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Sample records for american ginseng root

  1. Cultivated method of short root american ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Yuan Yuchun; Jia Zhifa; Suo Binhua

    1998-01-01

    The distribution rate of 14 C assimilated material and root vitality of two years old American ginseng at green seed stage were measured. An exploratory research was made by cutting part of main root and spraying ABT on leaves of American ginseng. The results show that with cutting part of main root out before transplant and then sticking them in the seed bed, the plant develop and grow normally and the lateral and fibrous roots grow well. Spraying ABT on leaves of the plant at seed forming stage accelerate the transfer of assimilated material to the root and enhance the root vitality, especially the lateral root vitality. It is considered that cutting part of main root out is major method and spraying ABT on leaves is a supplementary measurement

  2. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  3. Yeast Extract Stimulates Ginsenoside Production in Hairy Root Cultures of American Ginseng Cultivated in Shake Flasks and Nutrient Sprinkle Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Ewa; Szymczyk, Piotr; Kuźma, Łukasz; Lipert, Anna; Szymańska, Grażyna

    2017-05-26

    One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks and in a nutrient sprinkle bioreactor after 3 and 7 days of elicitation. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The maximum yield (20 mg g -1 d.w.) of the sum of six examined ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks was achieved after application of YE at 50 mg L -1 concentration and 3 day exposure time. The ginsenoside level was 1.57 times higher than that attained in control medium. The same conditions of elicitation (3 day time of exposure and 50 mg L -1 of YE) also favourably influenced the biosynthesis of studied saponins in bioreactor cultures. The total ginsenoside content was 32.25 mg g -1 d.w. and was higher than that achieved in control medium and in shake flasks cultures. Obtained results indicated that yeast extract can be used to increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of P. quinquefolium .

  4. Determination of trace metal concentrations in ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius (American)) roots for forensic comparison using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Barrie M; Tong, Alfred Y C; Wells, William J; Harraway, John A; Niven, Brian E; Weege, Butch; LaFollette, Douglas J

    2015-06-01

    The trace metal content of roots of samples of the American ginseng natural herbal plant species (Panax quinquefolius) was investigated as a means of differentiating between this species grown on Wisconsin and New Zealand farms, and from Canadian and Chinese sources. ICP-MS measurements were undertaken by ashing samples of the roots and then digestion with conc. HNO3 and H2O2. There was considerable variation in the concentrations of 28 detectable elements along the length of a root, between different roots, between different farms/sources and between different countries. Statistical processing of the log-transformed concentration data was undertaken using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). Although PCA showed some differentiation between samples, a much clearer discrimination of the Panax quinquefolius species of ginseng from the four countries was observed using DFA. 88% of the variation between countries could be accounted for by only using discriminant function 1 while 80% of the remaining 12% of the variation between countries is accounted for by discriminant function 2. The Fisher Classification Functions classify 98% of the 87 samples to the correct country of origin with 97% of the cross-validated cases correctly classified. The predictive ability of this DFA model was further tested by constructing 100 discriminant models each using a random selection of the data for two thirds of the 87 sampled ginseng root tops, and then using the resulting classification functions to determine correctly the country of origin of the remaining third of the cases. The mean success rate of the 100 classifications was 92%. These results suggest that measurement and statistical analysis of just the trace metal content of the roots of Panax quinquefolius promises to be an excellent predictor of the country of origin of this ginseng species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective purification of ginsenosides from cultured wild ginseng roots,red ginseng, and white ginseng with macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayue; Lee, Jae-Hwa; Ha, Jong-Myung

    2008-11-01

    This study was aimed (i) to develop an effective method for the purification of ginsenosides for industrial use and (ii) to compare the distribution of ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots (adventitious root culture of Panax ginseng) with those of red ginseng (steamed ginseng) and white ginseng (air-dried ginseng). The crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng were obtained by using a 75% ethanol extraction combined with ultrasonication. This was followed sequentially by AB-8 macroporous adsorption chromatography, Amberlite IRA 900 Cl anion-exchange chromatography, and Amberlite XAD16 adsorption chromatography for further purification. The contents of total ginsenosides were increased from 4.1%, 12.1%, and 11.3% in the crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng to 79.4%, 71.7%, and 72.5% in the final products, respectively. HPLC analysis demonstrated that ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots were distributed in a different ratio compared with red ginseng and white ginseng.

  6. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  7. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho

    2005-01-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay

  8. Optimal light for greenhouse culture of American ginseng seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T.A. Proctor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Three greenhouse experiments with American ginseng seedlings growing under light levels from 4.8% to 68% showed a quadratic response for root dry weight, giving an optimal root dry weight of 239 mg (range 160–415 mg at an optimal light level of 35.6% (range 30.6–43.2%.

  9. Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Vaughan; J.L. Chamberlain; J.F. Munsell

    2011-01-01

    Farming alternative crops, like American ginseng, is becoming more popular among forestland owners. Ginseng is a native medicinal herb and can be deliberately cultivated under a forest canopy. In recent surveys, over 40 percent of landowners in the Southeastern United States indicated a desire for more information on forest farming (Workman et al. 2003), and over half...

  10. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolin; Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhenhao; Lian, Meilan; Yin, Chengri

    2017-05-23

    Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng . Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g -1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1). The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC 50 value was 0.94 mg mL -1 .

  11. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g−1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1. The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC50 value was 0.94 mg mL−1.

  12. Effects of Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract on egg production performance and egg quality of laying hens. ... The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics concentration of PGRE were 598 ± 1.841 mmol trolox/kg, 15.45 ± 0.457 mmol ...

  13. Understanding the relationships between American ginseng harvest and hardwood forests inventory and timber harvest to improve co-management of the forests of eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Stephen Prisley; Michael McGuffin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of eastern United States, along-side timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and...

  14. Ethanol extraction preparation of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) and Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer): differential effects on postprandial insulinemia in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Leanne R; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Jovanovski, Elena; Rahelić, Dario; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    Ginsenosides are the proposed bioactive constituent of ginseng, especially for the attenuation of postprandial glycemia (PPG). The efficacious proportion of total and specific ginsenosides, remains unknown. Alcohol extraction of whole ginseng root can be used to selectively manipulate the ginsenoside profile with increasing alcohol concentrations producing high yields of total ginsenosides and varying their individual proportions. We aimed to compare the acute efficacy of different ethanol-extraction preparations of American ginseng (AG) and Korean red ginseng (KRG), with their whole-root origins, on PPG and insulin parameters in healthy adults. Following an overnight fast, 13 healthy individuals (Gender: 5M:8F, with mean ± SD, age: 28.9 ± 9.2 years, BMI: 26.3 ± 2.7 kg/m(2) and fasting plasma glucose: 4.21 ± 0.04 mmol/L) randomly received 3g of each of the following 10 different ginseng treatments on separate visits: whole root KRG and AG; 30%, 50% or 70% ethanol extracts of KRG and AG and 2 cornstarch placebos. Treatments were consumed 40 min prior to a 50 g oral glucose challenge test with capillary blood samples collected at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Insulin samples were collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min. There was no difference in attenuation of PPG among the tested ginseng preparations. Measures of Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) showed increased insulin sensitivity (IS) with KRG-30% and AG-50% extracts compared to placebo (p<0.05). The insulin sensitizing effects of KRG-30% and AG-50% extracts suggest that other root parts, including other ginsenosides not typically measured, may influence PPG and insulin parameters. There is potential for AG and KRG extracts to modulate IS, an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analgesic effects of glycoproteins from Panax ginseng root in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yinghong; Xu, Hong; Luo, Haoming; Jiang, Ruizhi

    2013-07-30

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey has various beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic activities of glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey in mice. Glycoproteins were isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. Physicochemical properties and molecular mass were determined by chemical assay and HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of glycoproteins and compared with that of aspirin or morphine. The locomotor activity was tested in mice by using actophometer. Four glycoproteins were obtained. The glycoproteins which protein content was the highest (73.04%) displayed dose-dependent analgesic effect. In writhing test, the glycoproteins significantly inhibited writhes (Pginseng C.A. Mey exhibited significant analgesic activities and the proteins were the active site, providing evidence for its pharmacal use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  17. Relationships between harvest of American ginseng and hardwood timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Prisley; James Chamberlain; Michael McGuffin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to quantify the relationship between American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and timber inventory and harvest. This was done through compilation and analysis of county-level data from public datasets: ginseng harvest data from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service (USFS) forest inventory and analysis (FIA)...

  18. The relationship between genetic and chemotypic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag, Erin M; McIntosh, Marla S

    2013-09-01

    Ginseng is one of the world's most important herbals used as an adaptogen and a cure for an impressively large range of ailments. Differences in the medicinal properties of ginseng roots have been attributed to variation in ginsenoside composition. In this study, the association between genetic and chemotypic profiles of wild and cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots grown in Maryland was investigated. Ginseng roots were classified into chemotypes based on their relative composition of Re and Rg1. Genetic profiles of these roots were determined from the analysis of 38 polymorphic RAPD markers and used for a cluster analysis of genetic similarities. The close correspondence between chemotype and genetic cluster provides the first DNA-based evidence for the genetic basis of ginsenoside composition. Results of this research are significant for plant breeding and conservation, phytochemical research, and clinical and pharmacological studies. Also, the correlation between RAPD markers and chemotype indicates the potential to use RAPD markers as a reliable and practical method for identification and certification of ginseng roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcript expression profiling for adventitious roots of Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Park, Jun-Hyung; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-08-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer is one of the major medicinal plants in oriental countries belonging to the Araliaceae family which are the primary source for ginsenosides. However, very few genes were characterized for ginsenoside pathway, due to the limited genome information. Through this study, we obtained a comprehensive transcriptome from adventitious roots, which were treated with methyl jasmonic acids for different time points (control, 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h) and sequenced by RNA 454 pyrosequencing technology. Reference transcriptome 39,304,529 (0.04GB) was obtained from 5,724,987,880 bases (5.7GB) of 22 libraries by de novo assembly and 35,266 (58.5%) transcripts were annotated with biological schemas (GO and KEGG). The digital gene expression patterns were obtained from in vitro grown adventitious root sequences which mapped to reference, from that, 3813 (6.3%) unique transcripts were involved in ≥2 fold up and downregulations. Finally, candidates for ginsenoside pathway genes were predicted from observed expression patterns. Among them, 30 transcription factors, 20 cytochromes, and 11 glycosyl transferases were predicted as ginsenoside candidates. These data can remarkably expand the existing transcriptome resources of Panax, especially to predict existence of gene networks in P. ginseng. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform to reveal more on secondary metabolism and abiotic stresses from P. ginseng in vitro grown adventitious roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon [Geumsan Agricultural Development and Technology Center, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year.

  1. Isolation and characterization of bioactive polyacetylenes Panax ginseng Meyer roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chia-Rou; Yong, Jin-Jie; Popovich, David G

    2017-05-30

    Panax ginseng has been studied for its chemo-preventive properties and pharmaceutical potential. Polyacetylenic compounds isolated from Panax ginseng root typically comprised of non-polar C 17 compound have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties. The objective of this project is to extract, isolate, and characterize bioactive polyacetylenes from Panax ginseng root using various extraction and separation methods Ginseng was extracted by reflux using methanol, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanolic ultrasonication. The extracts were partitioned with hexane to obtain water-soluble portion and hexane-soluble portion. Hexane was subsequently removed under vacuum, and formed a crude polyacetylenes extract (crude PA). Silica gel chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC were utilized to prepare 5 fractions and the polyacetylenes were measure by HPLC and molecular weights confirm my APCI-MS and MNR. The bioactive effect was measured by MTT viability assay using murine 3T3-L1 cells. Extraction with methanol under reflux produced significantly larger amount of polyacetylenes (p<0.05). Liquid-liquid extraction and column chromatography were used to separate polyacetylenic compounds into five different fractions. Major polyacetylenes, panaxynol and panaxydol were found in fraction 1 and 2 respectively. Dose-response relationships were observed in 3T3-L1 cells and LC50 were 13.52±3.05μg/mL (fraction 1), 3.69±1.09μg/mL (fraction 2), 52.88±11.16μg/mL (fraction 3), 85.91±27.37μg/mL (fraction 4) and 135.52±32.91μg/mL (fraction 5). Fraction 2 containing panaxydol was found to have exhibited the greatest anti-proliferative effects on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Extraction with methanol under reflux produced significantly more polyacetylenes. Fractions that contain panaxydol was the most cytotoxic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  3. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  4. Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Ji, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Seob; Choi, Doo Jin; Choi, Bo-Ram; Kim, Geum-Soog; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Dae Young

    2017-05-24

    (1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as the localization of biological compounds has been growing. The objective of this study is to carry out the mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides to assess ginseng roots at different ages; (2) Methods: Optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to profile various ginsenosides from P. ginseng roots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)/MS-based imaging was also optimized to visualize ginsenosides in ginseng roots; (3) Results: UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to profile 30 ginsenosides with high mass accuracy, with an in-house library constructed for the fast and exact identification of ginsenosides. Using this method, the levels of 14 ginsenosides were assessed in P. ginseng roots cultivated for 4, 5, and 6 years. The optimal MALDI-imaging MS (IMS) was also applied to visualize the 14 ginsenosides in ginseng roots. As a result, the MSI cross sections showed the localization of 4 ginsenoside ions ([M + K]⁺) in P. ginseng roots at different ages; (4) Conclusions: The contents and localization of various ginsenosides differ depending on the cultivation years of P. ginseng roots. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides for the quality control of ginseng roots.

  5. Mass culture of mountain Ginseng roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ha Lim [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    An adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) was used in this experiments. Various concentration of lanthanide were tested to find out optimal conditions for biomass and ginsenoside contents in mountain ginseng roots. The MS basal medium with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide created the most optimum condition for growth of adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Batch culture with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide and 0.5 g (F.W) inoculation volume produced maximum final biomass of 1.89 g(F.W/flask) within 4 weeks. However, lanthanide was not effect the ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. In bioreactors, 3.23 g F.W./L of biomass were obtained when 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide were added to the MS basal medium at 26 .deg. C

  6. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  7. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography.

  8. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  9. A Metabolomic Approach for the Discrimination of Red Ginseng Root Parts and Targeted Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Gyo; Seo, Hyun Kyu; Park, Hee-Won; Jang, Kyoung Hwa

    2017-03-15

    Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral roots, and fine roots, and each extract was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between the extracts of main roots and fine roots and suggested discrimination markers (four for the main roots and five for the fine roots). The fine root markers were identified as ginsenoside. We identified two markers for the main roots of red ginseng in this study. Moreover, the contents of 22 ginsenosides were analyzed in all three components of red ginseng. Fine roots have the highest protopanaxadiol (PPD)/protopanaxatriol (PPT) ratio. The PPD group of ginsenosides, which is quantitatively dominant in fine roots, clearly distinguishes the main roots from the other parts.

  10. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Song

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.

  11. Quality Evaluation of Panax ginseng Roots Using a Rapid Resolution LC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Young Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer contains several types of ginsenosides, which are considered the major active medicinal components of ginseng. The types and quantities of ginsenosides found in ginseng may differ, depending on the location of cultivation, making it necessary to establish a reliable method for distinguishing cultivation locations of ginseng roots. P. ginseng roots produced in different regions of Korea, China, and Japan have been unintentionally confused in herbal markets owing to their complicated plant sources. PCA and PLS-DA using RRLC-QTOF/MS data was able to differentiate between ginsengs cultivated in Korea, China, and Japan. The chemical markers accountable for such variations were identified through a PCA loadings plot, tentatively identified by RRLC-QTOF/MS and partially verified by available reference standards. The classification result can be used to identify P. ginseng origin.

  12. Rhexocercosporidium panacis sp. nov., a new anamorphic species causing rusted root of ginseng (Panax [corrected] quinquefolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeleder, R D

    2007-01-01

    A new species of the anamorphic genus Rhexocercosporidium is described. Isolates of a Rhex-Rhexocercosporidium sp. were obtained from ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) roots with symptoms of rusted root. These isolates were found to be genetically and morphologically distinct from the only described species in this genus, R. carotae. Sequence data from the ribosomal DNA region spanning the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and from a portion of the 3-tubulin gene of the ginseng Rhexocercosporidium were compared to those of R. carotae. Parsimony analyses of sequence data showed that R. carotae and the ginseng isolates belonged to distinct but closely related clades. Conidia of a typical ginseng isolate were significantly shorter and possessed fewer septa than R. carotae but shared rhexolytic secession of conidia with R. carotae. The binomial Rhexocercosporidium panacis is proposed to accommodate isolates of this genus that are associated with the rusted root disease.

  13. Active compounds and distinctive sensory features provided by American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) extract in a new functional milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, A; Salvador, A; Meyer, M; Feuillère, N; Ibarra, A; Roller, M; Terroba, D; Madera, C; Iglesias, J R; Echevarría, J; Fiszman, S

    2012-08-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has recognized neurocognitive effects, and a ginsenoside-rich extract of the root of the plant has been shown to improve cognitive functions in young adults. This study aimed at assessing the chemical and sensory profiles of a UHT-treated, low-lactose functional milk containing American ginseng. Individual ginsenosides in the milk were analyzed by HPLC. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel to quantitatively document sensory changes resulting from the addition of ginseng and the UHT process on flavored and unflavored milks. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated. Total ginsenoside content in the UHT-treated milk enriched with the ginseng extract after UHT process treatment was 7.52 mg/100 g of milk, corresponding to a recovery of 67.6% compared with the content in the unprocessed extract. The intake of 150 to 300 mL of this ginseng-enriched milk provides the amount of total ginsenosides (11.5 to 23 mg) necessary to improve cognitive function after its consumption. Both the presence of ginsenosides and their thermal treatment affected some sensory properties of the milk, most notably an increase in bitterness and metallic taste, the appearance of a brownish color, and a decrease in milky flavor. Levels of brown color, bitterness, and metallic taste were highest in the industrially processed ginseng-enriched milk. The bitterness attributable to ginseng extract was reduced by addition of vanilla flavor and sucralose. A consumer exploratory study revealed that a niche of consumers exists who are willing to consume this type of product. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography

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    Linlin Ye

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  15. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linlin; Xue, Yanling; Wang, Yudan; Qi, Juncheng; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2017-07-01

    The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ , and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated; these were classified according to their species, production area, and sample growth pattern. The quantitative internal characteristic microstructures of ginseng were extracted successfully. The size and position distributions of the calcium oxalate cluster crystals (COCCs), important secondary metabolites that accumulate in ginseng, are revealed by the three-dimensional quantitative imaging method. The volume and amount of the COCCs in different species of the ginseng are obtained by a quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional microstructures, which shows obvious difference among the four species of ginseng. This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  16. Effects of cultured wild-ginseng root and xylitol on fermentation of kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Jong; Sung, Jung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Chung, Heajung

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of cultured wild ginseng root (0.05%, 0.1% v/w) and xylitol in kimchi. The fermented characteristics of kimchi were investigated during 28 days of fermentation at 4°C. The pH value in the sample with the cultured wild ginseng root was higher than that of control group. The total acidity in the sugar groups (SG groups) was higher than that of xylitol groups (XG groups). Comparing total bacterial count, XG groups were lower than SG groups, regardless of the additional ratio of the cultured wild ginseng root. Reducing sugar of XG groups decreased more slowly than SG groups for seven days; glucose and fructose of XG groups were lower than the control group. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in groups with cultured wild ginseng root than in control. In the result of sensory evaluation, XG groups were more preferred than other groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that cultured wild-ginseng root and xylitol have a positive effect on the quality of kimchi, such as antimicrobial and antioxidant functions.

  17. Effect of ginseng root polysaccharides on cutaneous wound repair in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the healing activity of water ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) polysaccharide (WGP) in vivo. Methods: Mice were divided into four groups: group 1 was the control, and groups 2–4 were treated with WGP (15 mg or 30 mg) or mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF, 0.1 mL, 2000 IU/mL), respectively.

  18. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Linlin Ye; Yanling Xue; Yudan Wang; Juncheng Qi; Tiqiao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ, and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. Methods: The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated...

  19. American ginseng significantly reduced the progression of high-fat-diet-enhanced colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+mice

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    Chunhao Yu

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to link our observed effects to the actions of the gut microbiome in converting the parent ginsenosides to bioactive ginseng metabolites. Our data suggest that American ginseng may have potential value in CRC chemoprevention.

  20. Differentiation of Asian ginseng, American ginseng and Notoginseng by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guang-hua; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Leung, Kelvin Sze-yin; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhong-zhen

    2008-07-01

    The herbal materials of Asian ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng), American ginseng (the root of Panax quinquefolius) and Notoginseng (the root of Panax notoginseng) were differentiated by conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (1D-FTIR) and two-dimensional (2D) correlation FTIR applying a thermal perturbation. Altogether 30 samples were collected and analyzed. Their entire 1D-FTIR spectra in the range of 4000-400 cm -1 and 2D-FTIR spectra in the region of 850-1530 cm -1 were generally similar based on the peaks position and intensities. This indicated the chemical constituents in these species of herbs were not distinctively different. However, variation in peak intensity were observed at about 1640 cm -1, 1416 cm -1, 1372 cm -1 and 1048 cm -1 in the 1D-FTIR spectra among these species for their ease differentiation. Clustering analysis of 1D-FTIR showed that these species located in different clusters. Much difference in their second derivative FTIR pattern among the three species also provided information for easy differentiation. These species of herbs were further identified based on the positions and intensities of relatively strong auto-peaks, positive or negative cross-peaks in their 2D-FTIR spectra. The findings provide a rapid and new operational procedure for the differentiation of these notable herbs. The visual and colorful 2D-FTIR spectra can provide dynamic structural information of chemical components in analyte and demonstrated as a powerful and useful approach for herbs identification.

  1. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

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    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  2. Discrimination of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer cultivar Chunpoong and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius using the auxin repressed protein gene

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    Jong-Hak Kim

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that great impact to prevent authentication of precise Chunpoong and other cultivars using the auxin repressed protein gene. We therefore present an effective method for the authentication of the Chunpoong cultivar of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.

  3. Analysis of the relationship between rusty root incidences and soil properties in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. X.; Xu, C. L.; Sun, H.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Rusty root is a serious problem in ginseng cultivation that limits the production and quality of ginseng worldwide. The Changbai Mountains are the most famous area for ginseng cultivation in China. To clarify the relationship between rusty root and soil characteristics, physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activities of soil collected from five different fields in the Changbai Mountains were analyzed and a controlled experiment carried out by increasing the concentration of Fe (II). Soil bulk density, moisture, total iron (Fe) and total manganese (Mn) concentrations and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were significantly higher in rusty root than healthy root groups (two-sample test, Pginseng rusty root. Fe (III) reduction and Fe (II) oxidation could be important in increasing the incidence of rusty root. Soil moisture and bulk density of non-rhizosphere soil not attached to the root surface, and pH, N and PPO content of rhizosphere soils attached to the root surface were heavily involved in the reduction, oxidation and sequestration of metal ions.

  4. Production of taxadiene from cultured ginseng roots transformed with taxadiene synthase gene

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    Mijeong Cha1, Sang Hee Shim1, Sung Hong Kim2, Ok Tae Kim3, Se-Weon Lee4, Suk-Yoon Kwon5 & Kwang-Hyun Baek1,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel is produced by various species of yew trees and hasbeen extensively used to treat tumors. In our research, ataxadiene synthase (TS gene from Taxus brevifolia was used totransform the roots of cultured ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer to produce taxadiene, the unique skeletal precursor totaxol. The TS gene was successfully introduced into theginseng genome, and the de novo formation of taxadiene wasidentified by mass spectroscopy profiling. Without any changein phenotypes or growth difference in a TS-transgenic ginsengline, the transgenic TSS3-2 line accumulated 9.1 μg taxadieneper gram of dry weight. In response to the treatment of methyljasmonate for 3 or 6 days, the accumulation was 14.6 and15.9 μg per g of dry weight, respectively. This is the first reportof the production of taxadiene by engineering ginseng rootswith a taxadiene synthase gene.

  5. Biological characteristics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 and suppression of ginseng root rot caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Balaraju, K; Jeon, Y H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 (AK-0) on ginseng root rot disease caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans was investigated. From 190 ginseng rhizosphere bacteria, AK-0 was selected for further analysis; its morphological characteristics were investigated by microscopy. AK-0 was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens using the Biolog system, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and examination of morphological and biochemical characteristics. Bacterial population and media optimization were estimated by the bacterial growth curve. The number of AK-0 cells was relatively higher in brain-heart infusion (BHI) medium than in other media. The potential antifungal effect of AK-0 culture filtrate on the in vitro conidial germination of C. destructans and root rot development on root discs and 4-year-old ginseng roots were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of antibiotic biosynthesis gene expression suggested that the release of antibiotic compounds is involved in the antifungal effect of AK-0 and the suppression of ginseng root rot. These results indicate that the CF of AK-0 has antifungal effects on fungal pathogens of ginseng, resulting in the suppression of root rot disease caused by C. destructans. AK-0 is a potential source of novel bioactive metabolites. AK-0 CF exhibited antifungal effects against C. destructans on ginseng roots. PCR analysis indicated that the AK-0 harbours genes involved in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Comprehensive Characterization for Ginsenosides Biosynthesis in Ginseng Root by Integration Analysis of Chemical and Transcriptome

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    Jing-Jing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues—periderm, cortex and stele—each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously. Gene-encoding enzymes involved in ginsenosides biosynthesis and modification were studied based on gene and molecule data. Eight widely-used ginsenosides were distributed unevenly in ginseng roots. A total of 182,881 unigenes were assembled with an N50 contig size of 1374 bp. About 21,000 of these unigenes were positively correlated with the content of ginsenosides. Additionally, we identified 192 transcripts encoding enzymes involved in two triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways and 290 transcripts encoding UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs. Of these UGTs, 195 UGTs (67.2% were more highly expressed in the periderm, and that seven UGTs and one UGT were specifically expressed in the periderm and stele, respectively. This genetic resource will help to improve the interpretation on complex mechanisms of ginsenosides biosynthesis, accumulation, and transportation.

  7. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the genus... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...

  8. Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Rejane; Nicoloso, Fernando Teixeira; Brondani, Daniela; Maldaner, Joseila; Cezarotto, Verciane; Giacomelli, Sandro Rogério

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM) de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras f...

  9. Environmental Factors on the Development of Root Rot on Ginseng Caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sup Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans is the cause of root rot in many ginseng production areas in Korea. A total of 57 isolates of C. destructans were recovered from diseased roots in a survey of ginseng–growing fields from 2011-2012. Among these isolates, 37% were classified as highly virulent (causing lesions on unwounded mature roots and 61% were weakly virulent(causing lesions only on previously wounded roots. Radial growth of highly and weakly virulent isolates on potato dextrose agar was highest at 20°C and there was no growth at 35°C. Mycelial mass production was significantly (P = 0.05 lower at pH 7.0 compared with pH 5.0. To study the effects of pH (5.0 and 7.0 and wounding on disease development, ginseng roots were grown hydroponically in nutrient solution. Lesions were significantly larger (P < 0.01 at pH 5.0 compared with pH 7.0 and wounding enhanced disease by a highly virulent isolate at both pHs. In artificially infested soil, 2-yearold ginseng roots were most susceptible to Cylindrocarpon root rot among all root ages tested (1 to 4 years when evaluated using a combined scale of disease incidence and severity. Root rot severity was significantly (P<0.05 enhanced by increasing the inoculum density from 3.5 × 102 cfu/g of soil to 2.0×103 cfu/g of soil.

  10. Alcohol extract of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and other complications of metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Lui, Edmund; Wright, David; Taylor, Adrian; Bakovic, Marica

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids. Improvements by ginseng treatments were manifested as a reduction in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride (fat) synthesis and secretion by the lipoproteins on one hand, and the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride degradation by lipolysis on the other hand. These processes altogether improved glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride metabolism, reduced liver fat load, and reversed the progression of metabolic syndrome. These data confirm that treatments with North American ginseng could alleviate metabolic syndrome through the maintenance of a better balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and energy homeostasis in disease-prone states.

  11. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) suppresses β-adrenergic-dependent signalling, hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xilan; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Huang, Cathy Xiaoling; Xue, Jenny; Lui, Edmund M K; Karmazyn, Morris

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for a beneficial effect of ginseng on cardiac pathology. Here, we determined whether North American ginseng can modulate the deleterious effects of the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol on cardiac hypertrophy and function using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Isoproterenol was administered for 2 weeks at either 25 mg/kg per day or 50 mg/kg per day (ISO25 or ISO50) via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pump to either control rats or those receiving ginseng (0.9 g/L in the drinking water ad libitum). Isoproterenol produced time- and dose-dependent left ventricular dysfunction, although these effects were attenuated by ginseng. Improved cardiac functions were associated with reduced heart masses, as well as prevention in the upregulation of the hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression. Lung masses were similarly attenuated, suggesting reduced pulmonary congestion. In in vitro studies, ginseng (10 μg/mL) completely suppressed the hypertrophic response to 1 μmol/L isoproterenol in terms of myocyte surface area, as well as reduction in the upregulation of fetal gene expression. These effects were associated with attenuation in both protein kinase A and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Ginseng attenuates adverse cardiac adrenergic responses and, therefore, may be an effective therapy to reduce hypertrophy and heart failure associated with excessive catecholamine production.

  12. Differentiation of the root of Cultivated Ginseng, Mountain Cultivated Ginseng and Mountain Wild Ginseng using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Yong-Guo; Xu, Hong; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-07-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines. Based on the grown environments and the cultivate method, three kinds of ginseng, Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG) and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG) are classified. A novel and scientific-oriented method was developed and established to discriminate and identify three kinds of ginseng using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), secondary derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR). The findings indicated that the relative contents of starch in the CG were more than that in MCG and MWG, while the relative contents of calcium oxalate and lipids in MWG were more than that in CG and MCG, and the relative contents of fatty acid in MCG were more than that in CG and MWG. The hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to data analysis of MWG, CG and MWG, which could be classified successfully. The results demonstrated the macroscopic IR fingerprint method, including FT-IR, secondary derivative IR and 2D-IR, can be applied to discriminate different ginsengs rapidly, effectively and non-destructively.

  13. Determination of ginsenosides in Asian and American ginsengs by liquid chromatography–quadrupole/time-of-flight MS: assessing variations based on morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Chen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: An approach using ultra-HPLC–quadrupole/time-of-flight MS was successfully established to link morphology and active components for evaluating the quality of Asian and American ginsengs. Clear correlation between visible morphological features and quality of Asian and American ginsengs was found. People can see the difference; this means consumers and vendors can evaluate ginseng by themselves.

  14. Coalescence of functional gold and monodisperse silver nanoparticles mediated by black Panax ginseng Meyer root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Jiménez Pérez, Zuly Elizabeth; Ahn, Sungeun; Aceituno, Verónica Castro; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    A rapid biological synthesis of multifunctional gold nanoparticle (AuNp) and monodisperse silver nanoparticle (AgNp) was achieved by an aqueous extract of black Panax ginseng Meyer root. The physicochemical transformation into black ginseng (BG) greatly enhanced the pharmacological activities of white ginseng and its minor ginsenoside content. The optimal temperature conditions and kinetics of bioreduction were investigated. Formation of BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps was verified by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry at 548 and 412 nm, respectively. The biosynthesized BG-AgNps were spherical and monodisperse with narrow distribution, while BG-AuNps were icosahedral-shaped and moderately polydisperse. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited long-term stability in buffers of pH 7.0–8.0 and biological media (5% bovine serum albumin) at an ambient temperature and at 37°C. BG-AgNps showed effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps demonstrated increased scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. In addition, BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps were nontoxic to HaCaT and MCF-7 cells; the latter showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 10 µg/mL. At higher concentrations, BG-AgNps exhibited apparent apoptotic activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line through reactive oxygen species generation and nuclear fragmentation. PMID:28008248

  15. Differential antioxidant and quinone reductase inducing activity of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antioxidant and quinone reductase (QR) inducing activities of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng have been reported using various plant materials, solvents, and assays. To directly establish their comparative bioactivity, the effects of extracts obtained from acidified methanol (MeOH), a gas...

  16. Metabonomic Profiling Reveals Cancer Chemopreventive Effects of American Ginseng on Colon Carcinogenesis in Apc(Min/+) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Qiu, Yunping; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Yuan, Chun-Su; Jia, Wei

    2015-08-07

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines in the West. It has been reported to possess significant antitumor effects that inhibit the process of carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects remain largely unresolved. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of American ginseng on the progression of high fat (HF) diet-enhanced colorectal carcinogenesis with a genetically engineered Apc(Min/+) mouse model. The metabolic alterations in sera of experimental mice perturbed by HF diet intervention as well as the American ginseng treatment were measured by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) analysis. American ginseng treatment significantly extended the life span of the Apc(Min/+) mouse. Significant alterations of metabolites involving amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates were observed in Apc(Min/+) mouse in sera, which were attenuated by American ginseng treatment and concurrent with the histopathological improvement with significantly reduced tumor initiation, progression and gut inflammation. These metabolic changes suggest that the preventive effect of American ginseng is associated with attenuation of impaired amino acid, carbohydrates, and lipid metabolism. It also appears that American ginseng induced significant metabolic alterations independent of the Apc(Min/+) induced metabolic changes. The significantly altered metabolites induced by American ginseng intervention include arachidonic acid, linolelaidic acid, glutamate, docosahexaenoate, tryptophan, and fructose, all of which are associated with inflammation and oxidation. This suggests that American ginseng exerts the chemopreventive effects by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms.

  17. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Ju,Han; Ki-Rok,Kwon; Bae-Chun,Cha; Oh-Man,Kwon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of lea...

  18. Regulation of tissue differentiation by plant growth regulators on tTCLs of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2012), s. 154-159 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550705; GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Adventitious roots * Panax ginseng * Ginsenosides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  19. The Spatial and Temporal Transcriptomic Landscapes of Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangyu; Jiang, Shicui; Sun, Chunyu; Lin, Yanping; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Meiping

    2015-12-11

    Ginseng, including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.), is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia and North America, but significantly understudied. This study sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 14 tissues and four different aged roots of Asian ginseng. A total of 265.2 million 100-bp clean reads were generated using the high-throughput sequencing platform HiSeq 2000, representing >8.3x of the 3.2-Gb ginseng genome. From the sequences, 248,993 unigenes were assembled for whole plant, 61,912-113,456 unigenes for each tissue and 54,444-65,412 unigenes for different year-old roots. We comprehensively analyzed the unigene sets and gene expression profiles. We found that the number of genes allocated to each functional category is stable across tissues or developmental stages, while the expression profiles of different genes of a gene family or involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis dramatically diversified spatially and temporally. These results provide an overall insight into the spatial and temporal transcriptome dynamics and landscapes of Asian ginseng, and comprehensive resources for advanced research and breeding of ginseng and related species.

  20. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Cempaka Mohd Yusof; Sobri Hussein; Salmah Moosa; Salahbiah Badul Majid; Azhar Mohammad; Foziah Ali; Shafii Khamis; Rusli Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  1. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  2. Consequences of harvesting for genetic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.): A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse-Sanders, J. M.; Hamrick, J.L.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L., is one of the most heavily traded medicinal plants in North America. The effect of harvest on genetic diversity in ginseng was measured with a single generation culling simulation program. Culling scenarios included random harvest at varying levels, legal limit random harvest and legal limit mature plant harvest. The legal limit was determined by the proportion of legally harvestable plants per population (% mature plants per population). Random harvest at varying levels resulted in significant loss of genetic diversity, especially allelic richness. Relative to initial levels, average within-population genetic diversity (H e) was significantly lower when plants were culled randomly at the legal limit (Mann-Whitney U = 430, p < 0.001) or when only mature plants were culled (Mann-Whitney U = 394, p < 0.01). Within-population genetic diversity was significantly higher with legal limit mature plant harvest (H e = 0.068) than when plants were culled randomly at the legal limit (H e = 0.064; U = 202, p < 0.01). Based on these simulations of harvest over one generation, we recommend that harvesting fewer than the proportion of mature plants could reduce the negative genetic effects of harvest on ginseng populations. ?? Springer 2005.

  3. Extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Flores

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras foram extraídas com metanol, e a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em banho ultrasônico. O conteúdo de ecdisterona foi determinado em Cromatógrafo Líquido de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Em ambas as espécies, um maior conteúdo de ecdisterona foi detectado nas amostras extraídas com metanol e em Soxhlet. A metodologia proposta mostrou-se eficaz para a quantificação da ecdisterona a partir das raízes de P. glomerata e P. tuberosa, podendo ser aplicada no controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e/ou fitoterápicos.This study aimed at optimizing the extraction method from ecdysterone of Brazilian ginseng. Root samples of two accessions (BRA and JB-UFSM of P. glomerata were extracted in a Soxhlet with methanol or chloroform for 4h. In the second trial, the extration was conduced in a Soxhlet or ultrasonic using metanol as a solvent. In P. tuberosa, the roots samples were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet or in ultrasonic. The ecdysterone content was determinated using high efficiency liquid chromatography methods. In both studied species, the highest ecdisterone content was detected from samples extracted in a Soxhlet and using methanol as a solvent. This extration method has been successfully applied for determination of ecdysterone content from roots of Brazilian ginseng, and could be useful for the quality control of drugs and pharmaceutical formulations.

  4. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  5. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of root transcriptomes from different varieties of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer grown in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Gang; Zhang, Lei; Du, YaNan; Yu, RenBo; Liu, XinMin; Cao, FangRui; Chang, Qi; Deng, XingWang; Xia, Mian; He, Hang

    2015-11-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is an important traditional herb in eastern Asia. It contains ginsenosides, which are primary bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. Although ginseng has been cultivated since at least the Ming dynasty to increase production, cultivated ginseng has lower quantities of ginsenosides and lower disease resistance than ginseng grown under natural conditions. We extracted root RNA from six varieties of fifth-year P. ginseng cultivars representing four different growth conditions, and performed Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 163,165,706 raw reads were obtained and used to generate a de novo transcriptome that consisted of 151,763 contigs (76,336 unigenes), of which 100,648 contigs (66.3%) were successfully annotated. Differential expression analysis revealed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated (246 out of 258, 95.3%) in ginseng grown under natural conditions compared with that grown under artificial conditions. These DEGs were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms including response to stimuli and localization. In particular, some key ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes, including HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS), mevalonate kinase (MVK), and squalene epoxidase (SE), were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. Moreover, a high proportion of disease resistance-related genes were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. This study is the first transcriptome analysis to compare wild-grown and cultivated ginseng, and identifies genes that may produce higher ginsenoside content and better disease resistance in the wild; these genes may have the potential to improve cultivated ginseng grown in artificial environments.

  6. Neutron Tomography Application for Aircraft-parts and Root of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Lee, Seung Wook; Sim, Chul Mu; Jeon, Jin Su; Kim, Tae Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The neutron computerized tomography is considered to be a complementary tool to X-ray tomography in the sense that neutron interacts with atomic nucleus, otherwise X-ray interacts with an orbital electron of atom. The neutron tomography compared with X-ray tomography has a relatively short history. It is employed in stationary, as neutron sources are produced by the nuclear reactor. The full potential of the neutron tomography has yet to be investigated. Since, HANARO NRF was installed in 1995, the neutron radiography research group of KAERI has been developed the non-destructive testing methods by the computer tomography served for aerospace industry and agricultural industry. Concerning to NDT for aerospace, research was cooperated with Korean Air force. At the first stage, research was focused to find the micro-cracks based on internal passages inside aircraft parts and residual core of turbine blade. Concerning to NDT for agriculture, research was cooperated with the Agricultural Development and Technology Center. Research was focused to find the alive roots of Korean ginseng.

  7. Chemical Profiling of Ginseng Species and Ginseng Herbal Products Using UPLC/QTOF-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuk,Jimmy; Patel,Dhavalkumar N.; Isaac,Giorgis; Smith,Kerri; Wrona,Mark; Olivos,Hernando J.; Yu,Kate

    2016-01-01

    The chemical profiles of four ginseng roots samples from three species of ginseng (Panax quinquefolius, Panax ginseng and Panax notoginseng) and two commercial ginseng products containing P. quinquefolius and red P. ginseng were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS). Principal component analysis allowed a holistic approach in showing distinct chemical differences between the three ginseng species and corr...

  8. Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyeon Jung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide.

  9. Distribution of chitinases and characterization of two chitinolytic enzymes from one-year-old Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Kook; Han, Beom-Ku; Kim, T Doohun; Jo, Do-Hyun

    2010-11-01

    We report the tissue-specific distribution of chitinolytic activity in Korean ginseng root and characterize two 31-kDa chitinolytic enzymes. These two enzymes (SBF1 and SBF2) were purified 70- and 81-fold with yields of 0.75 and 1.25%, respectively, and exhibited optimal pH and temperature ranges of 5.0-5.5 and 40-50(o)C. With [(3)H]-chitin as a substrate, K(m) and V(max) values of SBF1 were 4.6 mM and 220 mmol/mg-protein/h, respectively, while those of SBF2 were 7.14 mM and 287 mmol/mg-protein/h. The purified enzymes showed markedly less activity with p-nitrophenyl-N-acetylglucosaminide and fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides of D-N-acetylglucosamine oligomers than with [(3)H]-chitin. End-product inhibition of both enzymes demonstrated that both are endochitinases with different N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. Furthermore, the NH(2)-terminal sequence of SBF1 showed a high degree of homology with other plant chitinases whereas the NH(2)-terminal amino acid of SBF2 was blocked. [BMB reports 2010; 43(11):726-731].

  10. Multi-objective Optimization of Supercritical Water Gasification of Leftover Brazilian Ginseng Roots After Phytochemical Recovery Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Q. Albarelli

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aims at studying the supercritical water gasification (SCWG of leftover Brazilian ginseng roots after phytochemicals extraction for synthetic natural gas (SNG production, envisioning the development of a promising Brazilian ginseng roots valorization using sub/supercritical fluids in different steps. A multi-objective energetic-economic-environmental optimization of the proposed SCWG process was assessed through the use of computational simulation tools. The results showed that, for a given leftover biomass input of 20MW, a specific cost of 62-66 USD/MWh of SNG is obtained, which is higher than the average price on the Brazilian market. On the other hand, the production process of SNG from this residue showed to be a promising option, being energetically self-sufficient and environmentally friendly. In order for this alternative process to become more economically attractive we proposed the construction of the SCWG and the sub/supercritical extraction units in the same location, sharing part of the same high-pressure equipment.

  11. Comprehensive Profiling and Quantification of Ginsenosides in the Root, Stem, Leaf, and Berry of Panax ginseng by UPLC-QTOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Choi, Bo-Ram; Kim, Young-Chang; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Young-Seob; Kim, Geum-Soog; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Seung-Yu; Lee, Dae Young

    2017-12-04

    The effective production and usage of ginsenosides, given their distinct pharmacological effects, are receiving increasing amounts of attention. As the ginsenosides content differs in different parts of Panax ginseng, we wanted to assess and compare the ginsenosides content in the ginseng roots, leave, stems, and berries. To extract the ginsenosides, 70% (v/v) methanol was used. The optimal ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was used to profile various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng. The datasets were then subjected to multivariate analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). A UPLC-QTOF/MS method with an in-house library was constructed to profile 58 ginsenosides. With this method, a total of 39 ginsenosides were successfully identified and quantified in the ginseng roots, leave, stem, and berries. PCA and HCA characterized the different ginsenosides compositions from the different parts. The quantitative ginsenoside contents were also characterized from each plant part. The results of this study indicate that the UPLC-QTOF/MS method can be an effective tool to characterize various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng.

  12. Nitric oxide induced by Indian ginseng root extract inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Bhaskar; Umapathi, Vijaypillai; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera , inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.

  13. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometric method for fast analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, C.; Kong, H.; Zhu, C.; Wei, H.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.; Xu, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for fast analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng roots was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS). The column used was HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm). The mobile phase consisted of 15 mmol/L ammonium formate and

  14. The effect of irrigation and foliar fertilization on the colonization of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium l. diseased parts by different micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pastucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on the health of American ginseng cultivated in the Lublin district on poor sandy soil were conducted in the years 2004-2006. The studies involved treatment combinations with irrigation and without irrigation as well as foliar fertilization with Alkalin PK and Resistim of American ginseng plants. Mycological analysis was made of diseased ginseng parts with the aim of determining the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi-like organisms and fungi threatening the cultivation of this plant. Fungi from the genera of Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and the following species Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, as well as fungi-like organisms: Pythium irregulare and Phytophthora sp., were isolated from the infected parts of ginseng. The smallest number of fungi was isolated from the plants growing on the plots without irrigation and those where foliar application with Alkalin PK was applied.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM POWDERED ROOTS OF Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer AND Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss AND EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECTS ON ASTROCYTE CELL DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Gomes Bezerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae and Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss (Malpighiaceae are widely and separately used by the Brazilian population as phytotherapeutics for the same medicinal purposes as tonics and to improve cognition. A chemical analysis was carried out on hydroethanolic extracts of powdered roots from P. ginseng and H. tomentosa using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Diode-Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrum/Mass Spectrum. The ginsenosides Rg1, Rf, mRg and mRf were the main constituents in a hydroethanolic extract from P. ginseng, while in the hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and astilbin isomers were the main constituents. Concentration-time-effect curves were generated in cultures of astrocytes that were incubated with hydroethanolic extracts of these species to elucidate their toxicities. The P. ginseng extract was nontoxic at all of the tested times and concentrations. The hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa demonstrated toxicity at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. P. ginseng extract had no protective effect against staurosporine. Many studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of ginsenosides, caffeoylquinic derivatives and flavonoids.

  16. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on arterial stiffness in subjects with type-2 diabetes and concomitant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucalo, Iva; Jovanovski, Elena; Rahelić, Dario; Božikov, Velimir; Romić, Zeljko; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2013-10-28

    Substantial pre-clinical and some clinical data are available showing that Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) varieties or its particular ginsenosides exert a vasodilatating effect, thus may modulate vascular function. However, the clinical evidence for American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluates the effect of American ginseng (AG) on arterial stiffness, as measured by augmentation index (AI), and blood pressure (BP), in type 2 diabetes patients with concomitant hypertension. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design, each participant was randomized to either the selected AG extract or placebo at daily dose of 3g for 12 weeks as an adjunct to their usual antihypertensive and anti-diabetic therapy (diet and/or medications). AI and BP were measured by applanation tonometry at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. A total of 64 individuals with well-controlled essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes (gender: 22 M:42 F, age:63 ± 9.3 years, BP: 145 ± 10.8/84 ± 8.0 mmHg, HbA1c: 7.0 ± 1.3%, fasting blood glucose (FBG): 8.1 ± 2.3 mmol/L) completed the study. Compared to placebo, 3g of AG significantly lowered radial AI by 5.3% (P=0.041) and systolic BP by 11.7% (P<0.001) at 12 weeks. No effect was observed with diastolic BP. Addition of AG extract to conventional therapy in diabetes with concomitant hypertension improved arterial stiffness and attenuated systolic BP, thus warrants further investigation on long-term endothelial parameters before recommended as an adjunct treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  18. Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginseng and other botanical roots by immunoaffinity column cleanup and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Oles, Carolyn; D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Rader, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds and are common contaminants of many important food crops, such as grains, nuts, and spices. Some mycotoxins are found in fruits, vegetables, and botanical roots. These contaminants have a broad range of toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. The public health concerns related to both acute and chronic effects of mycotoxins in animals have prompted more than 100 countries to establish regulatory limits for some of the well-known mycotoxins, such as the aflatoxins (AFL). Our research focused on method development for 2 of these toxins, AFL and ochratoxin A (OTA), in ginseng and other selected botanical roots. Methods using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation, and fluorescence detection were modified and evaluated. Two types of IAC cleanup were evaluated: IAC for AFL, and IAC for both AFL and OTA. Three derivatization techniques to enhance the fluorescence of the AFL were compared: precolumn trifluoroacetic acid, postcolumn bromination, and postcolumn ultraviolet irradiation. No derivatization was needed for OTA. Results for AFL using the single analyte IAC cleanup and the 3 derivatization techniques were all comparable for ginseng and for other roots such as ginger, licorice, and kava-kava. Recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at levels from 2 to 16 ng/g were about 80%. Using IAC cleanup for both AFL and OTA recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at 4-16 ng/g were about 70%, and for ginger, licorice, and kava-kava were about 60%. Recoveries of added OTA for ginseng, ginger, and echinacea at 4 ng/g were about 55%.

  19. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Panax ginseng C.A Meyer root extract for moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Story David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD impairs quality of life and leads to premature mortality. COPD sufferers experience progressive deterioration of lung function and decreased ability to undertake day-to-day activities. Ginseng has been used for thousands of years in Chinese medicine for respiratory symptoms. Several controlled clinical trials using ginseng for COPD have shown promising clinical effect, however these studies were generally small and with some potential bias, prompting the need for rigorously designed studies. Aim The objective of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic value and safety profile of a standardised root extract of Panax ginseng C.A Meyer (ginseng for symptomatic relief, with a focus on quality of life (QoL improvements in individuals with moderate (Stage II COPD FEV1/FVC 1 50% - 80% predicted. Methods This paper describes the design of a randomised, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo controlled, two-armed parallel clinical trial. Two trial sites in Melbourne Australia will proportionately randomise a total of 168 participants to receive either ginseng capsule (100 mg or matching placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcomes will be based on three validated QoL questionnaires, St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT. Secondary outcomes are based on lung function testing, relief medication usage and exacerbation frequency and severity. Safety endpoints include blood tests and adverse event reporting. Intention-to-treat will be applied to all data analyses. Discussion Findings from this study may lead to new therapeutic development for chronic respiratory diseases, particularly COPD. This protocol may also guide other investigators to develop quality herbal medicine clinical trials in the future. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000768099

  1. The development of a green approach for the biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by using Panax ginseng root extract, and their biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-06-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received attention because of the development of economic and environmentally friendly technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The study develops a convenient method for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by utilizing fresh root extract of the four-year old Panax ginseng plant, and evaluated the antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles against pathogenic microorganisms. P. ginseng is a well-known herbal medicinal plant, and its active ingredients are mainly ginsenosides. The fresh root of the 4 year old P. ginseng plant has been explored for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles without the use of any additional reducing and capping agents. The reduction of silver nitrate led to the formation of silver nanoparticles within 2 h of reaction at 80°C. The gold nanoparticles were also successfully synthesized by the reduction of auric acid at 80°C, within 5 min of reaction. The biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles were characterized by techniques using various instruments, viz. ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis spectroscopy), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), elemental mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the silver nanoparticles have shown antimicrobial potential against Bacillus anthracis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus.

  2. Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the cultivation of American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), and harvesting and marketing concerns. Compares cultivated ginseng to wild-harvest ginseng, and describes wild simulated ginseng production as a method to obtain the marketing and quality advantages associated with wild ginseng.

  3. American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L. Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Iva Mucalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of the present study was to test the safety of supplementation with the American ginseng (AG interventional material as an adjunct to conventional therapy (diet and/or medications in type 2 diabetes, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. Methods. Each participant received either AG (10% ginsenosides or placebo capsules (500 mg/meal = 3 g/day for a period of 12 weeks. Outcomes included measures of safety including kidney function (urates and creatinine, liver function (AST and ALT, and haemostatic function (PV and INR. Results. Seventy-four participants with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (sex: 28 M and 46 F, age: 63 ± 9.5, BMI: 32 ± 5, and HbA1c: 7 ± 1.3, randomized to either intervention (n=35 or control (n=39 group, completed the study. There was no change in any of the measures of safety between treatments from baseline. The number or severity of adverse events did not differ between the AG intervention and placebo. Conclusion. Following 12 weeks of supplementation with AG, safety was not compromised in a high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes. This demonstrated that safety is noteworthy, as reviews have continuously warned of possible adverse effects of ginseng consumption.

  4. Enraizamento e germinação na propagação de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro Rooting and germination in propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2009-10-01

    first experiment was in factorial design 2 (light levels x 6 (pre-soak treatment in 4 repetitions of 20 seeds per repetition. The second in ERD in 5 treatments, 4 repetitions of 15 cuttings per repetition. Brazilian Ginseng seeds need pre-soak treatment to accelerate germination. We found immersion in KNO3 the most efficient method, providing 63% germination. They presented neuter photoblastism with an average germination of 45%. The Brazilian Ginseng cuttings immersed in water presented 100% rooting, a higher number of sprouts (2,5, and greater length (8,6 cm. The species presents potential for both propagation methods.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aged Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Soo Im; Kang, Mi Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at 80?C for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged gi...

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aged Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Kang, Mi Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at 80°C for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential.

  7. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Asian Ginseng Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about Asian ginseng—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  8. Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng

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    Ying Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate–glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound oxidation.

  9. Taste threshold of Panax ginseng (C.A. Meyer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginseng has been used for centuries in Asian folk medicine. While made up of hundreds of compounds, it has long been regarded that ginseng saponins (gensenosides) are responsible for ginseng’s pharmacological properties. Most Americans find the taste of ginseng to be unappealing; therefore, the conc...

  10. A Limited Role of p53 on the Ability of a Hexane Fraction of American Ginseng to Suppress Mouse Colitis

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    Deepak Poudyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is debilitating and carries a high colon cancer risk. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a key mechanism regulating UC. We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG, and to a greater extent, a Hexane fraction of AG (HAG can cause apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis through a p53-mediated mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HAG suppresses colitis through a p53 mechanism. We found only a limited impact of p53 in the ability of HAG to induce inflammatory cell apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we asked whether HAG could cause cell cycle arrest of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, HAG caused a G1 arrest of such cells independent of p53 status. Findings are significant because HAG suppresses colitis and associated colon cancer, and mutation in p53 is observed in most colitis-driven colon cancers. Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53−/− and WT p53 colon cancer cells.

  11. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P ginsengs exposed to 1000 mg x kg(-1) of lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  12. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

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    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  13. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in the American Ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn Extraction Residue by Fermentation with Lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma Lucidum

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    Bo Yang Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (人参 Rén Shēn has been widely employed in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. Owing to the high consumer demand of ginseng products, a large amount of ginseng residue is generated after extraction of ginseng. However, the ginseng residue still contains many bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The objective of this research was to convert ginsenosides in American ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn extraction residue (AmR by fermentation with lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma lucidum and the fermentation products will be used for further hypoglycemic activity research. Thus, this study was primarily focused on the ginsenosides that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. In this study, the changes in seven ginsenoside [Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg3(S, compound K (CK, and Rh2(S] in the products as affected by fermentation were investigated. Our results showed that the levels of ginsenosides, namely, Rg1, Rg3(S, and CK increased, while the other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1, and Rc decreased during the fermentation process.

  14. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.68 How can I... jurisdiction meets the definition of artificially propagated and the State or Tribe must have procedures in...

  15. Quality assessment of ginseng by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting and profiling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Shaykhutdinov, Rustem; Weljie, Aalim M; Vogel, Hans J; Facchini, Peter J; Park, Sang-Un; Kim, Yong-Kyoung; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2009-08-26

    Metabolite profiling and fingerprint analysis by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were used to identify potential biomarkers capable of distinguishing different ginseng species, varieties, and commercial products with the aim of establishing quality control code protocol based on biochemical phenotype. Principal component (PC) analyses of (1)H NMR spectra reliably discriminated between the various ginseng samples, demonstrating the potential utility of metabolomics in the natural health products industry. Four Asian ginseng varieties separated along the PC1 and PC2 axes, and four different Korean ginseng products were divided into two groups by PC1. A strong separation was also revealed between Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Glutamine, arginine, sucrose, malate, and myo-inositol were the major metabolites in ginseng samples tested in this study. Combined metabolite fingerprinting and profiling suggested that several compounds including glucose, fumarate, and various amino acids could serve as biomarkers for quality assurance in ginseng.

  16. Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Myung; Bae, Bong-Seok; Park, Hee-Weon; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Cho, Byung-Gu; Cho, Yong-Lae; Kwak, Yi-Seong

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction (90°C for 14–16 h) and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70–73 Brix at 50–60°C). The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG) is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0–1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5–7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development. PMID:26869832

  17. Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer: History, preparation method, and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Myung Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction (90°C for 14–16 h and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70–73 Brix at 50–60°C. The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0–1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5–7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development.

  18. The secrets of Oriental panacea: Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzani, Mara; Altomare, Alessandra; Caliendo, Matteo; Aldini, Giancarlo; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The Panax ginseng root proteome has been investigated via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) at three different pH values. Proteomic characterization by SDS-PAGE and nLC–MS/MS analysis, via LTQ-Orbitrap XL, led to the identification of a total of 207 expressed proteins. This quite large number of identifications was achieved by consulting two different plant databases: P. ginseng and Arabidopsis thaliana. The major groups of identified proteins were associated to structural species (19.2%), oxidoreductase (19.5%), dehydrogenases (7.6%) and synthases (9.0%). For the first time, an exploration of protein–protein interactions was performed by merging all recognized proteins and building an interactomic map, characterized by 196 nodes and 1554 interactions. Finally a peptidomic analysis was developed combining different in-silico enzymatic digestions to simulate the human gastrointestinal process: from 661 generated peptides, 95 were identified as possible bioactives and in particular 6 of them were characterized by antimicrobial activity. The present report offers new insight for future investigations focused on elucidation of biological properties of P. ginseng proteome and peptidome. Ginseng is a traditional oriental herbal remedy whose use is very diffused in all the world for its numerous pharmacological effects. However, the exact mechanism of action of ginseng components, both ginsenosides and proteins, is still unidentified. So the common use of ginseng requires strict investigations to assess both its efficiency and its safety. Although many reports have been published regarding the pharmacological effects of ginseng, little is known about the biochemical pathways of root. Proteomics analysis could be useful to elucidate the physiological pathways. In this manuscript, an integrated approach to proteomics and peptidomics will usher in exploration of Panax ginseng proteins and proteolytic peptides, obtained by in

  19. Gothic roots: Brockden Brown's Wieland, American identity, and American literature

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    Renata R. Mautner Wasserman

    2012-11-01

    Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.

  20. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fung...

  1. The Roots of American Religious Liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Haynes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available From the colonial era to the present, religions and religious beliefs have played a significant role in the political life of the United States. Religion has been at the heart of some of the best and some of the worst movements in American history. The guiding principles that the framers intended to govern the relationship between religion and politics are set forth in Article VI of the Constitution and in the opening sixteen words of the First Amendment.

  2. [Colonization characteristics of endophytic bacteria NJ13 in Panax ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Li, Tong; Li, Xin-Lian; Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the colonization characteristics in host of endophytic biocontrol bacteria NJ13 isolated from Panax ginseng, this study obtained the marked strain NJ13-R which was double antibiotic resistant to rifampicin and streptomycin through enhancing the method of inducing antibiotic. The colonization characteristics in ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria spot of ginseng in the field were studied. The results showed that the strain could colonize in root, stem and leaf of ginseng and the colonization amount was positive correlated with inoculation concentration. Meanwhile, the strain could infect and then transfer in different tissues of ginseng The colonization amount of strain in roots and leaves of ginseng increased first and then decreased. However, the tendency of colonization amount of strain in stems was ascend at first and then descend slowly, and was more than that in roots and leaves along with time, which had a preference to specific tissue of its host. In field experiment, the endophytic bacteria NJ13 was proved to be effective in controlling Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng. The biocontrol efficiency of fermentation broth at the concentration of 0.76 x 10(8) cfu x mL(-1) reached 75.62%, which was close to the controlling level (73.06%) of 0.67 mg x L(-1) 50% cyprodinil WG.

  3. Ginseng and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ginseng has been shown to have an antiobesity effect, antiobesity-related mechanisms are complex and have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated ginseng’s effects on food intake, the digestion, and absorption systems, as well as liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in order to identify the mechanisms involved. A review of previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ginseng and ginsenosides can increase energy expenditure by stimulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase pathway and can reduce energy intake. Moreover, in high fat diet-induced obese and diabetic individuals, ginseng has shown a two-way adjustment effect on adipogenesis. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies into antiobesity effects of ginseng have been animal based, and there is a paucity of evidence supporting the suggestion that ginseng can exert an antiobesity effect in humans.

  4. Supplementation of American ginseng berry extract mitigated cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity by suppressing ROS-mediated activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Na; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zi; Ren, Shen; Tang, Shan; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xiao, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Chen; Li, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in 30% of all cisplatin treated patients seriously limits its clinical implication as a widely used anticancer agent, and may even cause patients to alter or give up cisplatin therapy. The purpose of this study is to test a protective effect of American ginseng berry extract (AGBE) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. In this study, the histopathological changes and elevated levels of serum creatinine (CRE) and urea nitrogen (BUN) caused by cisplatin were significantly diminished by AGBE treatment. Oxidative stress caused by cisplatin, evidenced by increases in kidney tissues malondialdehyde (MDA) content, cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1), renal 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels and decreases of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents, was significantly ameliorated by AGBE pretreatment. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were inhibited by AGBE treatment, suggesting a suppression of inflammatory response. Additionally, AGBE clearly inhibited cisplatin-induced activations of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways. Supplementation of cisplatin-intoxicated mice with AGBE also significantly reduced apoptotic protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and increased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings highlight nephroprotective effect of AGBE against cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity through ROS-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of different grades of ginseng using Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines which have many kinds of pharmaceutical values. The discrimination of grades of ginseng includes the cultivation types and the growth years herein. To evaluate the different grades of ginseng, the fibrous roots and rhizome roots of ginseng were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy in this paper. The fibrous root and rhizome root of ginseng have different content of starch, calcium oxalate and other components. For the fibrous roots of ginseng, mountain cultivation ginseng (MCG), garden cultivation ginseng (GCG) and transplanted cultivation ginseng (TCG) have clear difference in the infrared spectra and second derivative spectra in the range of 1800-400 cm -1, and clearer difference was observed in the range of 1045-1160 and 1410-1730 cm -1 in 2D synchronous correlation spectra. Three kinds of ginseng can be clustered very well by using SIMCA analysis on the basis of PCA as well. For the rhizome roots, the content of calcium oxalate and starch change with growth years in the IR spectra, and some useful procedure can be obtained by the analysis of 2D IR synchronous spectra in the range of 1050-1415 cm -1. Also, ginsengs cultivated in different growth years were clustered perfectly by using SIMCA analysis. The results suggested that different grades of ginseng can be well recognized using the mid-infrared spectroscopy assisted by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy, which provide the macro-fingerprint characteristics of ginseng in different parts and supplied a rapid, effective approach for the evaluation of the quality of ginseng.

  6. Ginseng pharmacology: a new paradigm based on gintonin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol eNah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is used as a traditional medicine. Despite the long history of the use of ginseng, there is no specific scientific or clinical rationale for ginseng pharmacology besides its application as a general tonic. The ambiguous description of ginseng pharmacology might be due to the absence of a predominant active ingredient that represents ginseng pharmacology. Recent studies show that ginseng abundantly contains lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs, which are phospholipid-derived growth factor with diverse biological functions including those claimed to be exhibited by ginseng. LPAs in ginseng form a complex with ginseng proteins, which can bind and deliver LPA to its cognate receptors with a high affinity. As a first messenger, gintonin produces second messenger Ca2+ via G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Ca2+ is an intracellular mediator of gintonin and initiates a cascade of amplifications for further intercellular communications by activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases, receptors, gliotransmitter and neurotransmitter release. Ginsenosides, which have been regarded as primary ingredients of ginseng, cannot elicit intracellular [Ca2+]i transients, since they lack specific cell surface receptor. However, ginsenosides exhibit non-specific ion channel and receptor regulations. This is the key characteristic that distinguishes gintonin from ginsenosides. Although the current discourse on ginseng pharmacology is focused on ginsenosides, gintonin can definitely provide a mode of action for ginseng pharmacology that ginsenosides cannot. This review article introduces a novel concept of ginseng ligand-LPA receptor interaction and proposes to establish a paradigm that shifts the focus from ginsenosides to gintonin as a major ingredient representing ginseng pharmacology.

  7. Translocation of Endosulfan from Soil to Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

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    Jiyoon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the translocation of highly residual agrochemical in soil, the endosulfan (total, to ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. The soil with the level of the amount of 5.0 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total was prepared in a Wagner pot into which the seedling of ginseng was transplanted and then the specimens of ginseng (root, leaf, and stem were collected quarterly and analyzed through GC-MS. The level of residual of endosulfan (total in the soil has decreased from 4.28 mg kg−1 (April 2013 to 1.94 mg kg−1 (December 2014 while the level in the specimens of leaf and stem of ginseng respectively sampled according to its growth phase in June and September from 2013 and 2014 showed an increase from 0.56 mg kg−1 (June 2013 to 2.46 mg kg−1 (September 2013 and decrease from 0.29 mg kg−1 (June 2014 to 0.18 mg kg−1 (September 2014. For the case of the root of ginseng, the level of the amount of 10.77 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total was detected in June 2013 and then, the level has decreased to the level of 4.88 mg kg−1 in December 2014. The translocation of residual endosulfan (total in soil to ginseng with time was identified. The amount of residuals of α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan was also decreased with time however, the ratio of endosulfan-sulfate, the main metabolite, was gradually increasing. The retention of metabolite (endosulfan-sulfate in soil identified thereby thus suggests the potential of its translocation to plants in the case of the soils containing the residual of endosulfan (total.

  8. Recent Methodology in Ginseng Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Hoon; Bae, Ok-Nam; Park, Jeong Hill

    2012-01-01

    As much as the popularity of ginseng in herbal prescriptions or remedies, ginseng has become the focus of research in many scientific fields. Analytical methodologies for ginseng, referred to as ginseng analysis hereafter, have been developed for bioactive component discovery, phytochemical profiling, quality control, and pharmacokinetic studies. This review summarizes the most recent advances in ginseng analysis in the past half-decade including emerging techniques and analytical trends. Ginseng analysis includes all of the leading analytical tools and serves as a representative model for the analytical research of herbal medicines. PMID:23717112

  9. The Medicinal Usage and Restriction of Ginseng in Britain and America, 1660-1900*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heasim SUL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc. In the mid-18th century Materia Medica began to specify medicinal properties of ginseng and the patent medicines containing ginseng were widely circulated. However, starting in the late 18th century the medicinal properties of ginseng began to be disparaged and major pharmacopoeias removed ginseng from their contents. The reform of the pharmacopoeia, influenced by Linnaeus in botany and Lavoisier in chemistry, introduced nomenclature that emphasized identifying ingredients and active constituents. Western medicine at this period, however, failed to identify and to extract the active constituents of ginseng. Apart from the technical underdevelopment of the period, the medical discourses reveal that the so-called chemical experiment of ginseng were conducted with unqualified materials and without proper differentiation of various species of ginseng.

  10. The Medicinal Usage and Restriction of Ginseng in Britain and America, 1660-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Heasim

    2017-12-01

    This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc. In the mid-18th century Materia Medica began to specify medicinal properties of ginseng and the patent medicines containing ginseng were widely circulated. However, starting in the late 18th century the medicinal properties of ginseng began to be disparaged and major pharmacopoeias removed ginseng from their contents. The reform of the pharmacopoeia, influenced by Linnaeus in botany and Lavoisier in chemistry, introduced nomenclature that emphasized identifying ingredients and active constituents. Western medicine at this period, however, failed to identify and to extract the active constituents of ginseng. Apart from the technical underdevelopment of the period, the medical discourses reveal that the so-called chemical experiment of ginseng were conducted with unqualified materials and without proper differentiation of various species of ginseng.

  11. Water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides protect against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment by functioning as an antineuroinflammatory agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Xu; Xiangfeng Shen; Huali Yu; Lili Sun; Weihong Lin; Chunxiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Panax ginseng root is used in traditional oriental medicine for human health. Its main active components such as saponins and polysaccharides have been widely evaluated for treating diseases, but secondary active components such as oligosaccharides have been rarely studied. This study aimed to assess the impact of water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (WGOS), which were isolated from the warm-water extract of Panax ginseng root, on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice...

  12. [Effect of American Ginseng Capsule on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in rats exposed by electromagnetic radiation of frequency of cell phone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ya-ping; Ma, Hui-Rong; Chen, Jing-Wei; Li, Jing-Jing; Li, Chun-xiang

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effect of American Ginseng Capsule (AGC) on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in the liver tissue of rats exposed by 900 MHz cell phone electromagnetic radiation. Totally 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the model group, the Shuifei Jibin Capsule (SJC) group, and the AGC group,10 in each group. Rats in the normal control group were not irradiated. Rats in the rest three groups were exposed by imitated 900 MHz cellular phone for 4 h in 12 consecutive days. Meanwhile, rats in the SJC group and the AGC group were intragastrically administrated with suspension of SJC and AGC (1 mL/200 g body weight) respectively. Normal saline was administered to rats in the normal control group and the model group. The histolomorphological changes of the liver tissue were observed by HE staining. Contents of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX)were detected by colorimetry. The Nrf2 protein expression of hepatocytes was detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Compared with the normal control group, hepatocyte nucleus was atrophied or partially disappeared, the contents of liver MDA and Nrf2 protein obviously increased (P electromagnetic radiation induced by 900 MHz cell phone could affect the expression of Nrf2 protein, induce oxidative injury, and induce abnormal morphology of liver cells. SJC and AGC could promote the morphological recovery of the liver cells. Its mechanism might be related to affecting the expression of Nrf2 protein and attenuating oxidative damage of liver cells.

  13. Use of Gold Nanoparticle Fertilizer Enhances the Ginsenoside Contents and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee; Hwang, Yun-Gu; Lee, Taek-Guen; Jin, Cheng-Ri; Cho, Chi Heung; Jeong, Hee-Yeong; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-10-28

    Red ginseng, a steamed and sun-dried ginseng, is a popular health-promoting food in Korea and other Asian countries. We introduced nanofertilizer technology using gold nanoparticles in an effort to develop red ginseng with an elevated level of ginsenosides, the main active compounds of ginseng. Shoots of 6-year-old ginseng plants were fertilized three times with colloidal gold nanoparticle sprays. Red ginseng extract was prepared from the main roots. The concentrations of gold and ginsenosides were measured following gold nanoparticle treatment. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, mouse peritoneal macrophages of male BALB/c mouse were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ in the presence of extracts from red ginseng with or without gold nanoparticle treatment. The content of ginsenosides, such as Rg1, Re, Rf, and Rb1, increased in ginseng treated with gold nanofertilizer whereas the steaming process increased only the levels of Rd and Rg3. The levels of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-α, were more suppressed in macrophages treated with extract from gold nanoparticle-treated red ginseng. Our results show that the use of a colloidal gold nanoparticle fertilizer improved the synthesis of ginsenosides in ginseng and enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng. Further research is required to elucidate the causal factors for the gold-induced change in ginsenoside synthesis and to determine the in vivo effect of gold nanoparticle-treated ginseng.

  14. Ginseng in Dermatology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sabouri-Rad, Sara; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases. In dermatology, ginseng has been investigated mechanistically for its therapeutic effects in photoaging, wound and injury, skin cancer, dermatitis, hair loss, alopecia and cold hypersensitivity. Here, we reviewed experimental and clinical studies exploring the therapeutic efficacy of ginseng and ginsenosides in the field of dermatology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng and the change of ginsenoside components in the process of red ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong HS; Lim CS; Cha BC; Choi SH; Kwon KR

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to provide an objective differentiation of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng through component analysis, and to know the change of ginsenoside components in the process for making red ginseng. Methods: Comparative analysis of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2 from the cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng were conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromato...

  16. Chemical Diversity of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquifolium, and Panax notoginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The major commercial ginsengs are Panax ginseng Meyer (Korean ginseng), P. quinquifolium L. (American ginseng), and P. notoginseng (Burk.) FH Chen (Notoginseng). P. ginseng is the most commonly used as an adaptogenic agent and has been shown to enhance physical performance, promote vitality, increase resistance to stress and aging, and have immunomodulatory activity. These ginsengs contain saponins, which can be classified as dammarane-type, ocotillol-type and oleanane-type oligoglycosides, and polysaccharides as main constituents. Dammarane ginsenosides are transformed into compounds such as the ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 by steaming and heating and are metabolized into metabolites such as compound K, ginsenoside Rh1, protoand panaxatriol by intestinal microflora. These metabolites are nonpolar, pharmacologically active and easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the activities metabolizing these constituents into bioactive compounds differ significantly among individuals because all individuals possess characteristic indigenous strains of intestinal bacteria. To overcome this difference, ginsengs fermented with enzymes or microbes have been developed. PMID:23717099

  17. Chemoprevention of mammary, cervix and nervous system carcinogenesis in animals using cultured Panax ginseng drugs and preliminary clinical trials in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bespalov, V G; Alexandrov, V A; Limarenko, A Y; Voytenkov, B O; Okulov, V B; Kabulov, M K; Peresunko, A P; Slepyan, L I; Davydov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic effects and mechanisms of the biotechnological drugs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Russia, bioginseng, panaxel and panaxel- 5, were studied. Bioginseng was produced from a tissue culture of ginseng root cultured on standard medium, whereas panaxel and panaxel-5 were produced from ginseng tissue root cultures using standard mediums enriched with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and 1-hydroxygermatran-monohydrate respectively. All three ginseng drugs inhibite...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.308 - Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ginseng. 1437.308 Section 1437.308 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.308 Ginseng. (a) Ginseng is a value loss crop and is compensable only as allowed in this section. Ginseng is eligible only if: (1) The ginseng includes stratified seeds for use as...

  19. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  20. Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ginseng adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-05-01

    Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of cultivation ages and modes on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere soil of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The key factors for discontinuous P. ginseng cultivation were the lack of balance in rhizosphere microbial communities and the outbreak of soilborne diseases caused by the accumulation of its root exudates.

  2. Fine root architecture of nine North American trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; Jared L. DeForest; Andrew J. Burton; Michael F. Allen; Roger W. Ruess; Ronald L. Hendrick

    2002-01-01

    The fine roots of trees are concentrated on lateral branches that arise from perennial roots. They are important in the acquisition of water and essential nutrients, and at the ecosystem level, they make a significant contribution to biogeochemical cycling. Fine roots have often been studied according to arbitrary size classes, e.g., all roots less than 1 or 2 mm in...

  3. Impact of "Roots": Evidence from the National Survey of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Halford H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the perceptions of "Roots" among a nationally representative sample of black Americans. Examines viewing patterns and reactions to "Roots" in relation to seven variables: urbanicity, region, gender, age, education, and income. Suggests that, for Blacks, "Roots" was more than entertainment, and that heaviest…

  4. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  5. Efek ekstrak akar ginseng Jawa dan Korea terhadap libido mencit jantan pada prakondisi testosteron rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Winarni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to compare the potency and duration effect of Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract administration on sexual behavior of male mice. It was done experimentally on male mice (strain BALB, aged 8–10 weeks, weighed 25–35 g. Thirty eight mice were grouped to 4 (four groups: First group was treated with solvent (as positive control, 2nd group was treated ethynilestradiol (EE2 (as negative control, 3rd group was treated with Java ginseng root extract, and 4th group was treated with Korean ginseng root extract. All groups were administered with EE2 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day for 9 days as pretreatment to decrease the testosteron level. After pretreatment, each group divided to 3 subgroups (each would receive treatment for 9, 18, and 27 days. Ethynilestradiol 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day was administered along treatment to keep testosterone level low, except to positive control group. Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract (equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/ 20 g bw/day and EE2 were administered orally. The level of testosterone after pretreatment was measured by RIA (radioimmuoassay and changes in libido were determined by libido test. After the last treatment, 1 male mouse kept singly in individual cage. Libido test was carried out for 20 minutes. All of these activities during test recorded by handycam. The mice were observed for time from the introduction of female into the cage of male upto the first mount (mounting latency/ ML and for the number of mounts (mounting frequency/MF. The results indicated that at low testosterone level, Java ginseng root extract administration at the dose equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/20 g bw/day shortened mounting latency and increased mounting frequency but Korean ginseng extract root at the same dose gave negative effects. Duration of administration of both Java and Korean ginseng root extract didn’t give effect on libido.

  6. Safety Analysis of Panax Ginseng in Randomized Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sook; Woo, Jung-Yoon; Han, Chang-Kyun; Chang, Il-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is one of the most frequently used herbs in the world. The roots of Panax ginseng have been used as a traditional tonic and medicine for thousands of years in Korea and China. Today, ginseng root is used as a dietary supplement and complementary medicine and for adjuvant therapeutics worldwide. The efficacy of ginseng has been studied in a wide range of basic research and clinical studies. However, it has been reported that the results from clinical studies are conflicting, and they depend on the parameters of the protocol design including the conditions of the participants and the types of ginseng used such as red ginseng, white ginseng, fermented ginseng and cultured ginseng. Meanwhile, in addition to clinical efficacy, the safety of ginseng is a highly important matter for customers. With globally increasing demand for Panax ginseng as a dietary supplement or complementary medicine, it is necessary to provide information on its safe use to customers to improve their health conditions. Although the safety of Panax ginseng in pre-clinical studies is well known, the evaluation of safety in clinical studies has so far been insufficient. This systematic review was conducted to assess the safety of ginseng in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) over the last 10 years. We chose the last 10 years because many clinical trials have been conducted in the past 10 years, and it will help to understand the recent trends in RCTs of ginseng. Methods: Articles on ginseng studies were searched with keywords in MEDLINE and four other Korean online database sites. Studies with ginseng as a monopreparation were selected while studies with single administration, preparations combined with other herbs or drug combinations were excluded from the selected studies. Data from the selected studies meeting the criteria were extracted and reviewed in terms of study design, condition and number of participants, type of ginseng, dosage, duration

  7. Insilico profiling of microRNAs in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yeon Ju; Sun, Myung Suk; Kim, Se Young; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of recently discovered non-coding small RNA molecules, on average approximately 21 nucleotides in length, which underlie numerous important biological roles in gene regulation in various organisms. The miRNA database (release 18) has 18,226 miRNAs, which have been deposited from different species. Although miRNAs have been identified and validated in many plant species, no studies have been reported on discovering miRNAs in Panax ginseng Meyer, which is a traditionally known medicinal plant in oriental medicine, also known as Korean ginseng. It has triterpene ginseng saponins called ginsenosides, which are responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Predicting conserved miRNAs by homology-based analysis with available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be powerful, if the species lacks whole genome sequence information. In this study by using the EST based computational approach, 69 conserved miRNAs belonging to 44 miRNA families were identified in Korean ginseng. The digital gene expression patterns of predicted conserved miRNAs were analyzed by deep sequencing using small RNA sequences of flower buds, leaves, and lateral roots. We have found that many of the identified miRNAs showed tissue specific expressions. Using the insilico method, 346 potential targets were identified for the predicted 69 conserved miRNAs by searching the ginseng EST database, and the predicted targets were mainly involved in secondary metabolic processes, responses to biotic and abiotic stress, and transcription regulator activities, as well as a variety of other metabolic processes. PMID:23717176

  8. In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyo In

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng.

  9. Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius: From pharmacology to toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Cesare; Santangelo, Rosaria

    2017-09-01

    The use of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius in traditional Chinese medicine dates back to about 5000 years ago thanks to its several beneficial and healing properties. Over the past few years, extensive preclinical and clinical evidence in the scientific literature worldwide has supported the beneficial effects of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in significant central nervous system, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic diseases. There has been growing research on ginseng because of its favorable pharmacokinetics, including the intestinal biotransformation which is responsible for the processing of ginsenosides - contained in the roots or extracts of ginseng - into metabolites with high pharmacological activity and how such principles act on numerous cell targets. The aim of this review is to provide a simple and extensive overview of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius, focusing on the clinical evidence which has shown particular effectiveness in specific diseases, such as dementia, diabetes mellitus, respiratory infections, and cancer. Furthermore, the review will also provide data on toxicological factors to support the favorable safety profile of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The pragmatic roots of American Quaternary geology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1996-07-01

    hypotheses, the latter having been suggested by experience with nature itself rather than by our theories of nature. These distinctions and methods were described in G.K. Gilbert's papers on "The Inculcation of Scientific Method by Example" (1886) and "the Origin of Hypotheses" (1896). Portions were elaborated in T.C. Chamberlin's "Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses" (1890) and his "method of the Earth Sciences" (1904); in W.M. Davis's "Value of Outrageous Geological Hypotheses" (1926); and in D. Johnson's "Role of Analysis in Scientific Investigation" (1933). American Quaternary geology and geomorphology have their philosophical roots in the pragmatic tradition, enunciated most clearly by C.S. Peirce, now recognized as the greatest American philosopher and considered by Sir Karl Popper to be one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Quaternary geology and geomorphology afford numerous examples of Peirce's "method" of science, which might be termed "the critical philosophy of common sense". The most obvious influence of pragmatism in geology, however, has largely been conveyed by the tradition of its scientific community. The elements of this tradition include a reverence for field work, a humility before the "facts" of nature, a continuing effort "to discriminate the phenomena observed from the observer's inference in regard to them", a propensity to pose hypotheses, and a willingness to abandon them when their consequences are contradicted by reality.

  11. Ginseng Metabolites on Cancer Chemoprevention: An Angiogenesis Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been introduced for the treatment of cancer. Based on the fact that many anticancer agents have been developed from botanical sources, there is a significant untapped resource to be found in natural products. American ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in the U.S., which possesses antioxidant properties. After oral ingestion, natural ginseng saponins are biotransformed to their metabolites by the enteric microbiome before being absorbed. The major metabolites, ginsenoside Rg3 and compound K, showed significant potent anticancer activity compared to that of their parent ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rd. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ginseng metabolites on cancer chemoprevention, especially apoptosis and angiogenic inhibition, are discussed. Ginseng gut microbiome metabolites showed significant anti-angiogenic effects on pulmonary, gastric and ovarian cancers. This review suggests that in addition to the chemopreventive effects of ginseng compounds, as angiogenic inhibitors, ginsenoside metabolites could be used in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents in cancer management.

  12. Functional Analysis of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Encoding Genes in Triterpene Saponin-Producing Ginseng1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Oh, Ji Yeon; Jang, Moon-Gi; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are glycosylated triterpenes that are considered to be important pharmaceutically active components of the ginseng (Panax ginseng ‘Meyer’) plant, which is known as an adaptogenic herb. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the biosynthesis of triterpene saponin through the mevalonate pathway in ginseng remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the role of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) concerning ginsenoside biosynthesis. Through analysis of full-length complementary DNA, two forms of ginseng HMGR (PgHMGR1 and PgHMGR2) were identified as showing high sequence identity. The steady-state mRNA expression patterns of PgHMGR1 and PgHMGR2 are relatively low in seed, leaf, stem, and flower, but stronger in the petiole of seedling and root. The transcripts of PgHMGR1 were relatively constant in 3- and 6-year-old ginseng roots. However, PgHMGR2 was increased five times in the 6-year-old ginseng roots compared with the 3-year-old ginseng roots, which indicates that HMGRs have constant and specific roles in the accumulation of ginsenosides in roots. Competitive inhibition of HMGR by mevinolin caused a significant reduction of total ginsenoside in ginseng adventitious roots. Moreover, continuous dark exposure for 2 to 3 d increased the total ginsenosides content in 3-year-old ginseng after the dark-induced activity of PgHMGR1. These results suggest that PgHMGR1 is associated with the dark-dependent promotion of ginsenoside biosynthesis. We also observed that the PgHMGR1 can complement Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hmgr1-1 and that the overexpression of PgHMGR1 enhanced the production of sterols and triterpenes in Arabidopsis and ginseng. Overall, this finding suggests that ginseng HMGRs play a regulatory role in triterpene ginsenoside biosynthesis. PMID:24569845

  13. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

  14. [Preliminary analysis of ginseng industry in Wisconsin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhang, Wen-sheng

    2008-07-01

    To study the case of Wisconsin as the top ginseng state in United States which has come through four developing steps: beginning, stagnating, flourishing and now, downturn. The current situation of the ginseng industry in Wisconsin was briefly introduced, the federal and state management on ginseng cultivation and export, the organization of Ginseng Board of Wisconsin and their marketing style based on the field investigation and data collected from USDA and Wisconsin state. The advantages and disadvantages of Wisconsin ginseng industry were analyzed in order to provide some suggestions for Chinese medicine industry. Chinese ginseng industry should learn the organization system from Wisconsin.

  15. 19th Century Roots to the American Vocational Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Gordon F.

    Historical developments in the 18th and 19th centuries influenced the course of European and American education and the separate path of vocational education. The first of these developments was the emergence of schools as primary instruments for the transmission of knowledge and culture, as a result of the phenomenal growth of the American states…

  16. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxleene Sandasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The name “ginseng” is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng, P. quinquefolius (American ginseng, P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng, each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spectroscopy-based techniques are here proposed as fast, non-destructive methods for the distinction of four ginseng species and the identification of raw materials in commercial ginseng products. Certified ginseng reference material and commercial products were analysed using hyperspectral imaging (HSI, mid-infrared (MIR and near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA and (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis models (OPLS-DA were developed using multivariate analysis software. UHPLC-MS was used to analyse methanol extracts of the reference raw materials and commercial products. The holistic analysis of ginseng raw materials revealed distinct chemical differences using HSI, MIR and NIR. For all methods, Eleutherococcus senticosus displayed the greatest variation from the three Panax species that displayed closer chemical similarity. Good discrimination models with high R2X and Q2 cum vales were developed. These models predicted that the majority of products contained either /P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius. Vibrational spectroscopy and HSI techniques in tandem with multivariate data analysis tools provide useful alternative methods in the authentication of ginseng raw materials and commercial products in a fast, easy, cost-effective and non-destructive manner.

  17. Identification of a Panax ginseng fruit fingerprint by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H F; Xu, F F; Guo, Y T; Mi, H

    2016-03-11

    Over many years, parts of Panax ginseng (root and rhizome) have been identified and applied for medical purposes as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, research has indicated that ginseng fruit also contains similar compounds and is as rich as the other parts of the ginseng. This discovery may dramatically improve the efficient of outputs derived from ginseng products. Here, a new technique combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to identify the fingerprint of P. ginseng fruit. Using HPLC, compounds that are important for medical purposes were extracted and purified. Combined with ESI-MS, the characteristic peaks (nine common peaks) of those compounds were identified, and the accuracy was confirmed by analysis using the Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004A edition). Overall, 15 batches of ginseng fruit had a similarity of more than 0.80, 13 batches of samples had a similarity between 0.97 and 0.99, and two batches had a similarity less than 0.90. The test solution and mobile phase selection was discussed. The HPLC-ESI-MS method can produce repeatable and reliable results and can be applied in the quality control of P. ginseng fruit.

  18. 76 FR 53875 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... at the end of the standards, which defines the parts of the root, what should be clipped, and the... that appear in part 36, Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR part 36). Background AMS... ginseng root would be included at the end of the standards. The revisions are such that the section...

  19. Ginseng authenticity testing by measuring carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope compositions that differ based on cultivation land and organic fertilizer type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lee, Taek-Jun; Oh, Yong-Taek; Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Jang, In-Bae; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The natural ratios of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) stable isotopes can be varied in some specific living organisms owing to various isotopic fractionation processes in nature. Therefore, the analysis of C, N, and S stable isotope ratios in ginseng can provide a feasible method for determining ginseng authenticity depending on the cultivation land and type of fertilizer. C, N, and S stable isotope composition in 6-yr-old ginseng roots (Jagyeongjong variety) was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The type of cultivation land and organic fertilizers affected the C, N, and S stable isotope ratio in ginseng ( p  authenticity depending on cultivation conditions.

  20. Dynamic Changes in Neutral and Acidic Ginsenosides with Different Cultivation Ages and Harvest Seasons: Identification of Chemical Characteristics for Panax ginseng Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhu, Xing-You; Wan, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wei; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-05-04

    In this study, dynamic changes in ginsenoside content and ratios in the Panax ginseng root were investigated with different cultivation ages and different collection months, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data indicate that changes in ginsenoside Ro and malonyl ginsenosides content were dependent on the ginseng cultivation age ( p ginseng had high Ro/Re ratio, whereas two and three-year-old P. ginseng possessed low Ro/Re ratio. Thus, the Ro/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the age of the root. The relative content of ginsenosides Rg₁ and Re were affected by the ginseng's harvest season. The Re content was higher than the Rg₁ content in May and June, but lower than the Rg₁ content from August to October. Thus, the Rg₁/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the ginseng's harvest seasons. These results indicate that the chemical characteristics of P. ginseng at different cultivation ages and harvest seasons are clearly different, which may cause differences in pharmacological activities and therapeutic effects. In addition, we developed HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods to identify the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng using characteristic ginsenosides. Our results showed that this method can be used to discriminate the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng.

  1. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-10-01

    Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR. The light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (A sat) and stomatal conductance (g s) of ginseng increased until the LTR reached 17% in the early stage of growth, whereas they dropped sharply owing to excessive leaf chlorosis at 17% LTR during the hottest summer period in August. Overall, 6-17% of LTR had no effect on the aerial part of plant length or diameter, whereas 17% and 13% of LRT induced the largest leaf area and the highest root weight, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves increased as the LTR increased, and the overall content of protopanaxatriol line ginsenosides was higher than that of protopanaxadiol line ginsenosides. The ginsenoside content of the ginseng roots also increased as the LTR increased, and the total ginsenoside content of ginseng grown at 17% LTR increased by 49.7% and 68.3% more than the ginseng grown at 6% LTR in August and final harvest, respectively. These results indicate that 13-17% of LTR should be recommended for greenhouse cultivation of ginseng.

  2. Pharmacologic study of irradiated fresh ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacologic effect of 2 kGy irradiated fresh ginseng juice on small white mouse was studied. The results showed that irradiated fresh ginsengs have significant effects against lack of oxygen, diuresis and fatigue of mice. The statistical analysis indicated that there was no marked difference of pharmacologic effect between irradiated fresh ginseng and raw fresh one

  3. NanoESI-MS-based lipidomics to discriminate between cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; Shin, Yoo-Soo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2016-03-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs used in Asia, including Korea and China. In the present study lipid profiling of two officially registered cultivars (P. ginseng 'Chunpoong' and P. ginseng 'Yunpoong') was performed at different cultivation ages (5 and 6 years) and on different parts (tap roots, lateral roots, and rhizomes) using nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS). In total, 30 compounds including galactolipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and ginsenosides were identified. Among them, triacylglycerol 54:6 (18:2/18:2/18:2), phosphatidylglycerol 34:3 (16:0/18:3), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol 36:4 (18:2/18:2), phosphatidic acid species 36:4 (18:2/18:2), and 34:1 (16:0/18:1) were selected as biomarkers to discriminate cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts. In addition, an unknown P. ginseng sample was successfully predicted by applying validated partial least squares projection to latent structures regression models. This is the first study regarding the identification of intact lipid species from P. ginseng and to predict cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of P. ginseng using nanoESI-MS-based lipidomic profiling with a multivariate statistical analysis.

  4. Significant difference in active metabolite levels of ginseng in humans consuming Asian or Western diet: The link with enteric microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Liu, Zhi; Musch, Mark W; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-04-01

    After ingestion of ginseng, the bioavailability of its parent compounds is low and enteric microbiota plays an important role in parent compound biotransformation to their metabolites. Diet type can influence the enteric microbiota profile. When human subjects on different diets ingest ginseng, their different gut microbiota profiles may influence the metabolism of ginseng parent compounds. In this study, the effects of different diet type on gut microbiota metabolism of American ginseng saponins were investigated. We recruited six healthy adults who regularly consumed different diet types. These subjects received 7 days' oral American ginseng, and their biological samples were collected for LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis. We observed significant ginsenoside Rb 1 (a major parent compound) and compound K (a major active metabolite) level differences in the samples from the subjects consuming different diets. Subjects on an Asian diet had much higher Rb 1 levels but much lower compound K levels compared with those on a Western diet. Since compound K possesses much better cancer chemoprevention potential, our data suggested that consumers on a Western diet should obtain better cancer prevention effects with American ginseng intake compared with those on an Asian diet. Ginseng compound levels could be enhanced or reduced via gut microbiota manipulation for clinical utility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. How an Anglo-American methodology took root in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    French organic chemistry had a strong nationalistic bent in the immediate aftermath to World War II. It continued to bask in the glow of the pre-World War I Nobel prize awarded jointly in 1912 to Victor Grignard and Paul Sabatier. In addition, the influence of the two mandarins then in power, Charles Prévost at the Sorbonne and Albert Kirrmann, a Dean in Strasbourg who would be called upon as vice-director at the École normale supérieure in Paris, saw to it that the only theory of organic reactions, admissible in the classroom and in the laboratory, was Prévost's. As Mary Jo Nye has shown, a wall was erected against penetration of the ideas of the British school of Ingold and Hughes. Mechanistic chemistry, as was being vigorously studied by the contemporary Anglo-American physical organic chemists, was 'persona non grata' in France. Publication by Bianca Tchoubar, in 1960, of "Les mécanismes réactionnels en chimie organique" opened a breach. The irony was for Dr. Tchoubar, a militant member of the Communist Party and a lady of fierce opinions, to have become a propagandist for the Anglo-American school of mechanistic studies. Truth for her overruled political propaganda. Her little book was revolutionary in the French context of the times. Together with the GECO (Groupe d'étude de chimie organique) summer conferences pioneered by Guy Ourisson after his return from Harvard, it ushered in the new ideas. This historical essay, based on an in-depth study of Tchoubar's book, will include a portrait of this remarkable woman scientist. It will delve at some length into the renewal of French science initiated by De Gaulle's government after his return to power in 1958. The tension in the French scientific establishment of the sixties reflected two opposed versions of nationalism, the one conservative, Malthusian, inner-directed, the other forward-looking, eager for the recovery of national status, seeing a strong French science as a means for asserting national

  6. Grouping and characterization of putative glycosyltransferase genes from Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorolragchaa, Altanzul; Kim, Yu-Jin; Rahimi, Shadi; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Jang, Moon-Gi; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-02-15

    Glycosyltransferases are members of the multigene family of plants that can transfer single or multiple activated sugars to a range of plant molecules, resulting in the glycosylation of plant compounds. Although the activities of many glycosyltransferases and their products have been recognized for a long time, only in recent years were some glycosyltransferase genes identified and few have been functionally characterized in detail. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), belonging to Araliaceae, has been well known as a popular mysterious medicinal herb in East Asia for over 2,000 years. A total of 704 glycosyltransferase unique sequences have been found from a ginseng expressed sequence tag (EST) library, and these sequences encode enzymes responsible for the secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Finally, twelve UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in triterpenoid synthesis. In this study, we classified the candidate P. ginseng UGTs (PgUGTs) into proper families and groups, which resulted in eight UGT families and six UGT groups. We also investigated those gene candidates encoding for glycosyltransferases by analysis of gene expression in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated ginseng adventitious roots and different tissues from four-year-old ginseng using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For organ-specific expression, most of PgUGT transcription levels were higher in leaves and roots compared with flower buds and stems. The transcription of PgUGTs in adventitious roots treated with MeJA increased as compared with the control. PgUGT1 and PgUGT2, which belong to the UGT71 family genes expressed in MeJA-treated adventitious roots, were especially sensitive, showing 33.32 and 38.88-fold expression increases upon 24h post-treatments, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Young, Jang; Hee Soo, Park; Ki Rok, Kwon; Tae Jin, Rhim

    2008-01-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2’...

  8. Proteomic Analyses Provide Novel Insights into Plant Growth and Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Forest Cultivated Panax ginseng (F. Ginseng)

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Chen, Xuenan; Mei, Bing; Chang, Guijuan; Wang, Manying; Zhao, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    F. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is planted in the forest to enhance the natural ginseng resources, which have an immense medicinal and economic value. The morphology of the cultivated plants becomes similar to that of wild growing ginseng (W. Ginseng) over the years. So far, there have been no studies highlighting the physiological or functional changes in F. Ginseng and its wild counterparts. In the present study, we used proteomic technologies (2DE and iTRAQ) coupled to mass spectrometry to comp...

  9. Proteomic variation in Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korean ginseng is a traditional medicine that is widely used in Korea. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to investigate variations in Korean ginseng isolates that are associated with ecologic and geographic differences. Ginseng samples were collected from four geographically isolated locations in Korea: North ...

  10. Proteomic variation in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulysses Akporoba

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... Korean ginseng isolates are often morphologically similar. Thus, a more quantitative analysis of Korean ginseng sites of origin may be a useful reference tool for promoting fair trade of ginseng in the Korean herbal industry. Recently, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of different.

  11. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi eOng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  12. Characteristics of Korean ginseng varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Ho; Lee, Joon-Soo; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Kang, Je-Yong; Lee, Dong-Yun; In, Jun-Gyo; Kim, Yun-Soo; Seo, Jiho; Baeg, In-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo; Grainger, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an important medicinal herbs in Asia. However, ginseng varieties are less developed. Method To developed ginseng varieties, a pure line selection method was applied in this study. Results Gumpoong was testing of 4-yr-old specimens in 2002, the proportions of the below-ground roots that were rusty colored for Gumpoong was 1.29 in Daejeon and 1.45 in Eumseong, whereas the proportions for its yellow berry variant were 2.60 and 2.45 in the two regions, respectively. Thus the Gumpoong was resistant to root rust. Sunpoong has a high yielding property. Its average root weight is 70.6 g for 6-yr-old roots. Its yield is 2.9 kg/1.62m2 and the rate of heaven- and earth-grade product is 20.9%, which is very high compared to 9.4% for Yunpoong. Sunone is resistance to root rot and the survival rate of 4-yr-old roots was 44.4% in 1997, whereas that of the violet-stem variant landrace was 21.7%. Sunhyang has content of arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG), which produces the unique scent of red ginseng, is 95.1 μmol/g and greater than the 30.8 μmol/g of Chunpoong in 6-yr-old plants. Sunun and Cheongsun are being nurtured to protect genetic resources. Conclusion Developed ginsneg varieties will be used as the basis for the protection of genetic resources and breeding. PMID:26045682

  13. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... define the parts of the root, areas to be clipped, and the correct determination for length and diameter... Grades of Cultivated Ginseng using procedures that appear in Part 36, Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR part 36). Background AMS received a request from the GBW on June 8, 2009, to revise the...

  14. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated wi...

  15. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Sharma, M.K.; Saxena, P.S.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  16. Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) on obesity and adipose inflammation in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunghee; Choi, Jeonghyun; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Korean red ginseng (ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a famous traditional drug used in Korea for the treatment and prevention of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and liver and cardiovascular diseases. Menopause is strongly associated with many of the aforementioned metabolic diseases and increased visceral obesity. The aims of this study were to investigate whether ginseng inhibits obesity and related disorders in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, which is a mouse model of postmenopausal women, and to determine the mechanism of action involved in this process. After OVX mice were treated with 5% (w/w) ginseng for 15 weeks, we determined the effects of ginseng on obesity and adipose inflammation, angiogenesis, metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and metabolic parameters. OVX mice had higher body weight, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size when fed a high fat diet (HFD) compared with HFD-fed sham-operated mice. All of these parameters were significantly reduced in OVX mice fed a HFD supplemented with ginseng. Ginseng treatment also decreased blood vessel density, MMP activity, and mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (e.g., MMP-2 and MMP-9) in adipose tissues of OVX mice. Infiltrating inflammatory cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., CD68, TNFα and MCP-1) in adipose tissue were reduced by ginseng. Ginseng not only reduced the circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides, but also normalized hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in OVX mice. Hepatic lipid droplets were almost completely abolished by ginseng. These results suggest that ginseng inhibited ovariectomy-induced obesity, adiposity, and adipocyte hypertrophy by modulating angiogenesis and MMP activity. Ginseng also suppressed adipose inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in OVX mice. Thus, it is likely that ginseng may be a promising drug for the prevention and treatment of obesity and related disorders in obese postmenopausal

  17. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Dong Seong

    2000-01-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89±0.04, 0.86±0.06, 0.73±0.01 and 0.09±0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81±0.07, 0.42±0.08, 0.15±0.02, 0.03±0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28±0.01, 0.18±0.03, 0.08±0.02, 0.006±0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added

  18. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  19. Proteomic Analyses Provide Novel Insights into Plant Growth and Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Forest Cultivated Panax ginseng (F. Ginseng)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Chen, Xuenan; Mei, Bing; Chang, Guijuan; Wang, Manying; Zhao, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    F. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is planted in the forest to enhance the natural ginseng resources, which have an immense medicinal and economic value. The morphology of the cultivated plants becomes similar to that of wild growing ginseng (W. Ginseng) over the years. So far, there have been no studies highlighting the physiological or functional changes in F. Ginseng and its wild counterparts. In the present study, we used proteomic technologies (2DE and iTRAQ) coupled to mass spectrometry to compare W. Ginseng and F. Ginseng at various growth stages. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on protein abundance revealed that the protein expression profile of 25-year-old F. Ginseng was more like W. Ginseng than less 20-year-old F. Ginseng. We identified 192 differentially expressed protein spots in F. Ginseng. These protein spots increased with increase in growth years of F. Ginseng and were associated with proteins involved in energy metabolism, ginsenosides biosynthesis, and stress response. The mRNA, physiological, and metabolic analysis showed that the external morphology, protein expression profile, and ginsenoside synthesis ability of the F. Ginseng increased just like that of W. Ginseng with the increase in age. Our study represents the first characterization of the proteome of F. Ginseng during development and provides new insights into the metabolism and accumulation of ginsenosides. PMID:26858731

  20. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  1. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  2. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Fan; Fan, Hang; Li, Ke; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2018-03-26

    Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren't reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides) and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  3. Genetic and Epigenetic Diversities Shed Light on Domestication of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xu-Tong; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2015-11-02

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a medically important herb within Panax and has crucial cultural values in East Asia. As the symbol of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese ginseng has been used as a herbal remedy to restore stamina and capacity in East Asia for thousands of years. To address the evolutionary origin and domestication history of cultivated ginseng, we employed multiple molecular approaches to investigate the genetic structures of cultivated and wild ginseng across their distribution ranges in northeastern Asia. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that the four cultivated ginseng landraces, COMMON, BIANTIAO, SHIZHU, and GAOLI (also known as Korean ginseng), were not domesticated independently and Fusong Town is likely one of the primary domestication centers. In addition, our results from population genetic and epigenetic analyses demonstrated that cultivated ginseng maintained high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity, but showed distinct cytosine methylation patterns compared with wild ginseng. The patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation revealed by this study have shed light on the domestication history of cultivated ginseng, which may serve as a framework for future genetic improvements. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-Wide Variation Patterns Uncover the Origin and Selection in Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ya-Ling; Jiang, Peng; Jiao, Lili; Liu, Bao; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions. In complement, the 45s rDNA, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were included to perform phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. The observed spatial genetic structure between northern cultivated ginseng (NCG) and southern cultivated ginseng (SCG) accessions suggested multiple independent origins of cultivated ginseng. Genome-wide scanning further demonstrated that NCG and SCG have undergone distinct selection pressures during the domestication process, with more genes identified in the NCG (97 genes) than in the SCG group (5 genes). Functional analyses revealed that these genes are involved in diverse pathways, including DNA methylation, lignin biosynthesis, and cell differentiation. These findings suggested that the SCG and NCG groups have distinct demographic histories. Candidate genes identified are useful for future molecular breeding of cultivated ginseng. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Rhizospheric microbial communities are driven by Panax ginseng at different growth stages and biocontrol bacteria alleviates replanting mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Panax plants is hindered by replanting problems, which may be caused by plant-driven changes in the soil microbial community. Inoculation with microbial antagonists may efficiently alleviate replanting issues. Through high-throughput sequencing, this study revealed that bacterial diversity decreased, whereas fungal diversity increased, in the rhizosphere soils of adult ginseng plants at the root growth stage under different ages. Few microbial community, such as Luteolibacter, Cytophagaceae, Luteibacter, Sphingomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Zygomycota, were observed; the relative abundance of microorganisms, namely, Brevundimonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Pandoraea, Cantharellales, Dendryphion, Fusarium, and Chytridiomycota, increased in the soils of adult ginseng plants compared with those in the soils of 2-year-old seedlings. Bacillus subtilis 50-1, a microbial antagonist against the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, was isolated through a dual culture technique. These bacteria acted with a biocontrol efficacy of 67.8%. The ginseng death rate and Fusarium abundance decreased by 63.3% and 46.1%, respectively, after inoculation with B. subtilis 50-1. Data revealed that microecological degradation could result from ginseng-driven changes in rhizospheric microbial communities; these changes are associated with the different ages and developmental stages of ginseng plants. Biocontrol using microbial antagonists alleviated the replanting problem. KEY WORDS: Panax ginseng, Microbial communities, Replanting problem, High-throughput sequencing, Different ages, Bioremediation

  6. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  7. Effects of Natural Bioactive Products on the Growth and Ginsenoside Contents of Panax ginseng Cultured in an Aeroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum-Soog; Lee, Seung-Eun; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Hyuck; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kim, Yong-Bum

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23℃ to 26℃) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25℃ to 28℃). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. PMID:23717147

  8. [Cropping system and research strategies in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Xu, Jiang; Dong, Lin-lin; Li, Xi-wen; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-09-01

    Panax ginseng is the king of herbs and plays important roles in the traditional Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, we summarized the development of ginseng cultivation in China and other main countries, analyzed the effects of ecological factors of soil and climate on ginseng distribution, and investigated the characteristic of main cultivation patterns (conversion of forest to cultivate ginseng soils, cultivated ginseng in the farmland and wild nursery). Aimed at the serious issues in the cultivation, research strategies have been provided to guarantee the sustainable development of the ginseng industry. The patterns of cultivated ginseng in the farmland should be strive to develop; pollution-free cultivation and studies of continuous cropping obstacles should be carried out; ginseng varieties suited to ecological environment of farmland should be bred using modern biotechnology.

  9. Dissipation, residues, and safety evaluation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on ginseng and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Chunwei; Gao, Jie; Liu, Chang; Cui, Lili; Li, Aijun

    2015-06-01

    Supervised field trials at two locations in 2012 and 2013 were conducted to evaluate the dissipation, terminal residues, and safety evaluation of Nativo 75 water dispersible granule (WG) (25 % trifloxystrobin + 50 % tebuconazole) on ginseng and soil following foliar application at a recommended dose 150 (50 + 100) and 1.5 times of the recommended dosage 225 (75 + 150) g a.i. ha(-1). The average recoveries of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at three spiking levels in ginseng root, stem, and leaf and in soil were in the ranges of 81.0-96.8 % and 80.2-97.5 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.92-13.13 % and 4.67-8.35 %, respectively. The half-lives of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were 5.92-9.76 days and 4.59-7.53 days, respectively. The terminal residues were all below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of EU, USA, Canada, Japan, and South Korea. The food safety was evaluated by comparing the estimated daily intake (IEDI) with its acceptable daily intake (ADI). IEDI values calculated from residue data were found to be far less than the ADI on ginseng. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems induced by Nativo 75 WG use on ginseng at a dosage of 150-225 g a.i. ha(-1).

  10. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  11. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  12. Metabolomic evaluation of ginsenosides distribution in Panax genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Roberto; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Sardone, Nicola; D E Combarieu, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng is any one of the eleven species belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae and is found in North America and in eastern Asia. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides. Principally Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius are the adaptogenic herbs and are commonly distributed as health food markets. In the present study high performance liquid chromatography has been used to identify and quantify ginsenosides in the two subject species and the different parts of the plant (roots, neck, leaves, flowers, fruits). The power of this chromatographic technique to evaluate the identity of botanical material and to distinguishing different part of the plants has been investigated with metabolomic technique such as principal component analysis. Metabolomics provide a good opportunity for mining useful chemical information from the chromatographic data set resulting an important tool for quality evaluation of medicinal plants in the authenticity, consistency and efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Remarkable Impact of Acidic Ginsenosides and Organic Acids on Ginsenoside Transformation from Fresh Ginseng to Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Xia, Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Qiu; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Sun, Guang-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-07-06

    Panax ginseng contains many chemical components, including acidic ginsenosides and organic acids. However, whether these acidic substances play a role in ginsenoside transformation during steaming treatment has not yet been explored. In this paper, the content of neutral ginsenosides, acidic ginsenosides, and their degradation products in unsteamed and steamed P. ginseng were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that neutral ginsenosides were converted to rare ginsenosides during the root steaming but not during the individual ginsenoside steaming. In contrast, acidic malonyl ginsenosides released malonic acid and acetic acid through demalonylation, decarboxylation, deacetylation reactions during the steaming at 120 °C. These malonyl ginsenosides not only were converted to rare ginsenosides but also promoted the degradation of neutral ginsenosides. Further studies indicated that a low concentration of organic acid was the determining factor for the ginsenoside conversion. The related mechanisms were deduced to be mainly acidic hydrolysis and dehydration. In summary, acidic ginsenosides and organic acids remarkably affected ginsenoside transformation during the steaming process. Our results provide useful information for precisely understanding the ginsenoside conversion pathways and mechanisms underlying the steaming process.

  14. The mensuration of delayed luminescence on ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fenghua; Bai, Hua; Tang, Guoqing

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the delayed luminescence of ginseng produced from two different areas was determined with the self built bioluminescence detecting system. And the attenuation curve of bioluminescence of the experimental samples were studied, before and after the samples extracted by 58% alcohol. We primarily gave out the parameters describing emitting characteristic. Using the method of optic induced bioluminescence, we also determined the weak luminescence emitting from the ginseng tuber, and find the intensity and decay time having obvious difference from skin and core, with these data we can distinguish the producing area and feature of the ginseng. In the experiment, the light-induce luminescence of the sample was menstruated, which has been infused by water and 58% alcohol; the difference between two kinds of samples which were infused and not infused has been delivered. In order to investigate the effect of excitation-light spectrum component to delayed luminescence of ginseng, a light filter witch allow a wavelength scope of 225nm~420nm pass through was installed between the light source and sample, keeping other work condition unchanged, the bioluminescence was also determined. For investigating the effect of extracting to emitting, the absorption spectrum of above samples ware studied, and the time-sequence of absorption spectrum was obtained. Based on the data obtained from our experiment, we analyzed the radiation mechanism of ginseng slice and tuber.

  15. Time-Course Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Resistance Genes of Panax ginseng Induced by Cylindrocarpon destructans Infection Using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; He, Xiaoli; Wu, Bin; Long, Qiliang; Shao, Tianwei; Wang, Zi; Wei, Jianhe; Li, Yong; Ding, Wanlong

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a highly valued medicinal plant. Cylindrocarpon destructans is a destructive pathogen that causes root rot and significantly reduces the quality and yield of P. ginseng. However, an efficient method to control root rot remains unavailable because of insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying C. destructans-P. ginseng interaction. In this study, C. destructans-induced transcriptomes at different time points were investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). De novo assembly produced 73,335 unigenes for the P. ginseng transcriptome after C. destructans infection, in which 3,839 unigenes were up-regulated. Notably, the abundance of the up-regulated unigenes sharply increased at 0.5 d postinoculation to provide effector-triggered immunity. In total, 24 of 26 randomly selected unigenes can be validated using quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these unigenes showed that "defense response to fungus", "defense response" and "response to stress" were enriched. In addition, differentially expressed transcription factors involved in the hormone signaling pathways after C. destructans infection were identified. Finally, differentially expressed unigenes involved in reactive oxygen species and ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway during C. destructans infection were indentified. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the dynamic transcriptome triggered by C. destructans. These results improve our understanding of disease resistance in P. ginseng and provide a useful resource for quick detection of induced markers in P. ginseng before the comprehensive outbreak of this disease caused by C. destructans.

  16. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  17. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  19. Root respiration in North American forests: Effects of nitrogen concentration and temperature across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Burton; K.S. Pregitzer; R.W. Ruess; R.L. Hendrick; Mike F. Allen

    2002-01-01

    Root respiration rates have been shown to be correlated with temperature and root N concentration in studies of individual forest types or species, but it is not known how universal these relationships are across forest species adapted to widely different climatic and edaphic conditions. In order to test for broad, cross-species relationships, we measured fine root...

  20. Ginseng, the natural effectual antiviral: Protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng against viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtaek Im

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of KRG as an antiviral and vaccine adjuvant is discussed.

  1. The effect of ginseng (genus Panax) on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komishon, A M; Shishtar, E; Ha, V; Sievenpiper, J L; de Souza, R J; Jovanovski, E; Ho, H V T; Duvnjak, L S; Vuksan, V

    2016-10-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates the potential for ginseng to reduce cardiovascular disease risk and acutely aid in blood pressure (BP) control. Clinical evidence evaluating repeated ginseng exposure, however, is controversial, triggering consumer and clinician concern. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess whether ginseng has an effect on BP. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and CINAHL were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials ⩾4 weeks that compared the effect of ginseng on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and/or mean arterial (MAP) BPs to control. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Seventeen studies satisfied eligibility criteria (n=1381). No significant effect of ginseng on SBP, DBP and MAP was found. Stratified analysis, although not significant, appears to favour systolic BP improvement in diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity (MD=-2.76 mm Hg (95% CI=-6.40, 0.87); P=0.14). A priori subgroup analyses revealed significant association between body mass index and treatment differences (β=-0.95 mm Hg (95% CI=-1.56, -0.34); P=0.007). Ginseng appears to have neutral vascular affects; therefore, should not be discouraged for concern of increased BP. More high-quality, randomized, controlled trials assessing BP as a primary end point, and use of standardized ginseng root or extracts are warranted to limit evidence of heterogeneity in ginseng research and to better understand its cardiovascular health potential.

  2. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  3. Dynamic Changes in Neutral and Acidic Ginsenosides with Different Cultivation Ages and Harvest Seasons: Identification of Chemical Characteristics for Panax ginseng Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dynamic changes in ginsenoside content and ratios in the Panax ginseng root were investigated with different cultivation ages and different collection months, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Our data indicate that changes in ginsenoside Ro and malonyl ginsenosides content were dependent on the ginseng cultivation age (p < 0.05; especially, the Ro content varied from 0.16 to 4.91 mg/g, with a difference about 30-fold. Further, we found that the samples of 5 and 6-year-old P. ginseng had high Ro/Re ratio, whereas two and three-year-old P. ginseng possessed low Ro/Re ratio. Thus, the Ro/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the age of the root. The relative content of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re were affected by the ginseng’s harvest season. The Re content was higher than the Rg1 content in May and June, but lower than the Rg1 content from August to October. Thus, the Rg1/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the ginseng’s harvest seasons. These results indicate that the chemical characteristics of P. ginseng at different cultivation ages and harvest seasons are clearly different, which may cause differences in pharmacological activities and therapeutic effects. In addition, we developed HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods to identify the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng using characteristic ginsenosides. Our results showed that this method can be used to discriminate the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng.

  4. PgLOX6 encoding a lipoxygenase contributes to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and ginsenoside production in Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Shadi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Ginsenosides, the valuable pharmaceutical compounds in Panax ginseng, are triterpene saponins that occur mainly in ginseng plants. It was shown that in vitro treatment with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is able to increase ginsenoside production in ginseng plants. To understand the molecular link between JA biosynthesis and ginsenoside biosynthesis, we identified a JA biosynthetic 13-lipoxygenase gene (PgLOX6) in P. ginseng that promotes ginsenoside production. The expression of PgLOX6 was high in vascular bundles, which corresponds with expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. Consistent with the role of PgLOX6 in synthesizing JA and promoting ginsenoside synthesis, transgenic plants overexpressing PgLOX6 in Arabidopsis had increased amounts of JA and methyl jasmonate (MJ), increased expression of triterpene biosynthetic genes such as squalene synthase (AtSS1) and squalene epoxidase (AtSE1), and increased squalene content. Moreover, transgenic ginseng roots overexpressing PgLOX6 had around 1.4-fold increased ginsenoside content and upregulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes including PgSS1, PgSE1, and dammarenediol synthase (PgDDS), which is similar to that of treatment with MJ. However, MJ treatment of transgenic ginseng significantly enhanced JA and MJ, associated with a 2.8-fold increase of ginsenoside content compared with the non-treated, non-transgenic control plant, which was 1.4 times higher than the MJ treatment effect on non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that PgLOX6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of JA and promotion of the production of triterpenoid saponin through up-regulating the expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes. This work provides insight into the role of JA in biosynthesizing secondary metabolites and provides a molecular tool for increasing ginsenoside production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. [A crisis of ginseng capital and the countermeasures of the ginseng-cultivating people during Daehan empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong Pil

    2009-12-01

    This thesis examines a crisis of ginseng capital and the source of crisis during Daehan empire. After the China-Japan war of 1894, the Japanese merchants actively engaged in taking over the ginseng fields, so that ginseng-cultivating Koreans suffered substantial economic losses. After the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese imperialists undertook the 'Currency Arranging Business'(CAB) in order to set a cornerstone for their invasion of Korea. The CAB eventually provoked a wide depression which in turn produced massive number of Korean merchants going bankrupt. The Kaesong merchants were no exception, since CAB stroke a severe blow on the ginseng industry, which relied heavily on the commercial capitals of the Kaesong merchants. Moreover, the Japanese imperialists broke the previous promise and bought ginseng at a dirt-cheap price, which put ginseng-cultivating Koreans in serious trouble. In order to combat such crisis, ginseng field-owners protested against such injustice by petitioning or stirring up Kaesong popular riot in vain, and consequently the number of ginseng field-owners decreased sharply. A few of the ginseng field-owners survived, and managed to maintain and even flourish more than before. These successful owners were characterized with their strong link with the official circle, utilizing their influence in ginseng industry. Their original background was not identical as some came from the influential families of Kaesong area for generations, while others made their own fortunes and continue to prosper through the difficult times of the late of the Daehan empire period.

  6. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Korean Ginseng Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG...

  7. Trade-Offs between Drought Survival and Rooting Strategy of Two South American Mediterranean Tree Species: Implications for Dryland Forests Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Ovalle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in water-acquisition strategies of tree root systems can determine the capacity to survive under severe drought. We evaluate the effects of field water shortage on early survival, growth and root morphological variables of two South American Mediterranean tree species with different rooting strategies during two growing seasons. One year-old Quillaja saponaria (deep-rooted and Cryptocarya alba (shallow-rooted seedlings were established under two watering treatments (2 L·week−1·plant−1 and no water in a complete randomized design. Watering improved the final survival of both species, but the increase was only significantly higher for the shallow-rooted species. The survival rates of deep- and shallow-rooted species was 100% and 71% with watering treatment, and 96% and 10% for the unwatered treatment, respectively. Root morphological variables of deep-rooted species such as surface area, volume, and diameter were higher under unwatered treatment. On the other hand, shallow-rooted species had a higher total root dry mass, length, surface area with watering treatments. Our findings suggest that deep-rooted species are highly recommended for reforestation in dry conditions, even under low soil water availability. Water supplements during the summer season can attenuate the differences between deep- and shallow-rooted species in their ability to survive drought during the early stage.

  8. GC-MS Metabolomic Analysis to Reveal the Metabolites and Biological Pathways Involved in the Developmental Stages and Tissue Response of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenosides, the major compounds present in ginseng, are known to have numerous physiological and pharmacological effects. The physiological processes, enzymes and genes involved in ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng have been well characterized. However, relatively little information is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng. To explore this topic, we isolated metabolites from different tissues at different growth stages, and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 30, 16, 20, 36 and 31 metabolites were identified and involved in different developmental stages in leaf, stem, petiole, lateral root and main root, respectively. To investigate the contribution of tissue to the biosynthesis of ginsenosides, we examined the metabolic changes of leaf, stem, petiole, lateral root and main root during five development stages: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-years. The score plots of partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA showed clear discrimination between growth stages and tissue samples. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis in the same tissue at different growth stages indicated profound biochemical changes in several pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism and pentose phosphate metabolism, in addition, the tissues displayed significant variations in amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism and energy metabolism. These results should facilitate further dissection of the metabolic flux regulation of ginsenoside accumulation in different developmental stages or different tissues of ginseng.

  9. Linking biological activity with herbal constituents by systems biology-based approaches: Effects of Panax ginseng in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, C.; Wei, H.; Kong, H.; Bouwman, J.; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, V.; Heijden, R. van der; Reijmers, T.H.; Bao, X.; Verheij, E.R.; Hankemeier, T.; Xu, G.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of animal experiments and clinical trials have investigated the effects of ginseng roots on diabetes, the relationship between their therapeutic effects on diabetes and the quality and the growth age of this herb have not yet been reported. This study systematically investigated

  10. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. Methods: To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliora...

  12. [Research on ginseng trade competitiveness between China and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min-Tong; Yang, Guang; Tang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng is one of China's valuable Chinese herbal medicines, with a long using history. Ginseng has worldwide reputation, and widely used in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics and other production. China and South Korea have a big ginseng industrial, and sharing half of the export market. The ginseng export competitiveness analysis seems important and necessary between China and South Korea. In this paper, the data of customs and trade of ginseng in COMTRADE database were studied, and ginseng export competitiveness was analyzed between China and Korea. The results showed that the ginseng export competitiveness of Korean more competitive than China. Contrast with China, South Korea using only 15% total amount of ginseng exports and produced the same total export amount. This article has the reference value to the traditional Chinese medicine resources management and the economics research. On this basis, this paper further discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the development of ginseng industry in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko; Katoh, Norio; Yonezawa, Morio

    1982-01-01

    Radiation protection by post-irradiation injection of a thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract in mice, rats and guinea pigs was studied. The thermostable fraction lost ''by-effects'' of decrease in body weight and splenic hyperplasia which were caused in injected mice by the original ginseng extract. The fraction protected mice (male) irradiated with 720 R of X-rays and rats (male) irradiated with 825 R with the dose about 6 mg per 100 g of body weight. The fraction also protected guinea pigs, both female and male, irradiated with 325 R with the dose about 80 mg per 300 g of body weight. The thermostable fraction stimulated recovery of thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, but not leukocyte counts, in 550-R irradiated mice. Recovery of all the three blood cell counts was stimulated by the fraction in rats irradiated with 630 R and guinea pigs irradiated with 200 R. Comparison of stimulated recovery by the thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract among the three blood cell counts showed that restoring action was the most marked on thrombocyte counts, commonly in the three species of the animals. (author)

  14. Animal lectins: potential receptors for ginseng polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hee Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng Meyer, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae, is known for its human immune system-related effects, such as immune-boosting effects. Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs are the responsible ingredient of ginseng in immunomodulation, and are classified as acidic and neutral GPs. Although GPs participate in various immune reactions including the stimulation of immune cells and production of cytokines, the precise function of GPs together with its potential receptor(s and their signal transduction pathways have remained largely unknown. Animal lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Among many different biological functions in vivo, animal lectins especially play important roles in the immune system by recognizing carbohydrates that are found exclusively on pathogens or that are inaccessible on host cells. This review summarizes the immunological activities of GPs and the diverse roles of animal lectins in the immune system, suggesting the possibility of animal lectins as the potential receptor candidates of GPs and giving insights into the development of GPs as therapeutic biomaterials for many immunological diseases.

  15. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio; Katoh, Norio; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60 0 C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not. (author)

  16. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K by endophytic fungus Arthrinium sp. GE 17-18 isolated from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y; Yin, Z-H; Wu, L-P; Yin, C-R

    2016-09-01

    This research aimed to isolate β-glycosidase-producing endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng to achieve biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K. Of these 15 β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungus isolated from ginseng roots, a β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungi GE 17-18 could hydrolyse major ginsenosides Rb1 to minor ginsenoside C-K with metabolic pathways: ginsenoside Rb1→ginsenoside Rd→ginsenoside F2→ginsenoside C-K. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS gene sequences indicated that the strain GE 17-18 belongs to the genus Arthrinium and is most closely related to Arthrinium sp. HQ832803.1. This is the first study to provide information of cultivable β-glycosidase-producing Endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng. The strain GE 17-18 has potential to be applied on the preparation for minor ginsenoside C-K in pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Teleology and News: The Religious Roots of American Journalism, 1630-1730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    The nature and function of news in the public life of seventeenth-century New England and the legacy this conception of news left for the development of American newspaper journalism in the eighteenth century are explored in this paper. The paper argues that the origin of American news--its subject matter, style, and method of reporting--is deeply…

  18. Recent methodology in the phytochemical analysis of ginseng

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova, N.; Kong, H.-W.; Heijden, R. van de; Yang, S.-Y.; Choi, Y.H.; Kim, H.K.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Verpoorte, R.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent developments in ginseng analysis, in particular the novel approaches in sample pre-treatment and the use of high-performance liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. The review also presents novel data on analysing ginseng extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance

  19. [Enzynology of infected part of red skin ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Y; Shang, Y; Chen, Z; Teng, B; Hu, B

    1997-06-01

    By means of polyacrylaminde gel eletrothoresis and thin layer scanning, the paper semi-quantitatively studies some relation between component and activity of isoenayme of Ginseng infecting red skin desease. The results show activity of esterase increases 100% than that of normal Ginseng; activity of polyphenol oxidase increases 60-30% and represent new isoenzyme bands in the early infection in juxtapose transolant experiment.

  20. Enhanced thermogenesis in rats by Panax ginseng, multivitamins and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ratan; Grover, S. K.; Divekar, H. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Shyam, Radhey; Srivastava, K. K.

    1996-12-01

    Substances which enhance endurance for physical and mental work and increase non-specific resistance to stress during a prolonged stay in physiologically adverse habitats are called ‘adaptogens’. Panax ginseng is well known for its anti-stress and adaptogenic properties. In the present study, adaptogenic activity by the intake of a herbo-vitamin-mineral preparation (HVMP) containing P. ginseng and multivitamin-mineral preparation (MVMP) was evaluated using the cold-hypoxia-restrained (C-H-R) animal model. The aim was to determine whether the cold tolerance and recovery from acute hypothermia mediated by P. ginseng was modified by simultaneous intake of additional vitamins and minerals. Results suggest that the adaptogenic effect of HVMP was more or less the sum total of its two components P. ginseng and MVMP. In HVMP, P. ginseng was found to be effective for developing resistance to cooling and MVMP helped in stimulating faster recovery from acute hypothermia.

  1. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Cho, Han Oak; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Suk Won; Yang, Jae Seung; You, Young Soo; Jin, Joon Ha; Park, Soon Chul

    1992-09-01

    Microbiological qualities were evaluated for the commercial red ginseng. Molds, which might cause microbial spoilage of stored ginseng, were isolated and identified for determining radiosensitivity and growth characteristics on ginseng-extract agar media. Red ginseng inoculated with isolated molds was incubated under the ideal condition following irradiation at different doses to pre-establish the effective dose-range for decontamination by confirming mold growth on the surface of the sample. At this point of time, moisture content was determined for the corresponding sample. By comparing the monolayer moisture content of red ginseng and its actual moisture level causing microbial spoilage during storage, it was intended to establish a basal condition for the continued project regarding irradiation effects on the quality of high-moisture products and their storage stability. (Author)

  2. Nihilism and the Roots of Crisis in American Democracy: A Diagnosis of Cornel West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jeliński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cornel West’s diagnosis of the crisis of the American democracy is the subject matter of this article. Analyzing the condition of the American democracy of the end of XX and the beginning of XXI centuries, C. West focused on the individual, existential character of the crisis. The diagnosed state had according to him much affect not only on political issues, but first and foremost on the spread of nihilism among American citizens. Nihilism – is understood in the C. West as senselessness of life and low self-esteem is the subject matter of this article.

  3. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  4. Effect of ginseng root polysaccharides on cutaneous wound repair in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fibroblasts and new blood vessels were more abundant in WGP group than in control group. Conclusion: Topical application of WGP ... cells, resulting in increased fibroblast division, collagen synthesis, and production of blood cells during wound healing. Keywords: Panax ..... Total fractionation and characterization of the ...

  5. Novel application of cultured roots of mountain ginseng ( Panax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study demonstrated that CRMG and Re were non-toxic compounds and significantly reduced tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16 cells. Re decreased the mRNA expression of tyrosinase and other melanin synthesisrelated genes in B16 cells. In addition, in silico docking studies showed that Re had ...

  6. Water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides protect against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment by functioning as an antineuroinflammatory agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Shen, Xiangfeng; Yu, Huali; Sun, Lili; Lin, Weihong; Zhang, Chunxiao

    2016-07-01

    Panax ginseng root is used in traditional oriental medicine for human health. Its main active components such as saponins and polysaccharides have been widely evaluated for treating diseases, but secondary active components such as oligosaccharides have been rarely studied. This study aimed to assess the impact of water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (WGOS), which were isolated from the warm-water extract of Panax ginseng root, on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice and its antineuroinflammatory mechanisms. We investigated the impact of WGOS on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice by using Morris water maze and novel object recognition task. We also analyzed the impact of WGOS on scopolamine-induced inflammatory response (e.g., the hyperexpression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and astrocyte activation) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical staining. WGOS pretreatment protected against scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze and in the novel object recognition task. Furthermore, WGOS pretreatment downregulated scopolamine-induced hyperexpression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNA and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus. These results indicate that WGOS can protect against scopolamine-induced alterations in learning and memory and inflammatory response. Our data suggest that WGOS may be beneficial as a medicine or functional food supplement to treat disorders with cognitive deficits and increased inflammation.

  7. Effects of Sun ginseng on memory enhancement and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Liu, Xiaotong; Cai, Mudan; Hong, Jin Gyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SG on memory enhancement and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The subchronic administration of SG (for 14 days) significantly increased the latency time in the passive avoidance task relative to the administration of the vehicle control (P memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Design of Ginseng Planting Environment Monitoring System Based on WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ding

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of ginseng products industry chain, this paper designs and implements ginseng planting environment monitoring system. The system realized data collection and detection of ginseng planting environment in real time by using wireless sensor, transmission of environmental parameters in real time by using GPRS wireless transmission module, and video monitor and alarm of ginseng land by using unattended machine. It is the foundation of information transformation of ginseng products industry chain based on the Internet of Things. The experiment of ginseng planting base in Fusong indicates the system can offer support of original data for scientific cultivation of ginseng, comprehensive analysis of ginseng products and propaganda of ginseng brand.

  9. James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry in the US Pacific Northwest: The roots of American fluvialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.

    2018-01-01

    Recognition of the power of rivers to carve landscapes transformed geology and geomorphology in the late nineteenth century. Wide acceptance of this concept—then known as “fluvialism”—owes to many factors and people, several associated with exploration of western North America. Especially famous are the federal geographic and geologic surveys of the US Southwest with John Wesley Powell and Grove Karl Gilbert, which produced key insights regarding river processes. Yet earlier and less-known surveys also engaged young geologists embarking on tremendously influential careers, particularly the 1838–1842 US Exploring Expedition with James Dwight Dana and the 1853–1855 railroad surveys including John Strong Newberry. Informed but little constrained by European and British perspectives on landscape formation, Dana and Newberry built compelling cases for the erosive power of rivers, largely from observations in the US Pacific Northwest. They seeded the insights of the later southwestern surveys, Dana by his writings and station at Yale and his hugely influential Manual of Geology, published in 1863, and Newberry by becoming the first geologist to explore the dramatic river-carved canyons of the Southwest and then a forceful proponent of the federal surveys spotlighting the erosional landscapes. Newberry also gave Gilbert his start as a geologist. Although Dana and Newberry are renowned early American geologists, their geomorphic contributions were overshadowed by the works of Powell, Gilbert, and William Morris Davis. Yet Dana and Newberry were the first ardent American proponents of fluvialism, providing strong roots that in just a few decades transformed western geology, roots nourished in large measure by the geologically fertile landscapes of the US Pacific Northwest.

  10. Chemoprevention of mammary, cervix and nervous system carcinogenesis in animals using cultured Panax ginseng drugs and preliminary clinical trials in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, V G; Alexandrov, V A; Limarenko, A Y; Voytenkov, B O; Okulov, V B; Kabulov, M K; Peresunko, A P; Slepyan, L I; Davydov, V V

    2001-12-01

    The anticarcinogenic effects and mechanisms of the biotechnological drugs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Russia, bioginseng, panaxel and panaxel- 5, were studied. Bioginseng was produced from a tissue culture of ginseng root cultured on standard medium, whereas panaxel and panaxel-5 were produced from ginseng tissue root cultures using standard mediums enriched with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and 1-hydroxygermatran-monohydrate respectively. All three ginseng drugs inhibited the development of mammary tumors induced by intramammary injections of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in rats, the development of the brain and spinal cord tumors induced by transplacental administration of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in rats, and the development of uterine, cervical and vaginal tumors induced by intravaginal applications of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mice. The ginseng drugs induced the cytotoxic activity of macrophages in mice, enhanced T-lymphocyte rosette formation in guinea pigs exposed to cyclophosphamide, and stimulated the production of thyroid hormones in rats. These mechanisms may contribute to the anticarcinogenic action of the ginseng drugs. The organic germanium compounds present in panaxel and panaxel-5 did not potentiate the anticarcinogenic or immuno- stimulatory effects as much as biogeinseng. Preliminary clinical trials with panaxel and bioginseng were carried out in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium. Panaxel was found to have a strong therapeutic effect in patients suffering from chronic erosive esophagitis. Bioginseng induced the regression of adenomatous-cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium in some patients. Thus, we conclude that the drugs of ginseng appear to hold considerable promise for future cancer chemoprevention.

  11. Development of puffed ginseng-rice snack from ginseng powder and map rice flour using steam and compression process

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Shin, Cha-Gyun

    2012-01-01

    A new manufacturing method for producing a puffed ginseng-rice snack (PGRS) was developed using ginseng powder and map rice flour through a steam and compression process (SCP). The physical and sensory properties of the PGRS were characterized. The pellets for puffing were prepared from ginseng powder and map rice flour. The pellets were subjected to 16, 18, and 20% moisture contents and were puffed at 225, 235, and 245° C. The specific volumes of the PGRSs increased with heating temperature ...

  12. The Perception of Ginseng in England and America, 1600-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Heasim

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to redress serious imbalances in the research on ginseng. Most accounts of ginseng treat it as an exclusively East Asian commodity, and are dominated by the natural sciences. Ginseng, however, was much discussed in England and America in the early modern period: the discussion encompassed not only botanical and medical interests, but also discourses on the commercial marketability of ginseng; ginseng was also an item that embodied European prejudices, symbolizing perceived 'differences' between the West and East. As such, ginseng was an 'indigenous' item of 'the East' that was much discussed in 'the West', but one that resisted assimilation into its systems of knowledge.

  13. Effects of Panax ginseng, zearalenol, and estradiol on sperm function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Gray

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Zearalenol has adverse effects on sperm motility and function by targeting multiple signaling cascades, including P4, E2, and calcium pathways. Ginseng protects against chromatin damage and thus may be beneficial to reproductive fitness.

  14. Actoprotective effect of ginseng: improving mental and physical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Sergiy; Oh, Seikwan

    2013-01-01

    Actoprotectors are preparations that increase the mental performance and enhance body stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Actoprotectors are regarded as a subclass of adaptogens that hold a significant capacity to increase physical performance. The focus of this article is studying adaptogen herbs of genus Panax (P. ginseng in particular) and their capabilities as actoprotectors. Some animal experiments and human studies about actoprotective properties of genus Panax attest that P. ginseng (administered as an extract) significantly increased the physical and intellectual work capacities, and the data provided suggests that ginseng is a natural source of actoprotectors. Preparations of ginseng can be regarded as potential actoprotectors which give way to further research of its influence on physical and mental work capacity, endurance and restoration after exhaustive physical loads while compared with reference actoprotectors. PMID:23717168

  15. Actoprotective effect of ginseng: improving mental and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Sergiy; Oh, Seikwan

    2013-04-01

    Actoprotectors are preparations that increase the mental performance and enhance body stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Actoprotectors are regarded as a subclass of adaptogens that hold a significant capacity to increase physical performance. The focus of this article is studying adaptogen herbs of genus Panax (P. ginseng in particular) and their capabilities as actoprotectors. Some animal experiments and human studies about actoprotective properties of genus Panax attest that P. ginseng (administered as an extract) significantly increased the physical and intellectual work capacities, and the data provided suggests that ginseng is a natural source of actoprotectors. Preparations of ginseng can be regarded as potential actoprotectors which give way to further research of its influence on physical and mental work capacity, endurance and restoration after exhaustive physical loads while compared with reference actoprotectors.

  16. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments...

  17. Effects of Panax ginseng, zearalenol, and estradiol on sperm function

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Sandra L.; Lackey, Brett R.; Boone, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Estrogen signaling pathways are modulated by exogenous factors. Panax ginseng exerts multiple activities in biological systems and is classified as an adaptogen. Zearalenol is a potent mycoestrogen that may be present in herbs and crops arising from contamination or endophytic association. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of P. ginseng, zearalenol and estradiol in tests on spermatozoal function. Methods: The affinity of these compounds for estrogen receptor ...

  18. [Mitigative effect of micribial degradation on autotoxicity of Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Long, Qi-Liang; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhao, Dong-Yue

    2014-08-01

    Continuously cropping obstacle restricts ginseng production and rational use of land resource severely, and autotoxicity is one of the most important factors. In our previous work, ginseng autotoxin degrading bacteria were isolated, in the present re- search, plate culturing method and traditional physiological and biochemical method were used to analyze biological indices and protective enzyme activities, in order to elucidate the mitigative effect of autotoxin degrading bacteria on autotoxicity of P. ginseng. Results indicated that, except for palmitic acid, autotoxicity of benzonic acid, diisobutyl phthalate, diisobutyl succinate, and 2,2-bis (4- hydroxyphenyl) propane on the growth of ginseng seeds was significantly alleviated after autotoxins degrading bacteria was inoculated, and which have no evident difference with control. Except for benzoic acid, enzyme activity of SOD, POD and CAT in other autotoxin degrading treatments decreased significantly. The present research showed that, microbial degradation could alleviate the autotoxicity of autotoxins on ginseng seeds effectively, and which will be helpful for the resolution of ginseng continuously cropping obstacle problem.

  19. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Cho, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility for the sterilization of Korean red and white ginseng powder by irradiation, red and white ginseng powder (120 mesh) was irradiated by 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad with 60 Co irradiator (dose rate: 4000 rad/h). Extraction rate of crude saponins by buthanol and by 50% ethanol were slightly increased according to the irradiation dose (buthanol ex. 1.7%, 50% ethanol ex. 2.6%) at 1.0 Mrad irradiation. There are no remarkable changes in HPLC patterns of crude saponins by radiation. It was found that irradiation up to 1 Mrad on Korean ginseng products have no significant effect on proximate component, reducing sugar and amino nitrogen of ginseng powder and on the color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. Irradiation up to 1 Mrad could be utilized for the sterilization of Korean ginseng powder without changes of physicochemical properties. (Author)

  20. Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits in an animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Hisao; Uwano, Teruko; Zhong, Yong-Mei; Ono, Taketoshi

    2004-06-01

    Ameliorating effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits due to hippocampal lesions and aging were reviewed; the performance of young rats with selective hippocampal lesions with or without red ginseng (p.o.), and aged rats with or without red ginseng (p.o.) in the spatial learning tasks was compared with that of sham-operated or intact young rats. Each rat was tested with 3 types of spatial learning tasks (distance movement task, DMT; random reward place search task, RRPST; and place learning task, PLT) in a circular open field using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) as reward. The results in the DMT and RRPST indicated that motivational and motor activity of young rats with hippocampal lesions with and without ginseng and aged rats with and without ginseng were not significantly different from that of control young rats. However, young rats with hippocampal lesions without ginseng and aged rats without ginseng displayed significant deficits in the PLT. Treatment with red ginseng significantly ameliorated place-navigation deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions in the PLT. Similarly, red ginseng improved performance of aged rats in the PLT. The results, along with previous studies showing significant effects of red ginseng on the central nervous system, suggest that red ginseng ameliorates learning and memory deficits through effects on the central nervous system, partly through effects on the hippocampal formation. However, its mechanisms are still unclear, and further studies are required.

  1. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  2. Metabolomic approach for discrimination of processed ginseng genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using UPLC-QTOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Kim, Jeong-Han; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Gyeong-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating between two herbal medicines (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius), with similar chemical and physical properties but different therapeutic effects, is a very serious and difficult problem. Differentiation between two processed ginseng genera is even more difficult because the characteristics of their appearance are very similar. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS)-based metabolomic technique was applied for the metabolite profiling of 40 processed P. ginseng and processed P. quinquefolius. Currently known biomarkers such as ginsenoside Rf and F11 have been used for the analysis using the UPLC-photodiode array detector. However, this method was not able to fully discriminate between the two processed ginseng genera. Thus, an optimized UPLC-QTOF-based metabolic profiling method was adapted for the analysis and evaluation of two processed ginseng genera. As a result, all known biomarkers were identified by the proposed metabolomics, and additional potential biomarkers were extracted from the huge amounts of global analysis data. Therefore, it is expected that such metabolomics techniques would be widely applied to the ginseng research field. PMID:24558312

  3. Metabolomic approach for discrimination of processed ginseng genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius using UPLC-QTOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Won Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating between two herbal medicines (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius, with similar chemical and physical properties but different therapeutic effects, is a very serious and difficult problem. Differentiation between two processed ginseng genera is even more difficult because the characteristics of their appearance are very similar. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomic technique was applied for the metabolite profiling of 40 processed P. ginseng and processed P. quinquefolius. Currently known biomarkers such as ginsenoside Rf and F11 have been used for the analysis using the UPLC-photodiode array detector. However, this method was not able to fully discriminate between the two processed ginseng genera. Thus, an optimized UPLC-QTOF-based metabolic profiling method was adapted for the analysis and evaluation of two processed ginseng genera. As a result, all known biomarkers were identified by the proposed metabolomics, and additional potential biomarkers were extracted from the huge amounts of global analysis data. Therefore, it is expected that such metabolomics techniques would be widely applied to the ginseng research field.

  4. Metabolomic approach for discrimination of processed ginseng genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using UPLC-QTOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Kim, Jeong-Han; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Gyeong-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating between two herbal medicines (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius), with similar chemical and physical properties but different therapeutic effects, is a very serious and difficult problem. Differentiation between two processed ginseng genera is even more difficult because the characteristics of their appearance are very similar. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS)-based metabolomic technique was applied for the metabolite profiling of 40 processed P. ginseng and processed P. quinquefolius. Currently known biomarkers such as ginsenoside Rf and F11 have been used for the analysis using the UPLC-photodiode array detector. However, this method was not able to fully discriminate between the two processed ginseng genera. Thus, an optimized UPLC-QTOF-based metabolic profiling method was adapted for the analysis and evaluation of two processed ginseng genera. As a result, all known biomarkers were identified by the proposed metabolomics, and additional potential biomarkers were extracted from the huge amounts of global analysis data. Therefore, it is expected that such metabolomics techniques would be widely applied to the ginseng research field.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 downregulation and potential cartilage protective action of the Korean Red Ginseng preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Some preparations from Korean Red Ginseng and ginseng leaves, particularly GDF/F4, may possess the protective activity against cartilage degradation in joint disorders, and may have potential as new therapeutic agents.

  6. Proteomic analysis of amino acid metabolism differences between wild and cultivated Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This study elucidates the differences in amino acids between wild and cultivated ginseng. These results will provide a reference for further studies on the medicinal functions of wild ginseng.

  7. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of furosine in fresh and processed ginsengs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Li

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that FML is a promising indicator to estimate the heat treatment degree and honey addition level during the manufacture of ginseng products. The FML content is also an important parameter to identity the quality of ginseng products. In addition, the generation and regulation of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products-FML in ginseng processing was also investigated, providing a solid theoretical foundation and valuable reference for safe ginseng processing.

  9. [Effect of salicylic acid on photosynthesis, physio-biochemistry and quality of Panax ginseng under full sun shine in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wu-lin; Meng, Xiang-cai; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-01

    In order to search for a new pathway to improve the yield of ginseng through growing at the full sun shine accompanied by salicylic acid (SA), the net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) in Panax ginseng leaves, and the content of ginsenosides in roots were compared under various concentrations of SA and full sun shine with the traditional shade shed. Under the full sun shine, 0.05, 0.2 mmol x L(-1) SA increased net photosynthetic rate to a great extent. Under the cloudy day, the average net photosynthetic rate increased by 127.8% and 155.0% over the traditional shade shed, 13.9% and 27.5% over the treatment without SA respectively; under the clear day, 23.5% and 30.4% over the traditional shade shed, 8.6% and 14.6% over the treatment without SA, particularly obvious in the morning and late afternoon. With such concentration, SA increased activities of SOD, CAT, POD, and decreased the contents of the MDA. This difference resulted from different light intensity, rise of light saturation point, and fall of compensation point. Full sun shine decreased ginsenosides contents, but with SA, the ginsenosides regained, the content of Rg1 and Re, Rb1, total six types of ginsenosides in SA 0.2 mmol x L(-1) group were higher than those in the control group (P ginseng in spring, and could enhance the resistance to the adversity, which would improve the yield of ginseng heavily.

  10. Construction and analysis of a cDNA library from yellow-fruit ginseng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total RNA was isolated from yellow-fruit ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) leaf tissue. A cDNA library of panax ginseng leaves was constructed by using pDNR-LIB vector according to the SMART cDNA library construction kit protocol. We obtained 378 high quality sequences (GenBank accession number: ...

  11. Protein extraction from the stem of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginseng stem, the aerial part of the ginseng is more susceptible to diseases and environmental damages in its long process of growth. Since the molecular mechanism of why ginseng stems are vulnerable remains unclear, the comparison between healthy and pathogen suspicious tissues via proteomics approaches, such ...

  12. Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisheng Li

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

  13. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China′s mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE. Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung′s contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung, archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ′crystal-like belly′ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung′s contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng′s resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  14. Inhibitory effects of the transgenic Panax ginsengs on phorbol ester plus A23187-induced IL-6 production and cyclooxygenase-2 via suppression of NF-κB and MAPKs in HMC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hye-Lin; Shin, Hyun-Ji; Kang, Tae-Hee; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Shim, Ju-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hwan; Yang, Deok-Chun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2011-03-01

    Our previous studies have that demonstrated the overexpression of the squalene synthase gene enhances the biosynthesis of triterpene and phytosterol in Panax ginseng. The total ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of transgenic P. ginseng were about 1.6-3-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In the present work, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of two types of transgenic P. ginseng (BS and SS) and the wild-type P. ginseng (GS) in a stimulated human mast cell line 1 (HMC-1). GS, BS, and SS inhibited not only the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), but also the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated HMC-1. Additionally, GS, BS, and SS suppressed the expression of the nuclear transcription factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases induced by PMACI. The anti-inflammatory effects of BS and SS were higher than that of GS. These results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of transgenic P. ginseng as a potential molecule for use in therapy in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  15. Effects of Panax ginseng, zearalenol, and estradiol on sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R

    2016-07-01

    Estrogen signaling pathways are modulated by exogenous factors. Panax ginseng exerts multiple activities in biological systems and is classified as an adaptogen. Zearalenol is a potent mycoestrogen that may be present in herbs and crops arising from contamination or endophytic association. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of P. ginseng, zearalenol and estradiol in tests on spermatozoal function. The affinity of these compounds for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ)-was assessed in receptor binding assays. Functional tests on boar spermatozoa motility, movement and kinematic parameters were conducted using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Tests for capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR), and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were performed using microscopic analysis. Zearalenol-but not estradiol (E2)- or ginseng-treated spermatozoa-decreased the percentage of overall, progressive, and rapid motile cells. Zearalenol also decreased spontaneous AR and increased chromatin decondensation. Ginseng decreased chromatin decondensation in response to calcium ionophore and decreased AR in response to progesterone (P4) and ionophore. Zearalenol has adverse effects on sperm motility and function by targeting multiple signaling cascades, including P4, E2, and calcium pathways. Ginseng protects against chromatin damage and thus may be beneficial to reproductive fitness.

  16. α-Amylase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Wu, Di; Ning, Xin; Yang, Guang; Lin, Ziheng; Tian, Meihong; Zhou, Yifa

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, α-amylase-assisted extraction was used to isolate the polysaccharide that remained in hot water-extracted ginseng. The yield of the polysaccharide was 9.0%, almost equal to that of the hot water-extracted polysaccharide. Using anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography, the polysaccharide was fractionated into a neutral polysaccharide fraction and six pectic fractions. The neutral fraction accounted for 76% of the polysaccharide and contained both amylopectin and amylose. The pectic polysaccharide fractions were identified to be arabinogalactan, type-I rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan-type pectin by high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Structural and lymphocyte proliferation activity results showed that these polysaccharides were different from those extracted by hot water, indicating that ginseng contains complex polysaccharides with diverse structures, which results in its diverse pharmacological activities. The α-amylase-assisted extraction is a novel method for preparing ginseng polysaccharides and could be applied toward the further study and exploration of ginseng. These findings provide technical and theoretical support for ginseng pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Throughput Sequencing and Characterization of the Small RNA Transcriptome Reveal Features of Novel and Conserved MicroRNAs in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yimian; Yuan, Lichai; Lu, Shanfa

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in many organisms through direct cleavage of transcripts, translational repression, or chromatin modification. Identification of miRNAs has been carried out in various plant species. However, no information is available for miRNAs from Panax ginseng, an economically significant medicinal plant species. Using the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, we obtained 13,326,328 small RNA reads from the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of P. ginseng. Analysis of these small RNAs revealed the existence of a large, diverse and highly complicated small RNA population in P. ginseng. We identified 73 conserved miRNAs, which could be grouped into 33 families, and 28 non-conserved ones belonging to 9 families. Characterization of P. ginseng miRNA precursors revealed many features, such as production of two miRNAs from distinct regions of a precursor, clusters of two precursors in a transcript, and generation of miRNAs from both sense and antisense transcripts. It suggests the complexity of miRNA production in P. gingseng. Using a computational approach, we predicted for the conserved and non-conserved miRNA families 99 and 31 target genes, respectively, of which eight were experimentally validated. Among all predicted targets, only about 20% are conserved among various plant species, whereas the others appear to be non-conserved, indicating the diversity of miRNA functions. Consistently, many miRNAs exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we identified five dehydration- and ten heat-responsive miRNAs and found the existence of a crosstalk among some of the stress-responsive miRNAs. Our results provide the first clue to the elucidation of miRNA functions in P. ginseng. PMID:22962612

  18. American Ginseng in Treating Patients With Fatigue Caused by Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Fatigue; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Precancerous Condition; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Studies on safety and efficiency of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Wo; Kim, Suc Won; Yang, Jae Seong; Yoo, Young Soo; Jin, Joon Ha; Park, Soon Chul

    1991-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the biological quality improvement and preservation of white ginseng which has problems in a hygienic quality and storage stability. The current phosphine treatment showed no influence on microorganisms contaminated even though it was very useful for disinfestation of the sample, while 5 kGy irradiation effectively controlled the biological quality of the stored sample, with minimal effects on the quality parameters of white ginseng. Thus, it is concluded that gamma irradiation at a range of 5 kGy can be an alternative method of chemical fumigants provided air-tight packaging excluding recontamination is used for the stored product. (Author)

  20. Development of puffed ginseng-rice snack from ginseng powder and map rice flour using steam and compression process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Shin, Cha-Gyun

    2013-04-01

    A new manufacturing method for producing a puffed ginseng-rice snack (PGRS) was developed using ginseng powder and map rice flour through a steam and compression process (SCP). The physical and sensory properties of the PGRS were characterized. The pellets for puffing were prepared from ginseng powder and map rice flour. The pellets were subjected to 16, 18, and 20% moisture contents and were puffed at 225, 235, and 245° C. The specific volumes of the PGRSs increased with heating temperature and moisture content. However, the breaking strength of the PGRSs decreased. In addition, the SCP imposed special features in the PGRSs that made them more acceptable. The Hunter L-value increased with heating temperature and moisture content. These results indicate that a PGRS with functional additives could be effectively developed into a functional food with the use of a puffing machine, and that the PGRS shows potential as a new snack product.

  1. Integrated evaluation of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in fresh and processed ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Fan, Yong; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Alolga, Raphael N; Li, Ping; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-03-25

    Many analytical methods have been developed to characterize ginsenosides in ginseng. Relatively less attention has been paid to the malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in various processing ginsengs. In this study, malonyl ginsenosides were characterized by LC-Q-TOF/MS. In positive mode, the most abundant ions at m/z 425.38 were observed corresponding to the protopanoxadiol-type ginsenosides. A rich diagnostic ion at 835.48 was shown representing the malonyl ginsenosides with at least two glucosides. Twelve malonyl ginsenosides were rapidly screened using 835.48-835.49 to restructure ion chromatograms. In negative mode, besides the high deprotonated ion, a neutral loss of 44 Da (CO2) was found. High-energy collision-induced dissociation at 50 V produced the most abundant product ion [M-H-malonyl](-) by a neutral loss of 86 Da. Determination of 17 common amino acids was performed on an automatic amino acid analyzer. Arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were abundant. The contents of amino acids were 9.1% in fresh ginseng and 3.1% in black ginseng. Phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to analysis of polysaccharides. The contents of polysaccharides were 29.1% in fresh ginseng and 11.1% in black ginseng. The optimal growth age for the accumulation of constituents was supposed to be 5-6 years. In conclusion, the contents of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids, and polysaccharides, based on decreasing order, ranked as follows: fresh ginseng>frozen ginseng>white ginseng>stoved ginseng>red ginseng>black ginseng. Processing should be paid more attention for the quality control of ginseng products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of Ginseng by In Vitro Culture: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Panax belongs to the taxonomic family Araliaceae and consists of many species that are commonly referred to as ginseng. The plants are perennial herbs that grow mostly in the wild and only a few are cultivated. Geographically, they are mainly distributed in North America and North East Asi...

  3. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginsenosides (G) are biologically active saponin compounds found inPanax ginseng. Although these compounds are reported to possess numerous biological activities, recent issues have arisen regarding their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory roles in inflammatory cells. This is because 1) inflammation, ...

  5. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pg4) from white ginseng was checked using an electronic tongue. The bitterness and aftertaste-B of Pg3 were perceived as significantly higher than those of the other subfractions. The sourness of Pg2 had the highest rating compared to that of the other subfractions. The umami of Pg4 was higher than that of the other ...

  6. Isoconiferoside, a New Phenolic Glucoside from Seeds of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Young Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic glucoside, isoconiferoside (1, was isolated from the seeds of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae. The structure was determined to be 9-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-coniferyl alcohol based on spectroscopic analyses (1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC and acid hydrolysis.

  7. Panax ginseng exerts antiproliferative effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyemee; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Tae Myoung; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Choi, Haymie

    2013-09-01

    It has been proposed that ginseng has chemopreventive effects against several types of cancer in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive activities of fresh ginseng against hepatocarcinogenesis have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we hypothesized that these ginseng species may prevent hepatocarcinogenesis but that the chemopreventive mechanisms may differ by species. To determine the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of 3 different types of fresh ginseng on hepatocarcinogenesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with diethylnitrosamine and fed diets containing 2% Panax japonicus CA Meyer (JN), P. quinquefolius L (QQ), or P. ginseng CA Meyer (GS) for 10 weeks. Glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P)-positive foci, a stable marker for rat hepatocarcinogenesis, were shown in all carcinogen-injected rats; but only the GS diet significantly reduced the area and number (62% and 68%, respectively; P < .05) of GST-P-positive foci compared with the diethylnitrosamine control group. In addition, the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes in the GST-P-positive area was significantly decreased in the GS group but not in the JN or QQ groups. Using cDNA microarray analyses to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we observed that the p53 signaling pathway was altered by the GS diet and that the expression of Cyclin D1, Cyclin G1, Cdc2a, and Igf-1, which are involved in the p53 signaling pathway, was downregulated by the GS diet. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that GS, but not JN or QQ, induces cell cycle arrest in hepatocarcinogenesis. This study suggests that fresh GS has potential chemopreventive effects and may prove to be a therapeutic agent against hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2013.

  8. The Perception of Ginseng in England and America, 1600-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heasim SUL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to redress serious imbalances in the research on ginseng. Most accounts of ginseng treat it as an exclusively East Asian commodity, and are dominated by the natural sciences. Ginseng, however, was much discussed in England and America in the early modern period: the discussion encompassed not only botanical and medical interests, but also discourses on the commercial marketability of ginseng; ginseng was also an item that embodied European prejudices, symbolizing perceived ‘differences’ between the West and East. As such, ginseng was an ‘indigenous’ item of ‘the East’ that was much discussed in ‘the West’, but one that resisted assimilation into its systems of knowledge.

  9. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods: Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sul...

  10. Nigella Sativa and Panax Ginseng Supplementation Ameliorate Induced-Hyperlipidaemia in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El Arab, A.; El-Mahdy, A.A.; Abbas, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present work was conducted to study the effect of ginseng powder, ginseng oil, Nigella sativa seeds, Nigella sativa oil and combination of two oils on total cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin and some hormonal levels as testosterone. T3, T4 and serum glucose level in rats fed either normal chew or high fat diet. Nigella seed and oil, ginseng powder and oil and the combination of both oils decreased the highly level of cholesterol and triglycerides induced by fructose and high fat diet. The potent one was nigella seed. Nigella seed, Ginseng powder in addition to nigella and ginseng oils treatment ameliorate adiponectin suppression induced by high fat diet. Rats fed normal diet supplied with nigella oil, ginseng oil and both oils show a highly significant decrease in adiponectin level. Although nigella seed, nigella oil and the mixture of nigella and ginseng oils restored the hyperglycemia resulting from fructose administration to the normal level, but ginseng powder failed to affect this hyperglycemia. High fat diet increased T3 and T4 levels, nigella oil and ginseng powder treatment reduced T3 level, however nigella seed restored T4 level. Regarding the testosterone hormone, there was a significant increase in all hyperlipidaemic group that received ginseng and nigella compared to positive control.Ginseng powder increased testosterone in rats fed normal diet. In conclusion, administration of nigella and ginseng ameliorate the harmful changes in lipids and hormonal parameter induced by high fat diet. As in lowering blood lipids, improving adiponectin level and regulating the body basal metabolic rates by controlling thyroid hormones level as well as increase the testosterone level in hyperlipidaemic groups.

  11. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V

    1997-01-01

    improved bacterial clearance from the lungs (P mast cell numbers in the lung foci (P ... the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... against P. aeruginosa sonicate and a shift from an acute type to a chronic type of lung inflammation compared to those in the control and cortisone-treated groups were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng treatment of an experimental P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats promotes a cellular response...

  12. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V

    1997-01-01

    the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... resembling a TH1-like response. On the basis of these results it is suggested that ginseng may have the potential to be a promising natural medicine, in conjunction with other forms of treatment, for CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  13. [On Japanese Ginseng-Exports to Qing China during the Middle of the Meiji-Period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Deqin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Early Meiji Japan witnessed a boom in Japanese Ginseng exports, but the years between 1880 and 1886 brought a sharp decline. Previous research linked this recession to chaos in domestic production and by illegal imports of Korean Ginseng without presenting data about the actural fluctuation of Ginseng output. Moreover, as the biggest target market of Japanese Ginseng exportation, the situation in Qing, China should be included in any analysis. Based on statistical data collected in China and Japan, this study clarifies the reasons for the sharp decline during the early 1880s.

  14. Silence as the Root of American Indian Humor: Further Meditations on the Comic Vision of Anishinaabe Culture and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on humor generally focuses on the nature of incongruities as the root of humor. In this article, the author takes the examination of humor one step further by meditating on the mental frame involved with humor. He is interested in what cultural experiences would predispose the individuals within a given culture to have a sense of…

  15. Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ginseng, Pfaffia paniculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new nortriterpenoids pfaffine A and B (1-2) were isolated from the roots of Pfaffia paniculata Kuntze, along with ten known compounds including four ecdysteroids, ecdysone (3), 20-hydroxyecdysone (4), pterosterone (5), rapisterone (6), five triterpenoids, pfaffic acid (7), pfameric acid (8), me...

  16. Aluminium resistant, plant growth promoting bacteria induce overexpression of Aluminium stress related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and increase the ginseng tolerance against Aluminium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Singh, Priyanka; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media. Out of them, four strains (Pseudomonas simiae N3, Pseudomonas fragi N8, Chryseobacterium polytrichastri N10, and Burkholderia ginsengiterrae N11-2) were able to grow. The strains could also show other plant growth promoting activities e.g. auxins and siderophores production and phosphate solubilization. P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 strains were able to support the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana stressed by Al while P. fragi N8 could not. Plants inoculated with P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 showed higher expression level of Al-stress related genes, AtAIP, AtALS3 and AtALMT1, compared to non-bacterized plants. Expression profiles of the genes reveal the induction of external mechanism of Al resistance by P. simiae N3 and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 and internal mechanism by C. polytrichastri N10. Korean ginseng seedlings treated with these strains showed higher biomass, particularly the foliar part, higher chlorophyll content than non-bacterized Al-stressed seedlings. According to the present results, these strains can be used in the future for the cultivation of ginseng in Al-persisted locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Effect of Ginseng Polysaccharides on Influenza Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae-Goon; Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Min-Kyung; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Quan, Fu-Shi; Song, Jae-Min; Wee, Jae Joon; Wang, Bao-Zhong; Cho, Young-Keol; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng polysaccharide has been known to have multiple immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether Panax ginseng polysaccharide (GP) would have a preventive effect on influenza infection. Administration of mice with GP prior to infection was found to confer a survival benefit against infection with H1N1 (A/PR/8/34) and H3N2 (A/Philippines/82) influenza viruses. Mice infected with the 2009 H1N1 virus suspended in GP solution showed moderately enhanced survival rates and lower levels of lung viral titers and the inflammatory cytokine (IL-6). Daily treatment of vaccinated mice with GP improved their survival against heterosubtypic lethal challenge. This study demonstrates the first evidence that GP can be used as a remedy against influenza viral infection. PMID:22442708

  18. New constituents triterpene ester and sugar derivatives from Panax ginseng Meyer and their evaluation of antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae, is a well-known herb and used in the old established system of Oriental remedy, especially in Japan, China and Korea. Four new compounds characterized as (cis- 7β,11α,19,21-tetra-O-decanoyl-18, 22β-dihydroxy-dammar-1-en-3-one (1, 3β,4α,12β-trihydroxystigmast-5-en-21-yl octadecan-9′,12′-dienoate (2, dammar-12, 24-dien-3α, 6β, 15α-triol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-L-arabinopyranoside (3 and dammar-24-en-3α, 6β, 16α, 20β-tetraol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-D-arabinopyranoside (4 were isolated and established from the ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the roots of P. ginseng. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data and chemical reactions. Natural compounds indicative a great reservoir of materials and compounds with evolved biological activity, including antioxidant. Compounds 1–4 were investigated in vitro for antioxidant potential using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the Nitric oxide (NO scavenging activity, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging actions, and the decision showed the compounds 3and 4 have probablyessential antioxidant properties than the compounds 1and 2 presented weak activity.

  19. In vitro effects of Panax ginseng in aristolochic acid-mediated renal tubulotoxicity: apoptosis versus regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunel, Valérian; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Nortier, Joëlle; Duez, Pierre; Stévigny, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to determine the effects of a Panax ginseng extract on aristolochic acid-mediated toxicity in HK-2 cells. A methanolic extract of ginseng (50 µg/mL) was able to reduce cell survival after treatment with 50 µM aristolochic acid for 24, 48, and 72 h, as evidenced by a resazurin reduction assay. This result was confirmed by a flow cytometric evaluation of apoptosis using annexin V-PI staining, and indicated higher apoptosis rates in cells treated with aristolochic acid and P. ginseng extract compared with aristolochic acid alone. However, P. ginseng extract by itself (5 and 50 µg/mL) increased the Ki-67 index, indicating an enhancement in cellular proliferation. Cell cycle analysis excluded a P. ginseng extract-mediated induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest such as the one typically observed with aristolochic acid. Finally, β-catenin acquisition was found to be accelerated when cells were treated with both doses of ginseng, suggesting that the epithelial phenotype of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells was maintained. Also, ginseng treatment (5 and 50 µg/mL) reduced the oxidative stress activity induced by aristolochic acid after 24 and 48 h. These results indicate that the ginseng extract has a protective activity towards the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species induced by aristolochic acid. However, the ginseng-mediated alleviation of oxidative stress did not correlate with a decrease but rather with an increase in aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and death. This deleterious herb-herb interaction could worsen aristolochic acid tubulotoxicity and reinforce the severity and duration of the injury. Nevertheless, increased cellular proliferation and migration, along with the improvement in the epithelial phenotype maintenance, indicate that ginseng could be useful for improving tubular regeneration and the recovery following drug-induced kidney injury. Such dual activities of ginseng certainly warrant further in vivo

  20. Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ick Hyun; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Dong Hwi; Kim, Kee Hong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Ryu, Hojin; Bang, Kyong Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  1. Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick Hyun Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  2. Ginseng phytochemicals as therapeutics in oncology: Recent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Fatima; Malik, Fozia Zahur; Ahmed, Zaheer; Afreen, Asma; Afzal, Muhammad Naveed; Khalid, Nauman

    2018-04-01

    During the last few decades, cancer has mushroomed as a major health issue; and almost all drugs used for its therapy are very toxic with lethal side effects. Complementary and alternative medicines gain popularity among health professionals in recent era owing to its preventive mechanism against side effect chemotherapeutic drugs. Efforts are focused by scientists to isolate compounds from medicinal plant that have chemotherapeutic attributes; and ability to neutralize the side effects of chemotherapy. Ginseng is an oriental medicinal recipe from Araliceae family and Panax species. The chemotherapeutic effect of ginsenoside is resultant of its appetites, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The anticancer effect of ginseng is proven in various types of cancer, including; breast, lung, liver, colon and skin cancer. It increases the mitochondrial accumulation of apoptosis protein and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein. It also aids in the reduction of alopecia, fatigue and nausea, the known side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of the present review is to provide the brief review of the recent researches related to mechanism of action of ginseng in different types of cancer as complementary and alternative medicine on different body organs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-Young; Park, Kang-Gyun; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Current studies of Panax ginseng (or Korean ginseng) have demonstrated that it has various biological effects, including angiogenesis, immunostimulation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we hypothesised that P. ginseng may also play an important role in wound healing. However, few studies have been conducted on the wound-healing effects of P. ginseng. Thus, the purpose of this in vitro pilot study was to determine the effects of P. ginseng on the activities of fibroblasts, which are key wound-healing cells. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were treated with one of six concentrations of P. ginseng: 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml and 1 and 10 µg/ml. Cell proliferation was determined 3 days post-treatment using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and collagen synthesis was evaluated by the collagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide method. Cell proliferation levels and collagen synthesis were compared among the groups. The 10 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml P. ginseng treatments significantly increased cell proliferation, and the 1 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml concentrations significantly increased collagen synthesis. The maximum effects for both parameters were observed at 10 ng/ml. P. ginseng stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis at an optimal concentration of 10 ng/ml. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may…

  6. Protective effect of Panax ginseng in cisplatin-induced cachexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobina, Carla; Carai, Mauro A M; Loi, Barbara; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Cabri, Walter; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of a standardized extract of Panax ginseng on multiple cisplatin-induced 'sickness behaviors' (model of cancer-induced cachexia) in rats. Cisplatin was administered twice weekly (1-2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) for 5 consecutive weeks. Panax ginseng extract (0, 25 and 50 mg/kg, intragastric) was administered daily over the 5-week period of cisplatin exposure. Malaise, bodyweight and temperature, pain sensitivity, and endurance running were recorded at baseline and at 5 weekly intervals. Treatment with cisplatin produced severe signs of malaise, marked loss of bodyweight, hypothermia, hyperalgesia and reduction in running time. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract completely prevented all cisplatin-induced alterations. These data indicate that treatment with Panax ginseng extract exerted a protective effect in a rat model of cachexia and suggest that Panax ginseng extract may be a therapeutic promising tool for supportive care in oncology.

  7. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-15

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small.

  8. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-01

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small

  9. Efficacy of Compound Therapy by Ginseng and Ciprofloxacin on Bacterial Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Maryam; Shokri, Saeid; Darabi, Shahram; Alipour Heidari, Mahmood; Ghalyanchi, Akhgar; Karimfar, Mohammad Hassan; Shirazi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tract infections play a significant role in male infertility. Infections of reproductive sex glands, such as the prostate, impair function and indirectly affect male fertility. The general aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on prostatitis in male rats treated with ciprofloxacin (CIPX). In this experimental study, we randomly divided 72 two male Wistar rats into 9 groups. The groups were treated as follows for 10 days: i. Control (no medication), ii. Sham [(normal saline injection into the vas deferens and oral administration of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)], iii. Ginseng, iv. CPIX, v. CIPX+ginseng, vi. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (UPEC), vii. UPEC+ginseng, viii. UPEC+CIPX, and ix. UPEC+ginseng+CIPX. The rats were killed 14 days after the last injection and the prostate glands were removed. After sample preparation, routine histology was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method was used to determine the presence of apoptotic cells. The severity score for acinar changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the UPEC+CIPX group did not significantly different from the UPEC group. However this score significantly decreased in the UPEC+CIPX+ginseng group compared to the UPEC group. Apoptotic index of all ginseng treated groups significantly decreased compared to the UPEC and CPIX groups. These results suggested that ginseng might be an effective adjunct in CIPX treatment of prostatitis. The combined use ginseng and CIPX was more effective than ginseng or CIPX alone.

  10. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  11. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  12. Ginseng for health care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Korean literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiae Choi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This systematic review was performed to summarise randomised clinical trials (RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of ginseng in the Korean literature. METHOD: The study involved systematic searches conducted in eight Korean Medical databases. The methodological quality of all of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We included all RCTs on any type of ginseng compared to placebo, active treatment or no treatment in healthy individuals or patients regardless of conditions. RESULTS: In total, 1415 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 30 randomised clinical trials were included. Nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng on exercise capacity, cognitive performance, somatic symptoms, quality of life, and sleeping in healthy persons. Six RCTs tested ginseng compared with placebo for erectile dysfunction, while another four studies evaluated the effects of ginseng against no treatment for gastric and colon cancer. Two RCTs compared the effect of red ginseng on diabetes mellitus with no treatment or placebo, and the other nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng compared with placebo or no treatment on various conditions. The methodological caveats of the included trials make their contribution to the current clinical evidence of ginseng somewhat limited. However, the 20 newly added trials (66.7% of the 30 trials may provide useful information for future trials. Ginseng appears to be generally safe, and no serious adverse effects have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of ginseng have been tested in a wide range of conditions in Korea. Although the quality of RCTs published in the Korean literature was generally poor, this review is useful for researchers to access studies that were originally published in languages that they would otherwise be unable to read and due to the paucity of evidence on this subject.

  13. Major repeat components covering one-third of the ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) genome and evidence for allotetraploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong-Il; Waminal, Nomar E; Park, Hye Mi; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Beom Soon; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Kim, Hyun Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a famous medicinal herb, but the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown. Here we characterized the major repeat components and inspected their distribution in the ginseng genome. By analyzing three repeat-rich bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences from ginseng, we identified complex insertion patterns of 34 long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) and 11 LTR-RT derivatives accounting for more than 80% of the BAC sequences. The LTR-RTs were classified into three Ty3/gypsy (PgDel, PgTat and PgAthila) and two Ty1/Copia (PgTork and PgOryco) families. Mapping of 30-Gbp Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads to the BAC sequences revealed that these five LTR-RT families occupy at least 34% of the ginseng genome. The Ty3/Gypsy families were predominant, comprising 74 and 33% of the BAC sequences and the genome, respectively. In particular, the PgDel family accounted for 29% of the genome and presumably played major roles in enlargement of the size of the ginseng genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the PgDel1 elements are distributed throughout the chromosomes along dispersed heterochromatic regions except for ribosomal DNA blocks. The intensity of the PgDel2 FISH signals was biased toward 24 out of 48 chromosomes. Unique gene probes showed two pairs of signals with different locations, one pair in subtelomeric regions on PgDel2-rich chromosomes and the other in interstitial regions on PgDel2-poor chromosomes, demonstrating allotetraploidy in ginseng. Our findings promote understanding of the evolution of the ginseng genome and of that of related species in the Araliaceae. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. "Connecting to My Roots": Filipino American Students' Language Experiences in the U.S. and in the Heritage Language Class

    OpenAIRE

    Angeles, Bianca C.

    2015-01-01

    Filipinos are one of the biggest minority populations in California, yet there are limited opportunities to learn the Filipino language in public schools. Further, schools are not able to nurture students’ heritage languages because of increased emphasis on English-only proficiency. The availability of heritage language classes at the university level – while scarce – therefore becomes an important space for Filipino American students to (re)learn and (re)discover their language and identity....

  15. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  16. Large-Scale Plantlet Conversion and Ex Vitro Transplantation Efficiency of Siberian Ginseng by Bioreactor Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve large-scale low-cost ex vitro acclimatization of Siberian ginseng plants, heart- and torpedo-shaped secondary somatic embryos (SEs induced from germinated SEs on agar medium were collected and then inoculated to 10-l bubble column bioreactor, respectively. For plantlet conversion, inoculation of torpedo-shaped secondary SEs was more effective than heart-shaped SEs. TS2 (culture of torpedo-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval plantlets had a higher root number and leaf number and larger leaf area than did HS3 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 3-week subculture interval and HS2 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval plantlets. Of these converted plants, TS2 plantlets had higher survival rate (83.7% and growth characteristics after transplantation in a simple shed covered with a 50% sunshade net only for 6 months. TS2 plantlets also showed significantly lower H2O2 content and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and glutathione transferase (GST expression levels as compared to HS2 plants when exposure to ex vitro conditions.

  17. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, Micha, E-mail: micha.horacek@ait.ac.at [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1 Shinwol-7dong, Yangcheon-ku, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-12-03

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed {delta}{sup 2}H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for {delta}{sup 13}C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for {delta}{sup 15}N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave {delta}{sup 2}H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , {delta}{sup 13}C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and {delta}{sup 15}N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in {delta}{sup 2}H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  18. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  19. Implications of red Panax ginseng in oxidative stress associated chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Mi Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The steaming process of Panax ginseng has been reported to increase its major known bioactive components, ginsenosides, and, therefore, its biological properties as compared to regular Panax ginseng. Biological functions of red Panax ginseng attenuating pro-oxidant environments associated with chronic diseases are of particular interest, since oxidative stress can be a key contributor to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Additionally, proper utilization of various biomarkers for evaluating antioxidant activities in natural products, such as ginseng, can also be important to providing validity to their activities. Thus, studies on the effects of red ginseng against various diseases as determined in cell lines, animal models, and humans were reviewed, along with applied biomarkers for verifying such effects. Limitations and future considerations of studying red ginseng were been discussed. Although further clinical studies are warranted, red ginseng appears to be beneficial for attenuating disease-associated symptoms via its antioxidant activities, as well as for preventing oxidative stress-associated chronic diseases.

  20. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Micha; Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Soja, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed δ 2 H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for δ 13 C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for δ 15 N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave δ 2 H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , δ 13 C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and δ 15 N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in δ 2 H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  1. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Historical study of the research of Korean Ginseng by Japanese and Korean doctors in eighteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liang, Yongxuan

    2015-07-01

    In the eighteenth Century, Korean envoys and Japanese doctors did a lot of conversation on Korean ginseng, the content of which were arranged as books later by Japanese. Through 5 collections of those books, it is found that the contents of those conversations are focused mainly on 3 aspects, viz., the name and the quality of the Korean ginseng, processing method and cultivation conditions. Those records not only reflect the condition of Japanese doctors truly and actually getting the knowledge of Korean ginseng, but also provide precious historical data to the research on the history of Japan and Korea medical communication in the Edo period.

  4. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  5. Achromobacter panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-06-01

    A novel strain DCY105 T was isolated from soil collected from the rhizosphere of ginseng (Panax ginseng), in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY105 T is Gram-reaction-negative, white, non-motile, non-flagellate, rod-shaped and aerobic. The bacteria grow optimally at 30°C, pH 6.5-7.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetically, strain DCY105 T is most closely related to Achromobacter marplatensis LMG 26219 T (96.81%). The DNA G+C content of strain DCY105 T was 64.4 mol%. Ubiquinone 8 was the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol were amongst the major polar lipids. C 16:00 , C 8:0 3OH and iso-C 17:0 3OH were identified as the major fatty acids present in DCY105 T . The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY105 T to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Achromobacter. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Achromobacter panacis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY105 T (=CCTCCAB 2015193 T =KCTC 42751 T ).

  6. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  7. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  8. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

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    Tae Ho Chung

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends, which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact.

  9. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

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    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  10. A brief method for preparation of gintonin-enriched fraction from ginseng

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    Sun-Hye Choi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Because GEF can be prepared through water precipitation of ginseng ethanol extract and is easily reproducible with high yield, it could be commercially utilized for the development of gintonin-derived functional health food and natural medicine.

  11. Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of milk supplemented with red ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J E; Yoon, H J; Yu, H S; Lee, N-K; Jee, H-S; Paik, H-D

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) on the physicochemical properties, sensory test, and antioxidant activity of milk. The milk samples with RGE added at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% were analyzed during storage at 4°C. The physicochemical properties included composition of milk, pH, titratable acidity, and color. The antioxidant activity of milk samples was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, β-carotene bleaching assay, and ferric thiocyanate assay. An increase in the amount of RGE in milk resulted in an increase of lactose and total solids content, titratable acidity, and a* and b* values, whereas fat and protein contents remained unchanged. Also, pH and L* value decreased. The antioxidant activity of milk samples supplemented with RGE was higher than that of the control sample. Sensory evaluation was performed using a quantitative descriptive analysis. Two types of samples were used: (1) sterilized milk fortified with RGE (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) and (2) 2% RGE, 2% RGE with oligosaccharide, and 2% RGE with oligosaccharide and cyclodextrin. The addition of oligosaccharide and cyclodextrin could effect an increase of sweetness, a decrease of bitterness and flavor of RGE, and aftertaste. Therefore, milk supplemented with RGE could be useful as a functional food. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Converting Panax ginseng DNA and chemical fingerprints into two-dimensional barcode

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    Yong Cai

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2 sequence code can form a QR code after data processing, and therefore the QR code can be a perfect carrier of the authenticity and quality of P. ginseng information. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of a quality traceability system of traditional Chinese medicine based on a two-dimensional code.

  13. Systems-level mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng: a network pharmacological approach

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    Sa-Yoon Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng, it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases. In order to decipher the systems-level mechanism of multiple ingredients of P. ginseng, a novel approach is needed beyond conventional reductive analysis. We aim to review the systems-level mechanism of P. ginseng by adopting novel analytical framework–network pharmacology. Here, we constructed a compound-target network of P. ginseng using experimentally validated and machine learning-based prediction results. The targets of the network were analyzed in terms of related biological process, pathways, and diseases. The majority of targets were found to be related with primary metabolic process, signal transduction, nitrogen compound metabolic process, blood circulation, immune system process, cell-cell signaling, biosynthetic process, and neurological system process. In pathway enrichment analysis of targets, mainly the terms related with neural activity showed significant enrichment and formed a cluster. Finally, relative degrees analysis for the target-disease association of P. ginseng revealed several categories of related diseases, including respiratory, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Ok; Park, Hae Ran; Sohn, Eun Suk; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyung Don; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Kee Hong; Na, Sae Won; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Young Ock

    2014-11-24

    Panax ginseng is a famous traditional medicine in Korea for its beneficial effect on obesity, cardiac and liver associated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolite in Panax ginseng (P. ginseng, Aralicaceae) berries depending on the ripen stages and evaluate its potential inhibition on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells. Different ripening stage samples of P. ginseng berry were analyzed through global metabolite profiling by NMR spectroscopy. Lipid accumulation in the cells was analyzed by Oil Red O staining. The PLS-DA clearly distinguished P. ginseng berry extract (PGBE) according to the partial ripe (PR), ripe(R) and fully ripe (FR) stage. Lipid accumulation of PGBE was examined by measuring triglyceride content and Oil-Red O staining. These results suggested that the FR stage of PGBE decrease in lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation and the amount of threonine, asparagine, fumarate, tyraine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine increased with longer ripening of ginseng berries. Metabolite profiling of P. ginseng was identified by 1H NMR spectra. P. ginseng extract efficiently inhibits adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes concluded that the P. ginseng has the antiobesity properties.

  15. Effects of ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

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    Seungyeop Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases. Recent findings have revealed that ginseng is involved in adjusting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and controlling hormones, thus producing beneficial effects on the heart and brain, and in cases of bone diseases, as well as alleviating erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have highlighted the potential use of ginseng in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of ginseng on these stress-related diseases has not been completely established. In this review, we focus on the disease pathways caused by stress in order to determine how ginseng acts to improve health. Central to our discussion is how this effective and stable therapeutic agent alleviates the anxiety and depression caused by stress and ameliorates inflammatory diseases.

  16. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

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    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  17. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-06-22

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  18. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  19. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2-4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1-3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact.

  20. A review on the medicinal potentials of ginseng and ginsenosides on cardiovascular diseases

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    Chang Ho Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng is widely used for its promising healing and restorative properties as well as for its possible tonic effect in traditional medicine. Nowadays, many studies focus on purified individual ginsenoside, an important constituent in ginseng, and study its specific mechanism of action instead of whole-plant extracts on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Of the various ginsenosides, purified ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd are the most frequently studied. Although there are many reports on the molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of CVDs, many concerns exist in their application. This review discusses current works on the countless pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in the area of CVDs. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that ginseng has potentially positive effects on heart disease through its various properties including antioxidation, reduced platelet adhesion, vasomotor regulation, improving lipid profiles, and influencing various ion channels. To date, approximately 40 ginsenosides have been identified, and each has a different mechanism of action owing to the differences in chemical structure. This review aims to present comprehensive information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of ginseng, especially in the control of hypertension and cardiovascular function. In addition, the review also provides an insight into the opportunities for future research and development on the biological activities of ginseng.

  1. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

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    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  2. Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Nawab John; Hamid, Abid; Ahmad, Muzamil

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera, also called 'Indian ginseng', is an important medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used, singly or in combination, with other herbs against many ailments in Indian Systems of Medicine since time immemorial. Withania somnifera contains a spectrum of diverse phytochemicals enabling it to have a broad range of biological implications. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic properties. Additionally, it has demonstrated the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, modulate mitochondrial function, regulate apoptosis, and reduce inflammation and enhance endothelial function. In view of these pharmacologic properties, W. somnifera is a potential drug candidate to treat various clinical conditions, particularly related to the nervous system. In this review, we summarize the pharmacologic characteristics and discuss the mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications of the plant and its active constituents.

  3. Ginsenoside Rc from Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Attenuates Inflammatory Symptoms of Gastritis, Hepatitis and Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Rhee, Man Hee; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Yang, Yanyan; Kim, Han Gyung; Kim, Yong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an herbal medicine prescribed worldwide that is prepared from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). Out of ginseng's various components, ginsenosides are regarded as the major ingredients, exhibiting anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Although recent studies have focused on understanding the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG, compounds that are major anti-inflammatory components, precisely how these can suppress various inflammatory processes has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to identify inhibitory saponins, to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the saponins, and to understand the inhibitory mechanisms. To do this, we employed in vitro lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages and in vivo inflammatory mouse conditions, such as collagen (type II)-induced arthritis (CIA), EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis. Molecular mechanisms were also verified by real-time PCR, immunoblotting analysis, and reporter gene assays. Out of all the ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) showed the highest inhibitory activity against the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], and interferons (IFNs). Similarly, this compound attenuated inflammatory symptoms in CIA, EtOH/HCl-mediated gastritis, and LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis without altering toxicological parameters, and without inducing gastric irritation. These anti-inflammatory effects were accompanied by the suppression of TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6 production and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in mice with CIA. G-Rc also attenuated the increased levels of luciferase activity by IRF-3 and AP-1 but not NF-[Formula: see text]B. In support of this phenomenon, G-Rc reduced TBK1, IRF-3, and ATF2 phosphorylation in the joint and liver tissues of mice with hepatitis. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that

  4. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

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    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  5. Preparation and quality assessment of high-purity ginseng total saponins by ion exchange resin combined with macroporous adsorption resin separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Nan; Wang, Zhong-Li; Dai, Jian-Guo; Chen, Lin; Huang, Yu-Fang

    2014-05-01

    To prepare high-purity ginseng total saponins from a water decoction of Chinese ginseng root. Total saponins were efficiently purified by dynamic anion-cation exchange following the removal of hydrophilic impurities by macroporous resin D101. For quality control, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with a charged aerosol detector (CAD) was applied to quantify marker components. The total saponin content was estimated by a colorimetric method using a vanillin-vitriol system and CAD response. D201, which consisted of a cross-linked polystyrene matrix and -N(+)(CH3)3 functional groups, was the best of the four anion exchange resins tested. However, no significant difference in cation exchange ability was observed between D001 (strong acid) and D113 (weak acid), although they have different functional groups and matrices. After purification in combination with D101, D201, and D113, the estimated contents of total saponins were 107% and 90% according to the colorimetric method and CAD response, respectively. The total amount of representative ginsenosides Re, Rd, Rg1, and compound K was approximately 22% based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-CAD quantitative analysis. These findings suggest that an ion exchange resin, combined with macroporous adsorption resin separation, is a promising and feasible purification procedure for neutral natural polar components. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Red ginseng powder fermented with probiotics exerts antidiabetic effects in the streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Kim, Sae-Hae; Choi, Kyung-Min; Ko, Eun-Sil; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Lee, Young-Ran; Jang, Hyonseok; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2017-12-01

    Red ginseng (heat-processed Panax ginseng) is a well-known alternative medicine with pharmacological antidiabetic activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by the intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal conditions and intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of orally administered red ginseng likely may vary among individuals. To overcome this variation and produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we evaluated the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in a mouse model. The antidiabetic efficacy of orally administered probiotic-fermented red ginseng was assessed in ICR mice after induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (170 mg/kg body weight). Samples were given orally for 8 weeks, and indicators involved in diabetic disorders such as body weight change, water intake, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and various biochemical parameters were determined. Oral administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng significantly decreased the level of blood glucose of about 62.5% in the fasting state and induced a significant increase in glucose tolerance of about 10.2% compared to the control diabetic mice. Additionally, various indicators of diabetes and biochemical data (e.g., blood glycosylated haemoglobin level, serum concentrations of insulin, and α-amylase activity) showed a significant improvement in the diabetic conditions of the mice treated with probiotic-fermented red ginseng in comparison with those of control diabetic mice. Our results demonstrate the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in the streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model and suggest that probiotic-fermented red ginseng may be a uniformly effective red ginseng product.

  7. Nontargeted metabolomics approach for the differentiation of cultivation ages of mountain cultivated ginseng leaves using UHPLC/QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiangwei; Zhang, Juanjuan; Li, Dekun; Zhou, Dazheng; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jincheng; Hu, Bing; Ju, Aichun; Ye, Zhengliang

    2017-07-15

    The adulteration or falsification of the cultivation age of mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG) has been a serious problem in the commercial MCG market. To develop an efficient discrimination tool for the cultivation age and to explore potential age-dependent markers, an optimized ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied in the global metabolite profiling of 156 MCG leaf (MGL) samples aged from 6 to 18 years. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to compare the derived patterns between MGL samples of different cultivation ages. The present study demonstrated that 6-18-year-old MGL samples can be successfully discriminated using two simple successive steps, together with four PLS-DA discrimination models. Furthermore, 39 robust age-dependent markers enabling differentiation among the 6-18-year-old MGL samples were discovered. The results were validated by a permutation test and an external test set to verify the predictability and reliability of the established discrimination models. More importantly, without destroying the MCG roots, the proposed approach could also be applied to discriminate MCG root ages indirectly, using a minimum amount of homophyletic MGL samples combined with the established four PLS-DA models and identified markers. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which 6-18-year-old MCG root ages have been nondestructively differentiated by analyzing homophyletic MGL samples using UHPLC/QTOF-MS analysis and two simple successive steps together with four PLS-DA models. The method developed in this study can be used as a standard protocol for discriminating and predicting MGL ages directly and homophyletic MCG root ages indirectly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of mountain-cultivated ginseng and cultivated ginseng using UPLC/oa-TOF MSE with a multivariate statistical sample-profiling strategy

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    Xin-fang Xu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first time that the differences between CG and MCG have been observed systematically at the chemical level. Our results suggested that using the identified characteristic components as chemical markers to identify different ginseng products is effective and viable.

  9. Development of a single-nucleotide-polymorphism marker for specific authentication of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer new cultivar “G-1”

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    Dong-Uk Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The results from our study shows that this SNP-based approach to identify the G-1 cultivar will be a good way to distinguish accurately the G-1 cultivar and P. quinquefolius from other Korean ginseng cultivars using a SNP at 45S ribosomal DNA region.

  10. A multianalytical approach for determining the geographical origin of ginseng using strontium isotopes, multielements, and 1H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A-Reum; Gautam, Mukesh; Kim, Jahan; Shin, Woo-Jin; Choi, Man-Sik; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2011-08-24

    Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is widely used as an Oriental medicine in the East Asian regions, particularly Korea and China. In the study, the strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr), multielements, and metabolite profiles of 35 ginseng samples collected from Korea and China were examined in an attempt to develop a method to distinguish the origin of ginsengs from the two countries. A multivariate statistical approach was performed to analyze the multielements and the (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data. Results of a t-test for Mg, Fe, Al, and Sc showed significant variation between Korean and Chinese ginsengs, indicating potential tracers for discriminating them. Discriminating between the ginsengs from the two countries was generally successful when both the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios and rare earth element (REE) contents were used together. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) derived from the (1)H NMR data revealed a significant separation between the ginsengs originating from the two countries. The major metabolites responsible for differentiation were sugars such as glucose, xylose, and sucrose. The results suggest that this multiplatform approach offers a comprehensive method to distinguish the origin of ginsengs.

  11. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  12. Therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng and ginsenosides in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, J L; Di, Y M; Zhang, A L; Vlahos, R; Helliwell, R; Ye, J M; Xue, C C

    2014-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health burden and will become the third largest cause of death in the world by 2030. It is currently believed that an exaggerated inflammatory response to inhaled irritants, in particular cigarette smoke, cause progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, airways fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. COPD responds poorly to current anti-inflammatory treatments including corticosteroids, which produce little or no benefit. Panax ginseng has a long history of use in Chinese medicine for respiratory conditions, including asthma and COPD. In this perspective we consider the therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng for the treatment of COPD. Panax ginseng and its compounds, ginsenosides, have reported effects through multiple mechanisms but primarily have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Ginsenosides are functional ligands of glucocorticoid receptors and appear to inhibit kinase phosphorylation including MAPK and ERK1/2, NF-κB transcription factor induction/translocation, and DNA binding. They also inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, ROS, and proteases such as MMP-9. Panax ginseng protects against oxidative stress by increasing anti-oxidative enzymes and reducing the production of oxidants. Given that Panax ginseng and ginsenosides appear to inhibit processes related to COPD pathogenesis, they represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of COPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil. PMID:27187071

  14. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Hwa; Kim, Do Rim; Kim, Ha Young; Park, Seong Kyu; Chang, Mun Seog

    2014-01-01

    The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression. PMID:24969054

  15. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  16. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hwa Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cation channel of sperm (CatSper protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.

  17. Effects of Complementary Combination Therapy of Korean Red Ginseng and Antiviral Agents in Chronic Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hwa; Yang, Keum-Jin; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis B management is commonly targeted at reducing viral replication. However, the currently available antiviral therapies are associated with some problems, including resistance and numerous adverse effects. Ginseng has been reported to be effective for treating viral infections such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus. However, there are currently few studies on the effects of ginseng in chronic hepatitis B. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ginseng together with antiviral agents in chronic hepatitis B. This was a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, and single-center study. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled. The control group (n = 19) was administered antiviral agents alone. The experimental group (n = 19) was administered antiviral agents along with Korean Red Ginseng powder capsules (each dose is 1 gram (two capsules), a one-day dose is 3 grams). The baseline characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Differences in several non-invasive fibrosis serologic markers (type IV collagen, hyaluronic acid, transforming growth factor-β) and in the hepatitis B virus DNA levels were compared between the groups. The non-invasive fibrosis serologic markers were further decreased in the experimental group, with significant differences after treatment observed for hyaluronic acid (p = 0.032) and transforming growth factor-β (p = 0.008), but not for type IV collagen (p = 0.174). This study suggests the possibility of Korean Red Ginseng as a complementary therapy for chronic hepatitis B.

  18. Effects of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Red Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Gil, Sun Kuk; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2012-01-01

    The effects of variable moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the physicochemical properties of red ginseng powder extrudates were investigated. The raw red ginseng powders were processed in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. Primary extrusion variables were feed moisture content (20 and 30%), screw speed (200 and 250 rpm) and barrel temperature (115 and 130°C). Extruded red ginseng showed higher crude saponin contents (6.72~7.18%) than raw red ginseng (5.50%). Tested extrusion conditions did not significantly affect the crude saponin content of extrudates. Increased feed moisture content resulted in increased bulk density, specific length, water absorption index (WAI), breaking strength, elastic modulus and crude protein content and decreased water solubility index (WSI) and expansion (p<0.05). Increased barrel temperature resulted in increased total sugar content, but decreased reducing sugar content in the extrudate (p<0.05). Furthermore, increased barrel temperature resulted in increased amino acid content and specific length and decreased expansion and bulk density of extrudates only at a higher feed moisture content. The physicochemical properties of extrudates were mainly dependent on the feed moisture content and barrel temperature, whereas the screw speed showed a lesser effect. These results will be used to help define optimized process conditions for controlling and predicting qualities and characteristics of extruded red ginseng. PMID:24471085

  19. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract on egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Shell thickness was calculated as the average of three measurements; taken at the equator, blunt edge and pointed edge of the egg without membrane using a calliper. The yolk colour was determined with a DSM (2013) yolk colour fan (DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Basel, Switzerland), which ranges from ...

  1. Production of saponins from Panax ginseng suspension and adventitious root cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2005), s. 463-465 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 843.10; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : suspension cultures * bioreactor * ginsenosides Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  2. Saponin production in root cultures of .I.Panax ginseng./I. C. A. Meyer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, Supl. 1 (2002), s. 333 ISSN 1576-0952. [Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research /50./. 08.09.2002-12.09.2002, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : saponin Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  3. Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Singh, Priyanka; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Lee, Hyun A; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated DCY106(T), was isolated from soil collected from the rhizosphere of ginseng (Panax ginseng), in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY106(T) is Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellate, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and strictly aerobic. The strain grows optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. Phylogenetically, strain DCY106(T) is closely related to Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans KCTC 22507(T) (98.41 %), followed by Flavobacterium cutihirudini LMG 26922(T) (97.67 %), Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens LMG 28694(T) (97.59 %), Flexibacter auranticus LMG 3987(T) (97.38 %), Flavobacterium defluvi KCTC 12612(T) (97.21 %) and Flavobacterium chilense LMG 26360(T) (97.05 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Flavobacterium species were below 97 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY106(T) is 34.2 mol% and the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY106(T) and F. cutihirudini LMG 26922(T), F. auranticus LMG 3987(T), F. defluvi KCTC 12612(T) and F. chilense LMG 26360(T) were below 40.0 %. The menaquinone of the type MK-6 was found to be the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unidentified aminolipids (APL1, APL6) and one unidentified lipid L2. C15:0, iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2OH/C16:1 ω7c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in DCY106(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY106(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY106(T) (= JCM 31468(T)= KCTC 42747(T)).

  4. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  5. [Effect of improving light intensity on physio-biochemistry of Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wu-lin; Song, Qi; Meng, Xiang-cai; Ma, Wei; Sun, Hui

    2014-09-01

    To provide the basis for improving ginseng production by exploring the difference of physio-biochemistry of Panax ginseng after increasing light intensity. Activities of superoxide dismutase( SOD), hydrogen peroxidase (CAT), and peroxydase (POD), as well as contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll a and b under full-light condition were compared with those in the shade in spring and autumn. Activity of three kinds of enzymes in the anti-oxidation system (SOD,CAT and POD) were 27.52%, 41.96% and 37.7% higher than the shade group, respectively. The content of MDA was 11.23% lower. There had no obvious difference on the content of chlorophyll a, but chlorophyll b was decreased slightly. Increasing the light intensity properly can improve the activities of enzyme protection system, and lower the content of MDA, which indicates that the increasing of light will provide a theoretic guide for high-production technique of Panax ginseng.

  6. Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

  7. Effect of single-dose Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Gregory S; McKeever, Rita G; Patel, Urvi; Okaneku, Jolene; Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng and Gingko biloba are commonly used herbal supplements in the United States that have been reported to increase alertness and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of these specific herbals on driving performance. 30 volunteers were tested using the STISIM3® Driving Simulator (Systems Technology Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups of 10 subjects per group. After 10-min of simulated driving, subjects received either ginseng (1200 mg), Gingko (240 mg), or placebo administered orally. The test herbals and placebo were randomized and administered by a research assistant outside of the study to maintain blinding. One hour following administration of the herbals or placebo, the subjects completed an additional 10-min of simulated driving. Standard driving parameters were studied including reaction time, standard deviation of lateral positioning, and divided attention. Data collected for the divided attention parameter included time to response and number of correct responses. The data was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). There was no difference in reaction time or standard deviation of lateral positioning for both the ginseng and Ginkgo arms. For the divided attention parameter, the response time in the Ginkgo arm decreased from 2.9 to 2.5 s. The ginseng arm also decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 s. None of these values were statistically significant when between group differences were analyzed. The data suggests there was no statistically significant difference between ginseng, Ginkgo or placebo on driving performance. We postulate this is due to the relatively small numbers in our study. Further study with a larger sample size may be needed in order to elucidate more fully the effects of Ginkgo and ginseng on driving ability.

  8. Phylogenomics and barcoding of Panax: toward the identification of ginseng species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla, V; Kool, A; Nguyen Nhat, L; Nong Van, H; Le Thi Thu, H; de Boer, H J

    2018-04-03

    The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. In this study, we use a full plastome phylogenomic framework to resolve relationships in Panax and to identify molecular markers for species discrimination. We used high-throughput sequencing of MBD2-Fc fractionated Panax DNA to supplement publicly available plastid genomes to create a phylogeny based on fully assembled and annotated plastid genomes from 60 accessions of 8 species. The plastome phylogeny based on a 163 kbp matrix resolves the sister relationship of Panax ginseng with P. quinquefolius. The closely related species P. vietnamensis is supported as sister of P. japonicus. The plastome matrix also shows that the markers trnC-rps16, trnS-trnG, and trnE-trnM could be used for unambiguous molecular identification of all the represented species in the genus. MBD2 depletion reduces the cost of plastome sequencing, which makes it a cost-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing based DNA barcoding for molecular identification. The plastome phylogeny provides a robust framework that can be used to study the evolution of morphological characters and biosynthesis pathways of ginsengosides for phylogenetic bioprospecting. Molecular identification of ginseng species is essential for authenticating ginseng in international trade and it provides an incentive for manufacturers to create authentic products with verified ingredients.

  9. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  10. Investigation of distribution of elements in a Korean ginseng by using a neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Na; Sun, Gwang Min; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The Distinction of production areas of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). This study was done as a part of those efforts. As is well known, the distribution of elements varies according to the part of plant due to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So a correlation study between plants and soil is an important issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  11. Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian ginseng) impairs acquisition and expression of ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference and conditioned place aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Liliana; Longoni, Rosanna; Rosas, Michela; Collu, Maria; Peana, Alessandra T; Espa, Elena; Kasture, Sanjay; Cotti, Elisabetta; Acquas, Elio

    2015-11-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian Ginseng) has recently been shown to impair ethanol self-administration. In order to gain further insights on the ability of the Withania somnifera standardised root extract (WSE) to affect the motivational properties of ethanol, this study investigated whether WSE may also affect ethanol (2 g/kg)-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). To this end male CD-1 mice were conditioned under two distinct schedules: in backward conditioning experiments ethanol was administered before mice were placed in the conditioning apparatus (CPP) while, in forward conditioning experiments, ethanol was administered immediately after removing mice from the apparatus (CPA). Following these schedules, mice developed significant CPP and CPA, respectively. Administration of WSE significantly impaired both the acquisition (50 and 100 mg/kg) and the expression (50 mg/kg) of CPP and CPA without affecting spatial memory (50 mg/kg), as determined by a two-trial memory recognition task. Overall, the study highlights the ability of WSE to interfere with both positive and negative motivational properties of ethanol and suggests that the effects of WSE may target both ethanol's motivational properties and underpinning associative learning mechanisms. In conclusion, these results cast new light on Withania somnifera as an agent potentially useful to counteract distinct aspects of ethanol effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  13. Physiological and Biochemical Studies on The Possible Protective Role of Ginseng in Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiki, Sh.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of Ginseng prior to radiation exposure at both doses 2 or 6 Gy of gamma rays minimize the hazardous effect of radiation by decreasing the level of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, MDA and lipids of RBCS membrane. Also, Ginseng treatment before exposure to single separate doses 2 and 6 Gy of γ- rays increasing the levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, albumin, globulin, RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin content and erythropoietin. Morphological studies of bone marrow revealed that administration of Ginseng before exposure to 2 or 6 Gy of γ- radiation improve the cellularity comparing to the irradiated one. While administration of Ginseng after exposure to 6 Gy of γ-rays had no effect and showed severe hypo cellularity and loss cell wall. The radioprotective effect of Ginseng administration before exposure to irradiation was more effective than that of Ginseng administered after exposure to irradiation. Ginseng was obviously investigated as an effective agent on hematopoiesis

  14. Acclimation of hydrogen peroxide enhances salt tolerance by activating defense-related proteins in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Parvin, Shonana; Balusamy, Sri Renuka Devi; Khorolragchaa, Atlanzul; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effect of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide on salt stress tolerance was investigated in Panax ginseng. Pretreatment of ginseng seedlings with 100 μM H2O2 increased the physiological salt tolerance of the ginseng plant and was used as the optimum concentration to induce salt tolerance capacity. Treatment with exogenous H2O2 for 2 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in ginseng seedlings by increasing the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and by decreasing the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous H2O2 as well as the production rate of superoxide radical (O2(-)). There was a positive physiological effect on the growth and development of salt-stressed seedlings by exogenous H2O2 as measured by ginseng dry weight and both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Exogenous H2O2 induced changes in MDA, O2(-), antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds, which are responsible for increases in salt stress tolerance. Salt treatment caused drastic declines in ginseng growth and antioxidants levels; whereas, acclimation treatment with H2O2 allowed the ginseng seedlings to recover from salt stress by up-regulation of defense-related proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds.

  15. Development of Reproducible EST-derived SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Panax ginseng Cultivars and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong-Il; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Jun Ha; Choi, Beom Soon; Ahn, In-Ok; Lee, Joon-Soo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the genetics or genomics of Panax ginseng. In this study, we developed 70 expressed sequence tag-derived polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers by trials of 140 primer pairs. All of the 70 markers showed reproducible polymorphism among four Panax speciesand 19 of them were polymorphic in six P. ginseng cultivars. These markers segregated 1:2:1 manner of Mendelian inheritance in an F2 population of a cross between two P. ginseng cultivars, ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘Chunpoong’, indicating that these are reproducible and inheritable mappable markers. A phylogenetic analysis using the genotype data showed three distinctive groups: a P. ginseng-P. japonicus clade, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius, with similarity coefficients of 0.70. P. japonicus was intermingled with P. ginseng cultivars, indicating that both species have similar genetic backgrounds. P. ginseng cultivars were subdivided into three minor groups: an independent cultivar ‘Chunpoong’, a subgroup with three accessions including two cultivars, ‘Gumpoong’ and ‘Yunpoong’ and one landrace ‘Hwangsook’ and another subgroup with two accessions including one cultivar, ‘Gopoong’ and one landrace ‘Jakyung’. Each primer pair produced 1 to 4 bands, indicating that the ginseng genome has a highly replicated paleopolyploid genome structure. PMID:23717085

  16. Advanced cancer cases treated with cultivated wild ginseng phamacopuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Kwon, Ki-Rok; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Han, Sung Soo R; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2010-06-01

    After administering cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture (CWGP) to advanced cancer patients, the response and survival rate were evaluated. This prospective observational pilot study of CWGP was conducted at the East-West Cancer Center of Daejeon University, Dunsan Oriental Hospital from August 2007 to June 2008. Seven patients were recruited for this study. One cycle of treatment consisted of intravenous infusion of CWGP (20 mL/day) for 2 weeks with an expected treatment duration of four cycles (60 days, 2 months). Blood tests were conducted every cycle and computed tomography was performed every second cycle as follow-up. Overall survival was measured from initial administration of CWGP to death. We used the international standards provided by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors for measuring response rate and Kaplan-Meier analysis to determine statistical significance. Seven patients received a total of 55 cycles (1 with 1 cycle, 2 with 2 cycles, 1 with 3 cycles, 2 with 13 cycles, 1 with 20 cycles). One-year survival rate was 57.1%, and the median survival time was 544 days. Among these patients, two non-small cell lung carcinoma patients and one advanced gastric adenocarcinoma patient showed stable disease. Two patients dropped out after the first and second cycles of treatment without receiving a new computed tomography scan. Two patients showed progressive disease. Although a further large scale study is necessary, CWGP showed potential as an effective treatment for two non-small cell lung carcinoma patients and one advanced gastric carcinoma patient. Copyright 2010 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  17. Root Hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  18. Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Dong; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Hou, Chien-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2017-02-05

    Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a "buried treasure medicine", is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Male ICR mice were divided into 3 groups, the vehicle, CMG-1X and CMG-5X groups ( n = 8 per group), and respectively administered 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of CMG extract orally for four weeks. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the major compound in CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro. CMG extract significantly increased muscle weight and relative muscle weight (%). CMG extract supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength ( p industry.

  19. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  20. Rg3-enriched ginseng extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shim, Jaesung; Lee, Siyoung; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Hong, Eunyoung; Lee, Jin Hee; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-02-18

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used as a traditional herb in the treatment of many medical disorders. Ginsenosides, which are triterpene derivatives that contain sugar moieties, are the main pharmacological ingredients in ginseng. This study was designed to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg3-enriched ginseng extract (Rg3GE) on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Rg3GE (50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage for 14 days (days 1-14). Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) for 6 days (days 914). The Morris water maze test was used to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. The effects of scopolamine with or without Rg3GE on acetylcholinesterase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the hippocampus were also examined. Mice with scopolamine treatment alone showed impairments in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory. Mice that received Rg3GE and scopolamine showed no scopolamine-induced impairment in the acquisition of spatial memory. Oral administration of Rg3GE suppressed the scopolamine-mediated increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and stimulation of the NF-κB pathway (i.e., phosphorylation of p65) in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that Rg3GE may stabilize scopolamine-induced memory deficits through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus.

  1. Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA: Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized, placebo controlled prospective study

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    hayder Al-kuraishy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was evaluation the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels during eustress on normal healthy volunteers. Method: 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from medical students at college of medicine with age range (22.61±3.63 years, the volunteers were divided into two groups, Group A: 35 subjects treated by Panax Ginseng 500mg/day regarded as treated group. Group B: 30 subjects treated by placebo 500mg/day regarded as control group. Baseline data was obtained and then after one month of study for following induction of psychological stress through daily psychomotor performance task and visual working memory accuracy testing while; stress-induced oxidative stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels. Results: placebo showed significant increases in MDA serum levels p=0.0004 which related with significant increases in perceived stress scale from p<0.0001, while; Panax Ginseng led to significant reduction in MDA serum levels from p<0.01 that related with significant increment in perceived stress scale p=0.02. Conclusion: An MDA serum level is positively correlated with eustress and this association is modulated by   Panax Ginseng therapy that produced significant reduction in MDA and rising of eustress level.

  2. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J. H.; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J. J.; Kim, G. R.; Chung, H. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, K. S.; Park, S. H.; Lee, E. J.; Ahn, D. U.

    2009-07-01

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10 6 to 10 3 CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  3. Inhibitory mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng on GM-CSF expression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Chung

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, we found that treatment with SKRG decreased the phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK in UVB-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes and subsequently inhibited the expression of GM-CSF. Furthermore, we identified ginsenoside-Rh3 as the active saponin in Korean Red Ginseng.

  4. Cytohistological study of the leaf structures of Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok Ran Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The anatomical leaf structure of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius shows that they are typical shade-loving sciophytes. Slight differences in chloroplast structure suggests that the two different species can be authenticated using transmission electron microscopy images, and light-resistant cultivar breeding can be performed via controlling photosynthesis efficiency.

  5. Micromorphology and development of the epicuticular structure on the epidermal cell of ginseng leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghwan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The outwardly projected cuticle and epidermal cell wall (i.e., an epicuticular wrinkle acts as a major barrier to block out sunlight in ginseng leaves. The small vesicles in the peripheral region of epidermal cells may suppress the cuticle and parts of epidermal wall, push it upward, and consequently contribute to the formation of the epicuticular structure.

  6. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  7. Overexpression of a Panax ginseng tonoplast aquaporin alters salt tolerance, drought tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Cai, Weiming; Arora, Rajeev

    2007-08-01

    Water movement across cellular membranes is regulated largely by a family of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Since several abiotic stresses such as, drought, salinity and freezing, manifest themselves via altering water status of plant cells and are linked by the fact that they all result in cellular dehydration, we overexpressed an AQP (tonoplast intrinsic protein) from Panax ginseng, PgTIP1, in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test its role in plant's response to drought, salinity and cold acclimation (induced freezing tolerance). Under favorable conditions, PgTIP1 overexpression significantly increased plant growth as determined by the biomass production, and leaf and root morphology. PgTIP1 overexpression had beneficial effect on salt-stress tolerance as indicated by superior growth status and seed germination of transgenic plants under salt stress; shoots of salt-stressed transgenic plants also accumulated greater amounts of Na(+) compared to wild-type plants. Whereas PgTIP1 overexpression diminished the water-deficit tolerance of plants grown in shallow (10 cm deep) pots, the transgenic plants were significantly more tolerant to water stress when grown in 45 cm deep pots. The rationale for this contrasting response, apparently, comes from the differences in the root morphology and leaf water channel activity (speed of dehydration/rehydration) between the transgenic and wild-type plants. Plants overexpressed with PgTIP1 exhibited lower (relative to wild-type control) cold acclimation ability; however, this response was independent of cold-regulated gene expression. Our results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in growth and development of plant cells, and suggest that the water movement across tonoplast (via AQP) represents a rate-limiting factor for plant vigor under favorable growth conditions and also significantly affect responses of plant to drought, salt and cold stresses.

  8. Physicochemical Characterization of Polysaccharides with Macrophage Immunomodulatory Activities Isolated from Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

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    Liang Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four polysaccharide fractions designated as RGP1, RGP2, RGP3, and RGP4 were isolated from red ginseng by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography, and their macrophage immunomodulatory activities were investigated. The results revealed that the proliferation, NO production, and neutral red phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in groups treated with RGP1 and RGP2 in vitro were increased significantly compared to RGP3 and RGP4. In addition, the level of TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased in RGP1 and RGP2 groups. All the results consistently indicated that polysaccharide fractions RGP1 and RGP2 had strong macrophage immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, RGP1 and RGP2 were purified by Sephadex G-100 column and RGP2 was further fractionated into a homogeneous fraction RGP2-1, with the molecular weight of 2.16 × 104 Da. The analysis of monosaccharide composition revealed that RGP1 was composed of arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a relative molecular ratio of 0.02 : 0.88 : 0.10. RGP2-1 was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a relative molecular ratio of 0.02 : 0.10 : 0.77 : 0.11. These results provided evidences that the neutral polysaccharide fractions RGP1 and RGP2 possessed significant immunomodulatory activity and could be explored as a promising natural immunomodulating agent applied in functional foods or medicines.

  9. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Saeed, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  10. Validation of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in Panax ginseng

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    Meizhen eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR has become a popular method for gene expression studies. Its results require data normalization by housekeeping genes. No single gene is proved to be stably expressed under all experimental conditions. Therefore, systematic evaluation of reference genes is necessary. With the aim to identify optimum reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of Panax ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, we investigated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes, including elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-β, elongation factor 1-gamma (EF1-γ, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3G (IF3G, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3B (IF3B, actin (ACT, actin11 (ACT11, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and cyclophilin ABH-like protein (CYC, using four widely used computational programs: geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method. The results were then integrated using the web-based tool RefFinder. As a result, EF1-γ, IF3G and EF1-β were the three most stable genes in different tissues of P. ginseng, while IF3G, ACT11 and GAPDH were the top three-ranked genes in seedlings treated with heat. Using three better reference genes alone or in combination as internal control, we examined the expression profiles of MAR, a multiple function-associated mRNA-like non-coding RNA (mlncRNA in P. ginseng. Taken together, we recommended EF1-γ/IF3G and IF3G/ACT11 as the suitable pair of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, respectively. The results serve as a foundation for future studies on P. ginseng functional genomics.

  11. A prebiotic fiber increases the formation and subsequent absorption of compound K following oral administration of ginseng in rats

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    Kyung-Ah Kim

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These results show that prebiotic diets, such as NUTRIOSE, may promote the metabolic conversion of ginsenosides to CK and the subsequent absorption of CK in the gastrointestinal tract and may potentiate the pharmacological effects of ginseng.

  12. [Comparison on appearance and non-ginsenoside composition in Panax ginseng and its products processed from different producing areas in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuesong; Ye, Zhengliang; Guo, Qiaosheng; Lu, Zhengmin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the appearance and moisture, ash content, extract, volatile oil of Panax ginseng and its processed products from different producing areas of northeast China, and thus provide the useful reference data for its quality standard establishment and standardized cultivation. Base on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and literatures relating to P. ginseng, the content of moisture, ash, extract, volatile oil in P. ginseng and its processed products from northeast 10 different producing areas were measured, and data analysis of these various indicators was carried out by DTOPSIS. The samples from Changbai, Jian Kangmei and Fusong reached the standard of Chinese pharmacopoeia and national standard, and in addition comprehensive evaluation indicators of them were higher than others samples. The quality of ginseng from different producing areas appears very different. Some samples failed to reach the standard of Chinese pharmacopoeia and national standard. Ginseng samples from those 3 producing areas of GAP planting bases showed good quality, which reflects the importance of GAP for ginseng cultivation.

  13. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a da...

  14. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the {gamma}-irradiated Liver of Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Ho [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Jeju Halla College, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  15. [Identification of Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius admixture by multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Luo, Yu-Qing; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zhao, Yu-Yang

    2017-04-01

    To achieve a molecular method to identify Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng,P. quinquefolius and their admixture. The ITS,18S and matK sequences of Panax genus were analyzed to develop species-specific SNP marker. Three pairs of species-specific primers were designed to establish a multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) and the samples from different region were tested. The results showed that when the annealing temperature was 60 ℃ and the cycle number was 35, approximately 250, 500,1 000 bp specific band were obtained from P. ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius obtain, respectively. This method could also be used to authentificate admixture samples and could detect 0.5% percent of P. notoginseng or P. quinquefolius adulterated in P. ginseng, or 0.5% percent of P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius adulterated in P. notoginseng. The detect limit of P. ginseng in P. quinquefolius was 0.5% and P. notoginseng in P. quinquefolius was 1%. This results showed that the present method could be used as a promise method to identify Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng, P. quinquefolius and their admixture. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Alessandra S. Braz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d with amitriptyline (25 mg/d and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline, 13 in Group II (placebo, and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng. Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS revealed a reduction in pain in the P. ginseng group (p < .0001, an improvement in fatigue (p < .0001 and an improvement in sleep (p < .001, with respect to baseline characteristics, but there were no differences between the three groups. With respect to anxiety, improvements occurred in the P. ginseng group compared to baseline (p < .0001; however, amitriptyline treatment resulted in significantly greater improvements (p < .05. P. ginseng reduced the number of tender points and improved patients' quality of life (using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire - FIQ; however, there were no differences between groups. The beneficial effects experienced by patients for all parameters suggest a need for further studies to be performed on the tolerability and efficacy of this phytotherapic as a complementary therapy for fibromyalgia.

  17. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the γ-irradiated Liver of Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, In Ho

    2006-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by 60 Co γ-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before 60 Co γ--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of 60 Co γ--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  18. Possible Role of ?-Irradiated Ginseng in the Modulation of Some Biochemical Disorders Produced by Aluminum in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.; Hamza, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity in human and animals has been a matter of concern. Ginseng is liable to be contaminated by micro-organisms during the pre- and post-harvest hand lings. Thus, ginseng decontamination by gamma- rays is needed to warrant the microbiological quality. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the protective effect of gamma-irradiated ginseng against Al-induced toxicity in rat model. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of 8 rats: A control group, the ?- irradiated ginseng extract (IGE) group; daily received the IGE (400 mg kg -1 body wt) for 6 weeks, the Al group received orally a daily dose (0.5 mg kg -1 body wt) of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) for 6 weeks and the irradiated ginseng extract+ AlCl 3 (IGE-Al) group, received IGE+ AlCl 3 for 6 weeks. Al administration significantly decreased some haematological parameters, sex hormones. Antioxidant enzymes activity in liver and testes showed a decrease. The results also showed a significant increase in some hepatic marker enzymes associated with an elevation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO). When experimental animals received IGE+ ALCL 3 , all these parameters were restored to approximately the control levels. These results demonstrated that administration of gamma-irradiated ginseng could be effective in the protection against the toxicity of AlCl 3

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Maskey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca2+ concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca2+ levels in the hippocampus.

  20. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  1. Antioxidant system of ginseng under stress by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic levels of Cd can cause protein denaturation and oxidative stress, which result in membrane damage, enzimatic activity changes and other metabolic damage. Some plants may show alteration in the activity of their antioxidant enzymes as a heavy metal tolerance mechanism. This study aims at evaluating the role of enzymes of the antioxidant system in adaptive responses of the accumulator P. glomerata species to levels of cadmium (Cd. Plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing concentrations of Cd in the form of CdSO4 (0, 45 and 90 µmol L-1, for 20 d. Cd concentrations and yields of root and shoot dry matter were determined at the end of the experiment. Malondialdehyde (MDA production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined after days 1, 12 and 20. Higher Cd concentrations in tissues of P. glomerata were found to reduce biomass production in both roots and shoots. The lipid peroxidation rates in leaves and roots were smaller at the start of the experiment for all Cd levels. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity increased in leaves on day 1 and in roots on day 20 as Cd levels increased. Cd stress induced an increase in the activity of APX in leaves, whereas in roots ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity was reduced at high concentration of Cd. At the end of the experiment, catalase (CAT activity in leaves was reduced as Cd concentration increased. Nevertheless, the glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased. In roots, GR activity was reduced on days 1 and 20.

  2. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  3. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbai R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragavendran Abbai,1,* Ramya Mathiyalagan,1,* Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Chao Wang,2 Priyanka Singh,2 Sungeun Ahn,2 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,2 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Ginseng Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology, 2Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs. First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E, total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line at 10 µg·mL-1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844, and Escherichia coli (BL21 treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1

  4. Converting Panax ginseng DNA and chemical fingerprints into two-dimensional barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Li, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hai; Yang, Qing; Hu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated how to convert the Panax ginseng DNA sequence code and chemical fingerprints into a two-dimensional code. In order to improve the compression efficiency, GATC2Bytes and digital merger compression algorithms are proposed. HPLC chemical fingerprint data of 10 groups of P. ginseng from Northeast China and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence code as the DNA sequence code were ready for conversion. In order to convert such data into a two-dimensional code, the following six steps were performed: First, the chemical fingerprint characteristic data sets were obtained through the inflection filtering algorithm. Second, precompression processing of such data sets is undertaken. Third, precompression processing was undertaken with the P. ginseng DNA (ITS2) sequence codes. Fourth, the precompressed chemical fingerprint data and the DNA (ITS2) sequence code were combined in accordance with the set data format. Such combined data can be compressed by Zlib, an open source data compression algorithm. Finally, the compressed data generated a two-dimensional code called a quick response code (QR code). Through the abovementioned converting process, it can be found that the number of bytes needed for storing P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can be greatly reduced. After GTCA2Bytes algorithm processing, the ITS2 compression rate reaches 75% and the chemical fingerprint compression rate exceeds 99.65% via filtration and digital merger compression algorithm processing. Therefore, the overall compression ratio even exceeds 99.36%. The capacity of the formed QR code is around 0.5k, which can easily and successfully be read and identified by any smartphone. P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can form a QR code after data processing, and therefore the QR code can be a perfect carrier of the authenticity and quality of P. ginseng information. This study provides a theoretical

  5. Selective Root Retreatment: A Novel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudera, William J

    2015-08-01

    Root canal retreatment is traditionally considered an "all or none" treatment approach. It is typically recommended that all restorative and obturation materials be removed from all roots regardless of the presence or absence of periapical pathosis. In contrast, surgical endodontics is not viewed as an "all or none" treatment approach. Traditionally, only the diseased root(s) is addressed via root-end resection and root-end filling. The use of cone-beam computed tomographic imaging allows for a more accurate evaluation of the periapical status of individual roots associated with multirooted teeth. This information has introduced a novel and conservative treatment alternative for previously endodontically treated teeth with multiple roots presenting with post-treatment disease. This new approach is termed selective root retreatment. Advanced imaging allows the clinician to make predictable treatment decisions with respect to the presence or absence of periapical pathosis of individual roots as opposed to making assumptions about the tooth as a whole. Selective root retreatment combines the approach of nonsurgical retreatment with the selectivity of surgical root resection. In this manner, retreatment could be limited to a single root or roots clearly showing periapical pathosis while leaving the root(s) with no visible or perceived pathosis untouched. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) oligopeptides regulate innate and adaptive immune responses in mice via increased macrophage phagocytosis capacity, NK cell activity and Th cells secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Xia; Ren, Jin-Wei; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qi-He; Zhao, Jian; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Jun-Bo; Pettinato, Giuseppe; Li, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally used as a restorative medicine, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) has been the most widely used and acclaimed herb in Chinese communities for thousands of years. To investigate the immune-modulating activity of ginseng oligopeptides (GOP), 420 healthy female BALB/c mice were intragastrically administered distilled water (control), whey protein (0.15 g per kg body weight (BW)), and GOP 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 g per kg BW for 30 days. Blood samples from mice were collected from the ophthalmic venous plexus and then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Seven assays were conducted to determine the immunomodulatory effects of GOP on innate and adaptive immune responses, followed by flow cytometry to investigate spleen T lymphocyte sub-populations, multiplex sandwich immunoassays to investigate serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels, and ELISA to investigate intestinally secreted immunoglobulin to study the mechanism of GOP affecting the immune system. Our results showed that GOP was able to enhance innate and adaptive immune responses in mice by improving cell-mediated and humoral immunity, macrophage phagocytosis capacity and NK cell activity. Notably, the use of GOP revealed a better immune-modulating activity compared to whey protein. We conclude that the immune-modulating activity might be due to the increased macrophage phagocytosis capacity and NK cell activity, and the enhancement of T and Th cells, as well as IL-2, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion and IgA, IgG1 and IgG2b production. These results indicate that GOP could be considered a good candidate that may improve immune functions if used as a dietary supplement, with a dosage that ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 g per kg BW.

  7. Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dong Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a “buried treasure medicine”, is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Male ICR mice were divided into 3 groups, the vehicle, CMG-1X and CMG-5X groups (n = 8 per group, and respectively administered 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of CMG extract orally for four weeks. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the major compound in CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro. CMG extract significantly increased muscle weight and relative muscle weight (%. CMG extract supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001 and endurance swimming time, decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001, ammonia (p < 0.0001, creatine kinase (CK, p = 0.0002, and blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.0001, and economized glucose levels (p < 0.0001 after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly increased with CMG extract treatment. Biochemical profile results showed that creatinine and triacylglycerol significantly decreased and total protein and glucose increased with CMG treatment. This is the first report that CMG extract supplementation increases muscle mass, improves exercise performance and energy utilization, and decreases fatigue-associated parameters in vivo. The major component of CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro, which could be a potential bioactive compound for use as an ergogenic aid ingredient by the food industry.

  8. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Culture-dependent method (Biolog was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare.

  9. Possibility of electron beam irradiation degradation of many pesticides in ginseng oral liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiyong; Liu Yang; Ge Hanguang; Wu Ruoxin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to explore the technological feasibility in degradation of pesticides in ginseng oral liquid under the irradiation of electron beam. Sixteen residual concentration-restricted pesticides in ginseng oral liquid were experimented under the dose of 0 ∼ 15 kGy. Results showed that, when the dose of the irradiation of electron beam increased, the degradation rates of all the pesticides enhanced, and the electron beam radiation showed the most remarkable effect on the degradation of pesticides such as imidacloprid and fenpropathrinwith degradation rates of more than 90% and 50%, respectively. The degradation rates of fonofos, methidathion, diazinon, phosalone and carbaryl were all higher than 30%. No significant degradation was observed in the other 9 pesticides under the same condition. (authors)

  10. Dammarane triterpenes from the leaves of Panax ginseng enhance cellular immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien-Lam; Kim, Young-Ran; Yang, Jun-Li

    2014-01-01

    In our search for immune stimulating materials from natural source, bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Panax ginseng leaves led to the isolation of three dammarane triterpenes (1-3), including two previously unknown compounds 27-demethyl-(E,E)-20(22),23-dien-3β,6α,12β-trihydro......In our search for immune stimulating materials from natural source, bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Panax ginseng leaves led to the isolation of three dammarane triterpenes (1-3), including two previously unknown compounds 27-demethyl-(E,E)-20(22),23-dien-3β,6α,12β...... that compound 1 showed a better effect on cellular immunity, and provided new chemical entities as promising lead compounds for the treatment of cellular immunity-related diseases....

  11. Protein chemotaxonomy. XIII. Amino acid sequence of ferredoxin from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Yoshiki

    2006-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl protein and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. This ferredoxin has a unique amino acid sequence, which includes an insertion of Tyr at the 3rd position from the amino-terminus and a deletion of two amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus. This ferredoxin had 18 differences in its amino acid sequence compared to that of Petroselinum sativum (Umbelliferae). In contrast, 23-33 differences were observed compared to other dicotyledonous plants. This suggests that Panax ginseng is related taxonomically to umbelliferous plants.

  12. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost......-an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium), a middle layer-composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory...

  13. Licorice Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Licorice Root Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... This fact sheet provides basic information about licorice root—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  14. Polyethylene glycol and abscisic acid improve maturation and regeneration of Panax ginseng somatic embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Konrádová, H.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2004), s. 725-730 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10; GA MŠk ME 671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : ABA * Panax ginseng * somatic embryogenesis Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2004

  15. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Methods Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Results Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Conclusion Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development. PMID:26843827

  16. Synthesis and absolute configurations of the cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y; Satoh, M; Takeuchi, N; Kirisawa, M

    1990-06-01

    Panaxacol (1) and dihydropanaxacol (2), cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng, were synthesized starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be 9R, 10R and the absolute configuration at C-3 of 2 was tentatively assigned as 3S by the application of the R(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoro methyl)phenylacetyl (MTPA) method.

  17. Pharmacological importance, characterization and applications of gold and silver nanoparticles synthesized by Panax ginseng fresh leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Hina; Ahn, Sungeun; Castro-Aceituno, Verónica; Jiménez, Zuly; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-11-01

    Previously, we showed the rapid and eco-friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles within 3 and 45 min by fresh leaves extract of herbal medicinal plant Panax ginseng. In addition, we characterized the nanoparticles in terms of shape, size, morphology and stability by FE-TEM, EDX, elemental mapping, SEAD, XRD and particles size analysis. In addition of this, we showed their antimicrobial, anti-coagulant, and biofilm inhibition activity of nanoparticles. Continuing our previous study, here we highlight the further characterization and biomedical applications of P. ginseng leaf-mediated gold and silver nanoparticles. We characterized the nanoparticles further in terms of active functional group and capping layer, surface charge, and temperature stability. Based on these factors, we explored the nanoparticles for antioxidant efficacy, biocompatibility in HaCaT cells, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes cells, for anticancer efficacy in A549 lung cancer and B16BL6 skin melenoma cancer cell lines and for anti-inflammation efficacy in RAW 264.7 cell lines. Based on our findings, we suggest that the P. ginseng-mediated gold nanoparticles have high antioxidant activity and highly biocompatibility in HaCaT cells, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes cells, RAW 264.7 cells lines and could be considered for future drug delivery carriers. The silver nanoparticles also showed high potent antioxidant efficacy, additionally it showed high anticancer effect in A549 lung cancer and B16BL6 skin melenoma cancer cell lines as compared to precursor salts. Moreover, both gold and silver nanoparticles have anti-inflammatory efficacies in RAW 264.7 cells. Thus, the study may provide useful insights of P. ginseng leaves extract-mediated biocompatible gold and silver nanoparticles and improving their applicability in designing nanoparticles carrier systems for drug delivery applications.

  18. Neuropharmacological Properties of Withania somnifera - Indian Ginseng: An Overview on Experimental Evidence with Emphasis on Clinical Trials and Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenisetti, Sarat C; Manjunath, M J; Muralidhara, C

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing aged population globally, disorders and diseases of the CNS are anticipated to increase and profoundly impact the health care. As these neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) are complex, multifactorial and do not have identified etiological factors, unfortunately, drugs developed for the purpose have not met with the expected success. Hence, there has been a constant demand for the development of natural therapeutic adjuvants which are safe and possess the potential to attenuate multiple pathways. Numerous herbal/natural products have been used as therapeutics in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat NDD and other memory-related disorders. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, WS), popularly called as "Indian Ginseng" is one such plant which possesses a variety of beneficial neuropharmacological properties. In this review, we have attempted to review critically the existing literature and patents related to the neuroprotective efficacy of WS roots and the underlying mechanism/s. Standardized extracts of Withania somnifera (WS) have been demonstrated to possess multidimensional neuromodulatory effects both in vitro and animal models. The spectrum of effects evidenced comprises of attenuation of oxidative damage by enhancing the antioxidant defense system with concomitant enhancement of the expression of marker proteins responsible for growth, differentiation and communication of neural cells. Specific effects of WS are attributable to its potential to modulate neurotrophic factors, cytoskeletal elements, cell adhesion molecules and synaptic proteins. Generation of new data by employing systematic contemporary approaches such as bioinformatics, molecular docking studies, identification of specific gene targets and epigenetic regulation would provide the necessary impetus to validate fully the neurotherapeutic potential of the phytochemicals derived from WS. More importantly, well-designed clinical trials are required to exploit the neuromodulatory

  19. Influence of Panax ginseng on the Steady State Pharmacokinetic Profile of Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Mónica M.; Chairez, Cheryl L.; Gordon, Lori A.; Alfaro, Raul M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective Panax ginseng has been shown in pre-clinical studies to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in the metabolism of HIV protease inhibitors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on the pharmacokinetics of the HIV protease inhibitor combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in healthy volunteers. Design Single sequence, open-label, single-center pharmacokinetic investigation. Setting Government healthcare facility. Subjects Twelve healthy human volunteers. Measurements and Main Results Thirteen healthy volunteers received LPV/r (400/100 mg) twice daily for 29.5 days. On day 15 of LPV/r administration, serial blood samples were collected over 12 hrs for determination of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations. On study day 16, subjects began taking Panax ginseng 500 mg twice daily, which they continued for 2 weeks in combination with LPV/r. On day 30 of LPV/r administration, serial blood samples were again collected over 12 hrs for determination of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations. Lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameter values were determined using noncompartmental methods and compared pre- and post-ginseng administration using a student’s t-test, where P ginseng administration to healthy human volunteers. Thus, a clinically significant interaction between Panax ginseng and LPV/r is unlikely to occur in HIV-infected patients who choose to take these agents concurrently. It is also unlikely that Panax ginseng will interact with other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor combinations, although confirmatory data are necessary. PMID:25142999

  20. The effects of Panax ginseng supplementation on growth hormone, cortisol and lactate response to high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabi Leila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Growth hormone, cortisol, and lactate play an effective role in regulating and stimulating the muscle building proc­ess. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of Panax ginseng supplementation on growth hormone, cortisol, and lactate response to intense resistance exercise in young female non-athletes. Materials and methods: Ten non-athlete girls participated in this double-blind counter-balanced crossover study. They were assigned to two groups: the ginseng group and the placebo group. In two 4-week periods, they received the supplement and the placebo. In the first four weeks, 5 participants received ginseng (100 mg daily and 5 others received placebo (maltodextrin. At the end of the 4 weeks, blood samples (5 ml were taken to measure blood levels of the factors. Afterwards, the resistance exercise protocol was implemented, and immediately after that blood samples were taken. In the second four-week period, the five participants who had taken ginseng received placebo, and the five subjects who had received placebo took ginseng. The same tests were administered again. Results: The results showed that except for cortisol in the ginseng group, there were significant pre - to post-exercise changes for all 3 indicators in both groups. No significant difference was observed in pre - to post-exercise changes in the levels of GH (p = 0.71, cortisol (p = 0.34, or lactate (p = 0.90 between groups. Conclusions: 100 mg ginseng consumption daily for 4 weeks does not have an impact on the response of GH, cortisol, or lac­tate to high-intensity resistance exercise in young female non-athletes.

  1. POST-HARVEST EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN GINSENG SEEDS INCREASES DESICCATION SENSITIVITY AND NARROWS THE HYDRATION WINDOW FOR CRYOPRESERVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E; Popova, E; Cho, G; Park, S; Lee, S; Pritchard, H W; Kim, H H

    Despite its self-pollinating characteristics, Korean ginseng germplasm is mainly maintained in clonal gene banks as there is no defined approach to the long-term conservation of its seed, including the most appropriate stage of embryo development for storage. The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of embryo development on desiccation tolerance and cryopreservation success in ginseng seeds. Seeds of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) at three post-harvest stages (immediately after harvesting and following treatments to enable internal growth of the embryo) were desiccated and cryopreserved. The hydration window for the >80% dehiscence and germination of cryopreserved ginseng seeds varied with embryo developmental stage: 3-9% moisture content (MC) for both unpulped and undehisced seeds when the embryo was 0.1 the length of the endosperm, 7-10% MC for dehisced seeds (0.5 embryo:endosperm) and 9-11% MC for seeds with fully developed embryos (0.9 embryo:endosperm). Whilst dried (4-8% moisture content) and undehisced seeds within fruits (unpulped seeds) lost more than half their viability during 1 year's storage at room temperature, cryopreservation enabled germination levels of c. 90%. Overall, 432 accessions of Korean ginseng landraces have been cryopreserved using undehisced seeds with or without fruits. Post-harvest treatment of Korean ginseng seeds to enable embryo development decreases tolerance of very low MCs, and thus narrows the hydration window for cryopreservation. Fresh-harvested and unpulped seeds that have been dried to c. 5% MC are recommended for long-term cryogenic storage.

  2. Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA): Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels during eustress on healthy volunteers. Method: In this study, 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from students of a medical school, with the mean age of 22.61±3.63 years. The volunteers were divided into 2 groups: Group A included 35 participants who were treated by Panax Ginseng 500 mg/day, which was regarded as the treated group; group B included 30 participants treated by placebo 500 mg/day, which was regarded as the control group. Baseline data were obtained and then one month after the study, the participants were followed with respect to induction of psychological stress through daily psychomotor performance task and visual working memory accuracy testing. Stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels. Results: The participants in the control group showed significant increases in MDA serum levels (p = 0.0004), which were related to significant increases in perceived stress scale from pstress scale (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Panax Ginseng produced significant reduction in oxidative stress and augmented eustress level in healthy volunteers 1 month after therapy.

  3. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose and leptin hormone decreased, but insulin increased by administration of RGE. it increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT antioxidant enzymes in kidneys tissues. Conclusion: Red ginseng extract produces antiobesity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in obese diabetic rats. The study suggests that red ginseng plant may be beneficial for the treatment of patients who suffer from obesity associated with diabetes. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 165-172

  4. From Woohwang Cheongsimwon* to Ginseng - The History of Medicine Use in the Joseon Era -**

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-su KIM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Korean traditional medicine, though herbal decoction, acupuncture, and moxibustion are all used to treat diseases, restorative medicines are the most widely preferred treatment method. This paper explores the historical background of restorative herbal medicines and ginseng among the Korean public and Korean traditional medicine practice. It also seeks to clarify how social and cultural perspectives on drug use have changed since restorative medicine became mainstream during the Joseon era. Drug use tendencies were affected by the medical system of the Joseon Dynasty, patients’ desires for reliable treatment, and perceptions of the human body and the causes of disease. In the late Joseon Dynasty, medicine, an industry originally monopolized by the government, began to be manufactured and traded on the free market, and medical personnel began to participate in medical activities on a large scale. As the health preserving theory became more popular and medical personnel became more accessible, medicinal preferences also changed. Specifically, whereas preference was first given to common medicines, such as Cheongsimwon, which are effective for various symptoms, restorative medicines, such as ginseng, gradually became more popular. These restorative medicines were faithful to the basic tenet of East Asian traditional medicine: to avoid disease by making the body healthy before the onset of illness. Patients’ desires for safe treatment and growing competition among commercial doctors who wanted stable profits further increased the popularity of milder medicines. Ultimately, as ginseng cultivation was realized, its use expanded even further in a wave of commercialization.

  5. GINSENG, GREEN TEA OR FIBRATE: valid options for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis prevention?

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    Mônica Souza de MIRANDA-HENRIQUES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis and bezafibrate were compared for their lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as potential agents to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: G1 (feed with standard diet; G2 (feed with high-fat diet with 58% of energy from fat; G3 (high-fat diet + standardized Panax ginseng extract at 100 mg/kg/day; G4 (high-fat diet + standardized Camellia sinensis extract at 100 mg/kg/day; and G5 (high-fat diet + bezafibrate at 100 mg/kg/day, given by gavage. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks later and blood was collected for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase determinations. The score system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was used to analyse the liver samples. Results and conclusions High-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in animal body weight, biochemical changes and enzymatic elevations. Steatosis, inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning scores were significant high in this group. The biochemical and histological variables were statistically similar in the bezafibrate group and control group. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract prevented obesity and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (steatosis and inflammation compared to high-fat diet. Camellia sinensis showed a less effective biochemical response, with small reduction in steatosis and inflammation but lower ballooning scores.

  6. Improvement of hygienic quality of white ginseng powders by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han-Ok; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Youk, Hong-Sun; Kwon, Joong-Ho.

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of white ginseng powders, the comparative effects of ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation and γ-irradiation (5-10 kGy) on the sterilization, physiochemical properties and organoleptic quality were investigated. EO fumigation and γ-irradiation (5-10 kGy) completely eliminated the microorganisms contaminating in white ginseng powder. There was no growth of microorganisms after 7 months storage at 30degC and different relative humidities. In the physiochemical properties, ginseng saponins were considerably resistant to γ-irradiation (less than 10 kGy) and commercial EO fumigation, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar and acidity were significantly changed by EO fumigation. EO residues were 570 ppm in the samples taken immediately after deaeration and 170 ppm in the stored samples of 8 days at 30degC, respectively. Ethylene chlorohydrin and ethylene glycol residues as the secondary products of EO were 9,595 ppm immediately after deaeration and 221 ppm in the stored samples of 3 months at 30degC. (author)

  7. Improvement of hygienic quality of white ginseng powders by {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han-Ok; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Youk, Hong-Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho

    1994-12-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of white ginseng powders, the comparative effects of ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation and {gamma}-irradiation (5-10 kGy) on the sterilization, physiochemical properties and organoleptic quality were investigated. EO fumigation and {gamma}-irradiation (5-10 kGy) completely eliminated the microorganisms contaminating in white ginseng powder. There was no growth of microorganisms after 7 months storage at 30degC and different relative humidities. In the physiochemical properties, ginseng saponins were considerably resistant to {gamma}-irradiation (less than 10 kGy) and commercial EO fumigation, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar and acidity were significantly changed by EO fumigation. EO residues were 570 ppm in the samples taken immediately after deaeration and 170 ppm in the stored samples of 8 days at 30degC, respectively. Ethylene chlorohydrin and ethylene glycol residues as the secondary products of EO were 9,595 ppm immediately after deaeration and 221 ppm in the stored samples of 3 months at 30degC. (author).

  8. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  9. Ginseng berry extract supplementation improves age-related decline of insulin signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunhui; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang Jun; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-04-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007). Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (p = 0.047), and protein kinase B (AKT) (p = 0.037), were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) (p = 0.036) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) (p = 0.032), which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  10. Auxins affected ginsenoside production and growth of hairy roots in Panax hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washida, Daisuke; Shimomura, Koichiro; Takido, Michio; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2004-05-01

    Hairy roots of interspecific hybrid ginseng (Panax ginseng x P. quinquefolium), induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834, grew well in B5 liquid media supplemented with 2.5 microM auxins (3-indole butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA)). The hairy roots cultured in B5 liquid medium supplemented with 2.5 microM IBA showed best growth (6.39 g fresh weight per a flask, at week 8). The highest content of the total ginsenosides was 1.63% as dry weight at week 8 when cultured with 2.5 microM NAA. The different auxins affected the numbers and lateral branching roots. Especially, 2.5 microM IBA promoted the lateral root formation (43.7+/-4.0 roots, at week 8), and 2.5 microM NAA promoted the lateral root growth (45.3+/-5.6 mm, at week 8). The growth and ginsenosides production of 8-week old hairy roots cultured in B5 liquid media supplemented with IBA and NAA combinations were also investigated. Hairy roots produced higher amounts of ginsenosides in B5 liquid media supplemented with 0.5-1.0 microM IBA and NAA combinations than that cultured in B5 liquid media supplemented with only IBA and NAA. The highest yield of ginsenoside was obtained when cultured with 0.5 microM IBA and 1.0 microM IBA combination (6.38 mg per a flask, at week 8).

  11. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-09-30

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis.

  12. Profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of Panax ginseng based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Sun, Le; Zhang, Zhe; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2015-03-25

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for the detection and structural analysis of ginsenosides in white ginseng and related processed products (red ginseng). Original neutral, malonyl, and chemically transformed ginsenosides were identified in white and red ginseng samples. The aglycone types of ginsenosides were determined by MS/MS as PPD (m/z 459), PPT (m/z 475), C-24, -25 hydrated-PPD or PPT (m/z 477 or m/z 493), and Δ20(21)-or Δ20(22)-dehydrated-PPD or PPT (m/z 441 or m/z 457). Following the structural determination, the UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based chemical profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis method was applied for global analysis of white and processed ginseng samples. The chemical markers present between the processed products red ginseng and white ginseng could be assigned. Process-mediated chemical changes were recognized as the hydrolysis of ginsenosides with large molecular weight, chemical transformations of ginsenosides, changes in malonyl-ginsenosides, and generation of 20-(R)-ginsenoside enantiomers. The relative contents of compounds classified as PPD, PPT, malonyl, and transformed ginsenosides were calculated based on peak areas in ginseng before and after processing. This study provides possibility to monitor multiple components for the quality control and global evaluation of ginseng products during processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the Antifatigue Effects of Korean Ginseng on Professional Athletes by Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Liu, Yao; Shi, Aixin; Wang, Zhihong; Aa, Jiye; Huang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yi

    2017-09-19

    Ginseng is usually used for alleviating fatigue. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the regulatory effect of Korean ginseng on the metabolic pattern in professional athletes, and, further, to explore the underlying mechanism of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. GC-time-of-flight-MS was used to profile serum samples from professional athletes before training and after 15 and 30 day training, and professional athletes administered with Korean ginseng in the meanwhile. Biochemical parameters of all athletes were also analyzed. For the athlete control group, strength–endurance training resulted in an elevation of creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and a reduction in blood hemoglobin, and a dynamic trajectory of the metabolomic profile which were related to fatigue. Korean ginseng treatment not only lead to a marked reduction in CK and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum, but also showed regulatory effects on the serum metabolic profile and restored scores plots close to normal, suggesting that the change in metabolic profiling could reflect the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. Furthermore, perturbed levels of 11 endogenous metabolites were regulated by Korean ginseng significantly, which might be primarily involved in lipid metabolism, energy balance, and chemical signaling. These findings suggest that metabolomics is a potential tool for the evaluation of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng and for the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanism.

  14. Study on the Correlation between Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Seven Key Enzymes and Ginsenoside Content in Ginseng in Over Time in Ji'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juxin; Zhang, Daihui; Zhuang, Jianjian; Huang, Yi; Mu, Ying; Lv, Shaowu

    2017-12-11

    Panax ginseng is a traditional medicine. Fresh ginseng is one of the most important industries related to ginseng development, and fresh ginseng of varying ages has different medicinal properties. Previous research has not systematically reported the correlation between changes in key enzyme activity with changes in ginsenoside content in fresh ginseng over time. In this study, for the first time, we use ginseng samples of varying ages in Ji'an and systematically reported the changes in the activity of seven key enzymes (HMGR, FPS, SS, SE, DS, CYP450, and GT). We investigated the content of ginsenoside and gene expression of these key enzymes. Ginsenoside content was measured using HPLC. HPLC, GC-MS, and LC-MS were combined to measure the enzyme activity of the key enzymes. Quantitative PCR was used in the investigation of gene expression. By analyzing the correlation between the enzyme activity and the transcription level of the key enzymes with ginsenoside content, we found that DS and GT enzyme activities are significantly correlated with the ginsenoside content in different ages of ginseng. Our findings might provide a new strategy to discriminate between ginseng of different years. Meanwhile, this research provides important information for the in-depth study of ginsenoside biosynthesis.

  15. Ginseng authenticity testing by measuring carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope compositions that differ based on cultivation land and organic fertilizer type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: This case study provides preliminary results about the variation of C, N, and S isotope composition in ginseng according to the cultivation soil type and organic fertilizer type. Hence, our findings are potentially applicable to evaluate ginseng authenticity depending on cultivation conditions.

  16. Discrimination of cultivation ages and cultivars of ginseng leaves using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kook; Ahn, Myung Suk; Park, Jong Suk; Liu, Jang Ryol; In, Dong Su; Min, Byung Whan; Kim, Suk Weon

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether Fourier transform (FT)-IR spectral analysis combined with multivariate analysis of whole-cell extracts from ginseng leaves can be applied as a high-throughput discrimination system of cultivation ages and cultivars, a total of total 480 leaf samples belonging to 12 categories corresponding to four different cultivars (Yunpung, Kumpung, Chunpung, and an open-pollinated variety) and three different cultivation ages (1 yr, 2 yr, and 3 yr) were subjected to FT-IR. The spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. A dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering analysis of the FT-IR spectral data on ginseng leaves showed that leaf samples were initially segregated into three groups in a cultivation age-dependent manner. Then, within the same cultivation age group, leaf samples were clustered into four subgroups in a cultivar-dependent manner. The overall prediction accuracy for discrimination of cultivars and cultivation ages was 94.8% in a cross-validation test. These results clearly show that the FT-IR spectra combined with multivariate analysis from ginseng leaves can be applied as an alternative tool for discriminating of ginseng cultivars and cultivation ages. Therefore, we suggest that this result could be used as a rapid and reliable F1 hybrid seed-screening tool for accelerating the conventional breeding of ginseng.

  17. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Natalie S; Statham, Mark J; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  18. Transcriptomics-based identification of WRKY genes and characterization of a salt and hormone-responsive PgWRKY1 gene in Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Cao, Hongzhe; Xiu, Hao; Luo, Tiao; Li, Jijia; Chen, Xianghui; Luo, Junli; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to a transcription factor (TF) family and play dynamic roles in many plant processes, including plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as secondary metabolism. However, no WRKY gene in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been reported to date. In this study, a number of WRKY unigenes from methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated adventitious root transcriptome of this species were identified using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 48 promising WRKY unigenes encoding WRKY proteins were obtained by eliminating wrong and incomplete open reading frame (ORF). Phylogenetic analysis reveals 48 WRKY TFs, including 11 Group I, 36 Group II, and 1 Group III. Moreover, one MeJA-responsive unigene designated as PgWRKY1 was cloned and characterized. It contains an entire ORF of 1077 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 358 amino acid residues. The PgWRKY1 protein contains a single WRKY domain consisting of a conserved amino acid sequence motif WRKYGQK and a C2H2-type zinc-finger motif belonging to WRKY subgroup II-d. Subcellular localization of PgWRKY1-GFP fusion protein in onion and tobacco epidermis cells revealed that PgWRKY1 was exclusively present in the nucleus. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of PgWRKY1 was relatively higher in roots and lateral roots compared with leaves, stems, and seeds. Importantly, PgWRKY1 expression was significantly induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and NaCl, but downregulated by MeJA treatment. These results suggested that PgWRKY1 might be a multiple stress-inducible gene responding to hormones and salt stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  20. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  1. Influence of Panax ginseng on the steady state pharmacokinetic profile of lopinavir-ritonavir in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Mónica M; Chairez, Cheryl L; Gordon, Lori A; Alfaro, Raul M; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2014-11-01

    Panax ginseng has been shown in preclinical studies to modulate cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of HIV protease inhibitors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of P. ginseng on the pharmacokinetics of the HIV protease inhibitor combination lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-r) in healthy volunteers. Single-sequence, open-label, single-center pharmacokinetic investigation. Government health care facility. Twelve healthy human volunteers. Twelve healthy volunteers received LPV-r (400-100 mg) twice/day for 29.5 days. On day 15 of LPV-r administration, serial blood samples were collected over 12 hours for determination of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations. On study day 16, subjects began taking P. ginseng 500 mg twice/day, which they continued for 2 weeks in combination with LPV-r. On day 30 of LPV-r administration, serial blood samples were again collected over 12 hours for determination of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations. Lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameter values were determined using noncompartmental methods, and preadministration and postadministration ginseng values were compared using a Student t test, where pginseng administration to healthy human volunteers. Thus, a clinically significant interaction between P. ginseng and LPV-r is unlikely to occur in HIV-infected patients who choose to take these agents concurrently. It is also unlikely that P. ginseng will interact with other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor combinations, although confirmatory data are necessary. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Root disease management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Forest tree root pathogens are widespread throughout all forested ecosystems in British Columbia. This guidebook provides a background to forest root disease management (including why, where, and how to manage root disease) and describes the necessary tools for managing root disease. It includes a review of the distribution of major root diseases in the province, host susceptibility and symptomology, and root disease and stand dynamics. The tools described include disease hazard and risk assessment, stratification surveys, and treatment methods. The major root diseases covered in the guide are Armillaria root disease, laminated root rot, Tomentosus root rot, blackstain root disease, and Annosus root disease.

  5. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  6. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  7. Adrenocorticosterone alterations in male, albino mice treated with Trichopus zeylanicus, Withania somnifera and Panax ginseng preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Saxena, E; Bhutani, K K

    2000-03-01

    The levels of corticosterone were estimated by the HPLC method in the adrenal glands of stressed (5 h constant swimming) male albino mice treated with Trichopus zeylanicus, Withania somnifera and Panax ginseng preparations and compared with non-treated stressed and normal controls. The treatments increased the corticosterone levels in all the groups. The physical endurance (increased survival time) of swimming mice also increased in all the treated groups, except in the group treated with Withania somnifera powder (500 mg/kg, p.o.). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study

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    Young Ock Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=47 using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg or vehicle (saline treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

  9. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

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    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  10. Assessment of radical scavenging, whitening and moisture retention activities of Panax ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles as safe and efficient novel cosmetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Zuly; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Seo, Kwang-Hoon; Mohanan, Padmanaban; Ahn, Jong-Chan; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2018-03-01

    Panax ginseng berry extract possess remarkable pharmacological effects on skin treatment such as anti-aging, antioxidant, promotor of collagen synthesis and alleviation against atopic dermatitis. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have gained much attention due to their extensive range of applications in particular in the field of drug delivery as a result of their biological compatibility and low toxicity. In a previous study, we designed and developed biocompatible gold and silver nanoparticles based on phytochemical profile and pharmacological efficacy of P. ginseng berry extract, we were able to reduce gold ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. However, its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of the present study is to investigate the moisture retention, in-vitro scavenging and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from P. ginseng berry in cosmetic applications. Our findings confirm that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles exhibited moisture retention capacity. In addition, MTT assay results confirmed that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are non-toxic to human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cells, possess scavenging activity, protect and provide alleviation against injured caused by H 2 O 2 -induced damage. In addition, P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles, significantly reduced melanin content and suppress tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16BL6 cells. We conclude that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are biocompatible and environmental affable materials and can be a potential novel cosmetic ingredient.

  11. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  12. Comprehensive Survey of Genetic Diversity in Chloroplast Genomes and 45S nrDNAs within Panax ginseng Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Junki; Lee, Hyun Oh; Joh, Ho Jun; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report complete sequences of chloroplast (cp) genome and 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA (45S nrDNA) for 11 Panax ginseng cultivars. We have obtained complete sequences of cp and 45S nrDNA, the representative barcoding target sequences for cytoplasm and nuclear genome, respectively, based on low coverage NGS sequence of each cultivar. The cp genomes sizes ranged from 156,241 to 156,425 bp and the major size variation was derived from differences in copy number of tandem repeats in the ycf1 gene and in the intergenic regions of rps16-trnUUG and rpl32-trnUAG. The complete 45S nrDNA unit sequences were 11,091 bp, representing a consensus single transcriptional unit with an intergenic spacer region. Comparative analysis of these sequences as well as those previously reported for three Chinese accessions identified very rare but unique polymorphism in the cp genome within P. ginseng cultivars. There were 12 intra-species polymorphisms (six SNPs and six InDels) among 14 cultivars. We also identified five SNPs from 45S nrDNA of 11 Korean ginseng cultivars. From the 17 unique informative polymorphic sites, we developed six reliable markers for analysis of ginseng diversity and cultivar authentication. PMID:26061692

  13. The effect of red ginseng extract on superoxide dismutase activity in the kidney of gamma-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soon

    1992-01-01

    This study was prepared to observe the change of enzyme activities in kidney treated with red ginseng extract in the gamma ray irradiated mice. Determine the activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase in the kidney a period of 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 4 day, 5 day after a saline injection or injection of red ginseng extract or gamma ray irradiated group into four classify. The activity SOD and catalase showed a tendency to increase and recovery at the early state but pay no regard. Where ase, the activity of peroxide restored and increased pay regard. A physiological saline injection group after gamma ray irradiation showed a tendency to diminish after remarkable increase of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase than control group. Injection group of red ginseng extract after gamma ray irradiation observed rapid recovery on activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase than a saline injection group. Experimental result suggested that injection of red ginseng extract after irradiation have the recovery effect on the changed of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase against radiation injury

  14. Effects of Korean red ginseng extract on acute renal failure induced by gentamicin and pharmacokinetic changes by metformin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Kyung; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2013-09-01

    Korean red ginseng is one of the best selling dietary supplements and its individual constituents enhance renal function. Acute renal failure (ARF) is a predisposing complication of diabetes mellitus as a result of combination drug therapy. The combination of antibiotic-antidiabetic drugs can entail toxicities and drug interactions because of the antibiotic resistance in patients with severe bacterial infection. Currently, gentamicin-metformin combination therapy is commonly prescribed for treating bacterial infections and diabetes, even though both drugs are mainly excreted via the kidney. Thus, this study was designed to investigate whether a Korean red ginseng extract (KRG) prevents renal impairment and pharmacokinetic changes by metformin in rats with renal failure induced by gentamicin. The in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro hepatic/intestinal metabolism of metformin were assessed using control (CON), control with Korean red ginseng extract (KRG-CON), acute renal failure induced by gentamicin (ARF), and ARF with Korean red ginseng (KRG-ARF) rats. Pharmacokinetic changes of metformin did not occur in KRG-ARF rats because KRG reduce the renal accumulation of gentamicin compared to ARF rats. Thus, KRG seemed to prevent acute renal failure induced by gentamicin treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

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    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  16. Simultaneous determination of 30 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng preparations using ultra performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Han, Sung-Tai; Lee, Myoung-Woo; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Gyeong-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo

    2013-01-01

    A quick and simple method for simultaneous determination of the 30 ginsenosides (ginsenoside Ro, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(R)-Rg2, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rh1, 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, F1, F2, F4, Ra1, Rg6, Rh4, Rk3, Rg5, Rk1, Rb3, Rk2, Rh3, compound Y, compound K, and notoginsenoside R1) in Panax ginseng preparations was developed and validated by an ultra performance liquid chromatography photo diode array detector. The separation of the 30 ginsenosides was efficiently undertaken on the Acquity BEH C-18 column with gradient elution with phosphoric acids. Especially the chromatogram of the ginsenoside Ro was dramatically enhanced by adding phosphoric acid. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits were 0.4 to 1.7 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the 30 ginsenosides were linear over three orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was tested by a recovery measurement of the spiked samples which yielded good results of 89% to 118%. From these overall results, the proposed method may be helpful in the development and quality of P. ginseng preparations because of its wide range of applications due to the simultaneous analysis of many kinds of ginsenosides. PMID:24235860

  17. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng

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    Eunji Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compound K (CK is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng. There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods: To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. Results: CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors—filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2—were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Conclusion: Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level. Keywords: compound K, melanogenesis, Panax ginseng, skin protection, UVB irradiation

  18. Biological Activities and Cell Proliferation effects of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extracts

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    Sung-Yeoun Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS are continuously produced at a high rate as a by-product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical, ROS such as hydrogen peroxide(H2O2, nitric oxide(NO increases with age. Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. In this study, we have conducted to investigate the pharmacological effects of red ginseng for the development possibility to pharmacopuncture drug sources or healthy aid foods. Methods: For our aims, it was investigated the biological activities of Red Ginseng ethanol extracts (RGEE by measuring total polyphenol contents, total flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and cell viability of MCF 10A and SK-MEL-2 in vitro with MTT assay method. Results: The total polyphenol contents of RGEE was 3.060.11mg/g in 10mg/ml, the total flavonoid contents of RGEE was 1.350.01mg/g in same concentration. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was about 80% and that of DPPH activity was 65% in 50mg/ml of RGEE. The cell viability of SKMEL-2, skin cancer cell line was decreased and that of MCF 10A, skin normal cell line was increased. Conclusions: We conclude that RGEE may be useful as potential functional foods or pharmacopuncture drug sources on the diseases induced by oxidant stress.

  19. Korean red ginseng extract ameliorates skin lesions in NC/Nga mice: an atopic dermatitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2011-01-27

    Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has traditionally been considered to harbor anti-allergic effects, however its action on atopic dermatitis (AD) is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of KRG on AD using NC/Nga mice as an AD model. In addition, we examined the effect of aprepitant (substance P specific neurokinin receptor antagonist) on AD. The KRG extract and aprepitant were administered orally to NC/Nga mice. The efficacy of KRG and aprepitant was evaluated by assessing total clinical severity score, ear thickness, serum IgE level and histology. In addition, mRNA and protein expression were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The KRG extract significantly reduced the total clinical severity score, ear thickness and the level of serum IgE in AD mouse model, whereas aprepitant reduced only the serum IgE level. KRG not only decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ and substance P but also reduced the infiltration of FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD1a+ Langerhans cells in the lesions, whereas aprepitant decreased only substance P and the infiltration of Treg cells. These results suggest that KRG extract may be a potential therapeutic modality for AD and aprepitant could be used as adjunctive agent to control pruritus in AD. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical composition, and cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil from ginseng leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Yanbing; Liu, Jianzeng; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Hao; Zhao, Daqing

    2014-06-01

    Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, the essential oil of ginseng leaves (EOGL), collected using hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, contained a complex mixture of aliphatic (69.0%), terpenoid (21.5%) and aromatic compounds (2.4%). Among 54 components identified, the major ones were palmitic acid (36.1%), beta-farnesene (15.4%), linoleic acid (9.8%) and phytol (5.6%). In the cytotoxicity study, EOGL exhibited obvious cytotoxic activities against different cancer cell lines, including Hela, A549, ZR-75-1, HT-29, SGC7901 and B16 cells. Furthermore, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay indicated that EOGL can induce late apoptosis of ZR-75-1 cells, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.9% to 5.6% and 67.4%). In addition to this, we also found that EOGL exhibited weak DPPH radical scavenging (12.0 +/- 0.4 mg/mL) and ABTS radical scavenging activities (1.6 +/- 0.1 mg/mL), and showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The data suggest that EOGL, which possesses important biological activities, especially significant anticancer activity, could be a potential medicinal resource.

  1. Identification of suitable sites for mountain ginseng cultivation using GIS and geo-temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hag Mo; Choi, Soo Im; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore an accurate site identification technique using a geographic information system (GIS) and geo-temperature (gT) for locating suitable sites for growing cultivated mountain ginseng (CMG; Panax ginseng), which is highly sensitive to the environmental conditions in which it grows. The study site was Jinan-gun, South Korea. The spatial resolution for geographic data was set at 10 m × 10 m, and the temperatures for various climatic factors influencing CMG growth were calculated by averaging the 3-year temperatures obtained from the automatic weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Identification of suitable sites for CMG cultivation was undertaken using both a conventional method and a new method, in which the gT was added as one of the most important factors for crop cultivation. The results yielded by the 2 methods were then compared. When the gT was added as an additional factor (new method), the proportion of suitable sites identified decreased by 0.4 % compared with the conventional method. However, the proportion matching real CMG cultivation sites increased by 3.5 %. Moreover, only 68.2 % corresponded with suitable sites identified using the conventional factors; i.e., 31.8 % were newly detected suitable sites. The accuracy of GIS-based identification of suitable CMG cultivation sites improved by applying the temperature factor (i.e., gT) in addition to the conventionally used factors.

  2. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

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    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  3. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice

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    Lei Bao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng is an edible and medicinal Chinese herb, which is often used in Asian countries for physical fitness. Ginseng is reported to have a wide range of biological activity and pharmaceutical properties. There were more studies on ginsenosides and polysaccharides, but fewer studies on ginseng oligopeptides (GOP, which are small molecule oligopeptides isolated from ginseng. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of GOP in mice and explore the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were randomly divided into four experimental sets for the detection of different indicators. Each set of mice were then divided into four groups. The control group was administered distilled water, and three GOP intervention groups were administered 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, of GOP by gavage each day. After 30 days of GOP treatment, it was observed that GOP could significantly increase the forced swimming time, enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity and hepatic glycogen levels, and retard the accumulation of serum urea nitrogen (SUN and blood lactic acid (BLA in mice. GOP also markedly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations of inoxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes. Notably, GOP increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content in skeletal muscles of mice. These results suggest that GOP possess anti-fatigue effects, which may be attributed to the inhibition of oxidative stress and the improvement of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscles. GOP could be a novel natural agent for relieving exercise fatigue.

  4. A comparative study on chemical composition of total saponins extracted from fermented and white ginseng under the effect of macrophage phagocytotic function

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    Dan Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, white ginseng was used as the raw material, which was fermented with Paecilomyces hepiali through solid culture medium, to produce ginsenosides with modified chemical composition. The characteristic chemical markers of the products thus produced were investigated using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC–QTOF–MS. Chemical profiling data were obtained, which were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis for the systematic comparison of active ingredients in white ginseng and fermented ginseng to understand the beneficial properties of ginsenoside metabolites. In addition, the effects of these components on biological activity were investigated to understand the improvements in the phagocytic function of macrophages in zebrafish. According to the established RRLC–QTOF–MS chemical profiling, the contents in ginsenosides of high molecular weight, especially malonylated protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, were slightly reduced due to the fermentation, which were hydrolyzed into rare and minor ginsenosides. Moreover, the facilitation of macrophage phagocytic function in zebrafish following treatment with different ginseng extracts confirmed that the fermented ginseng is superior to white ginseng. Our results prove that there is a profound change in chemical constituents of ginsenosides during the fermentation process, which has a significant effect on the biological activity of these compounds.

  5. Cama-de-frango em mono e policultivo de fáfia com cravo-de-defunto e manjericão Poultry manure in mono and intercrop of Brazilian ginseng with marigold and basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenise C Barboza

    2010-09-01

    os policultivos foram efetivos.This study was carried out in field of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, in Dourados, Brazil, during the period from March 2005 to September 2006. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen yield under monocropping system or intercropped with Tagetes erecta L. and Ocimum basilicum L, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol, using semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM. The study objects were Brazilian ginseng (BG, marigold (M and basil (B under monocropping and the intercropping of two Brazilian ginseng, three marigold (BG2M3 and three basil (BG2B3 lines, all of them with or without semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM as fertilizer. Ten treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design, with four replications. Fresh and dry weight production from shoot of Brazilian ginseng were higher (13.22 t ha-1 and 4.39 t ha-1, respectively under monocropping, independently of the use of poultry manure. Nevertheless, none of experimental designs influenced the dry and fresh weight production or root number of Brazilian ginseng which produced average values of 10.02 and 2.07 t ha-1 and 417,916 roots ha-1, respectively. Root diameter was higher (23.5 mm under intercropping system with basil. Dry and fresh weight of marigold flowers were higher (14.28 t ha-1and 1.278 t ha-1, respectively when intercropped with Brazilian ginseng, but only fresh weight of the flowers was increased (14.17 t ha-1 by poultry manure application. Basil shoot production was higher (52.91 t ha-1 when intercropped, independently of the used species; however, they were not influenced by the use of poultry manure. Land equivalent ration (LER for the Brazilian ginseng intercropped with marigold was 2.15 under poultry manure application and 1.99 without it, and for the basil 2.44 under poultry manure application and 3.08 without it. Values higher than 1.0 indicate that the intercropping systems were effective.

  6. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  7. Effect of Red Ginseng on Genotoxicity and Health-Related Quality of Life after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Seung Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of red ginseng on toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL and survival after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. A total of 30 patients with EOC were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 15 and red ginseng groups (n = 15. All patients took placebo or red ginseng (3000 mg/day for three months. Then, we compared changes of genotoxicity, HRQL and survival between the two groups. As a result, red ginseng reduced micronuclei yield in comparison with placebo despite no difference of binucleated cells index. Although red ginseng increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly, they were within the normal value. Moreover, there were no differences in adverse events between placebo and red ginseng groups. In terms of HRQL, red ginseng was associated with improved emotional functioning and decreased symptoms of fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dyspnea, reduced anxiety and interference affecting life and improved daytime somnolence. However, there was no effect of red ginseng on prognosis of EOC. Conclusively, red ginseng may be safe and effective to reduce genotoxicity and improve HRQL despite no benefit of survival in patients with EOC who received chemotherapy.

  8. Antifatigue Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sa-Ra; Lee, Jin-Seok; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in 90 subjects (21 men and 69 women) with idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed trial. A bespoke 20% ethanol extract of P. ginseng (1 g or 2 g day–1) or a placebo was administered to each group for 4 weeks, and then fatigue severity was monitored using a self-rating numeric scale (NRS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) as a primary endpoint. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH) contents and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity were determined. After 4-week, P. ginseng administration decreased the total NRS score, but they were not statistically significant compared with placebo (P>0.05). Mental NRS score was significantly improved by P. ginseng administrations as 20.4±5.0 to 15.1±6.5 [95% CI 2.3∼8.2] for 1 g and 20.7±6.3 to 13.8±6.2 [95% CI −0.1∼4.2] for 2 g compared with placebo 20.9±4.5 to 18.8±2.9 [95% CI 4.1∼9.9, Pginseng significantly reduced the VAS score from 7.3±1.3 to 4.4±1.8 [95% CI 0.7∼1.8] compared with the placebo 7.1±1.0 to 5.8±1.3 [95% CI 2.2 ∼3.7, Pginseng compared to placebo. P. ginseng 1 g increased GSH concentration and GSH-Rd activity. Our results provide the first evidence of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng in patients with ICF, and we submit that these changes in antioxidant properties contribute in part to its mechanism. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) KCT0000048 PMID:23613825

  9. Effects of ionizing energy treatment on the quality of ginseng products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M. R.; Paré, J. R. Jocelyn

    Pre-established doses were applied to Panax ginseng powders for determining the effects of γ-irradiation on the quality of samples from the microbiological, some physico-chemical and organoleptic points of view. Irradiation at 5 kGy was sufficient not only to reduce total bacterial counts (1.28 × 10 5/g) by about 3 orders of magnitude but to eliminate coliforms, yeast and molds during three months of storage at 30°C and 50-60% RH. An established dose of 5 kGy caused little change in pH, acidity, TBA number, pigments, color, and overall acceptability of the sample, however there was a significant change in color and appearance of the irradiated sample at 10 kGy where all microorganisms were destroyed.

  10. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  11. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  12. Degradation of 14C-lindane in soils of planting ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengguo; Zhao Jing; Yao Jianren

    1992-01-01

    14 C-Lindane was used to study degradation of Lindane (γ-BHC) in different types of soil of planting ginseng. Results indicated that Lindane was very slowly mineralized after a 228 day's incubation period in closed system. It took about 9 years to completely mineralize Lindane in the chernozem, and 11 years in the brown calcareous at 20 ppm in the soils. In addition, the rate of Lindane mineralized depended on population and number of microorganism. In this test the fungi played more important role than the bacteria in the Lindane mineralization. 14 C-Lindane residues extracted from the soils were 77.43%-80.54%, and Lindane residues associated with the soils were 13.11%-20.77%

  13. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  14. Ginseng Rb fraction protects glia, neurons and cognitive function in a rat model of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangning Xu

    Full Text Available The loss and injury of neurons play an important role in the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases, while both microgliosis and astrocyte loss or dysfunction are significant causes of neuronal degeneration. Previous studies have suggested that an extract enriched panaxadiol saponins from ginseng has more neuroprotective potential than the total saponins of ginseng. The present study investigated whether a fraction of highly purified panaxadiol saponins (termed as Rb fraction was protective for both glia and neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons, against kainic acid (KA-induced excitotoxicity in rats. Rats received Rb fraction at 30 mg/kg (i.p., 40 mg/kg (i.p. or saline followed 40 min later by an intracerebroventricular injection of KA. Acute hippocampal injury was determined at 48 h after KA, and impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory as well as delayed neuronal injury was determined 16 to 21 days later. KA injection produced significant acute hippocampal injuries, including GAD67-positive GABAergic interneuron loss in CA1, paralbumin (PV-positive GABAergic interneuron loss, pyramidal neuron degeneration and astrocyte damage accompanied with reactive microglia in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. There was also a delayed loss of GAD67-positive interneurons in CA1, CA3, hilus and dentate gyrus. Microgliosis also became more severe 21 days later. Accordingly, KA injection resulted in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment. Interestingly, the pretreatment with Rb fraction at 30 or 40 mg/kg significantly protected the pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons against KA-induced acute excitotoxicity and delayed injury. Rb fraction also prevented memory impairments and protected astrocytes from KA-induced acute excitotoxicity. Additionally, microglial activation, especially the delayed microgliosis, was inhibited by Rb fraction. Overall, this study demonstrated that Rb fraction protected both

  15. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on sorption properties and microbiological quality of white ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Lee, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial populations of exportable and domestic white ginseng powders, which have been problems in quality control, were higher than the legally-permissive level of microorganisms as 5x10 4 g in total bacteria and as negative coliforms. Various microorganisms contaminated in the sample were effectively decontaminated by gamma irradiation at below 10 kGy as well as ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation. The radiosensitivity of microorganisms was the highest in coliforms, followed by molds and aerobic bacteria (D 10 : 1.25 kGy). The good microbiological quality could be retained in white ginseng powders for more than 7 months of storage at 30 per mille 2 deg. C irrespective of relative humidities if products are prepared with a lower moisture content below 10% and treated by gamma irradiation at 5 to 10 kGy in an airtight packaging

  16. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Na, Ha-Young; Kim, Hong-Bae; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center study in 60 subjects who were not taking drugs that could affect metabolic and vascular functions. Subjects were randomized into either a KRG (4.5 g/d) group or a placebo group for a 12-week study. We collected anthr...

  17. Ginseng and Borderland : Territorial Boundaries and Political Relations between Qing China and Chosŏn Korea, 1636–1912

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seonmin

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng and Borderland explores the territorial boundaries and political relations between Qing China and Chosŏn Korea during the period from the early seventeenth to the late nineteenth centuries. By examining a unique body of materials written in Chinese, Manchu, and Korean, and building on recent studies in New Qing History, Seonmin Kim adds new perspectives to current understandings of the remarkable transformation of the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636–1912) from a tribal state to a universal ...

  18. Efficacy of Polyphenon E, Red Ginseng, and Rapamycin on Benzo(apyrene-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in A/J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of several novel agents in preventing lung tumorigenesis in mice. We evaluated polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin in A/J mice treated with the tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(apyrene for their ability to inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth. We found that treatment with polyphenon E exhibited a significant reduction on both tumor multiplicity and tumor load (tumor multiplicity × tumor volume in a dose-dependent fashion. Polyphenon E (2% wt/wt in the diet reduced tumor multiplicity by 46% and tumor load by 94%. This result provided key evidence in support of a phase II clinical chemoprevention trial of lung cancer. Administration of red ginseng in drinking water decreased tumor multiplicity by 36% and tumor load by 70%. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin showed significant efficacy against lung tumor growth in the tumor progression protocol and reduced tumor load by 84%. The results of these investigations demonstrate that polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin significantly inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth in A/J mice.

  19. Panax ginseng Fraction F3 Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Protects against Oxidative Stress in ARPE-19 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Chi; Koo, Malcolm; Yu, Zer-Ran; Wang, Be-Jen

    2016-10-13

    In our previous work, the ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was successively partitioned using supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures in series to yield residue (R), F1, F2, and F3 fractions. Among them, F3 contained the highest deglycosylated ginsenosides and exerted the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of P. ginseng fractions against cellular oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Viability of adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells was examined after treatments of different concentrations of fractions followed by exposure to H₂O₂. Oxidative levels (malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and levels of activity of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results showed that F3 could dose-dependently protected ARPE-19 cells against oxidative injury induced by H₂O₂. F3 at a level of 1 mg/mL could restore the cell death induced by H₂O₂ of up to 60% and could alleviate the increase in cellular oxidation (MDA, 8-OHdG, and ROS) induced by H₂O₂. Moreover, F3 could restore the activities of antioxidant enzymes suppressed by H₂O₂. In conclusion, F3 obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation could significantly increase the antioxidant capacity of P. ginseng extract. The antioxidant capacity was highly correlated with the concentration of F3.

  20. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  1. Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Bum; An, Yu Ri; Kim, Seung Jun; Park, Hye-Won; Jung, Jin-Wook; Kyung, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seung Yong; Kim, Young-Sook

    2012-01-30

    Ginseng saponin and ginsenosides exert anti-obesity effects via the modulation of physiological lipid metabolism in vivo or intracellular signalling in cell culture systems. However, the complicated relationship between the anti-obesity effects of ginseng and gene expression has yet to be defined under in vivo conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the anti-obesity effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) and hepatic gene expression profiles in mice fed long-term on a high-fat diet (HFD) in this study. KRGE reduces the levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides, and atherogenic indices. Levels of leptin, adiponectin and insulin, which regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, were impaired profoundly by HFD. However, KRGE treatment brought these levels back to normal. KRGE was found to down-regulate genes associated with lipid metabolism or cholesterol metabolism (Lipa, Cyp7a1, Il1rn, Acot2, Mogat1, Osbpl3, Asah3l, Insig1, Anxa2, Vldlr, Hmgcs1, Sytl4, Plscr4, Pla2g4e, Slc27a3, Enpp6), all of which were up-regulated by HFD. KRGE regulated the expression of genes associated with abnormal physiology via HFD. Leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism, were shown to be modulated by KRGE. These results show that KRGE is effective in preventing obesity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials. PMID:23043278

  3. Fast quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer) by using solid-phase methylation coupled to direct analysis in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; He, Yangfang; Li, Lele; Liu, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    A fast quantitative method for ginsenosides is essential to minimize analysis time; direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) has the potential to be used for this purpose. However, in order to produce ginsenosides, a derivatization such as methylation is required because the strong polarity of ginsenosides makes it difficult to desorp and ionize them in DART-MS. The main objectives of this study were to achieve fast detection and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by using DART-MS; solid-phase methylation of ginsenosides has been accomplished in a reaction column; methylated products of ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf and Rg1 were analyzed by applying DART-MS where samples could be detected after methylation without the need for further purification. For quantitative analysis, deuterated methylated ginsenosides were prepared by using the solid-phase methylation method and used as internal standards to improve repeatability in DART-MS. Methylated ginsenosides produced protonated molecules [M + H](+) and fragment ions in DART-MS. Two pairs of ginsenoside isomers, Rd/Re (C48 H82 O18 , MW 946) and Rf/Rg1(C42 H72 O14 , MW 800), could be discriminated based on their characteristic fragments in tandem mass spectrometry. By using deuterated methylated ginsenosides as internal standards, fast quantitative analysis of ginsenosides Rb1, Re and Rg1 in Asian ginseng was achieved by DART-MS. DART-MS is a feasible technique for fast quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by assisted methylation and the deuterated internal standard technique. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Siberian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatigue syndrome, diabetes, high cholesterol, improving loss of sensation in extremities (peripheral neuropathy), fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, reducing the effects of a hangover, flu, colds, chronic bronchitis, and tuberculosis. It is also used ...

  5. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    equation are the same as the poles of the close loop system. Ideally, a desired performance can be achieved a control system by adjusting the location of roots in the s-plane by varying one or mo system parameters. Root-locus Method is a line. 8023278605. AIDED ROOT. AIDED ROOT-LOCUS NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE.

  6. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  7. Native American Women: Leadership Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothy L.

    1978-01-01

    Personal rewards for American Indian women in bicultural leadership roles are largely lacking due to the dilemmas rooted in the ambiguity of the two social structures between which they move. Despite strains and pressures, many of these women are making their voices heard on native American issues. (Author/GC)

  8. [Screening and identification of an endophytic bacterium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity from Panax ginseng and its effect on host growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Jiang, Yun; Chen, Changqing; Zhang, Guanjun; Li, Tong; Tong, Bin; Xu, Peng

    2014-07-04

    This study aimed to screen endophytic bacteria with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity from Panax ginseng and test the capability of growth promotion to its host. In total 120 endophytic bacterial strains isolated from Panax ginseng were screened for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity using the qualitative and quantitative methods. The obtained strain was also tested for its ability of nitrogen fixation using the Ashby agar plates and the gene of nifH, for its ability of phosphate solubilization using the Pikovaskaia's plates and quantitative analysis of Mo-Sb-Ascrobiology acid colorimetry, for its ability of producing siderophores using the method of Chrome azurol S detecting, and its effect on promoting growth of Panax ginseng by laboratory and field experiments. The bacterial strain with ACC deaminase was identified based on morphology, physiological and biochemical traits, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The bacterial stain JJ8-3 with the ability of producing ACC deaminase activity was obtained through screening, which its ACC deaminase activity was alpha-ketobutyric acid 6.7 micromol/(mg x h). Strain JJ8-3 had other traits of phosphate solubilizing, nitrogen fixation, producing siderophores, and the ability of promoting growth of Panax ginseng. Strain JJ8-3 was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Strain JJ8-3 of endophytic bacterium with ACC deaminase activity from Panax ginseng was obtained and would lay the foundation for its further study and application on plant growth promotion.

  9. Production of dammarane-type sapogenins in rice by expressing the dammarenediol-II synthase gene from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Lin, Juncheng; Cheng, Zuxin; Xu, Ming; Huang, Xinying; Yang, Zhijian; Zheng, Jingui

    2015-10-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active ingredients in Chinese medicinal ginseng; 2,3-oxidosqualene is a precursor metabolite to ginsenosides that is present in rice. Because rice lacks a key rate-limiting enzyme (dammarenediol-II synthase, DS), rice cannot synthesize dammarane-type ginsenosides. In this study, the ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Mey.) DS gene (GenBank: AB265170.1) was transformed into rice using agrobacterium, and 64 rice transgenic plants were produced. The Transfer-DNA (T-DNA) insertion sites in homozygous lines of the T2 generation were determined by using high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR) and differed in all tested lines. One to two copies of the T-DNA were present in each transformant, and real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the transformed DS gene could be transcribed and highly expressed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the dammarane-type sapogenin 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) content was 0.35-0.59 mg/g dw and the dammarane-type sapogenin 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) content was 0.23-0.43 mg/g dw in the transgenic rice. LC/MS analysis confirmed production of PPD and PPT. These results indicate that a new "ginseng rice" germplasm containing dammarane-type sapogenins has been successfully developed by transforming the ginseng DS gene into rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vegetative Propagation and the Genetic Improvement of North American Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    Progress and problems in vegetative propagation of important North American hardwoods are reviewed with emphasis on rooting cuttings and the application of propagation techniques in breeding research. Some problems in rooting physiology are discussed.

  11. Panax ginseng aqueous extract prevents pneumococcal sepsis in vivo by potentiating cell survival and diminishing inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Luong, Truc Thanh; Lee, Seung Yeop; Kim, Gyu Lee; Kwon, Hyogyoung; Lee, Hong-Gyun; Park, Chae-Kyu; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-10-15

    More than 50% of sepsis cases are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and hospital mortality related to sepsis comprises 52% of all hospital deaths. Therefore, sepsis is a medical emergency, and any treatment against the agent that produces it, is welcome. The role of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) aqueous extract in bacterial infection in vivo is not well understood. Here, the protective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract against pneumococcal infection and sepsis was elucidated. In this study, mice were administrated KRG (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) for 15 days, and then infected with a lethal S. pneumoniae strain. Survival rate, body weight, and colonization were determined. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were infected with S. pneumoniae and cell viability was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inflammation was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining while gene expression was determined using western blotting. KRG-pre-treated mice (100 mg/kg of KRG) had significantly higher survival rates and body weights than those of the non-treated controls; KRG-pre-treated mice had lower bacterial number and morbidity than those of the non-treated controls. 100 mg/kg of KRG administration decreased cytokine levels including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (897 and 623 pg/ml, control and KRG groups, respectively, P < 0.05) and interleukin (IL)-1β (175 and 127 pg/ml, control and KRG groups, respectively, P = 0.051), nitric oxide level (149 and 81 nM, control and KRG groups, respectively, P < 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration 48 h post-infection, in vivo. In pneumococcal infection, KRG pre-treatment downregulated toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TNF-ɑ expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and increased cell survival by activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling. Taken together, 100 mg/kg of KRG appeared to protect host cells from lethal

  12. Comparing root architectural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in several soil processes (Gregory 2006). Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and energy and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architectural models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that are able to simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system (Dunbabin et al. 2013). Still, a systematic comparison of the different root architectural models is missing. In this work, we focus on discrete root architecture models where roots are described by connected line segments. These models differ (a) in their model concepts, such as the description of distance between branches based on a prescribed distance (inter-nodal distance) or based on a prescribed time interval. Furthermore, these models differ (b) in the implementation of the same concept, such as the time step size, the spatial discretization along the root axes or the way stochasticity of parameters such as root growth direction, growth rate, branch spacing, branching angles are treated. Based on the example of two such different root models, the root growth module of R-SWMS and RootBox, we show the impact of these differences on simulated root architecture and aggregated information computed from this detailed simulation results, taking into account the stochastic nature of those models. References Dunbabin, V.M., Postma, J.A., Schnepf, A., Pagès, L., Javaux, M., Wu, L., Leitner, D., Chen, Y.L., Rengel, Z., Diggle, A.J. Modelling root-soil interactions using three-dimensional models of root growth, architecture and function (2013) Plant and Soil, 372 (1-2), pp. 93 - 124. Gregory (2006) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science 57: 2-12.

  13. Effects of taurine and/or ginseng and their mixture on lipid profile and some parameters indicative of myocardial status in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Abbass Sayed Saleh

    2012-10-01

    The results indicated that the administration of taurine or ginseng showed a remarkable amelioration in glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin and free T3 levels. The maximum amelioration in the level of glucose, HbA1C, insulin and free T3 occurred in diabetic rats that received the mixture of taurine and ginseng. Additionally, treatment of diabetic rats with two antioxidants induced a significant reduction in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein levels. The antioxidants also displayed a significant decrease in the activities of cardiac enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and the levels of serum endothelin-1 with a significant elevation in the levels of serum total nitric oxide (TNO in the diabetic animals group. The results suggest that a combination treatment between taurine and ginseng might represent the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD which is related to diabetic disorder.

  14. Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, YOUNG OCK; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; WON, HANSOL; NAH, SEONG-SU; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; KIM, HYUNG-KI; KWON, JUN-TACK; KIM, HAK-JAE

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:25394395

  15. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension

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    I-Ju Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP, 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18 and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20. Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (P<0.05 and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (P<0.05. More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (P<0.01. Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH.

  16. Background Reduction around Prompt Gamma-ray Peaks from Korean White Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. N.; Sun, G. M.; Moon, J. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. E. [Chung-buk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is recognized as a very powerful and unique nuclear method in terms of its non-destruction, high precision, and no time-consuming advantages. This method is used for the analysis of trace elements in various types of sample matrix such as metallurgical, environmental, biological samples, etc. When a spectrum is evaluated, background continuum is a major disturbing factor for a precise and accurate analysis. Furthermore, a prompt gamma spectrum is complicate with a wide range. To make the condition free from this limitation, a reduction of the background is important for the PGAA analysis. The background-reducing methods are divided into using the electronic equipment like a suppression mode and principal component analysis (PCA) based on a multivariate statistical method. In PGAA analysis, Lee et al. compared the background reduction methods like PCA and wavelet transform for the prompt gamma-ray spectra. Lim et al. have applied the multivariate statistical method to the identification of the peaks with low-statistics from the explosives. In this paper, effective reduction of background in the prompt gamma spectra using the PCA is applied to the prompt gammaray peaks from Korean Baeksam (Korean white ginseng)

  17. Improved penetration of wild ginseng extracts into the skin using low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seoul Hee; Hae Choi, Jeong; Song, Yeon Suk; Lee, Hae-June; Hong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

    2018-04-01

    Wild ginseng (WG) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant that grows in natural environments in deep mountains. WG has been thought to exert potent physiological and medicinal effects, and, recently, its use in skin care has attracted much interest. This study investigated the efficient penetration of WG extracts into the skin by means of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP), and its effects on the skin at the cellular and tissue levels. NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HRM-2 hairless mice were used to confirm the improved absorption of WG extracts into the skin using LTAPP. The gene expression levels in NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes in skin tissues after WG treatment were monitored using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although WG extracts did not show any significant effects on proliferative activity and cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 1:800, it significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. In the in vivo study, the combinational treatment of LTAPP and WG markedly induced the expression of fibronectin and integrin α6, and it thickened. Our results showed that LTAPP treatment safely and effectively accelerated the penetration of the WG extracts into the skin, thereby increasing the effects of WG on the skin.

  18. Effects of Antrodia camphorata and Panax ginseng supplementation on anti-fatigue properties in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lee, Mon-Chien; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsieh, City C

    2018-02-20

    Antrodia camphorata and Panax ginseng are well-known medicinal plants in Taiwan folk and traditional Chinese medicine, which have been reported for multifunctional bioactivities. However, there is limited evidence that a fixed combination formula of these two plant extracts is effective for the exercise improvement or anti-fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of the mix formulation of these two herbal medicines (AG formulation) on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n=10 per group) were orally administered AG formulation for 4 weeks at 0.984, 2.952 and 5.904 g/kg/day, which were designated the Vehicle, AG-1X, AG-3X and AG-6X groups, respectively. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine kinase (CK) after a swimming exercise. The exhaustive swimming time of the 1X, 3X or 6X AG group was significantly longer than that of the Vehicle group, and the forelimb grip strength of the 1X, 3X or 6X AG group was also significantly higher than that of the Vehicle group. AG supplementation also produced decreases in serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK activity after the swimming test, as well as increases in glucose. Therefore, the AG complex could be a potential formulation with an anti-fatigue pharmacological effect.

  19. Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Compound K Isolated from Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Ju, Sung Hee; Oh, Jisun; Lee, Seung Kwon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-04-13

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of compound K derived from red ginseng on memory function in mouse model and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Compound K induced antioxidant enzymes in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated manner, and effectively attenuated cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage induced by glutamate in HT22 cells. However, the cytoprotective effect by compound K was abolished by heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, tin protophorphyrin IX, suggesting that neuroprotective effect of compound K was caused by its Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidant enzymes. Further, memory deficit induced by scopolamine was restored by compound K, which did not inhibit acetylcholine esterase, in C57BL/6 mice but not in Nrf2 knockout mice as assessed by passive avoidance test, Y-maze and water maze tests, suggesting that scopolamine-induced memory impairment was overcome by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes by the compound K. Overall, our data indicate that compound K could be useful in prevention and treatment of reactive oxygen species-induced neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Positive Selection Driving Cytoplasmic Genome Evolution of the Medicinally Important Ginseng Plant Genus Panax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Panax L. (the ginseng genus is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species. Our results show that heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution rate is abundant in both of the two cytoplasmic genomes, with the mitochondrial genome possessing more variants at the total level but the chloroplast showing higher sequence polymorphisms at the genic regions. Genome-wide scanning of positive selection identified five and 12 genes from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Functional analyses further revealed that these selected genes play important roles in plant development, cellular metabolism and adaptation. We therefore conclude that positive selection might be one of the potential evolutionary forces that shaped nucleotide variation pattern of these Panax species. In particular, the mitochondrial genes evolved under stronger selective pressure compared to the chloroplast genes.

  1. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  2. The Effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius on Thermoregulation in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin Na; Do, Moon Ho; Her, You Ri

    2015-01-01

    We devised a study using animal models of hyperthermia and hypothermia and also attempted to accurately assess the effects of Panax ginseng (PG) and Panax quinquefolius (PQ) on body temperature using these models. In addition, we investigated the effects of PG and PQ in our animal models in high and low temperature environments. The results of our experiments show that mice with normothermia, hyperthermia, and hypothermia maintained their body temperatures after a certain period in accordance with the condition of each animal model. In our experiments of body temperature change in models of normal, low, or high room temperature, the hyperthermic model did not show any body temperature change in either the PG- or PQ-administered group. In the normal and low room temperature models, the group administered PG maintained body temperature, while the body temperature of the PQ-administered group was lower than or similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, the fact that PG increases body temperature could not be verified until now. We also showed that the effect of maintaining body temperature in the PG-administered group was superior in a hypothermia-prone low temperature environment. PMID:25709709

  3. Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

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    Hyo Jin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON, alcohol control (ET, and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively. Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays.

  4. Ginseng marc-derived low-molecular weight oligosaccharide inhibits the growth of skin melanoma cells via activation of RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Chang Won; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Jae Yeon; Park, Yong Il

    2015-12-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been traditionally consumed to prevent or treat various medical disorders due to its diverse health benefits. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng have been known to possess various pharmacological activities, including immune modulating, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity properties. Despite the increasing number of reports on the bioactivities of ginseng polysaccharides, little is known regarding the medicinal potential of ginseng-derived oligosaccharides. In this study, we prepared a lower-molecular weight oligosaccharide (GOS, MW. 2.2kDa) from ginseng polysaccharides (MW. 11-605kDa) by enzymatic degradation and evaluated for its immunostimulating activities in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. GOS was shown to be a glucan type oligosaccharide mainly containing glucose residues (97.48 in molar %). Treatment with GOS (100-500μg/ml) dose-dependently enhanced the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and NO in RAW 264.7 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that GOS dose-dependently induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB), which are upstream signalling molecules for cytokine production. While GOS was not cytotoxic to the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells at the concentration tested (up to 1000μg/ml), when B16F10 melanoma cells were co-cultured with the GOS-activated macrophages, the cell viability of melanoma cells was dose-dependently decreased through the induction of apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results suggested that ginseng marc-derived GOS has anti-cancer activity in vitro against melanoma cells by potentiating macrophage function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

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    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  6. Ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum use after breast cancer diagnosis and quality of life: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ping Bao

    Full Text Available To evaluate associations between quality of life (QOL and use of ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum among breast cancer survivors.Included in this study were 4,149 women with breast cancer who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. Ginseng use was assessed at 6-, 18-, and 36-month post-diagnosis surveys; G. lucidum use was assessed at the 6- and 36-month surveys. QOL was evaluated at the 6- and 36-month surveys. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between ginseng and G.lucidum use and QOL assessed at the 36-month survey, with adjustment for potential confounders and baseline QOL.At 6 months post-diagnosis, 14.2% of participants reported regular use of ginseng and 58.8% reported use of G. lucidum. We found no significant associations between ginseng use at 6, 18, and 36 months post-diagnosis and participants' total QOL score or individual scores for psychological, physical, or social well-being. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was positively associated with social well-being (adjusted mean difference: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.86, but was inversely associated with physical well-being (adjusted mean difference: -1.16; 95% CI: -1.86, -0.47 with a dose-response pattern observed for cumulative number of times of use (P for trend <0.001 for both.We found no evidence that post-diagnosis ginseng use improved the QOL of breast cancer survivors. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was associated with better social well-being scores, but poorer physical well-being scores.

  7. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qian; Pag?s, Lo?c; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system?s overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the f...

  8. Effect of fermented red ginseng on cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein activity in healthy subjects, as evaluated using the cocktail approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gul; Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Dal-Sik

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the drug interaction profile of fermented red ginseng with respect to the activity of major cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes and of a drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in healthy volunteers. This study was an open-label crossover study. The CYP probe cocktail drugs caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam and fexofenadine were administered before and after 2 weeks of fermented red ginseng administration. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the parameters were determined from logarithmically transformed data. Values were compared between before and after fermented red ginseng administration using analysis of variance (anova). Fifteen healthy male subjects were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as a poor CYP2C9, CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 metabolizer based on genotyping. Before and after fermented red ginseng administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.901 (0.830-0.979) for caffeine (CYP1A2) to paraxanthine, 0.774 (0.720-0.831) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.052 (0.925-1.197) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.150 (0.860-1.538) for dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) to dextrorphan, and 0.816 (0.673-0.990) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUC last ) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 1.322 (1.112-1.571). No significantly different drug interactions were observed between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates following the two-week administration of concentrated fermented red ginseng. However, the inhibition of P-gp was significantly different between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates. The use of fermented red ginseng requires close attention due to the potential for increased systemic exposure when it is used in

  9. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Kong, K F; Wu, H

    2010-01-01

    Virulent factors produced by pathogens play an important role in the infectious process, which is regulated by a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen, which causes infections in patients with compromised......-controlled virulence factors on the prototypic P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its isogenic mucoid variant (PAOmucA22) was determined. Ginseng did not inhibit the growth of the bacteria, enhanced the extracellular protein production and stimulated the production of alginate. However, ginseng suppressed the production of Las...

  10. 「人参葉」の生薬学的研究(第1報): Panax ginseng C. A. MEYERに由来する市場品

    OpenAIRE

    難波, 恒雄; 御影, 雅幸; 蔡, 少青; 楼, 之岑

    1988-01-01

    The botanical origin of Ginseng Folium (人参葉,Ren-shen-ye), a Chinese crude drug used for diseases of the viscera, is examined. The morphological and anatomical characteristics of the leaf and stem of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER cultivated in China for 1 to 5 or 6 years are described. It is found that the vessels increase in number and diameter, and also the vascular bundles increase in number, as the plant becomes old. The result shows that the commercial "Ren-shen-ye" samples on the markets of ...

  11. 「人参葉」の生薬学的研究(第1報) : Panax ginseng C. A. MEYERに由来する市場品

    OpenAIRE

    難波, 恒雄; 御影, 雅幸; 蔡, 少青; 楼, 之岑; TSUNEO, NAMBA; MASAYUKI, MIKAGE; SHAO-QING, CAI; ZHI-CEN, LOU; 富山医科薬科大学和漢薬研究所; 富山医科薬科大学和漢薬研究所; 富山医科薬科大学和漢薬研究所; 北京医科大学薬学院; Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University; Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University; Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University

    1988-01-01

    The botanical origin of Ginseng Folium (人参葉,Ren-shen-ye), a Chinese crude drug used for diseases of the viscera, is examined. The morphological and anatomical characteristics of the leaf and stem of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER cultivated in China for 1 to 5 or 6 years are described. It is found that the vessels increase in number and diameter, and also the vascular bundles increase in number, as the plant becomes old. The result shows that the commercial "Ren-shen-ye" samples on the markets of ...

  12. Tooth Eruption without Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the diffic...

  13. Root production method system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Lovelace

    2002-01-01

    The RPM system (Root Production Method) is a multistep production system of container tree production that places primary emphasis on the root system because the root system ultimately determines the tree's survival and performance in its outplanted environment. This particular container production system has been developed to facilitate volume production, in a...

  14. Armillaria root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    First described on grapevines in California in the 1880s, Armillaria root rot occurs in all major grape-growing regions of the state. The causal fungus, Armillaria mellea, infects woody grapevine roots and the base of the trunk (the root collar), resulting in a slow decline and eventual death of the...

  15. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, L.E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root

  16. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, Michel; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root

  17. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome probably induced by a lamotrigine-ginseng drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy P; Watson, Troy A; Strock, Steven B

    2015-03-01

    The likelihood of a drug reaction with lamotrigine is increased by dose escalation that is too rapid or drug interactions that increase the concentration of lamotrigine. There is a well-documented interaction between valproic acid and lamotrigine in which lamotrigine levels are increased, subsequently increasing the risk of a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, diffuse maculopapular rash, multivisceral involvement, eosinophilia, and atypical lymphocytes and has a mortality rate of 10-40%. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of DRESS syndrome that was probably induced by a drug interaction between lamotrigine and ginseng. A 44-year-old white man presented to the emergency department after experiencing a possible seizure. His medical history included two other lifetime events concerning for seizures at ages 14 and 29 years old. After referral to the neurology clinic, he was diagnosed with generalized tonic-clonic seizure disorder, and lamotrigine was started with up-titration according to the drug's package insert to a goal dosage of 150 mg twice/day. The patient had also been taking deer antler velvet and ginseng that he continued during his lamotrigine therapy. On day 43 of therapy, the patient presented to the emergency department with a pruritic rash that had started on his extremities and spread to his torso. He was thought to have experienced a drug reaction to lamotrigine, and the drug was discontinued. Thirteen days later, the patient was admitted from the acute care clinic for inpatient observation due to laboratory abnormalities in the setting of continued rash, headache, and myalgias. His admission laboratory results on that day were remarkable for leukocytosis, with a white blood cell count up to 17.6 × 10(3) /mm(3) , with a prominent eosinophilia of 3.04 × 10(3) /mm(3) ; his liver enzyme levels were also elevated, with an aspartate

  18. Electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks and Panax ginseng in healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin A; Occiano, Andrew; Nguyen, Tinh An; Chan, Amanda; Sky, Joseph C; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; O'Dell, Kate M; Shek, Allen; Nguyen, Nancy N

    2016-09-01

    Energy drink usage has been linked to emergency room visits and deaths. The objective of the study is to assess the electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks, Panax ginseng and placebo in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study. Young healthy volunteers with no comorbid conditions consumed 32oz of an energy drink, control drink with 800mg of Panax ginseng or matching placebo-control drink over 45min. Primary endpoints were QTc interval and systolic blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. All endpoints were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5.5h. A significant increase in QTc interval 2h post energy drink consumption was evident when compared to placebo (3.37±10.7ms and -3.19±11.8ms respectively; p=0.030). Similarly, systolic blood pressure 2h post energy drink consumption increased when compared to placebo (2.00±6.37mmHg and -2.67±5.83mmHg respectively; p=0.014). The PR interval significantly reduced over a 2h period post energy drink use in a clinically non-meaningful manner. Heart rate at 2h was not significantly higher in the energy drink group when compared to others. The QT interval, QRS interval and diastolic blood pressure were not impacted at any time point. Certain energy drinks consumed at a high volume significantly increase the QTc interval and systolic blood pressure by over 6ms and 4mmHg respectively. Panax ginseng does not have a significant impact on ECG or blood pressure parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Volatile Discrimination of Irradiated and Fumigated White Ginseng Powders at Different Storage Times and Temperatures Using the Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Shin, J.A.; Lee, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of volatile emissions from white ginseng powders (WGP) that were treated with selected preservatives was investigated during 5-months of storage (at-10 and 25℃) by an electronic nose system equipped with 12 metal-oxide sensors. WGP were treated with gamma radiation at 5 kGy, commercial methyl bromide (MeBr), and phosphine fumigations. Electronic nose differentiated the volatile patterns of the WGP with each different preservative treatment. In addition, each volatile pattern was affected by both storage time (1, 2 and 5 months) and temperature (-10 and 25℃)

  20. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice

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    Hyun-Jung Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related fatigue (CRF is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced CRF, the glycogen synthesis, and biochemical parameters in mice. The mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the naïve normal (normal, the HT-29 cell inoculated (xenograft, xenograft and 5-FU treated (control, xenograft + 5-FU + BST204-treated (100 and 200 mg/kg (BST204, and xenograft + 5-FU + modafinil (13 mg/kg treated group (modafinil. Running wheel activity and forced swimming test were used for evaluation of CRF. Muscle glycogen, serum inflammatory cytokines, aspartic aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine (CRE, white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEUT, red blood cell (RBC, and hemoglobin (HGB were measured. Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group. Consistent with the behavioral data, BST204 markedly increased muscle glycogen activity and concentrations of WBC, NEUT, RBC, and HGB. Also, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6, AST, ALT, and CRE levels in the serum were significantly reduced in the BST204-treated group compared to the control group. This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects.

  1. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract Involves Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 5

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    Eun Ju Im

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5, an inhibitor of Gα(q and Gα(i activation, has been reported to have antiatherosclerosis. Previous studies showed antiatherosclerotic effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE via multiple signaling pathways. However, potential protective effect of KRGE through RGS5 expression has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic effect of KRGE in vivo and in vitro and its role on RGS5 mRNA expression. Elevated levels of total cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and triglyceride (TG in western diet groups of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient LDLr−/− mice were reversed by oral administration of KRGE. KRGE suppressed transcriptional activity of tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and leptin in adipose tissue. It also potently repressed western diet-induced atheroma formation in aortic sinus. While KRGE showed reduced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, it enhanced mRNA expression of RGS5. Moreover, RGS5 siRNA transfection of microglia cells pretreated with KRGE reversed its inhibitory effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1β mRNA. In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr−/− mice and this effect could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression.

  2. Anticancer activity and potential mechanisms of 1C, a ginseng saponin derivative, on prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: AD-2 (20(R-dammarane-3b, 12b, 20, 25-tetrol; 25-OH-PPD is a ginsenoside and isolated from Panax ginseng, showing anticancer activity against extensive human cancer cell lines. In this study, effects and mechanisms of 1C ((20R-3b-O-(L-alanyl-dammarane-12b, 20, 25-triol, a modified version of AD-2, were evaluated for its development as a novel anticancer drug. Methods: MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell cytotoxic activity. Cell cycle and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting was employed to analyze signaling pathways. Results: 1C concentration-dependently reduces prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal human gastric epithelial cell line-1 viability. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, 1C triggered apoptosis via Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway, downregulated expression of mouse double minute 2, upregulated expression of p53 and stimulated ROS production. ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, can attenuate 1C-induced apoptosis. 1C also inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells through inhibition on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion: 1C shows obvious anticancer activity based on inducing cell apoptosis by Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway and ROS production, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrate that 1C may provide leads as a potential agent for cancer therapy. Keywords: 1C, AD-2, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, Wnt/β-catenin pathway

  3. Supplementation of Korean Red Ginseng improves behavior deviations in animal models of autism

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    Edson Luck T. Gonzales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that primarily display social and communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence has increased in recent years, yet very limited therapeutic targets and treatments are available to counteract the incapacitating disorder. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a popular herbal plant in South Korea known for its wide range of therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits and has recently been gaining great scientific attention, particularly for its positive effects in the central nervous system. Objectives: Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of KRG in alleviating the neurobehavioral deficits found in the valproic acid (VPA-exposed mice models of ASD. Design: Starting at 21 days old (P21, VPA-exposed mice were given daily oral administrations of KRG solution (100 or 200 mg/kg until the termination of all experiments. From P28, mice behaviors were assessed in terms of social interaction capacity (P28–29, locomotor activity (P30, repetitive behaviors (P32, short-term spatial working memory (P34, motor coordination (P36, and seizure susceptibility (P38. Results: VPA-exposed mice showed sociability and social novelty preference deficits, hyperactivity, increased repetitive behavior, impaired spatial working memory, slightly affected motor coordination, and high seizure susceptibility. Remarkably, long-term KRG treatment in both dosages normalized all the ASD-related behaviors in VPA-exposed mice, except motor coordination ability. Conclusion: As a food and herbal supplement with various known benefits, KRG demonstrated its therapeutic potential in rescuing abnormal behaviors related to autism caused by prenatal environmental exposure to VPA.

  4. Anti-fatigue activity of a mixture of seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis hydrolysate and red ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalae Kang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seahorse, a syngnathidae fish, is one of the important organisms used in Chinese traditional medicine. Hippocampus abdominalis, a seahorse species successfully cultured in Korea, was validated for use in food by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in February 2016; however. the validation was restricted to 50% of the entire composition. Therefore, to use H. abdominalis as a food ingredient, H. abdominalis has to be prepared as a mixture by adding other materials. In this study, the effect of H. abdominalis on muscles was investigated to scientifically verify its potential bioactivity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of a mixture comprising H. abdominalis and red ginseng (RG was evaluated to commercially utilize H. abdominalis in food industry. H. abdominalis was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, a protease, and the effect of H. abdominalis hydrolysate (HH on the muscles was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts by measuring cell proliferation and glycogen content. In addition, the mixtures comprising HH and RG were prepared at different percentages of RG to HH (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% RG, and the anti-fatigue activity of these mixtures against oxidative stress was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts. In C2C12 myoblasts, H2O2-induced oxidative stress caused a decrease in viability and physical fatigue-related biomarkers such as glycogen and ATP contents. However, treatment with RG and HH mixtures increased cell viability and the content of fatigue-related biomarkers. In particular, the 80% RG mixture showed an optimum effect on cell viability and ATP synthesis activity. In this study, all results indicated that HH had anti-fatigue activity at concentrations approved for use in food by the law in Korea. Especially, an 80% RG to HH mixture can be used in food for ameliorating fatigue.

  5. In vivo antimutagenic activity of the medicinal plants Pfaffia glomerata (Brazilian ginseng) and Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I V; Düsman, E; Mattge, G I; Toledo, F; Reusing, A F; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-09-27

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including the use of medicinal plants, have become almost standard among the world's population. Pfaffia glomerata (PG), popularly known as Brazilian ginseng, is widely used as a restorer of vital functions, increasing mental balance, and is used for the treatment of diabetes and rheumatism. Ginkgo biloba (GB) is one of the oldest known gymnosperms, whose leaves are widely used for its potentiating action on the nervous system. The biological activities of these plants were determined on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. For cytotoxic and mutagenic acute analysis, plant extracts were administered by gavage at concentrations of 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg PG/mL water and 1, 2, and 3 mg GB/mL water. For antimutagenic analysis, plant extracts aqueous solution (PG, 1.5 mg/mL or GB, 2 mg/mL) were administered by gavage before (pretreatment), simultaneous to (simultaneous treatment), or after (post-treatment) the administration of cyclophosphamide (1.5 mg/mL, intraperitoneally). Both plant extracts have no cytotoxic or mutagenic potential, and they significantly reduce the percentage of chromosomal aberrations induced by the cyclophosphamide given simultaneously (PG, 87%; GB, 75%), pretreatment (PG, 98%, GB, 78%) and post-treatment (PG, 99%, GB, 75%). This beneficial antimutagenic property of the medicinal plants P. glomerata and G. biloba presented here, with no cytotoxic or mutagenic activity, can efficiently contribute to improvements in quality of life and recovery for people undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment, or those looking for health and preventive habits.

  6. Effect of ginseng polysaccharides on NK cell cytotoxicity in immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaoyao; Guo, Mofei; Feng, Yuanjie; Zheng, Huifang; Lei, Ping; Ma, Xiande; Han, Xiaowei; Guan, Hongquan; Hou, Diandong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) on natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in immunosuppressed mice. Cyclophosphamide (Cy) was used to construct an immunosuppressed mouse model. The mice in each group were submitted to gavages with 200 or 400 mg/kg GPS every day for 10 days. Magnetic-activated cell sorting was used to isolate spleen NK cells, and the NK cell cytotoxicity, blood distribution, expression levels of perforin and granzyme, and the mRNA expression levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were detected. Compared with the normal control group, the cytotoxicity and proportion of NK cells in the blood, and the expression levels of perforin, granzyme and IFN-γ mRNA in the Cy model group were significantly reduced (Pcytotoxicity and proportion of NK cells in the whole blood, and the expression levels of perforin and granzyme in the NK cells in the Cy + low-dose GPS and Cy + high-dose GPS groups were significantly increased (P0.05). Compared with the normal control group, the cytotoxicity and proportion of NK cells in the whole blood, and the expression levels of perforin in the Cy + low-dose GPS and the Cy + high-dose GPS groups were significantly lower (P0.05). These results suggested that GPS promotes NK cell cytotoxicity in immunosuppressed mice by increasing the number of NK cells in the whole blood and upregulating the expression of perforin and granzyme. Thus, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying NK cell activation by GPS, the research showed that GPS have a wide application prospects in the treatment of cancer and immunodeficiency diseases.

  7. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Primary structures of two ribonucleases from ginseng calluses - New members of the PR-10 family of intracellular pathogenesis-related plant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseyev, GP; Fedoreyeva, LI; Zhuravlev, YN; Yasnetskaya, E; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ribonucleases from a callus cell culture of Panax ginseng were determined, The two sequences differ at 26% of the amino acid positions, Homology was found with a large family of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, food allergens and tree pollen allergens from

  9. A literature update elucidating production of Panax ginsenosides with a special focus on strategies enriching the anti-neoplastic minor ginsenosides in ginseng preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanya; Mathur, A K; Mathur, Archana

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng, an oriental gift to the world of healthcare and preventive medicine, is among the top ten medicinal herbs globally. The constitutive triterpene saponins, ginsenosides, or panaxosides are attributed to ginseng's miraculous efficacy towards anti-aging, rejuvenating, and immune-potentiating benefits. The major ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd., Re, and Rg1, formed after extensive glycosylations of the aglycone "dammaranediol," dominate the chemical profile of this genus in vivo and in vitro. Elicitations have successfully led to appreciable enhancements in the production of these major ginsenosides. However, current research on ginseng biotechnology has been focusing on the enrichment or production of the minor ginsenosides (the less glycosylated precursors of the major ginsenosides) in ginseng preparations, which are either absent or are produced in very low amounts in nature or via cell cultures. The minor ginsenosides under current scientific scrutiny include diol ginsenosides such as Rg3, Rh2, compound K, and triol ginsenosides Rg2 and Rh1, which are being touted as the next "anti-neoplastic pharmacophores," with better bioavailability and potency as compared to the major ginsenosides. This review aims at describing the strategies for ginsenoside production with special attention towards production of the minor ginsenosides from the major ginsenosides via microbial biotransformation, elicitations, and from heterologous expression systems.

  10. Black ginseng-enriched Chong-Myung-Tang extracts improve spatial learning behavior in rats and elicit anti-inflammatory effects in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our research for the first time provides the scientific evidence that consumption of black ginseng-enriched CMT extract as a brain tonic improves memory impairment. Thus, our study results can be taken as a reference for future neurobehavioral studies.

  11. Karyotype analysis of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, 1843 (Araliaceae based on rDNA loci and DAPI band distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomar Waminal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng has long been considered a valuable plant owing to its medicinal properties; however, genomic information based on chromosome characterization and physical mapping of cytogenetic markers has been very limited. Dual-color FISH karyotype and DAPI banding analyses of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, 1843 were conducted using 5S and 45S rDNA probes. The somatic chromosome complement was 2n=48 with lengths from 3.3 µm to 6.3 µm. The karyotype was composed of 12 metacentric, 9 submetacentric, and 3 subtelocentric pairs. The 5S rDNA probe localized to the intercalary region of the short arm of pair 11, while the 45S rDNA was located at the secondary constriction of the subtelocentric satellited chromosome 14. DAPI bands were clearly observed for most chromosomes, with various signal intensities and chromosomal distributions that consequently improved chromosome identification. As a result, all 24 chromosomes could be distinguished and numbers were assigned to each chromosome for the first time. The results presented here will be useful for the on-going ginseng genome sequencing and further molecular-cytogenetic studies and breeding programs of ginseng.

  12. Efficacy and safety of Panax ginseng berry extract on glycemic control: A 12-wk randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study suggests that ginseng berry extract has the potential to improve glucose metabolism in human, especially in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher. For a more meaningful benefit, further research in people with higher blood glucose levels is required.

  13. Root and Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary First Premolars: A Literature Review and Clinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ibrahim Ali; Alenezi, Mohammad Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Sound knowledge of the external and internal morphology of the different teeth groups is essential to ensure a successful outcome of root canal treatment. The aims of this study were to review the available literature with respect to the root and root canal morphology of maxillary first premolars and discuss the clinical considerations of this morphology on the various dental procedures. The MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for relevant literature. The identified publications were classified into anatomic studies and clinical case reports. The data extracted from anatomic studies were tabulated, and weighted averages for certain internal and external morphologic features were calculated. The anatomic and developmental variations in the clinical case reports were summarized. A total of 92 studies (45 anatomic studies and 47 case reports) including a total of 11,299 teeth were identified. The majority of maxillary first premolars had 1 root (41.7%) or 2 roots (56.6%). Regardless of the number of roots, the vast majority (86.6%) had 2 root canals, with type IV (2-2) being the most common canal configuration (64.8%). The majority of the apical foramina (66.6%) did not coincide with the apical root tip. About 38% of the teeth had lateral canals, 12.3% had apical deltas, and 16.0% had isthmi. The clinical case reports showed that the 3-rooted variant was the most common anatomic variation, and developmental anomalies were rarely reported. The maxillary first premolars are predominantly 2-rooted teeth with 2 root canals. However, the clinician should be aware about the possible anatomic variations of these teeth and their relationship with the adjacent anatomic structures while planning and performing endodontic, restorative, periodontal, and surgical procedures. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CompoundSchisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-LyciumExtract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra , Ginseng , Notoginseng , and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests. The mechanisms of CSGNL improving learning and memory were investigated by assaying acetylcholine (ACh) levels and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the brain tissues of treated mice. The results showed that CSGNL significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment, at least in part, by modulating ACh levels and ChAT and AChE activities in the mouse brain. Our data support the use of CSGNL as a functional food for learning and memory enhancement.

  15. Production of spherical granule from viscous red ginseng extracts for improving product fluency and preservation and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyu-Hee; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-01-01

    Viscose red ginseng extracts dried and coated using fluidized bed coater may broaden their application in food processing industry and increasing the consumer acceptance. The operating conditions of fluidized bed coater were optimized for obtaining high yield and uniform spherical granule. The physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics among the concentrates, the fluidized bed dried core particle and the spherical granules of red ginseng extract were compared. The preservative properties of these materials were also analyzed. The predicted maximum yield of spherical granule was 85.42%, at a feeding rate (FR) of 111.04 mL/min, an atomization air pressure (AP) 275.30 kPa, and a product temperature (PT) of 68.53 degrees C. Most of ginsenosides, which were known as functional material, did not show significant changes after granulation, while the flowability and water solubility increased. Also, for a 10-mo storage at 30 degrees C, the spherical granule was the most stable among the materials considered. It can be concluded that the application of fluidized bed coater can be used for making the food product of viscous extracts more valuable.

  16. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John's Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard

    2002-01-01

    Because use of herbal remedies is increasing, a risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbs is needed. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety of ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Wherever possible, assessments are based on systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials. Encouraging data support the efficacy of some of these popular herbal medicinal products, and the potential for doing good seems greater than that for doing harm. The published evidence suggests that ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tinnitus but has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication. St. John's wort is efficacious for mild to moderate depression, but serious concerns exist about its interactions with several conventional drugs. Well-conducted clinical trials do not support the efficacy of ginseng to treat any condition. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Saw palmetto has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kava is an efficacious short-term treatment for anxiety. None of these herbal medicines is free of adverse effects. Because the evidence is incomplete, risk-benefit assessments are not completely reliable, and much knowledge is still lacking.

  17. Chemical Comparison of Two Drying Methods of Mountain Cultivated Ginseng by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Fang; Xu, Shu-Ya; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Meng-Nan; Liu, Huan; Gao, Yan; Xue, Xue; Xiong, Hui; Lin, Rui-Chao; Li, Xiang-Ri

    2017-04-30

    In traditional Chinese medicine practice, drying method is an essential factor to influence the components of Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based approach was used to compare the content of chemical compounds of mountain cultivated ginseng that had been natural air dried (LX-P) and vacuum freeze-dried (LX-L). Multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to select the influential components of different samples. There were 41 ginsenosides unambiguously identified and tentatively assigned in both LX-L and LX-P. The results showed that the characteristic components in LX-P were ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rc, ginsenoside Rg6, dendrolasin, and ginsenoside Rb2. The characteristic components in LX-L were malonyl-ginsenoside Re, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1, malonyl-ginsenoside Rc, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1 isomer, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb2, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb3, malonyl-ginsenoside Rd isomer, gypenoside XVII, and notoginsenoside Fe. This is the first time that the differences between LX-L and LX-P have been observed systematically at the chemistry level. It was indicated that vacuum freeze-drying method can improve the content of malonyl-ginsensides in mountain cultivated ginseng.

  18. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against radiation-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Won; Park, Keun Hyung; Hwang, Hye Sook; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis is a dose-limiting toxic side effect for patients with head and neck cancer. Numerous attempts at improving radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment. Ginseng polysaccharide has multiple immunoprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and in an in vivo zebrafish model. Radiation inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation and migration in a cell viability assay and wound healing assay, respectively. KRG protected against these effects. KRG attenuated the radiation-induced embryotoxicity in the zebrafish model. Irradiation of HaCaT cells caused apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). KRG inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized the radiation-induced loss of MMP. Western blots revealed KRG-mediated reduced expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM), p53, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and cleaved caspase-3, compared with their significant increase after radiation treatment. The collective results suggest that KRG protects HaCaT cells by blocking ROS generation, inhibiting changes in MMP, and inhibiting the caspase, ATM, p38 and JNK pathways.

  19. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests. The mechanisms of CSGNL improving learning and memory were investigated by assaying acetylcholine (ACh levels and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities in the brain tissues of treated mice. The results showed that CSGNL significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment, at least in part, by modulating ACh levels and ChAT and AChE activities in the mouse brain. Our data support the use of CSGNL as a functional food for learning and memory enhancement.

  20. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...