Bex-Capelle, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Guillam, M-T; Squizani, F; Segala, C; Michel, V

    2011-10-01

    Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 µm) from cage and alternative system houses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experimental and commercial conditions. The endotoxin concentration was higher in experimental aviaries (median: 565 EU/m³, range: 362-1491 EU/m³) than in cage housing (98 EU/m³ (51-470)). In field conditions, the endotoxin concentration in the air of 13 alternative houses was higher (35 to 3156 EU/m³) than in cage system buildings (n = 8, 78-576 EU/m³). It was correlated to the respirable dust concentration (fraction below 5 µm) and to the temperature inside the hen house but no seasonal variation was observed. The present study emphasises that considerable worker exposure to endotoxins may occur in laying houses, especially in alternative systems. PMID:22029777

  6. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  7. Housing Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measures to cool down China's red-hot housing market are sweeping the country. The State Council, China's cabinet, issued a circular in late May announcing an increase in the minimum down payment for a new apartment larger than 90 square meters to 30 percent from 20 percent and imposing a transaction tax on properties resold within five years of purchase, among others. One of the aims, according to the cir-

  8. Asian dust events of April 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husar, R.B.; Tratt, D.M.; Schichtel, B.A.; Falke, S.R.; Li, F.; Jaffe, D.; Gasso, S.; Gill, T.; Laulainen, N.S.; Lu, F.; Reheis, M.C.; Chun, Y.; Westphal, D.; Holben, B.N.; Gueymard, C.; McKendry, I.; Kuring, N.; Feldman, G.C.; McClain, C.; Frouin, R.J.; Merrill, J.; DuBois, D.; Vignola, F.; Murayama, T.; Nickovic, S.; Wilson, W.E.; Sassen, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Malm, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    On April 15 and 19, 1998, two intense dust storms were generated over the Gobi desert by springtime low-pressure systems descending from the northwest. The windblown dust was detected and its evolution followed by its yellow color on SeaWiFS satellite images, routine surface-based monitoring, and through serendipitous observations. The April 15 dust cloud was recirculating, and it was removed by a precipitating weather system over east Asia. The April 19 dust cloud crossed the Pacific Ocean in 5 days, subsided to the surface along the mountain ranges between British Columbia and California, and impacted severely the optical and the concentration environments of the region. In east Asia the dust clouds increased the albedo over the cloudless ocean and land by up to 10-20%, but it reduced the near-UV cloud reflectance, causing a yellow coloration of all surfaces. The yellow colored backscattering by the dust eludes a plausible explanation using simple Mie theory with constant refractive index. Over the West Coast the dust layer has increased the spectrally uniform optical depth to about 0.4, reduced the direct solar radiation by 30-40%, doubled the diffuse radiation, and caused a whitish discoloration of the blue sky. On April 29 the average excess surface-level dust aerosol concentration over the valleys of the West Coast was about 20-50 ??g/m3 with local peaks >100 ??g/m3. The dust mass mean diameter was 2-3 ??m, and the dust chemical fingerprints were evident throughout the West Coast and extended to Minnesota. The April 1998 dust event has impacted the surface aerosol concentration 2-4 times more than any other dust event since 1988. The dust events were observed and interpreted by an ad hoc international web-based virtual community. It would be useful to set up a community-supported web-based infrastructure to monitor the global aerosol pattern for such extreme aerosol events, to alert and to inform the interested communities, and to facilitate collaborative

  9. [Ecological study of Pyroglyphides mites in house dust in the Grenoble area. A qualitative approach and incidence of various parameters: seasons, altitude, temperature and relative dampness in their multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaud, D

    1978-01-01

    This study concerns the analysis of 70 samples of dust mites taken periodically from 13 sample areas or mattresses at different altitudes. It shows the presence of Pyroglyphid mites in all the mattresses studied. Four species were found: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and Dermatophagoides evansi. From a quantitative point of view, the statistical analysis of the results obtained allows the following conclusions to be drawn: -- All the Pyroglyphids (adults and young) undergo seasonal fluctuations at low, middle and high altitude. In the plains and at middle altitude these mites have a seasonal maximum and minimum. At high altitude only the seasonal maximum can be determined. -- The number of Pyroglyphids found is much higher in the plaine than at middle altitude and at middle altitude than at high altitude. The influence of altitude can be demonstrated with certitude. -- The conditions of temperature and relative dampness most favourable to the multiplication of mites are found in the plaine. At middle and high altitude these conditions are only met in summer. In flat country the statistical analysis allows us to show the existance of a correlation between the rate of dampness and the number of Pyroglyphids, and more specially, between the dampness rate and Dermatophagoides farinae, a predominant species at this sampling area. At middle and high altitude such a correlation cannot be shown clearly. At the three altitudes considered, no correlation can be established between the temperature and the number of Pyroglyphid mites found.

  10. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  11. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  12. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  13. Pair Housing of Macaques in Research Facilities: A Science-Based Review of Benefits and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    DiVincenti, Louis; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Despite the enactment in the early 1990s of regulations requiring social housing of nonhuman primates (NHP), single housing is still prevalent in American research facilities. The publication of the 2011 edition of The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has increased emphasis on the implementation of social housing as the default housing method for NHP. Overestimation of the risks inherent in social housing coupled with underestimation of both the benefits of social housing and ...

  14. Partners in Housing: Virginia's Nonprofit Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Koebel, C. Theodore; Hardin, Brooke, D.

    1999-01-01

    Nonprofit housing organizations primarily exist to address the housing needs of low-income Virginians. This survey, conducted in 1998 through the leadership of VHDA, revealed a nonprofit housing sector that is maturing into an important component of housing markets throughout the state.

  15. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  16. 76 FR 46832 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Assessment of Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... American, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... American, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian populations with respect to both their housing conditions and... similar assessment in 1996, prior to the passage of the Native American Housing Assistance and...

  17. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  18. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    housing for all. It especially addresses the housing needs of lower-income households as well as new house-holds. This chapter presents how the self-owning Danish non-profit housing associations construct and manage one fifth of the Danish housing stock. Here the tenants’ democracy sets the framework...

  19. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM)...

  20. Positive response of Indian summer rainfall to Middle East dust

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Qinjian

    2014-06-02

    Using observational and reanalyses data, we investigated the impact of dust aerosols over the Middle East and the Arabian Sea (AS) on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall. Satellite and aerosol reanalysis data show extremely heavy aerosol loading, mainly mineral dust, over the Middle East and AS during the ISM season. Multivariate empirical orthogonal function analyses suggest an aerosol-monsoon connection. This connection may be attributed to dust-induced atmospheric heating centered over the Iranian Plateau (IP), which enhances the meridional thermal contrast and strengthens the ISM circulation and rainfall. The enhanced circulation further transports more dust to the AS and IP, heating the atmosphere (positive feedback). The aerosols over the AS and the Arabian Peninsula have a significant correlation with rainfall over central and eastern India about 2 weeks later. This finding highlights the nonlocal radiative effect of dust on the ISM circulation and rainfall and may improve ISM rainfall forecasts. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  2. Temperature of cometary dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Th.; Weidlich, U.

    1988-05-01

    The variation of dust temperature with heliocentric distance for a comet is calculated using the optical constants of an astronomically important silicate. The silicate, described by Drane (1985), is assumed to be similar to cometary dust. The temperatures of cometary dust grains are determined by the energy balance between the absorbed sunlight and emitted thermal radiation, and equilibrium temperatures of dust grains for different radii and heliocentric distances are compared. Deviations between computed and observed temperatures are attributed to variations in the chemical composition of the ablated grains.

  3. Test of dust scattering caused by dumpling of concrete materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviors of dust at the disposal of low-level radioactive concrete waste were investigated for making an estimation of exposure dose of the workers who inhale a contaminated dust in the air. Dust concentration and it's particle size in the air caused by the dumping test of mock concrete materials were measured. The concrete dusts scatter usually by grinding, cutting, and blasting of a lump of concrete. Three test concrete samples of different sizes, such as particulate (crushed stone), broken concrete (small pieces of about 5 mm - 20 cm), and broken concrete (large pieces of about 30 cm) were used in the dumping test. Concentrations of suspended and respirable dust (< 10 μm) in the air were measured by digital aerosol monitors and dust samplers which were located at 4 - 10 m distant from a dropping center. A testing house was built for avoiding from the effects of environment, such as wind direction and wind velocity. The test samples were dropped on the surface of steel plate from about 1 meter height at a low and a high wind condition. In case of the particulate test sample, the dropping height and the wind velocity affected to the dust concentration in the air. The dust scattering was largely suppressed by the uses of water sprinkling, suppression sheet and wet test sample. (Suetake, M.)

  4. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Congregate Housing § 982.609 Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  5. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  6. 76 FR 25703 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment on the Assessment of Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...; housing agency, homeless shelter, and social service agency staff. Group discussions: Native Americans... Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and...: Title of Proposal: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing...

  7. A New Laboratory For Terahertz Characterization Of Cosmic Analog Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Thushara; Liu, Lunjun; Breyer, Fiona; Schonert, Ryan; O'Shea, Kyle; Roesner, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    Most studies conducted with observatories such as ALMA, SOFIA, PLANCK, and Herschel will benefit from knowledge of (1) the predominant cosmic dust species in various environments and (2) the mm/sub-mm optical properties of cosmic dusts, including the temperature dependent-emissivity and spectral index. We have undertaken two efforts to enable the laboratory study of cosmic analogs dusts in the frequency range 60-2000 GHz. They are: (1) the construction of a novel compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) design coupled to a dry 4-K cryostat which houses a cooled sample exchanger (filter wheel) and a bolometer. (2) The production of Mg- and Fe-rich silicate dusts using sol-gel methods; various tests to determine their physical and chemical properties; embedding of samples in LDPE pellets for insertion into the novel FTS. This presentation will focus on the current status of the apparatus and data from its first few months of use.

  8. Green Trend of Indemnificatory Housing: Three American Cases Study%保障性住房的绿色趋势——3个美国案例的研究与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚栋

    2011-01-01

    Affected by both government policy and social progress, indemnificatory housing and green building have become highlights in the field of housing design and construction By case study of three US indemnificatory houses, this paper tries to seek for a way to develop domestic construction of green indemnificatory housing.%在政策引导与社会发展的双重作用下,保障性住房与绿色建筑已经成为住宅设计与建设领域中的两个热点问题.本文通过对3个美国保障性住房案例的介绍与分析,试图寻找出我国当前保障性住房建设可以借鉴的绿色建筑途径.

  9. International house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Australian Treasury

    2003-01-01

    This article examines developments in house prices in a number of countries over recent years. It shows that while the magnitude of house price movements have differed across countries, the recent trend of rising prices in Australia has also been experienced in some other developed countries. This article also examines changes in housing affordability arising from changes in house prices, interest rates, housing debt and disposable income in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States...

  10. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Environmental Health, Chemistry, and Toxicology More Resources Dust Storms en español Why are dust storms a concern? A dust storm is a moving ... on Human Health (US Geological Survey) Chemicals in Dust Storms Are these chemicals in MY community? Particulate Matter ...

  11. Radioactive dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is the second of a five part series on the technical evaluation of a number of dust monitoring instruments and the characterization of Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The data reported here pertain to an experimental study conducted under laboratory controlled conditions in a Long-Lived Radioactive Dust Test Facility (LLRDTF) designed for this purpose. This study was carried out with a twofold purpose in mind, namely, for the characterization of dust and LLRD, and for the evaluation of a variety of monitoring instruments, including cascade impactors, optical particle counters, nylon cyclones, open face filter samplers, and α-particle personal dosimeters, the latter normally used for α-particle radiation exposure purposes. Several non-radioactive and radioactive dusts were characterized. The non-radioactive dusts were SiC, Al2O3, talcum powder, corn starch and flour, while uranium tailings were used as a radioactive dust. Clear differences in instrument performance were observed for the various measurements made

  12. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  13. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  14. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  15. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  16. Dust mite (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  17. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  18. Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnly, Martha E; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; McKone, Thomas E; Smith, Daniel; McLaughlin, Robert; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Castorina, Rosemary; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2009-12-01

    We collected indoor dust samples from homes in the Salinas Valley of California. Of 22 pesticides measured in 504 samples, permethrins and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in highest amounts. In multivariate Tobit regression models among samples from 197 separate residences, reported agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos, a herbicide (2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA)), and a fungicide (iprodione) on agricultural fields were significantly (p < 0.01) associated, with 83%, 19%, and 49% increases, respectively, in dust concentrations for each kg applied per day, near participant homes, in the month or season prior to sample collection. However, agricultural use of diazinon, which was 2.2 times that of chlorpyrifos, and of permethrin were not significantly associated with dust levels. Other variables independently associated with dust levels included temperature and rainfall, farmworkers storing work shoes in the home, storing a diazinon product in the home, housing density, having a home less clean, and having an air conditioner. Permethrins, chlorpyrifos, DCPA, and iprodione have either a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) greater than 4.0, a very low vapor pressure, or both. Health risk assessments for pesticides that have these properties may need to include evaluation of exposures to house dust.

  19. Effectiveness of house dust mite acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate on carpets, fabrics and mattress foam: a standardization of methodology Eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico contra ácaros de poeira em carpetes, tecidos e espuma de colchão: padronização de metodologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiko Uehara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate, industrially applied to samples of carpets, mattress foam, and fabrics used for furniture upholstery, soft toys and shoe uppers. Approximately 100 adult house dust mites of the species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were inoculated into a Petri dish containing the sample (a piece of carpet, mattress foam, or fabric, treated with the acaricide, randomly collected. Mite-maintenance culture medium was added on top of each sample. After one, two, three, seven and 30 days of incubation at 25 ºC and 75% relative humidity, each dish was examined using a 40X stereoscopic microscope (40X. One hundred percent acaricide effectiveness was obtained in treated materials by the end of the 30th-day postinoculation period, under optimal conditions for mite maintenance.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico, aplicado industrialmente em amostras de carpetes, tecidos de revestimentos de móveis e de calçados, assim como de espumas de colchão. Aproximadamente 100 ácaros adultos da espécie Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus foram inoculados em placa de Petri contendo a amostra (pedaço de colchão, tecido ou carpete, tratada com o produto acaricida, coletados aleatoriamente. Foi acrescentado sobre a amostra, meio de cultivo para a manutenção dos ácaros. Cada placa foi examinada após 1, 2, 3, 7 e 30 dias de incubação a 25 ºC e 75% de U.R.A. (umidade relativa do ar, sob microscópio estereoscópico com 40X de aumento. O acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico apresentou 100% de eficácia acaricida após 30 dias da aplicação, em condições ótimas para a manutenção dos ácaros.

  20. Evaluation of skin sensitivity in dogs bearing allergic dermatitis to standardized allergenic extract of house dust and storage mites Avaliação da sensibilidade de cães com dermatite alérgica a extratos padronizados de ácaros da poeira domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E.S. Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate whether allergenic extracts of five house dust and storage mite species standardized for humans might be used for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD. Extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae were evaluated by intradermal testing in 20 healthy dogs (control and 25 dogs with allergic dermatitis. A significant difference in the response was observed between the two groups (pO presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se extratos alergênicos de cinco espécies de ácaros da poeira domiciliar e produtos armazenados, padronizados para humanos, podem ser utilizados no diagnóstico da dermatite atópica canina. Extratos de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae e Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae foram avaliados através de testes intradérmicos em 45 cães, dos quais 20 normais e 25 com dermatite alérgica. Uma diferença significativa foi observada no padrão de respostas obtidas dos dois grupos (p<0.05. Apenas um animal (5% do grupo controle reagiu ao teste cutâneo, enquanto que no grupo dos alérgicos 14 cães (56% apresentaram pelo menos uma reação positiva (odds ratio = 24.2. As maiores freqüências de reações positivas observadas no grupo dos alérgicos foram aos extratos de T. putres-centiae ou L. destructor, cada um induzindo reações em 10(40% cães. Os extratos de D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus e B. tropicalis foram responsáveis por reações positivas em 7(28%, 3(12% e 3(12% cães, respectivamente. Os extratos padronizados para humanos avaliados no presente estudo podem ser utilizados como complemento no diagnóstico da doença, assim como na seleção de alérgenos para a imunoterapia alérgeno-específica.

  1. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  2. Martian Atmospheric Dust Mitigation for ISRU Intakes via Electrostatic Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James R., III; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Clements, Sid; Calle, Carlos I.

    2016-01-01

    This document is the presentation to be given at the 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers Earth and Space Conference to examine the concept of using electrostatic precipitation for Martian atmospheric dust mitigation of the intakes of in-situ resource utilization reactors.

  3. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves

  4. Response Paper: Bailey, J.O. "What Happens in "The Fall of the House of Usher"?" American Literature 35.4 (1964): 445-66. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 March. 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2016-01-01

    J. O. Bailey in "What Happens in "The Fall of the House of Usher"?" (1964)  explains the possibilities of reading The Fall of the House of Usher from different angles and perspectives. It tackles the way the story is presented to the reader and the approaches Poe uses towards the psychological as well as the gothic perspectives of fear. The author’s pivotal point in the article focuses on the main characters of the story such as Roderick, Madeline and the narrator's inwardly and outwardly sen...

  5. Sources of radioactive contamination inside houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People may be exposed at home to multiple sources of nuclear radiation such as gamma, beta and alpha rays emitters. House atmosphere is polluted with nuclear radiation from water pollutants and rocks used in the construction. Radon is the only radioactive non-metallic element. Environmental organizations estimated that all houses contain varying concentrations of radon gas, and the residents are exposed to levels of radon over the years. The source of radon in houses is uranium, which may be found in rocks of the house, soil of the garden, water of the deep artesian wells and building materials, especially granite rocks. Breathing air that contains high levels of radon causes lung cancer. Radon is the second cause of lung disease after smoking. There are many means to reduce house pollution including: utilisation of air filters to remove contaminated dust particles, keep residential areas away from the establishments that use nuclear technology or embedded by nuclear waste, avoid using materials made from asbestos in construction works and proper use and disposal of chemicals and medicines containing radioactive isotopes. (author)

  6. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  7. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...

  8. Measurements of Martian dust devil winds with HiRISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D.S.; Dundas, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report wind measurements within Martian dust devils observed in plan view from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) orbiting Mars. The central color swath of the HiRISE instrument has three separate charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and color filters that observe the surface in rapid cadence. Active features, such as dust devils, appear in motion when observed by this region of the instrument. Our image animations reveal clear circulatory motion within dust devils that is separate from their translational motion across the Martian surface. Both manual and automated tracking of dust devil clouds reveal tangential winds that approach 20-30 m s -1 in some cases. These winds are sufficient to induce a ???1% decrease in atmospheric pressure within the dust devil core relative to ambient, facilitating dust lifting by reducing the threshold wind speed for particle elevation. Finally, radial velocity profiles constructed from our automated measurements test the Rankine vortex model for dust devil structure. Our profiles successfully reveal the solid body rotation component in the interior, but fail to conclusively illuminate the profile in the outer regions of the vortex. One profile provides evidence for a velocity decrease as a function of r -1/2, instead of r -1, suggestive of surface friction effects. However, other profiles do not support this observation, or do not contain enough measurements to produce meaningful insights. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Radon in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the concentrations of 222Rn and its short-lived daughter products in the air of single-family houses in the midwestern US. During the past year, more than 200 houses were added to the study, resulting in a total of more than 400 houses. So far, results are available for 270 of these houses, equally divided between the Chicago area and Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. 6 refs

  10. The Tarascan Indian House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Joyce

    1989-01-01

    This lesson plan introduces K-grade three students to Mexican Indian architecture. Students will become familiar with the cultural context of the Indian treasure house; discuss the use of wood as the sole building material; compare the treasure house with present day structures; and create miniature treasure houses using wood materials. (GEA)

  11. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  12. 屋尘螨过敏症母亲脐血中调节性T细胞数量上存在的缺陷%Abnormal Regulatory T Cell Numbers in Cord Blood from Atopic Mothers Sensitized to House Dust Mite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁音; 王丽慧; 杨炯

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore whether the quantity of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells and CD4+ IL-10+Treg cells in cord blood of atopic mothers sensitized to house dust mite is normal or not. Methods: Seven atopic mothers sensitized to house dust mites and fourteen nonatopic mothers were admitted in this study. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and cultured in nDer pi stimulated cultures and without stimulation. The ratios of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells and CD4+IL-10+ Treg cells among CD4+T cells were measured by flow cytometry. Results: The frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells in atopic mothers was (1. 13 ± 0. 36)%, which was significantly lower than in nonatopic mothers (3. 11 ± 1. 13)% in unstimulated cultures (P0. 05). Conclusion: The quantity of CD4+CD25+Foxp3- Treg cells and CD4+IL-10+Treg cells had defects in cord blood of atopic mothers.%目的:探讨屋尘螨过敏症母亲脐血中CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+调节性T(Treg)细胞和CD4+ IL-10+调节性T(Treg)细胞是否存在数量上的缺陷.方法:收集7例患屋尘螨过敏症及14例无过敏症母亲的脐血,分离脐血单个核细胞(CBMC)后体外培养,分别用及不用天然屋尘螨抗原1(nDer pl)刺激,用流式细胞术检测刺激及不刺激时CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg细胞及CD4+ IL-10+ Treg细胞占CD4+T细胞的比率.结果:不刺激时,过敏症母亲组CBMC中的CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg细胞占CD4+T细胞的比率为(1.13±0.36)%,显著低于无过敏症母亲组的比率(3.11±1.13)%(P<0.01).尘螨抗原刺激后,两组CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3Treg细胞比率均较不刺激时升高(P<0.01),过敏症母亲组增加的比率为(0.67±0.25)%,低于无过敏症母亲组增加的比率(1.50±0.40)%(P<0.01);不刺激时,过敏症母亲组CD4+IL-10+ Treg细胞比率的中位数为0.41%,显著低于无过敏症母亲组的1.04%(P<0.01);尘螨刺激后,无过敏症组CD4+ IL-10+ Treg细胞比率2.26%较该组不刺激时比率1.04%升高(P<0.05),显著高

  13. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, R. D. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ye, M. F.; Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  14. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  15. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  16. Zero energy house

    OpenAIRE

    Milián Martínez, Irene; Vink, Willem; Ortiz Braulio, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    The zero energy house project talks about sustainability. In general terms the house is designed to produce as much energy as it consume. If you take a look to the house its possible to find several systems that takes as much profit as possible to the renewable energies like photovoltaic electricity production, geothermal energy used to run a heat pump or a well thought isolated house. First of all it’s possible to find general information about the topics in house, to make people understa...

  17. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  18. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  19. The Relationship of Housing and Population Health: A 30-Year Retrospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, David E.; Wilson, Jonathan; Dixon, Sherry L.; Smith, Janet; Evens, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the relationship between health status and housing quality over time. Methods We combined data from two nationally representative longitudinal surveys of the U.S. population and its housing, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the American Housing Survey, respectively. We identified housing and health trends from approximately 1970 to 2000, after excluding those trends for which data were missing or where we found no plausible association or change i...

  20. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.

  1. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered. PMID:184524

  2. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  3. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  4. Mass transfer of PBDEs from plastic TV casing to indoor dust via three migration pathways — A test chamber investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauert, C.; Harrad, S., E-mail: S.J.Harrad@bham.ac.uk

    2015-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in humans with substantial exposure thought to occur in indoor environments and particularly via contact with indoor dust. Despite this, knowledge of how PBDEs migrate to indoor dust from products within which they are incorporated is scarce. This study utilises an in-house designed and built test chamber to investigate the relative significance of different mechanisms via which PBDEs transfer from source materials to dust, using a plastic TV casing treated with the Deca-BDE formulation as a model source. Experiments at both room temperature and 60 °C revealed no detectable transfer of PBDEs from the TV casing to dust via volatilisation and subsequent partitioning. In contrast, substantial transfer of PBDEs to dust was detected when the TV casing was abraded using a magnetic stirrer bar. Rapid and substantial PBDE transfer to dust was also observed in experiments in which dust was placed in direct contact with the source. Based on these experiments, we suggest that for higher molecular weight PBDEs like BDE-209; direct dust:source contact is the principal pathway via which source-to-dust transfer occurs. - Highlights: • Transfer from a TV casing to dust of high molecular weight PBDEs examined. • Direct source:dust contact effected rapid and most substantial transfer. • Substantial source:dust transfer also occurred via abrasion of source.

  5. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  6. Identification of the exploatation dust in road dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to determine models of explore dust from vehicle brake systems and the presentationof measurement results of the exploitation dust, which is separate from road dust. The following methods and measuring devices were used: T-01M device, screen analysis, analysis of chemical composition with the use of a scanning microscope with Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analyser. The measurements for identifying this type of dust were conducted on marked sections of roads: motorway, city road and mountain road. The explored dust was distinguished in the following car systems: brakes, clutch plates, tyres and catalytic converters.

  7. Left in the Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft ended its seven-year voyage January 15 after a safe landing on earth, bringing back a capsule of comet particles and samples of interstellar dust that exceeded the loftiest of expectations of mission scientists. The ensuing studies of the cosmic treasure are expected to shed light on the origins of the solar system and earth itself.

  8. Sources of zodiacal dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ipatov, S I

    2007-01-01

    Fractions of asteroidal particles, particles originating beyond Jupiter's orbit (including trans-Neptunian particles), and cometary particles originating inside Jupiter's orbit among zodiacal dust are estimated to be about 1/3 each, with a possible deviation from 1/3 up to 0.1-0.2. These estimates were based on the comparison of our models of the zodiacal cloud that use results of numerical integration of the orbital evolution of dust particles produced by asteroids, comets, and trans-Neptunian objects with different observations (e.g., WHAM [Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper spectrometer] observations of spectra of zodiacal light, the number density at different distances from the Sun). The fraction of particles produced by Encke-type comets (with e~0.8-0.9) does not exceed 0.15 of the overall population. The estimated fraction of particles produced by long-period and Halley-type comets among zodiacal dust also does not exceed 0.1-0.15. Though trans-Neptunian particles fit different observations of dust inside Jupite...

  9. Dust devil dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  10. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  11. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...... for everyone. In 1924 he designed a house for himself and his family: one of the first examples of functionalism in Denmark....

  12. Intelligent house control system

    OpenAIRE

    Stražišar, Rok

    2008-01-01

    The thesis describes a smart house and the system that empowers it with intelligence. The goal of the thesis is to present the hardware and software involved and debate about the usability, pros and cons of such a system. The work addresses the smart house from several viewpoints: safety, comfort, economy, accessibility for people with special needs and affordability. Using smart house makes every day´s life more secure and comfortable, while it also enables independency to the people with sp...

  13. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sitar; K. Krajnc

    2008-01-01

    Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949). It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the projec...

  14. Hot Dust Acoustic Solitary Waves in Dust Plasma with Variable Dust Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文山; 吕克朴; 赵金保

    2001-01-01

    Considering the variation of dust charges, we have analytically studied the governing equation for the system with the same model as that for cold dust acoustic waves in a demagnetized plasma but with the contribution of hot dust. The result indicates that the governing equation is also a Kortweg-de Vries equation, although its amplitude and width will be smaller compared with the cold dust case.

  15. Effect of Dust Storms on the Atmospheric Microbiome in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Yinon; Cytryn, Eddie; Erel, Yigal; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-19

    We evaluated the impact of Saharan dust storms on the local airborne microbiome in a city in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Samples of particles with diameter less than 10 μm were collected during two spring seasons on both dusty and nondusty days. DNA was extracted, and partial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Bioinformatic analysis showed the effect of dust events on the diversity of the atmospheric microbiome. The relative abundance of desert soil-associated bacteria increased during dust events, while the relative abundance of anthropogenic-influenced taxa decreased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements of selected clinically significant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed that their relative abundance decreased during dust events. The ARG profiles on dust-free days were similar to those in aerosol collected in a poultry house, suggesting a strong agricultural influence on the local ambient profiles. We conclude that dust storms enrich the ambient airborne microbiome with new soil-derived bacteria that disappear as the dust settles, suggesting that the bacteria are transported attached to the dust particles. Dust storms do not seem to be an important vector for transport of probed ARGs. PMID:27001166

  16. Dust processing in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Villaume, Alexa; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the origin and processing of dust in elliptical galaxies. We theoretically formulate the evolution of grain size distribution, taking into account dust supply from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and dust destruction by sputtering in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), whose temperature evolution is treated by including two cooling paths: gas emission and dust emission (i.e. gas cooling and dust cooling). With our new full treatment of grain size distribution, we confirm that dust destruction by sputtering is too efficient to explain the observed dust abundance even if AGB stars continue to supply dust grains, and that, except for the case where the initial dust-to-gas ratio in the hot gas is as high as $\\sim 0.01$, dust cooling is negligible compared with gas cooling. However, we show that, contrary to previous expectations, cooling does not help to protect the dust; rather, the sputtering efficiency is raised by the gas compression as a result of cooling. We additionally consider grain grow...

  17. Dust arising during steelmaking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Popielska-Ostrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the dust arising during steelmaking processes.Design/methodology/approach: Steelmaking dusts may be a viable alternative for obtaining valuable and widely used metal which is zinc. On the other hand, heavy metals, it was as dangerous to the environment, and this in turn means that development of steelmaking dusts in the best possible way.Findings: The analysis of the formation of steelmaking dust.Research limitations/implications: Understanding the mechanism of steelmaking dusts will help to increase the participation of zinc recycling from wastes.Practical implications: Contained zinc in the dust can be recovered from the positive economic effect, and neutralization of hazardous waste to the desired environmental effect.Originality/value: Description of the mechanism of steelmaking dust, with particular emphasis on the distribution of zinc. The information is very important in the development of metal recovery technology from waste.

  18. Disco’s Revenge: House Music’s Nomadic Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Hillegonda C. Rietveld

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the role of house music as a nomadic archival institution, constituted by the musical history of disco, invigorating this dance genre by embracing new production technologies and keeping disco alive through a rhizomic assemblage of its affective memory in the third record of the DJ mix. This exploration will be illustrated through a close analysis of a specific DJ set by a Chicago house music producer, Larry Heard, in the setting of Rotterdam, 2007, in which American ho...

  19. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  20. Public Housing, Housing Vouchers and Student Achievement: Evidence from Public Housing Demolitions in Chicago

    OpenAIRE

    Brian A. Jacob

    2003-01-01

    There has been a substantial shift from public housing to voucher-based housing assistance over the past decade, largely in response to the rising cost of public housing and the high rates of crime, unemployment and school failure among public housing residents. Despite this shift, there is relatively little evidence on the impact of public housing or housing vouchers on educational outcomes. This paper utilizes a plausibly exogenous source of variation in housing assistance generated by publ...

  1. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Malarvannan, Govindan; Kadi, Mohammad W; Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem; Rehan, Mohammad; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Different flame retardants (FRs) namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging brominated/chlorinated flame retardants (Br/Cl FRs), and organophosphate FRs (OPFRs) were analyzed in cars, air conditioner (AC) filters and floor dust of different households from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To the best of our knowledge, this is first study in literature reporting emerging Br/Cl FRs and OPFRs in AC filter dust and also first to report on their occurrence in dust from KSA. Chlorinated alkyl phosphate, penta-BDEs, BDE-209, and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the major chemicals in dust samples from all microenvironments. ΣOPFRs occurred at median concentrations (ng/g dust) of 15,400, 10,500, and 3750 in AC filter, car and house floor dust, respectively. For all analyzed chemicals, relatively lower levels were observed in floor dust than car and AC filter dust. The profiles of FRs in car dust were different from AC filter and floor dust, which reflected their wider application as FR and plasticizer in variety of household and commercial products. For toddlers, assuming high dust intake and 95th percentile concentrations, the computed exposure estimation for BDE-99 was higher than RfD values. PMID:27343946

  2. Distribution of pesticides in dust particles in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jaben; Reif, Ruben; Luo, Yuzhuo; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    In regions with a mild climate, pesticides are often used around homes for pest control. Recent monitoring studies have linked pesticide use in residential areas to aquatic toxicity in urban surface water ecosystems, and suggested dust particles on paved surfaces as an important source of pesticides. To test the hypothesis that dust on hard surfaces is a significant source of pesticides, we evaluated spatial and temporal patterns of current-use insecticides in Southern California, and further explored their distribution as a function of particle sizes. Pyrethroid insecticides were detected in dust from the driveway, curb gutter and street at 53.5-94.8%, with median concentrations of 1-46 ng g(-1). Pyrethroid residues were uniformly distributed in areas adjacent to a house, suggesting significant redistribution. The total levels of pyrethroids in dust significantly (p < 0.01) decreased from October to February, suggesting rainfalls as a major mechanism to move pesticide residues offsite. Fipronil as well as its degradation products, were detected at 50.6-75.5%, and spatial and temporal patterns of fipronil residues suggested rapid transformations of fipronil to its biologically active intermediates. Moreover, pyrethroids were found to be enriched in fine particles that have a higher mobility in runoff than coarse particles. Results from this study highlight the widespread occurrence of pesticides in outdoor dust around homes and the potential contribution to downstream surface water contamination via rain-induced runoff. PMID:27105165

  3. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  4. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  5. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left...

  6. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  7. Response Paper: Bailey, J.O. "What Happens in "The Fall of the House of Usher"?" American Literature 35.4 (1964: 445-66. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 March. 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available J. O. Bailey in "What Happens in "The Fall of the House of Usher"?" (1964  explains the possibilities of reading The Fall of the House of Usher from different angles and perspectives. It tackles the way the story is presented to the reader and the approaches Poe uses towards the psychological as well as the gothic perspectives of fear. The author’s pivotal point in the article focuses on the main characters of the story such as Roderick, Madeline and the narrator's inwardly and outwardly sense of terror, fear, and haunting. He explains that each one of these characters represents different possibilities, and, therefore, requires approaching the text from multifarious perspectives, such as going back to Poe’s autobiographical life and the history of his education, and the knowledge that Poe was exposed to during his life time. In fact, the author introduces new techniques that give a better reading of The Fall of the House of Usher. He deconstructs the text through giving a new different analytical reading of the story and explaining the layers the story implies in the understanding of the gothic as well as highlighting the theme of “the vampire Lore” in the story, which the author believes that Poe has implicitly used in his story. He thinks it is impossible to say for sure what Poe read, but he believes that The Fall of the House of Usher has much in common with the gothic “features of Vampire lore” Bailey states: I think it is a safe guess that Poe also read Polidori’s The Vampire, which has a six-page introduction to define a vampire and discuss various legends, in legends and literary developments, to a complex “kith and kin” of demonic possession and witchcraft. I think it is impossible to discover what Poe read, but logical to compare his story with typical features of vampire lore. (449   Having this possibility and the “vampire lore” in mind, Bailey approaches each one of the characters from this specific angle

  8. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...... the original Swedish version and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Finland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators, resulting in the Nordic Housing...

  9. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse;

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  10. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.;

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  11. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing...

  12. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public...

  13. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  14. Transport of Dust Particles in Tokamak Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigarov, A Y; Smirnov, R D; Krasheninnikov, S I; Rognlien, T D; Rozenberg, M

    2006-06-06

    Recent advances in the dust transport modeling in tokamak devices are discussed. Topics include: (1) physical model for dust transport; (2) modeling results on dynamics of dust particles in plasma; (3) conditions necessary for particle growth in plasma; (4) dust spreading over the tokamak; (5) density profiles for dust particles and impurity atoms associated with dust ablation in tokamak plasma; and (6) roles of dust in material/tritium migration.

  15. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken houses may provide a favorable environment in which these viruses and other pathogenic microorganisms can survive and be transported over long distances to other farms. In a field study and in an exp...

  16. Housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises the state-of-the-art in housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations based on a survey conducted among almost all housing associations. We address the question what the current developments are in housing management and maintenance practice in the Netherlands. In a housing stock policy document a housing association constructs a picture of the composition of the desirable dwelling portfolio and sets up market and complex strategies. 71% of th...

  17. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  18. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  19. The Missing Link in Housing Sector Reforms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintunde Otubu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is a fundamental product for every human being irrespective of financial standing. World acclaimed American psychologist, Abraham Maslow ranked shelter as second only to food in his hierarchy of human needs. Despite the importance of housing to the socio-economic development of man and the nation, housing problems have remained endemic throughout the world. In today’s world, some 100 million persons are homeless and more than a billion are inadequately housed. In 2002 housing deficit in Nigeria was put at about 8 million units. Latest statistics indicate that Nigeria requires a whopping 700,000 housing units annually for the next 15 years. The question is why this state of affairs? Why the perennial and unending problems of housing shortages, forced evictions and slum development? The paper examined these issues in Nigeria in order to advance the future prospect of the sector. The paper identified that whilst reforms were been made to all other subsector of the housing industry, land reform necessary to fast track the process was left unattended to by the government. The paper thus advocated for a robust reform of the current land management system in order to impact positively on the housing reform agenda in Nigeria.

  20. Debt, jobs, or housing: what's keeping millennials at home?

    OpenAIRE

    Bleemer, Zachary; Brown, Meta; Lee, Donghoon; van der Klaauw, Wilbert

    2014-01-01

    Young Americans' residence choices have changed markedly over the past fifteen years, with recent cohorts entering the housing market at lower rates, and lingering much longer in parents' households. This paper begins with descriptive evidence on the residence choices of 1 percent of young Americans with credit reports, observed quarterly for fifteen years in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York's Equifax-sourced Consumer Credit Panel (CCP). Steep increases in the rate of living with parents ...

  1. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  2. The House That Morgan Built

    OpenAIRE

    Trautmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    L.H. Morgan’s kinship work began and ended with the Iroquois longhouse, and the Iroquois kinship system that it shaped and by which it was shaped.  Kinship became a house for anthropology, shaping and being shaped by the emerging discipline.  Much of the house that Morgan built for anthropology still stands, including the last book, on houses and house-life, which seems to anticipate the current literature on houses and house-societies.

  3. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    in detached houses typically situated in less dense suburbia neighborhood to achieve safety and green space for kids to play and socialize. Thus, if one wants to realistically solve the issue of sustainable housing design one must address the intertwined aspects of building construction, urban density......When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and subsequently satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. At the same time it might be argued that energy used for running modern buildings only plays...

  4. Formation of Cosmic Dust Bunnies

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hayes, Ryan L.; Freed, Michael S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2007-01-01

    Planetary formation is an efficient process now thought to take place on a relatively short astronomical time scale. Recent observations have shown that the dust surrounding a protostar emits more efficiently at longer wavelengths as the protoplanetary disk evolves, suggesting that the dust particles are coagulating into fluffy aggregates, "much as dust bunnies form under a bed." One poorly understood problem in this coagulation process is the manner in which micron-sized, charged grains form...

  5. Change of Regulatory Treg Cells Levels in Asthmatic Children Allergic to House Dust Mite and Its Clinical Significance%屋尘螨过敏的支气管哮喘患儿调节性T淋巴细胞水平变化及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 李芳; 段国威; 吴晓玲; 宋青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of frequency and function of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 +Treg cells and their roles in the evaluation of severity in children with asthma allergic to house dust mite( HDM). Methods Sixty children sensitive to HDM with asthma were divided into mild asthma group,moderate asthma group and severe asthma group according to their clinical features,and 20 healthy children were enrolled as the healthy control group. Peripheral Mood monouctear cells ( PBMC) were isolated from the subjects. After 48 hours of in vitro stimulation with HDM extracts, CD4 + CD25+ Foxp3 + regulatory T cells and CD4+ CD25 + Foxp3 + IL - 10+ regulatory T cells were measured by using flow cytometry. Results The frequency of CD4 + CD25+ Foxp3 + Treg cells had no statistical significance between the mild asthma group and moderate asthma group(P, >0.05) .but significantly decreased in the severe asthma group compared with the healthy control group(P <0.001). The frequency of IL - 10 - secreting - CD4 + CD25+ Foxp3 + Treg cells was also decreased significantly in the asthma group compared with that in the healthy control group( P <0.001). The frequency of IL - 10 - secreting - CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells was significantly lower in the moderate asthma group compared with that in the mild asthma group(P<0.05) ,and the IL- 10 - secreting - CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells in the severe asthma group were hardly found. The. frequency of IL - 10 - secreting - CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells was significantly lower in the severe asthma group compared with that in the moderate asthma group( P<0.01). There was a remarkably negative correlation between IL - 10 - secreting - CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells level and the asthma severity(r= -0. 637,P<0.05). Conclusions In the mild asthma children and moderate asthma children, there are quantitative but functional insufficiency of regulatory T cells. And in severe asthma group there are both quantitative and functional

  6. Housing Satisfaction of Older (55+) Single-Person Householders in U.S. Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mira; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to understand the housing satisfaction of older (55+) single-person householders in U.S. rural communities using the available variables from a secondary data set, the 2011 American Housing Survey (AHS). In this study, housing satisfaction was considered to be an indicator of quality of life. Based on previous studies, we developed a model to test a hypothesized relationship between older (55+) single-person householders' (N = 1,017) housing satisfaction and their personal, physical, financial, and environmental characteristics. Multiple regression results showed that the model was supported, indicating that significant variables in housing satisfaction include age, gender, health status, age of house, structure type, and unit location. Among the significant variables, health status was revealed to be the strongest factor in housing satisfaction. Housing satisfaction was discussed as potential indicators of quality of life. PMID:25846383

  7. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  8. Jovian dust streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, H.; Geissler, P.; Horanyi, M.; Graps, A.L.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Moissl, R.; Johnson, T.V.; Grun, E.

    2003-01-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over 200 km s-1. The Galileo spacecraft has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about Jupiter between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between 10-3 and 10 kg s-1, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg s-1. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Dust Exposure and Respiratory Health Effects in Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golamreza Pouryaghoub

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dust can be produced by almost all production processes in Portland cement factory. Dust exposure potentially can affect respiratory function. But evidence for respiratory effect of cement dust exposure has not been conclusive. In this study we assessed effect of cement dust exposure on respiratory function in a cement production factory. A respiratory symptoms questionnaire was completed and pulmonary function tests were carried out on 94 exposed and 54 non exposed workers at a cement factory in the east of Iran. Additionally, respirable dust level was determined by the gravimetric method. X-ray fluorescence (XRF technique was performed to determine the silica phases and the SiO2 contents of the bulk samples. The arithmetic means (AM of personal respirable dust were 30.18 mg/m3 in the crushing, 27 mg/m3 in the packing, 5.4 mg/m3 in the cement mill, 5.9 mg/m3 in the kiln and 5.48 mg/m3 in the maintenance that were higher than threshold limit value (TLV of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH which is 5 mg/m3. This value in the unexposed group was 0.93 mg/m3. In this study cough, sputum, wheezing and dyspnea were more prevalent among exposed subjects. Exposed workers compared to the unexposed group showed significant reduction in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, and Forced Expiratory Flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75% (P<0.05. It can be concluded that in our study there was close and direct association between cement dust exposure and functional impairment among the cement factory workers.

  10. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  11. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  12. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  13. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  14. Dust deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) calibration targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, K.M.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Bell, J.F.; Johnson, J. R.; Goetz, W.; Landis, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rover mission has acquired in excess of 20,000 images of the Pancam calibration targets on the rovers. Analysis of this data set allows estimates of the rate of deposition and removal of aeolian dust on both rovers. During the first 150-170 sols there was gradual dust accumulation on the rovers but no evidence for dust removal. After that time there is ample evidence for both dust removal and dust deposition on both rover decks. We analyze data from early in both rover missions using a diffusive reflectance mixing model. Assuming a dust settling rate proportional to the atmospheric optical depth, we derive spectra of optically thick layers of airfall dust that are consistent with spectra from dusty regions on the Martian surface. Airfall dust reflectance at the Opportunity site appears greater than at the Spirit site, consistent with other observations. We estimate the optical depth of dust deposited on the Spirit calibration target by sol 150 to be 0.44 ?? 0.13. For Opportunity the value was 0.39 ?? 0.12. Assuming 80% pore space, we estimate that the dust layer grew at a rate of one grain diameter per ???100 sols on the Spirit calibration target. On Opportunity the rate was one grain diameter per ???125 sols. These numbers are consistent with dust deposition rates observed by Mars Pathfinder taking into account the lower atmospheric dust optical depth during the Mars Pathfinder mission. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Evaluating House Price Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Clapp; Carmelo Giaccotto

    2002-01-01

    House prices, unlike stock prices, appear to be predictable with some degree of accuracy. We use an autoregressive process to model the time series behavior of a city-wide house price index, and then produce one-quarter ahead forecasts for individual properties. Better real estate decisions require forecasting models with desirable properties for prediction errors (PEs). We propose that managers use a battery of tests to compare PEs; in particular, non-parametric smoothing of the empirical di...

  16. No Full House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Housing provident funds are plagued by non-use and embezzlement Embezzlement on a grand scale is sending shock waves through the Chinese provident fund industry. During 2005, a host of incidents were made public, with several serious cases involving funds of over 100 million yuan ($12.5 million). Recently, Liu Xiangyang, Director of Hengyang Housing Provident Fund Center in central China's Hunan Province, was charged with the embezzlement of 253 mil

  17. Rotating housing turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  18. Housing Characteristics, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on energy consumption in the residential sector covers the following topics: housing trends 1980--1990, new housing trends, availability and usage of natural gas by households, changes in appliance usage (refrigerators, entertainment appliances, cooking appliances, convenience appliances), age of major household appliances and equipment, household energy conservation activities, demand-side management programs, and a portrait of households using solar or wood as a source of energy

  19. Betting the House

    OpenAIRE

    Jordà, Òscar; Schularick, Moritz; Taylor, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Is there a link between loose monetary conditions, credit growth, house price booms, and financial instability? This paper analyzes the role of interest rates and credit in driving house price booms and busts with data spanning 140 years of modern economic history in the advanced economies. We exploit the implications of the macroeconomic policy trilemma to identify exogenous variation in monetary conditions: countries with fixed exchange regimes often see fluctuations in short-term interest ...

  20. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  1. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of dust concentrations in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugder, D.; Shinoda, M.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Nishikawa, M.; Park, S.; Chun, Y.; Park, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms in the extensive Gobi and desert-steppe zones of Mongolia occur frequently and sometimes cause serious disasters. Dust storms progress from source regions to downstream regions. This study was the first to examine dust mass concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia. The monthly mean concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) reached yearly maxima in December and January owing to air pollution. Both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were enhanced from March to May by dust storms. Large amounts of fine dust particles are emitted to the air during the dust storm period in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. Daily mean concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) varied 64~234 (40~115) μg m-3 for dust storms in spring. The highest hourly mean concentration of PM10 was 6626 μg m-3 in the Gobi during a dust storm. Averaged concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) for more than 4h-duration periods of the dust events varied from 204 (101) μg m-3 to 452 (170) μg m-3. For diurnal variations, the maximum PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations occurred in the morning and evening, coinciding with coal usage in private houses. It is evident that human activities can affect local air quality around urban localities in the Gobi of Mongolia. Afternoon peaks in PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations appear to be due to dust storms. Study results on the temporal and spatial distributions and transportation of dust storms, and elevated dust by using Polarization-sensitive Mie-scattering lidars showed that the maximum height of dusty layers over the Gobi Desert of Mongolia during dust storm periods varied from 0.5 to 5.5 km above ground level. The Mie lidar observations detected the base and top heights of elevated dust layers transported from other source regions to the Gobi Desert. The study results suggest source areas of the elevated dust. The lidar parameters showed annual variation of dust storms with higher frequencies in March to May.

  3. Synthetic Phenolic Antioxidants and Their Metabolites in Indoor Dust from Homes and Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Abualnaja, Khalid O; Covaci, Adrian; Gevao, Bondi; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kumosani, Taha A; Malarvannan, Govindan; Minh, Tu Binh; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), are extensively used in food, cosmetic and plastic industries. Nevertheless, limited information is available on human exposures, other than the dietary sources, to SPAs. In this study, occurrence of 9 SPAs and their metabolites/degradation products was determined in 339 indoor dust collected from 12 countries. BHT was found in 99.5% of indoor dust samples from homes and microenvironments at concentrations that ranged from BHT metabolites in house dust (0.01-35.1 μg/g) and their concentrations accounted for 9.2-58% of the sum concentrations (∑SPAs). 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (BHT-Q) were the major derivatives of BHT found in dust samples. The concentrations of gallic acid esters (gallates) in dust from homes and microenvironments ranged from BHT via house dust ingestion ranged from 0.40 to 222 ng/kg/d (95th percentile). PMID:26629709

  4. Pallene dust torus observations by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiß, M.; Srama, R.; Sun, K.-L.; Seiler, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Kempf, S.; Spahn, F.

    2014-04-01

    The ISS cameras on-board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along the orbit of Pallene [1]. It is believed that the source of the torus is the moon Pallene itself, where dust particles are ejected from its surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here, we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on-board of the spacecraft Cassini which confirm the existence of a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled by a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km, respectively, and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 · 10-3m-3.

  5. THE AMERICAN CULTURE WARS AND AMERICAN LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJingqiong

    2004-01-01

    The American Culture Wars have had a great impact on gender and racial relations in the US and have triggered the transformation of its literary canon. American literature textbooks in China. however, are not reaping the fruits of the US cultural debates, a conclusion based on a survey of eight popular textbooks recently published by prestigious publishing houses.Given the significance of the US sociopolitical base in shaping the canon and the lecturers' dependence on the textbooks, they need immediate and drastic improvement. The paper is rounded off with some cues on what to improve.

  6. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  7. Analyze the Book The House on Mango Street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭昭

    2013-01-01

    The House on Mango Street is a coming-of-age novel by Mexican-American writer Sandra Cisneros, published in 1984. In this book Esperanza is determined to"say goodbye"to the Mango Street. The novel is a group of lyric prose dedicate to memory, and it is also a girl’s diary recorded her grow up experiences.

  8. HOUSING AND HOUSING FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF ETHIOPIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr M Moses Antony Rajendran

    2013-01-01

    Housing is an essential human need. The need for housing will therefore exist, as long as human beings exist in the world. It is in this contest that house financing plays a key role in providing the necessary financial assistance for construction, extension and modification of housing. Provision of basic housing facility has been one of the priorities of developing countries. International financing agencies such as the World Bank is providing all the facilities and assistance to the country...

  9. Of data and dust

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie Hills

    2016-01-01

    The traditional image of an archive is one of dusty old boxes, books and papers. When your archive is digital, dust spells disaster. An innovative environmental sensor designed and built by a CERN IT specialist has become an essential element in the Laboratory’s data-preservation strategy.   The novel air particle monitoring sensor designed by CERN's Julien Leduc. CERN’s archive holds more than 130 petabytes of data from past and present high-energy physics experiments. Some of it is 40 years old, most of it needs to be kept forever, and all of it is held on tape cartridges (over 20,000 of them). The cartridges are held inside tape libraries with robotic arms that load them into tape drives where they can be read and written. Tape cartridges have many advantages over other data storage media, notably cost and long-term reliability, but topping the list of drawbacks is their vulnerability to contamination from airborne dust particles; a tiny piece of g...

  10. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor 1lI spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor 1lI camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the Apollo 12 LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing were reexamined by a KSC research team using SEM/EDS and XPS analysis. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues. Several likely scenarios are proposed to explain the Surveyor III dust observations. These include electrostatic attraction of the dust to the surface of the Surveyor as a result of electrostatic charging of the jet gas exiting the engine nozzle during descent; dust blown by the Apollo 12 LM fly-by while on its descent trajectory; dust ejected from the lunar surface due to gas forced into the soil by the Surveyor 1lI rocket nozzle, based on Darcy's law; and mechanical movement of dust during the Surveyor landing. Even though an absolute answer is not possible based on available data and theory, various computational models are employed to estimate the feasibility of each of these proposed mechanisms. Scenarios are then discussed which combine multiple mechanisms to produce results consistent with observations.

  11. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  12. Andromeda's dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Braun, Robert [CSIRO—Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NWS 1710 (Australia); Leroy, Adam, E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ≈ 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ≈ 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ≈ 0.026 at the center to ∼0.0027 at R ≈ 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ∼10, from Z/Z {sub ☉} ≈ 3 at R = 0 to ∼0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ≈ 35, declining to (U) ≈ 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ≈ 0.045 at R ≈ 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 μm emission at R ≈ 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with β ≈ 2.3 between 200 and 600 μm) than in the model.

  13. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan;

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  15. The New American Home 2007, Orlando, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-12-01

    Each year, The New American Home (R) demonstrates use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques, providing production homebuilders with a model for producing more energy efficient, durable homes without sacrificing style. Cosponsored by The National Council of the Housing Industry and BUILDER Magazine, The New American Home (R) is not only the official showcase house of the annual International Builders' Show, but is also a for-sale product. The majority of features and innovations in the home are accessible to both builders and consumers for integration into their own homes.

  16. Evaluation of dust respirators for elimination of mouse aeroallergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Miyazawa, H; Kamimura, H; Kimura, M; Yamazaki, S

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of various dust respirators for eliminating mouse allergens [mouse urine proteins (MUP), pelts proteins (MPP) and serum albumin (MSA)] were evaluated with use of low-volume air samplers and immunochemical methods. Three kinds of dust respirators from one manufacturer which have different efficacy in the exclusion of dust particles were put on the fiber glass filter in each air sampler. Then the air in a mouse housing room was sampled. The allergens passed through the respirators, were trapped in the fiber glass filters, and then extracted from the filters. The allergens of MUP and MPP in the extract were measured by an inhibition method of fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgE antibody and those of MSA measured by a fluorometric sandwich ELISA. The respirator with the lowest capability of exclusion was found to eliminate 65-86% of respective allergens. The other two respirators with higher powers eliminated 98% of MUP. MPP and MSA were eliminated to undetectable levels through these respirators. This study provided a means for the evaluation of dust respirators for animal aeroallergens. PMID:2918688

  17. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  18. Housing Dynamics: Theory Behind Empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Xie, Danyang

    2014-01-01

    We construct a dynamic general equilibrium model of housing, incorporating some key features that bridge time and space. We model explicitly the evolution of housing structures/household durables and the separate role played by land, fully accounting for households’ locational choice decisions. Housing services derive positive utility, but are decayed away from the city center. Our model enables a full characterization of the dynamic paths of housing as well as housing and land prices. The mo...

  19. Two organophosphorus flame retardants, resorcinol bis (diphenylphosphate)(PBDPP) and bisphenol A bis (diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) used as alternatives for BDE209 detected in dust

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, Sicco H.; Sellström, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A.; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) are two halogen-free organophosphorus flame retardant (PFRs) that are used as an alternative for the decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE) technical mixture in TV/flatscreen housing and other electronic consumer products.' In this study, dust samples were collected from various microenvironments in The Netherlands (houses, cars), Greece.(houses), and Sweden (apartments, cars, furniture stores, electronics...

  20. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  1. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  2. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  3. The Martian Dust Cycle: Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for Mars' current climate system. Suspended atmospheric dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, and thus greatly influences the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Evidence for the presence of dust in the Martian atmosphere can be traced back to yellow clouds telescopically observed as early as the early 19th century. The Mariner 9 orbiter arrived at Mars in November of 1971 to find a planet completely enshrouded in airborne dust. Since that time, the exchange of dust between the planet's surface and atmosphere and the role of airborne dust on Mars' weather and climate has been studied using observations and numerical models. The goal of this talk is to give an overview of the observations and to discuss the successes and challenges associated with modeling the dust cycle. Dust raising events on Mars range in size from meters to hundreds of kilometers. During some years, regional storms merge to produce hemispheric or planet encircling dust clouds that obscure the surface and raise atmospheric temperatures by tens of kelvin. The interannual variability of planet encircling dust storms is poorly understood. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. A low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading are generally observed: one peak occurs before northern winter solstice and one peak occurs after northern winter solstice. Numerical modeling studies attempting to interactively simulate the Martian dust cycle with general circulation models (GCMs) include the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Two dust lifting processes are commonly represented in

  4. Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnly, Martha E; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; McKone, Thomas E; Smith, Daniel; McLaughlin, Robert; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Castorina, Rosemary; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2009-12-01

    We collected indoor dust samples from homes in the Salinas Valley of California. Of 22 pesticides measured in 504 samples, permethrins and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in highest amounts. In multivariate Tobit regression models among samples from 197 separate residences, reported agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos, a herbicide (2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA)), and a fungicide (iprodione) on agricultural fields were significantly (p air conditioner. Permethrins, chlorpyrifos, DCPA, and iprodione have either a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) greater than 4.0, a very low vapor pressure, or both. Health risk assessments for pesticides that have these properties may need to include evaluation of exposures to house dust. PMID:19943644

  5. American Nightmare: A Decade of Homelessness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    A 1989 national survey of the dimensions of homelessness found that at least three million Americans are homeless and that the shortage of affordable housing was cited as the chief cause. Information was gathered from a telephone survey of emergency shelter providers, housing advocacy organizations, and local governments in 26 communities, ranging…

  6. Lepidoglyphus destructor acarus in the urban house environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliá, J C; Martorell, A; Ventas, P; Cerdá, J C; Torró, I; Carreira, J; Guinot, E; Sanz, J; Alvarez, V

    1995-01-01

    To assess the presence of Lepidoglyphus destructor in the household environment of sensitized children living in an urban environment, samples of house dust were collected at the homes where two groups of patients were living, as well as in two bakeries in the city of Valencia, which were taken as a reference. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A included atopic children suffering from rhinitis and/or asthma, who were sensitized to L. destructor, as proven by prick test and specific IgE (CAP). Group B included children with the same features as those included in Group A, who were sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, with prick and CAP tests showing no significant sensitization to L. destructor. The samples of dust were analyzed, and the amounts of Der p I, Der f I, Der II and Lep d I per gram of dust were assessed through a solid-phase ELISA with monoclonal antibodies. In Group A, all patients but two showed a sensitization to D. pteronyssinus by prick test and serum IgE. At the homes of the patients from both groups, significant levels of Dermatophagoides were found. In Group A, only three houses showed levels of L. destructor which were comparable to those found in bakeries. Lep d I was not found in the houses of Group B patients. This means that a sensitization to L. destructor, as assessed with full extracts, is not always an indicator of its presence at the patient's house environment; it may rather refer to cross-reactivity to Dermatophagoides. Thus, availability of the main antigen Lep d I seems necessary to increase the specificity of the allergologic study. PMID:8653218

  7. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, P.; Ogink, N. W. M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  8. Regular spherical dust spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, N; Matravers, D R; Humphreys, Neil; Maartens, Roy; Matravers, David

    1998-01-01

    Physical (and weak) regularity conditions are used to determine and classify all the possible types of spherically symmetric dust spacetimes in general relativity. This work unifies and completes various earlier results. The junction conditions are described for general non-comoving (and non-null) surfaces, and the limits of kinematical quantities are given on all comoving surfaces where there is Darmois matching. We show that an inhomogeneous generalisation of the Kantowski-Sachs metric may be joined to the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. All the possible spacetimes are explicitly divided into four groups according to topology, including a group in which the spatial sections have the topology of a 3-torus. The recollapse conjecture (for these spacetimes) follows naturally in this approach.

  9. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    . This resulted in a socially, economically and environmentally sustainable neighbourhood proposal which also generated a more culturally flexible home, with environmental sustainable solutions to reduce future financial and environmental pressures. The outcome of the design proposal created an overall increased......Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...

  10. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....... of only 31%. We use 2007 municipal reform in Denmark in which 256 municipalities changed tax rates, as an exogenous shock to taxes. The exogeneity of the shock to taxes and the size of the data set is an improvement over earlier studies. Our findings significantly downward adjust the degree of tax...

  11. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    The BOOK HOUSE (and its predecessor, the BOOK AUTOMAT) are computer systems aimed at supporting library users in finding fiction. They are examples of systems using a cognitive work analysis as the basis for design and evaluation - and build on studies of the information retrieval task using actual...... user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...... base retrieval system for novice users - both adults and children. The use of icons within a spatial metaphor to facilitate direct manipulation of the displayed objects on the screen forms the basis for the interface in guiding the users' navigation in the BOOK HOUSE. This report, one of three...

  12. Dust-climate couplings over the past 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, F; Delmonte, B; Petit, J R; Bigler, M; Kaufmann, P R; Hutterli, M A; Stocker, T F; Ruth, U; Steffensen, J P; Maggi, V

    2008-04-01

    Dust can affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere by absorbing or reflecting incoming solar radiation; it can also be a source of micronutrients, such as iron, to the ocean. It has been suggested that production, transport and deposition of dust is influenced by climatic changes on glacial-interglacial timescales. Here we present a high-resolution record of aeolian dust from the EPICA Dome C ice core in East Antarctica, which provides an undisturbed climate sequence over the past eight climatic cycles. We find that there is a significant correlation between dust flux and temperature records during glacial periods that is absent during interglacial periods. Our data suggest that dust flux is increasingly correlated with Antarctic temperature as the climate becomes colder. We interpret this as progressive coupling of the climates of Antarctic and lower latitudes. Limited changes in glacial-interglacial atmospheric transport time suggest that the sources and lifetime of dust are the main factors controlling the high glacial dust input. We propose that the observed approximately 25-fold increase in glacial dust flux over all eight glacial periods can be attributed to a strengthening of South American dust sources, together with a longer lifetime for atmospheric dust particles in the upper troposphere resulting from a reduced hydrological cycle during the ice ages.

  13. 76 FR 30153 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... split HVAC systems: one air conditioning system and one combined heating/air conditioning system (HVAC), manufactured in Japan and Thailand by Mitsubishi Electronics American, Inc.--HVAC Division. This is a project... and Well House No. 2) with ductless split HVAC systems. The Well House No. 1 upgrade includes an...

  14. Lonqueville House: Tasting Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Lonqueville House Hotel

    2013-01-01

    Lonqueville House is a 4 star Georgian House hotel located in Mallow, Co. Cork. Kitchen Philosophy; "At Longueville Guests may savour the freshest produce from the estate and surrounding areas, in original culinary creations cooked by chef and patron William O'Callaghan and his team in this renowned kitchen. William trained under Master Chef Raymond Blanc at Le Manoir aux Quat’Saisons, a two-Michelin-star restaurant where the menu is described as having ‘a twist of imaginative genius...

  15. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  16. Dust exposure and respiratory health effects in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Gholami, Abdollah; Ghasemkhani, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostapha; Panahi, Davoud; Pouryaghoub, Golamreza

    2012-01-01

    Dust can be produced by almost all production processes in Portland cement factory. Dust exposure potentially can affect respiratory function. But evidence for respiratory effect of cement dust exposure has not been conclusive. In this study we assessed effect of cement dust exposure on respiratory function in a cement production factory. A respiratory symptoms questionnaire was completed and pulmonary function tests were carried out on 94 exposed and 54 non exposed workers at a cement factory in the east of Iran. Additionally, respirable dust level was determined by the gravimetric method. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was performed to determine the silica phases and the SiO(2) contents of the bulk samples. The arithmetic means (AM) of personal respirable dust were 30.18 mg/m(3) in the crushing, 27 mg/m(3) in the packing, 5.4 mg/m(3) in the cement mill, 5.9 mg/m(3) in the kiln and 5.48 mg/m(3) in the maintenance that were higher than threshold limit value (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) which is 5 mg/m(3). This value in the unexposed group was 0.93 mg/m(3). In this study cough, sputum, wheezing and dyspnea were more prevalent among exposed subjects. Exposed workers compared to the unexposed group showed significant reduction in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV(1)), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Forced Expiratory Flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF(25-75%)) (Pexposure and functional impairment among the cement factory workers. PMID:22359082

  17. Ensuring Healthy American Indian Generations for Tomorrow through Safe and Healthy Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available American Indians (AI have the highest rate of severe physical housing problems in the U.S. (3.9%. Little information exists about the environmental hazards in AI homes. The purposes of this paper are to discuss challenges that were encountered when recruiting AI for a home-and employment-based environmental health assessments, highlight major successes, and propose recommendations for future indoor environmental health studies. The Center for American Indian Community Health (CAICH and Children’s Mercy Hospital’s Center for Environmental Health and Allergy and Immunology Research Lab collaborated to provide educational sessions and healthy home assessments for AI. Through educational trainings, more than 240 AI were trained on the primary causes of health problems in homes. A total of 72 homes and places of employment were assessed by AI environmental health specialists. The top three categories with the most concerns observed in the homes/places of employment were allergens/dust (98%, safety/injury (89% and chemical exposure (82%. While some information on smoking inside the home was collected, these numbers may have been underreported due to stigma. This was CAICH’s first endeavor in environmental health and although challenges arose, many more successes were achieved.

  18. Nonlinear theory of dust lattice mode coupling in dust crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kourakis, I; Kourakis, Ioannis; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-crystals formed by charged mesoscopic dust grains (dust lattices), observed since hardly a decade ago, are an exciting paradigm of a nonlinear chain. In laboratory discharge experiments, these quasi-lattices are formed spontaneously in the sheath region near a negative electrode, usually at a levitated horizontal equilibrium configuration where gravity is balanced by an electric field. It is long known (and experimentally confirmed) that dust-lattices support linear oscillations, in the longitudinal (acoustic mode) as well as in the transverse, in plane (acoustic-) or off-plane (optic-like mode) directions. Either due to the (typically Yukawa type) electrostatic inter-grain interaction forces or to the (intrinsically nonlinear) sheath environment, nonlinearity is expected to play an important role in the dynamics of these lattices. Furthermore, the coupling between the different modes may induce coupled nonlinear modes. Despite this evidence, the elucidation of the nonlinear mechanisms governing dust cr...

  19. Customer Satisfaction Theory Applied in the Housing Industry:An Empirical Study of Low-Priced Housing in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Song; ZHU Yan

    2006-01-01

    A household satisfaction index (HSI) model based on the American customer satisfaction index (ACSI) model was fit to the housing industry in China and used with the software LISREL to measure the HSI in Beijing. Specifically, the empirical study analyzes the HSI of low-priced housing in Beijing. The results show that the HSI model is valid and the customer satisfaction theory can effectively analyze the housing industry. The results can help illustrate the factors which most affect customer satisfaction, and can be used to not only enhance the quality of homes and promote the housing market, but also to improve the standard of living for lower income people and provide suggestions to policy makers.

  20. Simulations of Mineral Dust Content With CHIMERE-Dust Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmechtig, C.; Marticorena, B.; Menut, L.; Bergametti, G.

    2006-12-01

    Simulations of the mineral dust cycle have been performed whith CHIMERE-Dust model over a domain that includes North Africa, the Mediterranean basin and the North Tropical Atlantic Ocean (10S-60N and 90W-90E) with a 1°x1° resolution using the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological fields for two years, 2000 and 2001. As a validation, we compare the simulated dust concentration fields with photometric data from the AERONET network. From the comparisons between the simulated and measured aerosol optical depth for several stations of the Mediterranean basin, the model appears to reproduce correctly the intensity and occurrences of the dust events. Over Western Africa, the results are not as satisfying since some of the most intense dust events observed on the continent and downwind are not captured by the model. In addition, the simulated events are generally underestimated compared to the measured ones. It appears that these differences in the model performances are connected to the origin of the dust plumes. For example, dust plumes coming from Libya are well simulated while dust plumes originating from the Bodélé depression not as frequent as intense as the observations suggest. Soil properties in these two regions are comparable and typical of very erodible surfaces. We thus focused on the comparison between the ECMWF 10m wind speed fields and 10m wind speed measured at the meteorological stations located in both areas. We noticed that over Libya, the measured and ECMWF 10m wind speed are in very good agreement, while the meteorological model does not reproduce the extrema of the measured wind speed in the Bodélé depression. We found that a crude empirical correction of the 10m wind field in the Bodélé Depression significantly improve the simulations in terms of occurrence and of intensity.

  1. Sustainable Plus-energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    This study is an outcome of Elforsk, project number 344-060, Bæredygtige Energi-Plus huse (Sustainable plus-energy houses). The focus of this report is to document the approach and the results of different analyses concerning a plus-energy, single family house. The house was designed for an inter......This study is an outcome of Elforsk, project number 344-060, Bæredygtige Energi-Plus huse (Sustainable plus-energy houses). The focus of this report is to document the approach and the results of different analyses concerning a plus-energy, single family house. The house was designed...

  2. Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vukovic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM with 3.5 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~ 25 km, the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~ 2500 μg m−3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD, employing deep blue (DB algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further

  3. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  4. Sanaa and density housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui

    2012-01-01

    According to Green Metropolis wrote by David Owen, living smaller, closer, and driving less are the keys to sustainability. We should live more like Manhattan. This thesis analyses Gifu Kitagata Apartment Building designed by Sanaa studio, from architectural design aspect, as a great example to attract more people choose small apartments instead of big houses.

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Dutch House Martins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.; van der Velde, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a southern Spanish population of the colonial-breeding Afrotropical migrant House Martins Delichon urbicum, a high overall prevalence of (molecularly assayed) haemosporidian infections (in the non-parasitological literature usually denoted with the inclusive term 'malaria') was associated with ne

  7. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  8. How Housing Benefit Residents?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lynn Zhang

    2008-01-01

    @@ At 2008's NPC and CPPCC sessions,the nation's housing program has kbecome one of the top concerns;some deputies from academic institutions and the real estate industry have submitted their own proposals on how to deal with the issue.

  9. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  10. Control on Housing Segregation:Housing Modes and Public Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. Housing segregation:advocating or controlling?The phenomenon of housing segregation has become more and more obvious in Chinese cities in recent years; however, there is no agreement on whether it should

  11. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  12. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  13. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  14. Housing and Housing Finance: The View from Australia and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Luci Ellis

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws together themes from work at the RBA, other national central banks, the BIS and elsewhere on recent developments in housing and housing finance. The general conclusion is that financial and macroeconomic developments have increased the demand for the stock of housing. Because the stock of housing is inherently slow to adjust, this has increased its relative price. Although this is a global trend, individual country institutions have affected outcomes, sometimes in ways that a...

  15. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.

  16. Metals and dust in high redshift AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Schneider, R; Bianchi, S; Pedani, M; Pipino, A; Matteucci, F; Cox, P; Caselli, P

    2006-01-01

    We summarize some recent results on the metallicity and dust properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at high redshift (110). The properties of dust in high-z QSOs are discussed within the context of the dust production mechanisms in the early universe. The dust extinction curve is observed to evolve beyond z>4, and by z~6 it is well described by the properties expected for dust produced by SNe, suggesting that the latter is the main mechanism of dust production in the early universe. We also show that the huge dust masses observed in distant QSOs can be accounted for by SN dust within the observational constraints currently available. Finally, we show that QSO winds, which have been proposed as an alternative mechanism of dust production, may also contribute significantly to the total dust budget at high redshift.

  17. Loess and Eolian Dust Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past environment derived from Loess and Eolian dust (silt-sized material deposited on the Earth surface by the surface winds. Parameter keywords describe...

  18. Wormhole shadows in rotating dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Takayuki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    As an extension of our previous work, which investigated the shadows of the Ellis wormhole surrounded by nonrotating dust, in this paper we study wormhole shadows in a rotating dust flow. First, we derive steady-state solutions of slowly rotating dust surrounding the wormhole by solving relativistic Euler equations. Solving null geodesic equations and radiation transfer equations, we investigate the images of the wormhole surrounded by dust for the above steady-state solutions. Because the Ellis wormhole spacetime possesses unstable circular orbits of photons, a bright ring appears in the image, just as in Schwarzschild spacetime. The bright ring looks distorted due to rotation. Aside from the bright ring, there appear weakly luminous complex patterns by the emission from the other side of the throat. These structure could be detected by high-resolution very-long-baseline-interferometry observations in the near future.

  19. Surface System Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  20. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  1. The Amistad Research Center: Documenting the African American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)

  2. Personal dust exposures at a food processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Steven E; Conroy, Lorraine M; Forst, Linda S; Franke, John E; Wadden, Richard A; Hedeker, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    A field study was performed to quantify personal dust exposures at a food processing facility. A review of the literature shows very little exposure information in the food processing industry. The processing area consisted of a series of four rooms, connected by a closed-loop ventilation system, housed within a larger warehouse-type facility. Workers were exposed to various fruit and vegetable dusts during the grinding, sieving, mixing and packaging of freeze-dried or air-dried products. Eight two-hour periods were monitored over two days. Personal total suspended particulate samples were collected on 37 mm PVC filters with 5 microm pore size according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 0500. The filters were analyzed gravimetrically. The two-hour task sampling personal dust exposures ranged from 0.33-103 mg/m3. For each worker, an eight-hour time weighted average (TWA) concentration was calculated, and these ranged from 3.08-59.8 mg/m3. Although there are no directly appropriate occupational exposure limits that may be used for comparison, we selected the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for particulates not otherwise classified (PNOC) of 10 mg/m3 for inhalable particles. Neglecting the respiratory protection used, five out of eight of the worker time-weighted averages exceeded the TLV. It should be noted that the TLV is based on the inhalable fraction and in this study total suspended particulate was measured; additionally, the TLV is applicable for dusts that are insoluble or poorly soluble, and have low toxicity, which may have limited protective ability in this case due to the irritant nature of certain dusts (e.g., jalapeno peppers, aloe vera). Sieving resulted in significantly higher exposure than grinding and blending. Measuring area concentrations alone in this environment is not a sufficient method of estimating personal exposures due to work practices for some operations. PMID:16893837

  3. Dust vortex flows in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P.K

    2002-12-30

    Coherent nonlinear structures in the form of dust vortex flows have been observed in unmagnetized laboratory dusty plasmas. Our objective here is show that the dynamics of such dust vortices is governed by a modified Navier-Stokes equation (MNSE) and that the stationary solutions of the MNSE can be represented as monopolar as well as a row of identical Stuart and a row of counter-rotating vortices.

  4. Saharan Dust Pollution: Implications for the Sahel?

    OpenAIRE

    De Longueville, Florence; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust.1 About 12% of the Saharan dust moves northwards to Europe, 28% westwards to the Americas, and 60% southwards to the Gulf of Guinea. Saharan dust storms can lead to particulate matter (PM) levels that exceed internationally recommended levels. Recently, special attention has been paid to the mineral PM air pollution of dust storms, which may be a serious health threat....

  5. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  6. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  7. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  8. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  9. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  10. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  11. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  12. The Student Dust Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Bagenal, F.; Finley, T.; Christensen, F.; Holland, G.; Bryant, C.; Bunch, N.; Neeland, M.; Chanthawanich, T.; Fernandez, A.; Hoxie, V.; Jenkins, A.; Vaudrin, C.; Krauss, E.; Krauss, O.; Crayton, J.; James, D.; Krauss, C.; Mitchell, C.; Colgan, M.; Grogan, B.; Christofferson, J.

    2005-12-01

    This talk will describe the scientific goals, the technical, and the human challenges of the Student Dust Counter (SDC) experiment for the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) organized a team of students to design, fabricate, test, calibrate, and fly SDC, one of seven science instruments onboard New Horizons. The student team was responsible for all phases of this development under the supervision of LASP professionals. Both undergraduate and graduate students worked on this project, representing a variety of disciplines, including Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Physics, Journalism, and Business. The SDC project is part of the EPO effort of the New Horizons mission. Though it is a student project, the requirements for passing all standard NASA milestones for reviews were identical to other experiments. The students performed at a professional level and SDC was delivered on time and within budget. It is now integrated to the spacecraft awaiting the scheduled launch in January of 2006. To date, SDC provided a group of about 20 students an opportunity to learn first hand how to build instruments, and graduate with years of experience in space exploration.

  13. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  14. Consumption, house prices and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Orazio Attanasio; Laura Blow; Robert Hamilton; Andrew Leicester

    2005-01-01

    Over much of the past 25 years, the cycles of house price and consumption growth have been closely synchronised. Three main hypotheses for this co-movement have been proposed in the literature. First, that an increase in house prices raises households' wealth, particularly for those in a position to trade down the housing ladder, which increases their desired level of expenditure. Second, that house price growth increases the collateral available to homeowners, reducing credit constraints and...

  15. Housing Wealth and Retirement Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Farnham; Purvi Sevak

    2007-01-01

    We use data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the Office of Housing Enterprise Oversight to measure the effect of changes in housing wealth on retirement timing. Using cross-MSA variation in house-price movements to identify wealth effects on retirement timing, we find evidence that such wealth effects are present. According to some specifications the rate of transition into retirement increases in the presence of positive housing wealth shocks. In addition, we use data on expect...

  16. Sexual Networks and Housing Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Latimore, Amanda; Hulbert, Alicia; Latkin, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    Unstable housing is related to a range of health problems including substance abuse, poor mental health, and HIV. Little is known about how sexual partners’ attributes influence access to resources such as housing. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sexual network characteristics and improvements in housing situation among a sample of drug users using a longitudinal design. Size of one’s sex network was not associated with housing change. However, having ...

  17. What we learned from the Dust Bowl: lessons in science, policy, and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeman, Robert A; Dupre, Juliette; Berrang Ford, Lea; Ford, James; Gajewski, Konrad; Marchildon, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of scholarly knowledge of Depression-era droughts on the North American Great Plains, a time and place known colloquially as the Dust Bowl era or the Dirty Thirties. Recent events, including the 2008 financial crisis, severe droughts in the US corn belt, and the release of a popular documentary film, have spawned a resurgence in public interest in the Dust Bowl. Events of the Dust Bowl era have also proven in recent years to be of considerable interest to scholars researching phenomena related to global environmental change, including atmospheric circulation, drought modeling, land management, institutional behavior, adaptation processes, and human migration. In this review, we draw out common themes in terms of not only what natural and social scientists have learned about the Dust Bowl era itself, but also how insights gained from the study of that period are helping to enhance our understanding of climate-human relations more generally.

  18. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most...... commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses...

  19. Housing wealth accumulation: The role of public housing

    OpenAIRE

    GOFFETTE-NAGOT, Florence; Sidibé, Modibo

    2014-01-01

    The public housing sector provides housing units at below-market rents, potentially allowing its tenants to save for a downpayment more quickly than they would have otherwise. In this paper, we analyze the effect of a spell in public housing on age at first-time homeownership using the French Housing Survey. We use a pseudo-panel approach that takes into account the specificities of the local housing market, to derive individual tenure transitions from multiple cross-sections data. Using an I...

  20. Home sweet home? A case study of household dust contamination in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S T; Lam, K C

    2000-07-10

    It is well recognized that many heavy metals have chronic effects on humans and as such, they are potential environmental health hazards, particularly to young children (see, for example, Body P, Inglis G, Dolan P, Mulcahy D. Environmental lead: a review. Crit Rev Environ Control 1991;20:299-310). Considerable attention has been paid to the study of metal pollution in city air, roadside dusts and soils. However, there is a lack of concern of the presence of trace metals in house dust in the populous city of Hong Kong, where it has traditionally been assumed that such pollutants are rapidly dispersed by ocean breezes. This research aims at quantifying the concentrations of heavy metals within the home environment in Hong Kong and their relationships with environmental factors. The results of this study seem to suggest that traffic and the age of the building and neighborhood are more important factors than the types of industry and socioeconomic status in affecting household dust contamination. The metal burdens in Kwung Tong, an old area with heavy traffic, are significantly higher than other districts. When a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance was performed on the ranked metal concentrations in different housing districts, the Chi-square values are all significant at a probability level of contaminating industries (such as metal smelters, battery plants and petrochemicals) in Hong Kong. The dust metals may travel from the roads, through the windows and balconies, into the houses, as those homes that do not have their windows opened often had a lower level of contaminants in their house dust (median Cd= 3.6 microg/g; median Cu = 313.2 microg/g; median Pb = 144.6 microg/g; median Mn = 211.6 microg/g; and median Zn = 1,333.7 microg/g). Moreover, those occupants who sweep their floors or dust their furniture on daily bases, or use vacuum cleaners, had a lower level of metals inside their houses. Another finding of interest is that the color of the wall paint

  1. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  2. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  3. Dust Particle Size Distributions during Spring in Yinchuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangfeng Shao; Jiandong Mao

    2016-01-01

    Dust particle size distributions in Yinchuan, China, were measured during March and April 2014, using APS-3321 sampler. The distributions were measured under different dust conditions (background, floating dust, blowing dust, and dust storm) and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that, under different dust conditions, the instantaneous number concentrations of dust particles differed widely. For example, during blowing sand and dust storm conditions, instantaneous dust pa...

  4. Variability of particle size-specific fractions of personal coal mine dust exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, N S; Hewett, P; Robins, T G; Haney, R

    1995-03-01

    This study estimated the ratio of the tracheo-bronchial dust fraction to the fraction collected by a respirable dust sampler for a variety of job classifications found in conventional, continuous, and longwall coal mining sections. The ratios could then be applied in epidemiologic studies to existing respirable dust measurements to estimate thoracic mass concentrations for evaluation of the relative importance of the respirable and thoracic dust fractions to obstructive lung disease. Data collected include particle size distributions from four U.S. underground coal mines using eight-stage personal cascade impactors. A total of 180 samples were examined by mine, occupation and occupations grouped by proximity to the mine face, and by mining technology. Several fractions--that collected by the 10-mm nylon cyclone, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists respirable and thoracic particulate mass fractions, and the estimated alveolar and tracheo-bronchial deposition fractions--were estimated. These were not significantly different when grouped by occupation, by proximity of work to the mine face, or by the type of mining technology in use. Distributions from one mine varied from the others, perhaps because it used diesel equipment in the haulage ways, which contributed to the fine aerosol fractions. Results suggest that although the tracheo-bronchial dust fraction may contribute to the development of obstructive lung disease, occupation-specific tracheo-bronchial dust fractions are not likely to produce stronger exposure-response estimates than the historically collected respirable dust concentrations. PMID:7717269

  5. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    This booklet is a project documentation of a short-term project titled ‘IDEAS ABOUT HOUSING Arkitektkonkurrencernes boligløsninger’. Architectural competitions have been used to develop new living concepts reacting on current political, economical and social flows. Participation in an architectural...... competition provides the architects a possibility to reflect on the current social patterns, and to propose suitable spaces. In this light, the competition proposals represent the visions and dreams of the architects to the contemporary society. “For most of the 20th century, design competitions have been...... an important part of the world of architecture and planning in Denmark. Competitions, sponsored by government organizations, housing associations, or private business, are usually requests to make proposals for a specific project, but they are also sometimes used to elicit ideas about a general project type...

  6. Ice nucleation by soil dust compared to desert dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, O.; Steinke, I.; Ullrich, R.; Höhler, K.; Schiebel, T.; Hoose, C.; Funk, R.

    2015-12-01

    A minor fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, so-called ice-nucleating particles (INPs), initiates the formation of the ice phase in tropospheric clouds and thereby markedly influences the Earth's weather and climate systems. Whether an aerosol particle acts as an INP depends on its size, morphology and chemical compositions. The INP fraction of certain aerosol types also strongly depends on the temperature and the relative humidity. Because both desert dust and soil dust aerosols typically comprise a variety of different particles, it is difficult to assess and predict their contribution to the atmospheric INP abundance. This requires both accurate modelling of the sources and atmospheric distribution of atmospheric dust components and detailed investigations of their ice nucleation activities. The latter can be achieved in laboratory experiments and parameterized for use in weather and climate models as a function of temperature and particle surface area, a parameter called ice-nucleation active site (INAS) density. Concerning ice nucleation activity studies, the soil dust is of particular interest because it contains a significant fraction of organics and biological components, both with the potential for contributing to the atmospheric INP abundance at relatively high temperatures compared to mineral components. First laboratory ice nucleation experiments with a few soil dust samples indicated their INP fraction to be comparable or slightly enhanced to that of desert dust. We have used the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud simulation chamber to study the immersion freezing ability of four different arable soil dusts, sampled in Germany, China and Argentina. For temperatures higher than about -20°C, we found the INP fraction of aerosols generated from these samples by a dry dispersion technique to be significantly higher compared to various desert dust aerosols also investigated in AIDA experiments. In this contribution, we

  7. Effect of Thermionic Emission on Dust-Acoustic Solitons in a Dust-Electron Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-Wen; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of thermionic emission on dust-acoustic solitons with a very small but finite amplitude in a dustelectron plasma are studied using the reductive perturbation technique. The self-consistent variation of dust charge is taken into account. It is shown that the thermionic emission could significantly increase the dust positive charge. The dependences of the phase velocity, amplitude, and width of such solitons on the dust temperature and the dust work function of dust material are plotted and discussed.

  8. Climate change and climate systems influence and control the atmospheric dispersion of desert dust: implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.

    2010-01-01

    The global dispersion of desert dust through Earth’s atmosphere is greatly influenced by temperature. Temporal analyses of ice core data have demonstrated that enhanced dust dispersion occurs during glacial events. This is due to an increase in ice cover, which results in an increase in drier terrestrial cover. A shorter temporal analysis of dust dispersion data over the last 40 years has demonstrated an increase in dust transport. Climate systems or events such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Indian Ocean subtropical High, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and El Nino-Sothern Oscillation are known to influence global short-term dust dispersion occurrence and transport routes. Anthropogenic influences on dust transport include deforestation, harmful use of topsoil for agriculture as observed during the American Dust Bowl period, and the creation of dry seas (Aral Sea) and lakes (Lake Owens in California and Lake Chad in North Africa) through the diversion of source waters (for irrigation and drinking water supplies). Constituents of desert dust both from source regions (pathogenic microorganisms, organic and inorganic toxins) and those scavenged through atmospheric transport (i.e., industrial and agricultural emissions) are known to directly impact human and ecosystem health. This presentation will present a review of global scale dust storms and how these events can be both a detriment and benefit to various organisms in downwind environments.

  9. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  10. Juliane House, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Many young doctors in linguistics or literature are filling positions in departments of translation studies but might not necessarily have a clear idea of the kind of research carried out by their new-found colleagues. For them, Juliane House's brief introduction to the field of translation theory provides a welcome survey of the main concepts and issues in this area, even though the book is actually intended for readers with little or no background in language study at all.

  11. Housing 'Generation Rent'

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Kim; Hoolachan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    'Generation Rent' denotes young people under 35 who are spending longer periods of their life in the private rented sector (PRS) because of challenges accessing both home ownership and social rented housing1. The 2007 global financial crisis resulted in stricter mortgage lending criteria and larger deposit requirements, which are out of reach for many young people who are navigating difficult labour markets, and have been hit hard by welfare reform agendas2. Furthermore, the shrinkage of the ...

  12. Planning for seniors housing

    OpenAIRE

    Shiner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    This video clip comprises one of the 3 presentations of Panel Session, “Pan Canadian Policy Perspectives on Home Care" held at the 21st Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Innovations in Home Care: A Public Policy Perspective," MAY 16-17, 2012, Vancouver, BC. Presented by Donald Shiner, Principle Investigator of the Atlantic Seniors Housing Research Alliance. It is well known that jurisdictions with more comprehensive and integrated home care delivery systems are able to extend indepe...

  13. LIGHT*HOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjamin; Madsen, Jesper V;

    Med udgangspunkt i det konkrete byggeprojekt Light*house, der skal opføres på Århus havn, er der i projektet foretaget en række analyser til bestemmelse af de geotekniske egenskaber for den fede tertiære ler fra søvindmergel-formationen, som findes på lokaliteten til stor dybde. Søvindmerglens...

  14. The passive house

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Sanchis, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Intercambios internacionales. Jade Hochschule Oldenburg. Alemania. Passive houses are buildings that use resources architecture bioclimatic energy with an efficiency much higher than traditional construction. Buildings are designed to maximize light and heat received from this source of energy, resulting a temperature and humidity comfort, fit and healthy. There are healthy environments at any time of year, without further heat production. Basically, to make this possible, the isolation of...

  15. Housing market transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, Tina; Boardman, Brenda (Environmental Change Inst., Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    Reducing energy use in the existing building stock requires a substantial and rapid transformation of the whole sector. Using a market transformation approach provides a useful framework and poses some new problems in comparison with appliances: houses don't break down in the same way as fridges, but can be improved piecemeal. The Energy Performance in Buildings Directive provides the foundation (and the x axis) for policies to achieve substantial reductions in residential energy use and carbon emissions by 2050. The technology is known, but has to be chosen by the householder it cannot be incorporated in the factory by a manufacturer. Education and awareness are, therefore, more important, both for the householder and for the installers. What is the role, if any, of mandatory minimum standards? The types and mix of policies require a clear understanding of the challenges provided by low-income groups, capital shortages, the length of residence in the house, the landlord-tenant split and user knowledge. This paper reviews the challenges and examines the extent to which the well-known market transformation theories work for the housing sector. Most of the examples are from the UK, but have been developed into generic principles.

  16. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-10-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  17. Elemental tracers for Chinese source dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小曳; 张光宇; 朱光华; 张德二; 安芷生; 陈拓; 黄湘萍

    1996-01-01

    The mass-particle size distributions of 10 dust-carrying elements in aerosol particles were determined tor 12 sites in desert regions of northern China. The desert dust is proved to he of origin of eolian loess deposited on the Loess Plateau. Their transport to the loess was mainly attributable to the non-dust storm processes under the interglacial climate condition. The impact ot" dust storm on the accumulation of the loess increased in the glacial stage. On the basis of the signatures of 4 dust elements (Al. Fe, Mg and Sc). Chinese dust is believed to have 3 major desert sources (northwestern deserts, northern high dust deserts and northern low dust deserts). With a chemical element balance model, an elemental tracer system is established to proportion the export of China-source dust.

  18. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  19. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs. OMB Approval... the United States. HUD provides funding though several programs to Native American and Alaskan...

  20. Out of the Melting Pot, into the Nationalist Fires: Native American Literary Studies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to overestimate the differences between Native American studies in Europe and the United States. In Europe there are no dedicated university programs in Native American studies; instead, disciplinary units such as American studies or departments such as English, history, development studies, and anthropology house teaching and…

  1. 2002 Kuiper prize lecture: Dust Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Krüger, Harald; Kempf, Sascha; Dikarev, Valeri; Helfert, Stefan; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg

    2005-03-01

    Dust particles, like photons, carry information from remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and their bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is called "Dust Astronomy" which is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a Dust Observatory in space. Targets for a dust telescope are the local interstellar medium and nearby star forming regions, as well as comets and asteroids. Dust from interstellar and interplanetary sources is distinguished by accurately sensing their trajectories. Trajectory sensors may use the electric charge signals that are induced when charged grains fly through the detector. Modern in-situ dust impact detectors are capable of providing mass, speed, physical and chemical information of dust grains in space. A Dust Observatory mission is feasible with state-of-the-art technology. It will (1) provide the distinction between interstellar dust and interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin, (2) determine the elemental composition of impacting dust particles, and (3) monitor the fluxes of various dust components as a function of direction and particle masses.

  2. 77 FR 70177 - Multifamily Housing Mortgage and Housing Assistance Restructuring Program (Mark to Market)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Multifamily Housing Mortgage and Housing Assistance Restructuring Program (Mark to...: Multifamily Housing Mortgage and Housing Assistance Restructuring Program (Mark to Market). OMB...

  3. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Fougeray, P.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grun, E.; Heck, P. R.; Jillier, J. K.; Hoppe, P.; Howard, L.; Hudson, B.; Huss, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  4. How the Sociology of Housing Emerged

    OpenAIRE

    Musil, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    The article attempts to examine the main topics in the sociological study of housing from the end of the Second World War to the 1980s & distinguishes the following five: (1) housing systems & housing policy, (2) the relationship between social stratification & housing differentiation, (3) the relationship between the family & housing, (4) the relationship between housing & neighbourhoods, & (5) housing & architecture as components of culture. During this period the sociological study of hous...

  5. Dust characterization in FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angeli, M., E-mail: deangeli@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Maddaluno, G. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Laguardia, L. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Ripamonti, D. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Perelli Cippo, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Apicella, M.L. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Conti, C. [Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali – CNR, Milan (Italy); Giacomi, G. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Dust present in the vessel of FTU has been collected and analysed. Being FTU a device with full metal plasma facing components for the whole life and equipped with a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) make FTU of special interest from a point of view of dust studies. Analyses were conducted by standard dust analysis methods and by dedicated analysis, as X-rays and neutron diffraction, to investigate the presence of lithium compounds due the presence of the LLL in FTU. Dust collected near the LLL presents a different elemental composition, namely Li compounds, compared to the dust collected in the rest of the vessel; in particular LiO{sub 2}, LiOH, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. On the basis of these results, the formation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is proposed via a two steps process. Results of fuel retention measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) method show that fuel retention should not be an issue for FTU.

  6. The global atmospheric loading of dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. F.; Ridley, D. A.; Haustein, K.; Miller, R. L.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere, with important effects on human health and the climate system. But despite its importance, the global atmospheric loading of dust has remained uncertain, with model results spanning about a factor of five. Here we constrain the particle size-resolved atmospheric dust loading and global emission rate, using a novel theoretical framework that uses experimental constraints on the optical properties and size distribution of dust to eliminate climate model errors due to assumed dust properties. We find that most climate models underestimate the global atmospheric loading and emission rate of dust aerosols.

  7. Chemical Associations of Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc in Household Dust of Kathmandu Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust samples were collected from roadside houses of seven major locations in Kathmandu metropolitan area and trace element compositions was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results show significant concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd in the test household dusts as compared to the undisturbed (control) area. The mean concentrations of all the studied locations were found to be 76.2 mg/kg for Zn, 40.6 mg/kg for Pb, 29.9 mg/kg for Cr, 23.9 mg/kg for Ni and 8.2 mg/kg for Cd, respectively. Increase in these trace metals in the dust can most likely be attributed to rapid urbanization, increased vehicle emissions to the atmosphere and other anthropogenic sources. Elevated Zn abundance in household dust probably originates from traffic sources. Besides, enrichment factor reveals that the household dust was most severely affected by Cd in almost all the locations. Also, correlations between metal levels in dust samples for all the metals were investigated. (author)

  8. Energy Analysis of a Student-Designed Solar House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wermager

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings from an undergraduate research project concerning the energy efficiency, consumption, and generation of a 1000 ft2 (92.9 m2 solar house. The results were compared to a home of similar size and layout, built using traditional construction methods. The solar house was modeled after the Chameleon House: Missouri University of Science and Technology’s 2013 entry in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon. The efficiency of the design was analyzed using Energy-10 Version 1.8 software. For this comparison, a fictional American couple was created and a breakdown of their energy-use habits was recorded to accurately depict the magnitude of energy consumption. A 71% energy savings was forecasted using the Energy-10 software through the incorporation of various energy-conserving strategies in the home’s design. In addition, if a 9.1 kW photovoltaic array is also installed on a home of this size, it is possible to fully offset the energy consumption of the home. The forecasted energy usage and production detailed in this report shall be used for analyzing the integrity of the design of the Chameleon House as well as future solar houses constructed by the Missouri S&T Solar House Team.

  9. 24 CFR 982.352 - Eligible housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible housing. 982.352 Section 982.352 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  10. 12 CFR 1282.22 - Housing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing plans. 1282.22 Section 1282.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Director determines, under § 1282.21, that...

  11. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  12. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the...

  13. 20 CFR 654.407 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 654.407 Section 654.407 Employees... EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.407 Housing. (a) Housing... occupants against the elements. (b) Housing shall have flooring constructed of rigid materials,...

  14. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  15. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for

  16. Bosonic string theory with dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a modified bosonic string theory that has a pressureless ‘dust’ field on the string worldsheet. The dust is a real scalar field with unit gradient which breaks conformal invariance. Hamiltonian analysis reveals a time reparametrization constraint linear in the dust field momentum and a spatial diffeomorphism constraint. This feature provides a natural ‘dust time’ gauge in analogy with the parametrized particle. In this gauge we give a Fock quantization of the theory, which is complete and self-consistent in d < 26. The Hamiltonian of the theory is not a constraint; as a consequence the Hilbert space and mass spectrum are characterized by an additional parameter, and includes the usual string spectrum as a special case. The other sectors provide new particle spectra, some of which do not have tachyons. (paper)

  17. Desert Dust and Monsoon Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent have know that heavy dust events brought on by strong winds occur frequently in the pre-monsoon season, before the onset of heavy rain. Yet scientists have never seriously considered the possibility that natural dust can affect monsoon rainfall. Up to now, most studies of the impacts of aerosols on Indian monsoon rainfall have focused on anthropogenic aerosols in the context of climate change. However, a few recent studies have show that aerosols from antropogenic and natural sources over the Indian subcontinent may affect the transition from break to active monsoon phases on short timescales of days to weeks. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Vinoj and colleagues describe how they have shown that desert dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and West Asia can strenghten the summer monsoon over the Indial subcontinent in a matter of days.

  18. Dust Devil Populations and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.

    2016-08-01

    The highly-skewed diameter and pressure drop distributions of dust devils on Earth and Mars are noted, and challenges of presenting and comparing different types of observations are discussed. The widely-held view that Martian dust devils are larger than Earth's is critically assessed: the question is confounded somewhat by different observation techniques, but some indication of a {˜} 3x larger population on Mars is determined. The largest and most intense (in a relative pressure sense) devils recorded are on Mars, although the largest reported number density is on Earth. The difficulties of concepts used in the literature of `average' diameter, pressure cross section, and area fraction are noted in the context of estimating population-integral effects such as dust lifting.

  19. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tolias, P; De Angeli, M; De Temmerman, G; Ripamonti, D; Riva, G; Bykov, I; Shalpegin, A; Vignitchouk, L; Brochard, F; Bystrov, K; Bardin, S; Litnovsky, A

    2016-01-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions - detachment, sliding, rolling - are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  20. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,