WorldWideScience

Sample records for american ginseng root

  1. Isolation and determination of ginsenosides in American ginseng leaves and root extracts by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, T; Ludwiczuk, A; Wolski, T; Buszewski, B

    2005-12-01

    Ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) were extracted from the root and leaves of locally cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.). For the isolation of compounds from plant samples three different extraction methods were utilized: accelerated solvent extraction, the ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and mechanical shaking assisted solvent extraction. The separation of compounds was achieved with a water-acetonitrile gradient system using a C18 reversed-phase column. Target compounds were identified in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments. The relative distribution of these ginsenosides in each root and leaf extract was established. The limit of detection of the method was less than 30 ng/ml. Recovery of ginseng saponins in spiked samples exceeded 80%, while the relative standard deviation ranged from 7.1 to 9.1%. The total concentrations of ginsenosides were 41 and 13 mg/g in root and leaves.

  2. Construction and Characterization of a cDNA Expression Library for the North American Ginseng Root Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; WANG Kun; BAO Yong-li; WU Yin; MENG Xiang-ying; LI Yu-xin

    2007-01-01

    The root of Panax ginseng plant undergoes a specific developmental process to become a biosynthesis and accumulation tissue for ginsenosides. To identify and analyze genes involved in the biosynthesis of ginsenoside, we constructed and characterized a full-length cDNA library for 6-year-old North American ginseng. The titer of primary cDNA library is 1.2×106 pfu/mL, the titer of amplified library is 2.6×1010 pfu/mL and the rate of recombinant is above 86%. The insert size ranges from 0.3 to 2.0 kb. Sequencing results show that 18 of 58 genes are high homologous to the genes(GBR5, GBR3 and GBR1) known in GenBank, which are involved in biosynthesis of ginsenoside in North American ginseng plant; 16 of 58 genes are novel genes. The full-length cDNA library of North American ginseng root tissues is essential for the cloning of genes known and it is also an initial key for the screening and cloning of new genes.

  3. Dove Stewed with American Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; MIN

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:Three doves, 10g American ginseng, 5g salt, 10g cookingwine, 30g scallion and ginger, 3g MSG, 2g white pepperpowder, 5g sesame oil arid 700g broth.Method:1. Cook the doves in boiling water for a short while, softenthe American ginseng in lukewarm water, then cut it intopieces;, mince the scallion and ginger.2. Put the doves into a clay pot, add broth, sliced Americanginseng and flavorings. Bring to the boil, then reduce heatand stew gently until the doves are tender. Remove fromheat and place on a flat plate. Sprinkle the sesame oil andserve

  4. Red notoginseng: higher ginsenoside content and stronger anticancer potential than Asian and American ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, SHI; Qi, Lian-Wen; Du, Guang-Jian; MEHENDALE, SANGEETA R.; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and anticancer activities was performed among white (air-dried) and red (steamed) roots of notoginseng (NG, Panax notoginseng), Asian ginseng (AG, P. ginseng), and American ginseng (AmG, P. quinquefolius). Chemical profiles of different ginseng species were characterized, through simultaneous quantification of nineteen major ginsenosides, by HPLC-UV at 202 nm. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer cells were dete...

  5. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  6. Chemical and pharmacological studies of saponins with a focus on American ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chun-Su; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; Wicks, Sheila M.; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) are the two most recognized ginseng botanicals. It is believed that the ginseng saponins called ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both ginsengs. Although American ginseng is not as extensively studied as Asian ginseng, it is one of the best selling herbs in the U.S., and has garnered increasing attention from scientists in recent years. In this article, after a brief introduction of the distribution an...

  7. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, e...

  8. The content and the composition of ginsenosides in different parts of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Ludwiczuk; Barbara Kołodziej; Tadeusz Wolski

    2012-01-01

    Percentage of ginsenosides in roots of American ginseng is ranged from 6.5 to 12.5%. 4-year-old roots are characterized by the highest content of ginsenosides. The highest amount of ginsenosides was found in ginseng leaves (24.8 - 37.5%). Stems and fruits of Panax quinquefolium are characterized by much lower content of saponins. Maximum level of ginsenosides, in case of leaves, stems and fruits, was observed in 4-year-old organs. The results show, that Polish ginseng for medicinal uses shoul...

  9. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component ana...

  10. North American (Panax quinquefolius and Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Krebs Seida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardized ginseng extract has become the best-selling cold and flu remedy in Canada, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of ginseng in preventing common colds remains. Objective: To assess the efficacy of ginseng preparations for the prevention of common colds in healthy adults. Methods: Comprehensive bibliographic database, trial registry and grey literature searches were conducted up to December 2007. Randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing North American (Panax quinquefolius or Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng root extract to placebo or no treatment in healthy adults were included. Two reviewers independently applied the study selection criteria and assessed methodological quality. Results: Five trials involving 747 participants were included. All five trials examined North American ginseng. The methodological quality of the trials varied widely. Ginseng preparations significantly reduced the total number of common colds by 25% compared to placebo (one trial; 95% CI: 5–45. There was a tendency toward a lower incidence of having at least one common cold or other acute respiratory infection (ARI in the ginseng group compared to the placebo group (five trials; relative risk: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.48–1.02. Compared to placebo, ginseng significantly shortened the duration of colds or ARIs by 6.2 days (two trials; 95% CI: 3.4–9.0. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to conclude that ginseng reduces the incidence or severity of common colds. North American ginseng appears to be effective in shortening the duration of colds or ARIs in healthy adults when taken preventatively for durations of 8–16 weeks.

  11. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  12. De novo sequencing and analysis of the American ginseng root transcriptome using a GS FLX Titanium platform to discover putative genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Edmund MK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in the world. Its major bioactive constituents are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. However, little is known about ginsenoside biosynthesis in American ginseng, especially the late steps of the pathway. Results In this study, a one-quarter 454 sequencing run produced 209,747 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 427 bases. De novo assembly generated 31,088 unique sequences containing 16,592 contigs and 14,496 singletons. About 93.1% of the high-quality reads were assembled into contigs with an average 8-fold coverage. A total of 21,684 (69.8% unique sequences were annotated by a BLAST similarity search against four public sequence databases, and 4,097 of the unique sequences were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Based on the bioinformatic analysis described above, we found all of the known enzymes involved in ginsenoside backbone synthesis, starting from acetyl-CoA via the isoprenoid pathway. Additionally, a total of 150 cytochrome P450 (CYP450 and 235 glycosyltransferase unique sequences were found in the 454 cDNA library, some of which encode enzymes responsible for the conversion of the ginsenoside backbone into the various ginsenosides. Finally, one CYP450 and four UDP-glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis through a methyl jasmonate (MeJA inducibility experiment and tissue-specific expression pattern analysis based on a real-time PCR assay. Conclusions We demonstrated, with the assistance of the MeJA inducibility experiment and tissue-specific expression pattern analysis, that transcriptome analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing is a powerful tool for determining the genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in non-model plants. Additionally, the

  13. The mitochondrial pathway is involved in American ginseng-induced apoptosis of SW-480 colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Qian-fei; MEHENDALE, SANGEETA R.; FISHBEIN, ANNA B.; HAN, AUNG H.; SUN, SHI; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    Numerous effective anticancer drugs have been developed from botanical sources, and there remains a significant untapped resource in herbal medicines. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of extracts from American ginseng after steaming, the antiproliferative effects of the ginsenosides in the extracts on SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells, and their apoptotic mechanisms. American ginseng roots were steamed at 120°C for 2 or 4 h. Representative ginsenosides in the unsteamed ...

  14. Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yea...

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  16. American Ginseng Acutely Regulates Contractile Function of Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao eJiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ginseng treatments have been purported to improve cardiac performance. However reports of acute administration of ginseng on cardiovascular function remain controversial and potential mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we examined effects of acute North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius administration on rat cardiac contractile function by using electrocardiogram (ECG, non-invasive blood pressure measurement (BP and Langendorff isolated, spontaneously beating, perfused heart measurements (LP. Eight-week old male Sprague Dawley rats (n= 8 per group were gavaged with a single dose of water-soluble American ginseng at 300 mg/kg body weight. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior to and at 1 and 24 hr after gavaging (ECG and BP. Additional groups were used for each time point for Langendorff measurements. Heart rate was significantly decreased (ECG: 1 hr: 6 ± 0.2%, 24 hr: 8 ± 0.3%; BP: 1 hr: 8.8 ± 0.2%, 24 hr: 13 ± 0.4% and LP: 1 hr: 22 ± 0.4%, 24 hr: 19 ± 0.4% in rats treated with water-soluble ginseng compared with pre or control measures. An initial marked decrease in left ventricular developed pressure was observed in LP hearts but blood pressure changes were not observed in BP group. A direct inhibitory effect of North American ginseng was observed on cardiac contractile function in LP rats and on fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium transient in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes when exposed to ginseng (1 µg/ml and 10 µg/ml. Collectively these data present evidence of depressed cardiac contractile function by acute administration of North American ginseng in rat. This acute reduction in cardiac contractile function appears to be intrinsic to the myocardium.

  17. The content and the composition of ginsenosides in different parts of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ludwiczuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Percentage of ginsenosides in roots of American ginseng is ranged from 6.5 to 12.5%. 4-year-old roots are characterized by the highest content of ginsenosides. The highest amount of ginsenosides was found in ginseng leaves (24.8 - 37.5%. Stems and fruits of Panax quinquefolium are characterized by much lower content of saponins. Maximum level of ginsenosides, in case of leaves, stems and fruits, was observed in 4-year-old organs. The results show, that Polish ginseng for medicinal uses should be harvested from fourth year of plant vegetation. Qualitative TLC analysis showed presence of the same ginsenosides in the same ginseng organs in different age of plants. In ginseng rots were identified 6 compounds: Rb1, Re, Rc, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2, in leaves 7: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2; in stems 6 ginsenosides: Rb1, Rc, Re, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2, instead in fruits 5 compounds: Rb2, Re, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2.

  18. Extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) using commercial enzymes and high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Hoon H; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Do-Yeon; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Lee, Soo-Jeong

    2013-07-01

    A combination of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH) was applied for the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Myer). The highest yield of ginsenosides was obtained by using a mixture of three enzymes (Celluclast + Termamyl + Viscozyme) along with HHP (100 MPa, at 50 °C for 12 h) in comparison to control samples (no enzymes, atmosphere pressure, P enzyme activity. Thus HHP-EH significantly improves the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots.

  19. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leave...

  20. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  1. The Spatial and Temporal Transcriptomic Landscapes of Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kangyu; Jiang, Shicui; Sun, Chunyu; Lin, Yanping; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yi(Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA U.K.); Zhang, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.), is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia and North America, but significantly understudied. This study sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 14 tissues and four different aged roots of Asian ginseng. A total of 265.2 million 100-bp clean reads were generated using the high-throughput sequencing platform HiSeq 2000, represen...

  2. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon [Geumsan Agricultural Development and Technology Center, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year.

  3. Metabolomic quality control of commercial Asian ginseng, and cultivated and wild American ginseng using (1)H NMR and multi-step PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiying; Xu, Jin; Ghebrezadik, Helen; Hylands, Peter J

    2015-10-10

    Ginseng, mainly Asian ginseng and American ginseng, is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world . However, the existing quality control method is not adequate: adulteration is often seen in the market. In this study, 31 batches of ginseng from Chinese stores were analyzed using (1)H NMR metabolite profiles together with multi-step principal component analysis. The most abundant metabolites, sugars, were excluded from the NMR spectra after the first principal component analysis, in order to reveal differences contributed by less abundant metabolites. For the first time, robust, distinctive and representative differences of Asian ginseng from American ginseng were found and the key metabolites responsible were identified as sucrose, glucose, arginine, choline, and 2-oxoglutarate and malate. Differences between wild and cultivated ginseng were identified as ginsenosides. A substitute cultivated American ginseng was noticed. These results demonstrated that the combination of (1)H NMR and PCA is effective in quality control of ginseng. PMID:26037159

  4. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  5. Mass spectrometric imaging of ginsenosides localization in Panax ginseng root

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Shu; Ikeda, Ryuzo; Yokota, Naohiko; OSAKA, Issey; Sakamoto, Manabu; Kato, Mitsuro; Sahashi, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in performing mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) of the localization of ginsenosides (Rb_1, Rb_2 or R_c, and Rf) in cross-sections of the Panax ginseng root at a resolution of 100 μm using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of alkali metal-adducted ginsenoside ions revealed structural information of the corresponding saccharides and agricones. MALDI-MSI confirmed that localization of ginsenosides in the cortex ...

  6. Mass culture of mountain Ginseng roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ha Lim [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    An adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) was used in this experiments. Various concentration of lanthanide were tested to find out optimal conditions for biomass and ginsenoside contents in mountain ginseng roots. The MS basal medium with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide created the most optimum condition for growth of adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Batch culture with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide and 0.5 g (F.W) inoculation volume produced maximum final biomass of 1.89 g(F.W/flask) within 4 weeks. However, lanthanide was not effect the ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. In bioreactors, 3.23 g F.W./L of biomass were obtained when 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide were added to the MS basal medium at 26 .deg. C

  7. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  8. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography. PMID:27108314

  9. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  10. Active compounds and distinctive sensory features provided by American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) extract in a new functional milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, A; Salvador, A; Meyer, M; Feuillère, N; Ibarra, A; Roller, M; Terroba, D; Madera, C; Iglesias, J R; Echevarría, J; Fiszman, S

    2012-08-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has recognized neurocognitive effects, and a ginsenoside-rich extract of the root of the plant has been shown to improve cognitive functions in young adults. This study aimed at assessing the chemical and sensory profiles of a UHT-treated, low-lactose functional milk containing American ginseng. Individual ginsenosides in the milk were analyzed by HPLC. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel to quantitatively document sensory changes resulting from the addition of ginseng and the UHT process on flavored and unflavored milks. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated. Total ginsenoside content in the UHT-treated milk enriched with the ginseng extract after UHT process treatment was 7.52 mg/100 g of milk, corresponding to a recovery of 67.6% compared with the content in the unprocessed extract. The intake of 150 to 300 mL of this ginseng-enriched milk provides the amount of total ginsenosides (11.5 to 23 mg) necessary to improve cognitive function after its consumption. Both the presence of ginsenosides and their thermal treatment affected some sensory properties of the milk, most notably an increase in bitterness and metallic taste, the appearance of a brownish color, and a decrease in milky flavor. Levels of brown color, bitterness, and metallic taste were highest in the industrially processed ginseng-enriched milk. The bitterness attributable to ginseng extract was reduced by addition of vanilla flavor and sucralose. A consumer exploratory study revealed that a niche of consumers exists who are willing to consume this type of product. PMID:22818438

  11. Effects of Cultured Wild-Ginseng Root and Xylitol on Fermentation of Kimchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Jong; Sung, Jung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Chung, Heajung

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of cultured wild ginseng root (0.05%, 0.1% v/w) and xylitol in kimchi. The fermented characteristics of kimchi were investigated during 28 days of fermentation at 4°C. The pH value in the sample with the cultured wild ginseng root was higher than that of control group. The total acidity in the sugar groups (SG groups) was higher than that of xylitol groups (XG groups). Comparing total bacterial count, XG groups were lower than SG groups, regardless of the additional ratio of the cultured wild ginseng root. Reducing sugar of XG groups decreased more slowly than SG groups for seven days; glucose and fructose of XG groups were lower than the control group. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in groups with cultured wild ginseng root than in control. In the result of sensory evaluation, XG groups were more preferred than other groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that cultured wild-ginseng root and xylitol have a positive effect on the quality of kimchi, such as antimicrobial and antioxidant functions. PMID:24772409

  12. [The historical conditions of introduction and diffusion of American ginseng in the Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    The American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.), originally a native product of the United States and Canada, was introduced into China in the Qing Dynasty, and then spread and applied extensively. This was closely related to the contemporary exchange between China and foreign counties, which became the cultural background for the introduction of American ginseng; the development of pharmacology, which contributed to the commercial opportunity for its diffusion; the shortage of resources of ginseng, resulting in the urgent need for its introduction; and the publication of popular books of materia medica, which accelerated the velocity of its diffusion. PMID:24774892

  13. American Ginseng Berry Juice Intake Reduces Blood Glucose and Body Weight in ob/ob Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, J.T.; Wang, C.Z.; Ni, M.; Wu, J.A.; Mehendale, S.R.; Aung, H.H.; Foo, A.; Yuan, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply ...

  14. Ginseng on Hyperglycemia: Effects and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that American ginseng attenuates hyperglycemia and may present itself as a supplement to diabetes therapy. However, the lack of standardization in the usage of ginseng root leads to inconclusive results when applied to diabetes treatment. The mechanisms of American ginseng root in the treatment of diabetes remains a mystery. This greatly limits the effective utilization of American ginseng in facilitating diabetic therapy. Initiating studies have shown that American ginseng increases insulin production and reduces cell death in pancreatic β-cells. Also, studies have revealed American ginseng's ability to decrease blood glucose in type II diabetes patients as well as in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals (STZ-diabetic mice. These data suggest that effects of ginseng in improving hyperglycemia may alter mitochondrial function as well as apoptosis cascades to ensure cell viability in pancreatic islet cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge of ginseng components and clinical studies related to diabetes. Further research will be needed to explore and identify the component(s of ginseng, which may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed in animal studies which could then be extrapolated to human islets.

  15. Determination of Seven Major Ginsenosides in Different Parts of Panax quinquefolius L.(American Ginseng) with Different Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun; WANG Xiao; DING Lan; LI Juan; QU Chen-ling; CHEN Li-gang; JIN Hai-yan; ZHANG Han-qi

    2008-01-01

    Ginsenosides Rg1,Re,Rb1,Rc,Rb2,Rb3,and Rd in different parts of the American ginseng plant were investigated.The extraction process was a pressurized microwave-assisted extraction(PMAE).The seven ginsenosides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) with a ultraviolet(UV) detector,at 203 nm.The experiment results showed significant variations in the individual ginsenoside contents of the American ginseng in different parts and ages of the plant.The results demonstrated that the leaves,root hairs,and rhizomes of Panax quinquefolius L.contained higher ginsenoside contents,followed by the main roots and stems.The leaves contained dramatically higher levels of ginsenoside Rg1,Rb3,and Rd than the other four parts.Higher contents of Rb1 and Re were present in the main roots,root hairs,and rhizomes.The amount of ginsenoside content in the stems was the lowest.The total content of the seven ginsenosides in main roots,root hairs and rhizomes increased with the age of the plant.In contrast,the ginsenoside contents in the leaves and stems decreased with a year of growth.

  16. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  17. 山参和西洋参淀粉粒微观结构研究%Microstructure research of wild ginseng and American ginseng starch granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜威; 吴平; 周凤丽; 孙亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Through the microstructure contrast of the starch granules of wild ginseng and American ginseng , to provide basis for the ginseng starch granules extraction. Methods: Starch granules of wild ginseng and American ginseng were studied with field emission scanning electron microscopy. Results: There were fewer round particles and smaller diameter for the starch granules of wild ginseng compared with that of American ginseng. Conclusion: The starch granules of wild ginseng were composed of 2 - 6 compound starch granules and they were easy to split.%目的:通过山参和西洋参淀粉粒的微观结构对比,为人参淀粉粒的提取提供依据.方法:用场发射扫描电子显微镜方法对山参和西洋参淀粉粒进行研究.结果:山参淀粉粒与西洋参淀粉粒比较后的特征是,直径小,圆形颗粒少.结论:山参淀粉粒颗粒由2个~6个淀粉复粒组成,淀粉粒容易分裂.

  18. A Nucleotide Signature for the Identification of American Ginseng and Its Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng (derived from Panax quinquefolius is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in the world. Because of its high price and increasing demand, there are many adulterants on the market. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 has been used to identify raw medicinal materials, but it is not suitable for the identification of Chinese patent medicine ingredients. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed American ginseng and its corresponding Chinese patent medicines would be profitable. In this study, 94 samples of American ginseng and Asian ginseng were collected from all over the world. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region was sequenced, and a nucleotide signature was developed based on one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP site unique to American ginseng. The nucleotide signature (atcactcctt tgcgggagtc gaggcgg consists of 27 bases over the length of the ITS2 sequence (420 bp. Furthermore, we also designed primer pairs to amplify the nucleotide signature; the specific primer pair 4F/4R has been found to be unique to the ginseng species and capable of amplifying the nucleotide signatures from Chinese patent medicines and decoctions. We used the nucleotide signature method to inspect ginseng products in Chinese patent medicines; 24 batches of Chinese patent medicine from stores in Beijing were amplified and sequenced successfully. Using the double peaks at the SNP sites of the nucleotide signature, 5 batches were found to be counterfeits, and 2 batches were found to contain adulterants. Thus, this nucleotide signature, with only 27 bp, has broadened the application of DNA barcoding in identification of decoctions, Chinese patent medicines and other ginseng products with degraded DNA. This method can rapidly identify ginseng products and could also be developed as an on-site detection method.

  19. Antioxidant properties of a North American ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, D D; Wijewickreme, A N; Hu, C

    2000-01-01

    A North American ginseng extract (NAGE) containing known principle ginsenosides for Panax quinquefolius was assayed for metal chelation, affinity to scavenge DPPH-stable free radical, and peroxyl (LOO*) and hydroxyl (*OH) free radicals for the purpose of characterizing mechanisms of antioxidant activity. Dissociation constants (Kd) for NAGE to bind transition metals were in the order of Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Fe3+ and corresponded to the affinity to inhibit metal induced lipid peroxidation. In a metal-free linoleic acid emulsion, NAGE exhibited a significant (p DPPH radical scavenging activity up to a concentration of 1.6 mg/mL (r2 = 0.996). Similar results were obtained for scavenging of both site-specific and non site-specific *OH, using the deoxyribose assay method. Moreover, NAGE effectively inhibited the non site-specific DNA strand breakage caused by Fenton agents, and suppressed the Fenton induced oxidation of a 66 Kd soluble protein obtained from mouse brain over a concentration range of 2-40 mg/mL. These results indicate that NAGE exhibits effective antioxidant activity in both lipid and aqueous mediums by both chelation of metal ions and scavenging of free radicals. PMID:10724326

  20. 西洋参与人参中人参皂甙含量的比较%Comparisons of saponin contents of American ginseng, ginseng and red ginseng (prepared ginseng)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹妮; 杨力; 严永清

    2000-01-01

    采用TLC和HPLC方法分析比较西洋参(Panax quinquefolium L.)、人参(P.ginseng C.A.Mey.)及其加工品红参(red ginseng),以及不同规格的西洋参中人参皂甙的含量.结果表明,西洋参中人参皂甙总量及人参二醇型皂甙的含量明显高于人参及红参,且含有1种人参及红参中未发现的未知人参皂甙Rx,但不含人参及红参中含有的Rf;人参中人参二醇型皂甙的含量高于人参三醇型皂甙,其加工品红参则相反.生长年限是影响西洋参人参皂甙含量的主要因素,人参皂甙含量随着生长年限的增长而增加.

  1. North American ginseng protects against muscle damage and reduces neutrophil infiltration after an acute bout of downhill running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaki, Mehrbod; Noble, Earl G

    2015-02-01

    Eccentric muscle contractions such as those experienced during downhill running are associated with inflammation, delayed-onset of muscle soreness, myofiber damage, and various functional deficits. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and thus may offset some of this exercise-induced damage. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that intervention with North American ginseng would reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed (300 mg/(kg·day)(-1)) of either an alcohol (AL) or aqueous (AQ) extract of North American ginseng for 14 days before a single bout of downhill running and were compared with matching nonexercised (C) groups. Plasma creatine kinase levels were significantly reduced in both ginseng treated groups compared with the C group that received a water placebo (p exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. PMID:25531801

  2. American ginseng attenuates azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunhao; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-hui; Martin, Adiba; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for this malignancy. We previously reported colon cancer chemoprevention potential using American ginseng (AG) in a xenograft mice model. However, the nude mouse model is not a gut-specific colon carcinogenesis animal model. Methods In this study, an experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, chemically induced by azoxymethane/dextran...

  3. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Ju, Han; Ki-Rok, Kwon; Bae-Chun,Cha; Oh-Man,Kwon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of lea...

  4. The complete chloroplast genome of North American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zeng-Jie; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    We report complete nucleotide sequence of the Panax quinquefolius chloroplast genome using next-generation sequencing technology. The genome size is 156 359 bp, including two inverted repeats (IRs) of 52 153 bp, separated by the large single-copy (LSC 86 184 bp) and small single-copy (SSC 18 081 bp) regions. This cp genome encodes 114 unigenes (80 protein-coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes), in which 18 are duplicated in the IR regions. Overall GC content of the genome is 38.08%. A phylogenomic analysis of the 10 complete chloroplast genomes from Araliaceae using Daucus carota from Apiaceae as outgroup showed that P. quinquefolius is closely related to the other two members of the genus Panax, P. ginseng and P. notoginseng. PMID:27158867

  5. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and differentiation of ginseng roots according to cultivation age using variable selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Eun; Lee, Seok-Young; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Da Yeon; Marriott, Philip J; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng roots are an important herbal resource worldwide, and the adulteration of ginseng with age is recognized as a serious problem. It is therefore crucial to develop objective criteria or standard protocols for differentiating ginseng root samples according to their cultivation age. The reported study used GC/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis with variable selection to obtain metabolic profiling and an optimal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model for the differentiation of ginseng according to cultivation age. Relative levels of various metabolites, such as amino acids, alcohols, fatty acids, organic acids, and sugars, were measured for various ginseng cultivation ages. Increasing cultivation age resulted in the production of higher levels of panaxynol and panaxydol, which are active polyacetylene compounds in ginseng. In addition, optimized PLS-DA models for the prediction of ginseng age were obtained by selecting variables based on a variable importance in the projection cut-off value of 1.3. Proline, glucaric acid, mannose, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, myoinositol, panaxydol, and panaxynol are suggested as key and relevant compounds with which to differentiate the age of ginseng samples. The findings of this study suggest that GC/MS-based metabolic profiling can be used to differentiate ginseng samples according to cultivation age.

  6. Analysis of Volatile Components from Ginseng and American Ginseng for Identification by GC-MS%GC-MS法测定人参和西洋参挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟鹤芳; 薛健; 童燕玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify ginseng and American ginseng by analysis of their volatile components. Methods: Volatile oils in ginseng and American ginseng were extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, retention index values were assisted for qualitative analysis of volatile compounds. Results: 52 compounds in ginseng volatile oils were identified, 38 compounds in American ginseng volatile oils were identified. Conclusion: The compositions and content of volatile oils in ginseng and American ginseng are different. It is preliminarily thought sesquiterpenes,for example ( - ) - Aristolene, ( - ) - beta - chamigrene, beta - Bisabolene, Agarospirol, etc. , which can be used to help identify ginseng and American ginseng.%目的:对比人参和西洋参挥发油成分.方法:水蒸气蒸馏得挥发油,运用GC-MS技术,计算机检索结合保留指数(Kovats' RI)分析和鉴定其化学成分.峰面积归一法计算各个组分相对含量.结果:人参、西洋参各鉴定出52和38个化合物.结论:两者挥发油组成和含量存在差异,初步认为β-瑟林烯、马兜铃烯、花柏烯、β-没药烯、β-倍半水芹烯、沉香螺萜醇等倍半萜,可作为指标性化合物,用于辅助区别人参和西洋参挥发油.

  7. 人参毛状根生物合成熊果苷的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of arbutin biosynthesis by hairy roots of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗建明; 赵明强; 丁家宜

    2004-01-01

    Using ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.) hairy roots as a bioreactor, exogenous hydroquinone (HQ) was added aseptically to suspension of hairy roots on 22 d. Twenty-four hours after the addition of HQ, the hairy roots were separated from the medium. Through identification of TLC and HPLC, it was proved that hydroquinone has been bioconversed into arbutin, and arbutin from hairy root of P. ginseng was isolated and identified.

  8. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  9. 中药人参与西洋参饮片的电子鼻检测方法及识别模式%Detection method and pattern recognition of ginseng and American ginseng pieces by electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田程; 刘春生; 吴浩忠; 杨瑶珺; 王茜; 张媛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish the ginseng and American ginseng pieces accurately and rapidly by electronic nose technology and principal component analysis (PCA) method. Method: The optimum conditions of electronic nose for ginseng and American ginseng pieces, such as sample size and volume, headspace volume, incubation time and temperature were determined by the orthogonal test, the data were processed by the normalization method and the preprocessed data were analyzed PCA. Result: The detection methods of ginseng and American ginseng pieces was established by electronic nose, and the odor fingerprint figures of ginseng and American ginseng pieces were obtained, and ginseng and American ginseng pieces were distinguished by PCA recognition pattern. Conclusion: A new accurate and rapid method to distinguish ginseng and American ginseng pieces was established by electronic nose detection.%目的:利用电子鼻技术研究中药人参与西洋参饮片的气味检测方法进行分析,采用PCA模式识别方法,达到准确、快速鉴别人参、西洋参饮片的目的.方法:通过正交试验对人参、西洋参样品的粒径,检测样品量,顶空进样量,孵化时间,孵化温度等重要因素进行筛选,确定人参、西洋参饮片电子鼻检测的最佳条件;并采用归一法对数据进行特征提取,通过PCA 多元统计学方法对特征数据进行分析.结果:建立了人参与西洋参饮片的电子鼻检测方法,得到人参、西洋参气味识别指纹图谱,建立了人参与西洋参饮片的PCA识别模式.结论:本实验采用电子鼻技术建立了人参与西洋参饮片准确而快速的鉴别方法,为中药真伪的快速鉴别及气味的科学化、标准化研究提供了新的思路.

  10. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  11. Extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Flores

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras foram extraídas com metanol, e a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em banho ultrasônico. O conteúdo de ecdisterona foi determinado em Cromatógrafo Líquido de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Em ambas as espécies, um maior conteúdo de ecdisterona foi detectado nas amostras extraídas com metanol e em Soxhlet. A metodologia proposta mostrou-se eficaz para a quantificação da ecdisterona a partir das raízes de P. glomerata e P. tuberosa, podendo ser aplicada no controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e/ou fitoterápicos.This study aimed at optimizing the extraction method from ecdysterone of Brazilian ginseng. Root samples of two accessions (BRA and JB-UFSM of P. glomerata were extracted in a Soxhlet with methanol or chloroform for 4h. In the second trial, the extration was conduced in a Soxhlet or ultrasonic using metanol as a solvent. In P. tuberosa, the roots samples were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet or in ultrasonic. The ecdysterone content was determinated using high efficiency liquid chromatography methods. In both studied species, the highest ecdisterone content was detected from samples extracted in a Soxhlet and using methanol as a solvent. This extration method has been successfully applied for determination of ecdysterone content from roots of Brazilian ginseng, and could be useful for the quality control of drugs and pharmaceutical formulations.

  12. [Determination of myclobutanil 25% WG degradation dynamics in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil by HPLC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Wei; Gao, Jie; Cui, Li-Li; Xu, Yun-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determining degradation dynamics and final residues of myclobutanil 25% WG in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with primary secondary amine (PSA) solid phase extraction cartridge, separated by Kromasil Eternity-5-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) column with a gradient of acetonitrile and 0.1% formate in water as mobile phases, and analyzed with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode by employing the external standard method. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of myclobutanil at the spiked level of 0.01-0.20 mg x kg(-1) were 80.9%-90.7% and 5.54%-9.29%, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.005 mg x kg(-1). The method with good reproducible, high precision and low detection limit could meet the requirements of residual analysis on ginseng production. The half-lives of myclobutanil were from 6.25 days to 9.94 days in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil at spraying dosage of 1 152 g x hm(-2) The final residues were below 0.060 1 mg x kg(-1) in root, below 0.081 7 mg x kg(-1) in stem, 0.006 0-0.102 2 mg x kg(-1) in leaf and below 0.037 6 mg x kg(-1) in soil at spraying dosage range from 576 to 1 152 g x hm(-2). It is recommended that the MRLs of myclobutanil in dried ginseng may be suggested to be 0.10 mg x kg(-1) temporarily, and the preharvest interval was set at 35 days. PMID:25276964

  13. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  14. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of root transcriptomes from different varieties of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer grown in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Gang; Zhang, Lei; Du, YaNan; Yu, RenBo; Liu, XinMin; Cao, FangRui; Chang, Qi; Deng, XingWang; Xia, Mian; He, Hang

    2015-11-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is an important traditional herb in eastern Asia. It contains ginsenosides, which are primary bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. Although ginseng has been cultivated since at least the Ming dynasty to increase production, cultivated ginseng has lower quantities of ginsenosides and lower disease resistance than ginseng grown under natural conditions. We extracted root RNA from six varieties of fifth-year P. ginseng cultivars representing four different growth conditions, and performed Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 163,165,706 raw reads were obtained and used to generate a de novo transcriptome that consisted of 151,763 contigs (76,336 unigenes), of which 100,648 contigs (66.3%) were successfully annotated. Differential expression analysis revealed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated (246 out of 258, 95.3%) in ginseng grown under natural conditions compared with that grown under artificial conditions. These DEGs were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms including response to stimuli and localization. In particular, some key ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes, including HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS), mevalonate kinase (MVK), and squalene epoxidase (SE), were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. Moreover, a high proportion of disease resistance-related genes were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. This study is the first transcriptome analysis to compare wild-grown and cultivated ginseng, and identifies genes that may produce higher ginsenoside content and better disease resistance in the wild; these genes may have the potential to improve cultivated ginseng grown in artificial environments. PMID:26563176

  15. Neutron Tomography Application for Aircraft-parts and Root of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Lee, Seung Wook; Sim, Chul Mu; Jeon, Jin Su; Kim, Tae Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The neutron computerized tomography is considered to be a complementary tool to X-ray tomography in the sense that neutron interacts with atomic nucleus, otherwise X-ray interacts with an orbital electron of atom. The neutron tomography compared with X-ray tomography has a relatively short history. It is employed in stationary, as neutron sources are produced by the nuclear reactor. The full potential of the neutron tomography has yet to be investigated. Since, HANARO NRF was installed in 1995, the neutron radiography research group of KAERI has been developed the non-destructive testing methods by the computer tomography served for aerospace industry and agricultural industry. Concerning to NDT for aerospace, research was cooperated with Korean Air force. At the first stage, research was focused to find the micro-cracks based on internal passages inside aircraft parts and residual core of turbine blade. Concerning to NDT for agriculture, research was cooperated with the Agricultural Development and Technology Center. Research was focused to find the alive roots of Korean ginseng.

  16. Structure Analysis of Pectin SB1-1 from the Root of Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Mei-hong; WEI Min; ZHANG Li-ping; LIANG Zhong-yan

    2005-01-01

    A water-soluble pectin SB1-1 was isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. The HPLC analysis indicates that SB1-1 is homogenous. Its molecular weight was estimated via gel filtration to be 10000. The GC analysis indicated that it contains the monosaccharides of GalA, Gal, Ara and Rha. Their molar ratio is 2.10∶1.00∶0.12∶0.13. Partial hydrolysis with acid, pectinase treatment, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analyses, GC/MS analyses and NMR analyses were used for the structure analyses of SB1-1. The results reveal that SB1-1 has a lower branched structure. The main chain is composed of GalA and Gal; the inner part is α-1,4-linked-GalA; the border is 1,4-linked-Gal. Some of the 1,4-linked-GalA and 1,4-linked-Gal residues are substituted at O6. On an average, there is one branch for every ten hexose residues. The side chain is composed of 1,6-linked-Gal and 1,3,6-linked-Gal. The nonreduced end is composed of Rha, Ara and Gal. The main glycosidic link of SB1-1 has an α configuration.

  17. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  18. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis. Memory loss. Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. HIV/AIDS. Nerve pain. Fibromyalgia. ...

  19. The effect of irrigation and foliar fertilization on the colonization of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium l. diseased parts by different micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pastucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on the health of American ginseng cultivated in the Lublin district on poor sandy soil were conducted in the years 2004-2006. The studies involved treatment combinations with irrigation and without irrigation as well as foliar fertilization with Alkalin PK and Resistim of American ginseng plants. Mycological analysis was made of diseased ginseng parts with the aim of determining the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi-like organisms and fungi threatening the cultivation of this plant. Fungi from the genera of Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and the following species Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, as well as fungi-like organisms: Pythium irregulare and Phytophthora sp., were isolated from the infected parts of ginseng. The smallest number of fungi was isolated from the plants growing on the plots without irrigation and those where foliar application with Alkalin PK was applied.

  20. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometric method for fast analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, C.; Kong, H.; Zhu, C.; Wei, H.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.; Xu, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for fast analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng roots was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS). The column used was HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm). The mobile phase consisted of 15 mmol/L ammonium formate and acetonitril

  1. COMPRIMENTO DA ESTACA DE RAMO NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE GINSENG BRASILEIRO (Pfaffia glomerata SHOOT CUTTING LENGTH ON ROOTING OF BRAZILIAN GINSENG (Pfaffia glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma dentre várias espécies conhecidas como ginseng brasileiro e é usada como planta medicinal. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar se o comprimento da estaca de ramo influencia o enraizamento da P. glomerata. Os tratamentos usados consistiram de três comprimentos de estacas (10, 15 e 20cm; ± 1cm de variação. As estacas foram obtidas dos 70cm basais de ramos, com 80 a 140cm de comprimento, de plantas possuindo dois anos de idade, cultivadas no Jardim Botânico da UFSM. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e 30 estacas por unidade experimental. O bloco experimental consistiu de uma bandeja plástica com capacidade para 36 litros de solução nutritiva. O experimento foi instalado no dia 15 de julho de 1998 e conduzido por 44 dias sob condições controladas de temperatura, luminosidade e umidade do ar. Os resultados indicaram que (i o tamanho da estaca não afeta a percentagem de enraizamento, a produção de massa seca de folhas e raízes. Por outro lado, as mudas obtidas de estacas de 10cm apresentam maior número de brotações, comprimento das brotações, massa seca de talos e massa seca total produzida por estaca que as de 20cm; e (ii o uso de estacas com 10cm de comprimento é viável e, conseqüentemente, possibilita a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por ramo.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen is among several species known as Brazilian ginsengs and it is used as medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to evaluate the length of the shoot cuttings on rooting of P. glomerata. Treatments consisted of three length of cuttings (10, 15, and 20cm; ± 1cm of variation. Cuttings were obtained from the 70cm of the basal portion from shoots of 80 to 140cm of length, from two-year-old plants grown in the Botanical Garden at State University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized block design with

  2. Cytoprotective effect of American ginseng in a rat ethanol gastric ulcer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Wang, Dean-Chuan; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2013-12-27

    Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day) supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n=8 per group): supplementation with water (vehicle) and low-dose (AG-1X), medium-dose (AG-2X) and high-dose (AG-5X) AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg). Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  3. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  4. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chen Hsu; Min-Chen Ho; Li-Chin Lin; Borcherng Su; Mei-Chich Hsu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium) supplementation was able to improve endurance exercise performance.METHODS: Thirteen physically active male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo)and received supplementation for 4 wk, before the exhaustive running exercise. Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80% VO2max of the subject. A 4-wk washout period followed before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate supplement for the next 4 wk.They then completed a second exhaustive running exercise. The physiological variables that were examined included time to exhaustion and oxygen pulse. Moreover,the plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured prior to the exercise, at 15 and 30 min during exercise,immediately after exercise, and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after exercise.RESULTS: The major finding of this investigation was that the production plasma CK during the exercise significantly decreased for group AG than for group P. Secondary physiological finding was that 80% VO2max running was not improved over a 4-wk AG supplementation regimen.CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity. The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high-intensity treadmill run.

  5. Chemoprevention of chemical-induced skin cancer by Panax ginseng root extract

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Jyoti; Pradeep K. Goyal

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticanc...

  6. Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginseng and other botanical roots by immunoaffinity column cleanup and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Oles, Carolyn; D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Rader, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds and are common contaminants of many important food crops, such as grains, nuts, and spices. Some mycotoxins are found in fruits, vegetables, and botanical roots. These contaminants have a broad range of toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. The public health concerns related to both acute and chronic effects of mycotoxins in animals have prompted more than 100 countries to establish regulatory limits for some of the well-known mycotoxins, such as the aflatoxins (AFL). Our research focused on method development for 2 of these toxins, AFL and ochratoxin A (OTA), in ginseng and other selected botanical roots. Methods using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation, and fluorescence detection were modified and evaluated. Two types of IAC cleanup were evaluated: IAC for AFL, and IAC for both AFL and OTA. Three derivatization techniques to enhance the fluorescence of the AFL were compared: precolumn trifluoroacetic acid, postcolumn bromination, and postcolumn ultraviolet irradiation. No derivatization was needed for OTA. Results for AFL using the single analyte IAC cleanup and the 3 derivatization techniques were all comparable for ginseng and for other roots such as ginger, licorice, and kava-kava. Recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at levels from 2 to 16 ng/g were about 80%. Using IAC cleanup for both AFL and OTA recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at 4-16 ng/g were about 70%, and for ginger, licorice, and kava-kava were about 60%. Recoveries of added OTA for ginseng, ginger, and echinacea at 4 ng/g were about 55%. PMID:16792061

  7. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides. PMID:27171066

  8. Ginseng, a traditional herbal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ginseng is a root vegetable whose shape resembles the human body, and its name (pronounced "insam" in Korean) contains the Chinese characters for "man". Korean ginseng is also known by the names of Korea's last two royal dynasties: Goryeo and Joseon. Its scientific name is "Panax Ginseng C.A.Meyer, " panax being a composite term formed from the Greek words pan (all) and axos (medicine), which also give us the English word "panacea". Although Korean ginseng belongs to the same botanical genus as the product ...

  9. Ginseng, Siberian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aged people. Also, taking a combination of rhodiola, schisandra, and Siberian ginseng (ADAPT-232) seems to improve ... that taking a combination of Siberian ginseng, andrographis, schisandra, and licorice (ImmunoGuard, Inspired Nutritionals) reduces the duration, ...

  10. Identification of ginsenosides in roots of Panax ginseng by HPLC-APCI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Qiong; Liang, Xin-Miao; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2005-01-01

    A new HPLC-APCI/MS method for the identification of ginsenosides has been developed. The analyses were performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using a binary eluent (acetonitrile and water) under gradient conditions. Although APCI is a high-temperature evaporative process, HPLC-APCI/MS could effectively identify thermo-labile ginsenosides. The [M-H]- ions and the thermal degradation ions of ginsenosides could be clearly observed under negative and positive ion conditions, respectively, and these were used to identify the molecular masses, the aglycone structures and the sugar groups of ginsenosides. APCI/MS can provide more explicit information than ESI/MS for identifying and distinguishing ginsenosides. Using the HPLC-APCI/MS method, 35 ginsenosides were identified in Panax ginseng. PMID:15997851

  11. Phytochemical characteristics of coffee bean treated by coating of ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-11-01

    THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE INSTRUMENTAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF GINSENG COFFEE WITH DIFFERENT RATIOS OF THE INGREDIENTS: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract. PMID:23717089

  12. American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L. Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Mucalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of the present study was to test the safety of supplementation with the American ginseng (AG interventional material as an adjunct to conventional therapy (diet and/or medications in type 2 diabetes, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. Methods. Each participant received either AG (10% ginsenosides or placebo capsules (500 mg/meal = 3 g/day for a period of 12 weeks. Outcomes included measures of safety including kidney function (urates and creatinine, liver function (AST and ALT, and haemostatic function (PV and INR. Results. Seventy-four participants with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (sex: 28 M and 46 F, age: 63 ± 9.5, BMI: 32 ± 5, and HbA1c: 7 ± 1.3, randomized to either intervention (n=35 or control (n=39 group, completed the study. There was no change in any of the measures of safety between treatments from baseline. The number or severity of adverse events did not differ between the AG intervention and placebo. Conclusion. Following 12 weeks of supplementation with AG, safety was not compromised in a high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes. This demonstrated that safety is noteworthy, as reviews have continuously warned of possible adverse effects of ginseng consumption.

  13. Structural Analysis of an Oligosaccharide and Glycopeptide Mixture from Panax Ginseng Root with Inhibition SHP-1 Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; GAO Qi-pin; LI Gui-rong; CHEN Ying-hong; LUO Hao-ming; GAO Yang; JIANG Rui-zhi

    2011-01-01

    A mixture of oligosaccharide and glycopeptide was isolated from the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng roots.The mixture inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase(SHP-1)function,implying it enhances immune activity.The peak molecular mass of the oligosaccharide portion is 1800 calculated via GPC software after separation by HPLC.And the structure of the oligosaccharide portion is the backbone of(1→3)-and(1→4)-linked arabinopyranoside,and (1→4)-and(l→6)-linked glucopyranoside,with non-reducing terminals of arabinopyranoside and glucopyranoside.The peak molecular mass of glycopeptide portion is 1900 calculated via GPC software after separation by HPLC. The structure of glycopeptide portion is the backbone of(1→3)-and(1→4)-linked arabinopyranoside,and (l→3,6)-linked glucopyranoside,with non-reducing terminals of galactopyranose and glucopyranoside.The peptide composition is Glu,Asp,Hyp,Ser,Arg,Gly,Thr,Pro,Ala,Val,lle,Leu and Lys.The oligosaccharide-peptide linkage is formed by Ara and Hyp.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Methyl Jasmonate-Elicited Panax ginseng Adventitious Roots to Discover Putative Ginsenoside Biosynthesis and Transport Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer belonging to the Araliaceae has long been used as an herbal medicine. Although public databases are presently available for this family, no methyl jasmonate (MeJA elicited transcriptomic information was previously reported on this species, with the exception of a few expressed sequence tags (ESTs using the traditional Sanger method. Here, approximately 53 million clean reads of adventitious root transcriptome were separately filtered via Illumina HiSeq™2000 from two samples treated with MeJA (Pg-MeJA and equal volumes of solvent, ethanol (Pg-Con. Jointly, a total of 71,095 all-unigenes from both samples were assembled and annotated, and based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 56,668 unigenes was obtained. Out of these annotated unigenes, 54,920 were assigned to the NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr database, 35,448 to the Swiss-prot database, 43,051 to gene ontology (GO, and 19,986 to clusters of orthologous groups (COG. Searching in the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway database indicated that 32,200 unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Moreover, we obtained several genes showing a wide range of expression levels. We also identified a total of 749 ginsenoside biosynthetic enzyme genes and 12 promising pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR genes related to ginsenoside transport.

  15. Enraizamento e germinação na propagação de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro Rooting and germination in propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2009-10-01

    first experiment was in factorial design 2 (light levels x 6 (pre-soak treatment in 4 repetitions of 20 seeds per repetition. The second in ERD in 5 treatments, 4 repetitions of 15 cuttings per repetition. Brazilian Ginseng seeds need pre-soak treatment to accelerate germination. We found immersion in KNO3 the most efficient method, providing 63% germination. They presented neuter photoblastism with an average germination of 45%. The Brazilian Ginseng cuttings immersed in water presented 100% rooting, a higher number of sprouts (2,5, and greater length (8,6 cm. The species presents potential for both propagation methods.

  16. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flexner Charles W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use is prevalent among HIV-infected patients to reduce the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy. Ginseng has been used for treatment of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, a common side effect of some HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PI. However, it is unknown whether American ginseng (AG can reverse insulin resistance induced by the PI indinavir (IDV, and whether these two agents interact pharmacologically. We evaluated potential pharmacokinetic interactions between IDV and AG, and assessed whether AG improves IDV-induced insulin resistance. Methods After baseline assessment of insulin sensitivity using the insulin clamp technique, healthy volunteers received IDV 800 mg q8 h for 3 days and then IDV and AG 1g q8h for 14 days. IDV pharmacokinetics and insulin sensitivity were assessed before and after AG co-administration. Results There was no difference in the area-under the plasma-concentration-time curve after the co-administration of AG, compared to IDV alone (n = 13. Although insulin-stimulated glucose disposal per unit of insulin (M/I decreased by an average of 14.8 ± 5.9% after 3 days of IDV (from 0.113 ± 0.012 to 0.096 ± 0.014 mg/kgFFM/min per μU/ml of insulin, p = 0.03, n = 11, M/I remained unchanged after co-administration of IDV and AG. Conclusion IDV decreases insulin sensitivity, which is unaltered by AG co-administration. AG does not significantly affect IDV pharmacokinetics.

  17. The study of anti-oxidation of red ginseng、shengshai ginseng、American ginseng and the protective effect on DNA with chemiluminescence%化学发光法研究三种参对DNA损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方荣美; 何品刚; 李晓军; 方禹之

    2000-01-01

      利用CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2-DNA化学发光体系研究了红参、生晒参、西洋参对DNA氧化损伤的保护作用。通过实验发现,对DNA的保护作用为红参优于生晒参、生晒参优于西洋参。因为人参(红参和生晒参)所含的有效成分三醇皂甙的量比西洋参多,而红参由于加工过程不同,产生新的抗氧化剂如maltol和水杨醛。%  In this paper, we've studied the protective effects of three kinds of ginseng(red ginseng、shengshai ginseng and American ginseng) on DNA against the oxidative damage in CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2-DNA chemiluminescence mixture. We find that the protective effect of red ginseng's extract is the best. The protective effect of shengshai ginseng is better than that of American ginseng.The reason is that the amount of effective component(sancun zaodai) in ginseng(including red ginseng and shengshai ginseng) is larger than that in American ginseng, and because of different process, new antioxidants such as maltol and salicylaldehyde are formed in red ginseng.

  18. Research on sifting of American ginseng as raw material with near infrared spectroscopy%西洋参原材料近红外光谱精选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    威淑叶; 单婕; Ting Wong; 凌雷; 韩东海

    2012-01-01

    为确保药物成品质量的稳定均一,作为原材料的西洋参应保证纯正.采用近红外积分球漫反射光谱,首先对西洋参、人参原样光谱运用移动窗口偏最小二乘法(moving window partial least-squares regression,MWPLS)选择特征波段,建立最小二乘支持向量机(least-squares support vector machine,LS-SVM)种类鉴别模型挑选出西洋参样品,判别正确率为100%.然后将样品粉碎,人参以5%、10%、15%、20%掺入西洋参粉末,为增加样品代表性借助线性加和模拟光谱手段于4000 ~7000 cm-1建立主成分判别分析(principal component analysis discriminant analysis,PCA-DA)掺杂判别模型,预测判别正确率由97.2%上升至100%,区分出少量人参掺杂的西洋参样品,最终精选出西洋参原材料纯品.%To maintain the stability of drug products, it is necessary to ensure that American ginseng is pure as raw material. The near infrared integrating sphere diffuse reflective spectra are used. Firstly, moving window partial least-squares regression (MWPLS) is used to pick out the characteristic wavebands in the spectra of intact American ginseng and Panax ginseng. Then, the least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) model is built in the appointed wavebands to differentiate American ginseng from Panax ginseng with 100% accurate rate. Afterwards, all the samples are comminuted, and American ginseng powders are mixed with 5% , 10% , 15% and 20% Panax ginseng powders, respectively. To improve the representativeness of the samples, a principal component analysis discriminant analysis (PCA-DA) model is built with linear additive analog spectrum method at 4 000 ~7 000 cm-1; and the adulterant American ginseng is distinguished and the accurate rate is improved from 97.2% to 100%. As a result, the samples with a little Panax ginseng mixed are distinguished, and the pure American ginseng is sifted as raw material.

  19. A Limited Role of p53 on the Ability of a Hexane Fraction of American Ginseng to Suppress Mouse Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Poudyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is debilitating and carries a high colon cancer risk. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a key mechanism regulating UC. We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG, and to a greater extent, a Hexane fraction of AG (HAG can cause apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis through a p53-mediated mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HAG suppresses colitis through a p53 mechanism. We found only a limited impact of p53 in the ability of HAG to induce inflammatory cell apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we asked whether HAG could cause cell cycle arrest of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, HAG caused a G1 arrest of such cells independent of p53 status. Findings are significant because HAG suppresses colitis and associated colon cancer, and mutation in p53 is observed in most colitis-driven colon cancers. Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53−/− and WT p53 colon cancer cells.

  20. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction Process of Polysaccharides from American Ginseng and Evaluation of Its Immunostimulating Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-shi; WANG Li-jun; DONG Chuan; Edmund Man King Lui; REN Gui-xing

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of American ginseng polysaccharides (AGP) was investigated using response surface methodology. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the ultrasonic power, extraction time and ratio of water to raw material to obtain a high AGP yield. The analysis of variance and response surface plots indicated that ultrasonic power was the most important factor affecting the extraction yield. The optimal conditions were ultrasonic power 400 W, extraction time 71 min, and ratio of water to raw material 33 mL g-1. Under these conditions, the yield of AGP was 8.09%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that AGP was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, and galacturonic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of AGP. In addition, AGP exhibited good immunostimulating activities by up-regulating the production of nitric oxide and cytokines. Compared with hot water extraction, UAE required shorter extraction time and gave a higher extraction yield, without changing the structure and immunostimulating activity of AGP. The results indicated that UAE could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides.

  1. Taste threshold of Panax ginseng (C.A. Meyer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginseng has been used for centuries in Asian folk medicine. While made up of hundreds of compounds, it has long been regarded that ginseng saponins (gensenosides) are responsible for ginseng’s pharmacological properties. Most Americans find the taste of ginseng to be unappealing; therefore, the conc...

  2. Inductive effects of fungal pathogens of American Ginseng and Ginseng on chitinase and cellulase of antigonistic actinomycetes%西洋参和人参病原真菌菌体对放线菌2种水解酶的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于妍华; 薛泉宏; 唐明

    2011-01-01

    【目的】研究特定拮抗放线菌对西洋参人参土传病害病原真菌的接触抗菌机理。【方法】以5株西洋参、人参土传病害病原真菌菌体为惟一碳源,用液体培养及3,5二硝基水杨酸(DNS)法研究5株供试病原真菌对9株拮抗放线菌几丁质酶和纤维素酶合成的诱导作用;采用搭片法,观察9株拮抗放线菌与5株供试病原真菌菌丝间的相互作用。【结果】①以5株病原真菌菌体为惟一碳源时,可诱导9株拮抗放线菌合成几丁质酶和纤维素酶;9株放线菌的几丁质酶和纤维素酶活性分别为7.17~11.58和6.14~21.20 U,其中西洋参恶疫霉菌体对9株放线%【Objective】 Inhibitory mechanism of antigonistic actimomycetes fighting against fungal pathogens of soil-borne disease in American Ginseng and Ginseng was studied.【Method】 The inductiveness was assessed by the activity of chitinase and cellulase,which were induced from 9 strains of antigonistic actinomycete by using 5 dried strains of fungal pathogens of American Ginseng and Ginseng as C-source in liquid culture medium and DNS measurement,and the mutual effects were observed between antigonistic actinomycetes and fungal pathogens of American Ginseng and Ginseng through the method of building pieces on plate.【Result】 ①The activity of chitinase and cellulase,which was mainly distributed among 7.17-11.58 and 6.14-21.20 U,respectively,differed from 9 strains of antigonistic antinomycete induced from 5 strains of fungal pathogen of American Ginseng and Ginseng.The powder of Phytophthora cactorum could induce antigonistic actinomycetes to produce much more chitinase and cellulase.②The mutural effects between mycelia of Act11,Act13,Act24 and Cylindrocarpon destructans,Cylindrocarpon sp.,such as winding and decomposition,were observed distinctively.【Conclusion】 The mycelia of 5 strains of fungal pathogen of American Ginseng and Ginseng could induce 9 strains of antigonistic actinomycete

  3. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jingtian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems. In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem.

  4. Roots of Contemporary Native American Activism. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy R.

    1996-01-01

    Traces the foundations and development of Native American activism, 1950s-90s. Discusses relocation of reservation American Indians to urban areas in the 1950s without promised aid or vocational training, changing aspirations of Indian veterans and college students, lessons of the civil rights movement, occupations of Alcatraz Island and Wounded…

  5. LC-MS-MS法测定参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc含量%Simultaneous Quantitation of Rb1, Rb2 and Rc in Ginseng Tail and the Main Root of Ginseng by LC-MS-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫寒; 赵松岩; 刘运嘉; 吴睿凡; 范斌; 郭娜; 彭娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method to determine the content-of ginsengnoside Rb1, Rb2 and Rc in ginseng tail and the main root of ginseng by using HPLC-MS-MS. Method: C18 HPLC column was used in the system including HPLC-MS-MS with a gradient elution program. The mobile phase was consisted of; A for water (0. 05% FA) , B for acetonitrile, A: B =65: 35; gradient elution program was as follows; 0-3 min, 65% ( B) ; 3-4 min, 100% (B). The flow rate was 0.35 mL·min-1; column temperature was kept at 40℃. Result: Simultaneous quantitation of ginsengnoside Rb1, Rb2 and Rc in ginseng tail and the main root of ginseng by HPLC-MS-MS was developed. Conclusion; The method is accurate, convenient and rapid, which can be applied for the quality control of ginseng tail and the main root of ginseng.%目的:建立检测参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc的LC-MS-MS方法.方法:应用液质联用,C18色谱柱系统,采用梯度洗脱方法,A-水(0.05%FA),B-乙腈,A-B=65∶35,梯度洗脱(0~3 min,65% B;3 ~4 min,100%B),流速0.35mL·min-1,柱温40℃,建立了参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc含量测定方法并进行了方法学考察.结果:建立了同时检测参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc含量测定方法.结论:该方法准确、简便、快速,可用于参体和参须的质量控制.

  6. Screening of Indoor Biological Agents for Ginseng Root Rot Fungus%防治人参根腐病的生物制剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟嘉丽; 张苏宏; 魏书琴; 王艳玲; 张忠宝

    2015-01-01

    To determine 6 kinds of biological agents for inhibition effect of ginseng root rot fungus by the mycelium growth rate method.The results showed that the sequence of the inhibiting effect from strong to weak was Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus mucilaginosus,Efective Micro-organisms,Bacillus mucilaginosus,Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms,Sporotrichum thermophile, Trichoserma harzianum.B.subtili,B. mucilaginosus had obviously inhibitory effect on ginseng root rot fungus. B. Subtilis had the strongest inhibiting effect whose EC50 was 0.17 mg/L. B. mucilaginosus had the second best inhibiting effect whose EC50 was 707 mg/L. The inhibitory effect of Efective Micro-organisms,B. mucilaginosus,Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms,S. ther-mophile ans T. harzianum were relatively poor, whose EC50 were 1 148、3 630、7 943、91 201 mg/L respectively.%通过菌丝生长速率法测定了6种生物制剂对人参根腐病菌的抑制效果. 结果显示,抑制作用由强到弱依次为枯草芽孢杆菌、苏云金杆菌、EM菌肥、解磷菌、嗜热性侧孢霉、哈茨木霉菌. 其中枯草芽孢杆菌、苏云金杆菌对人参根腐病菌均具有明显的抑制作用,以枯草芽孢杆菌抑制作用最强,其EC50为0.17 mg/L;苏云金杆菌次之,EC50为707 mg/L;EM菌肥、解磷菌、嗜热性侧孢霉、哈茨木霉菌的EC50分别为1 148、3 630、7 943、91 201 mg/L,抑菌效果较差.

  7. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.68 How can I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in...

  8. The Roots of American Religious Liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Haynes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available From the colonial era to the present, religions and religious beliefs have played a significant role in the political life of the United States. Religion has been at the heart of some of the best and some of the worst movements in American history. The guiding principles that the framers intended to govern the relationship between religion and politics are set forth in Article VI of the Constitution and in the opening sixteen words of the First Amendment.

  9. Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Review of Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art. Dale Rosengarten, Theodore Rosengarten, and Enid Schildkrout, eds. 2008. Museum for African Art, New York. Distributed by University of Washington Press, Seattle. Pp. 269, copiously illustrated in black-and-white and color. ISBN (cloth) 978-0-945802-50-1, (paper) 978-0-945802-51-8.

  10. Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonmi Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory effect and analyzed their effects on melanin production in melan-a-cells. Results: Ethanol extract of ginseng seed was applied to melan-a-cells at a concentration of 100 ppm and melanin production was reduced by 35.1% without cytotoxicity. In addition, the ethanol extract of ginseng seed was shown to reduce tyrosinase activity. Conclusion: Because the results showed excellent melanin inhibitory activity compared with that obtained by arbutin, ethanol extracts of ginseng leaf and ginseng root at the same concentration, it can be concluded that ginseng seeds show great potential as a skin depigmenting substance.

  11. Variation of Ginsenosides in Ginseng of Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Luo, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Mu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Panax ginseng has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, the major chemical components of the roots, are considered to be responsible for the medicinal properties of ginseng. Ginsenosides increase with the age of ginseng root in general knowledge, and in this study the content of ginsenosides in ginseng of different ages was quantified. Separation and determination of eight main ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd, was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 203 nm. The content of Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2 and Rd increased from 5 to 16-year-old ginseng and then decreased, while Rb2 and Rb3 increased in the range of 5-12 years, but then slowly decreased. However, the total eight ginsenosides in 16 year old ginseng had a higher content than that in any other from 5-18 years old. As a result, the content of ginsenosides and total ginsenosides was not positively related to age from 5-18 years, which is not in full agreement with the general knowledge of ginseng. Thus, this study suggests that the older wild ginseng may not result in better medicinal ginseng for herbal medicines. PMID:27534105

  12. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Maxleene Sandasi; Ilze Vermaak; Weiyang Chen; Alvaro Viljoen

    2016-01-01

    The name “ginseng” is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng) and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spec...

  13. [Simultaneous analysis of ginsenosides of various ginseng radix by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samukawa, K; Yamashita, H; Matsuda, H; Kubo, M

    1995-03-01

    A simultaneous analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng by high performance liquid chromatography recently established by us was applied to the analysis of various Ginseng Radix. The contents of ginsenosides in P. ginseng were examined according to the differences of the growth year, the used part of the plant, the method of processing and the cultivated location. In the case of P. ginseng cultivated in Nagano, Japan, the ratio (total ginsenosides content/total dry root weight) increases annually for three years. And it decreased at the fourth year and increases again at the fifth and the sixth years. Concerning the distribution of ginsenosides in the parts of the plant, they were contained at the highest level in a lateral root and in succession, in a rhizome > in a root hair > in a main root. They were also distributed much richer at periderm than at phloem or at xylem of a main root. The contents of panaxadiol- and panaxatriol-saponins gradually increase with the growth year, whereas an oleananesaponin, ginsenoside-Ro, drastically increases at the sixth year and goes to 15-fold, which suggests that the content of ginsenoside-Ro needs to be estimated much more when Ginseng Radix is evaluated. The fact that the processing for preparation of Red Ginseng increases the total content of saponins was clearly revealed by the present study. The highest contents of saponins among Red Ginsengs (all 6-year-old) were observed in ones prepared in Korea, and in Japan > in China, successively. PMID:7738782

  14. The historical conditions of introduction and diffusion of American ginseng in the Qing Dynasty%西洋参在清代引进和传播的历史条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝林

    2014-01-01

    原产于美国和加拿大的西洋参,在清代传入中国并很快被广泛应用和传播,与当时的中外交流、药业发展、人参资源匮乏、普及性本草著作的刊行密切相关:中外交流成就了西洋参引进的文化背景;药业发展为西洋参的传播创造了商业机会;人参资源的匮乏使西洋参引进成为迫切需求;普及性本草著作刊行加快了西洋参传播速度.%The American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.),originally a native product of the United States and Canada,was introduced into China in the Qing Dynasty,and then spread and applied extensively.This was closely related to the contemporary exchange between China and foreign counties,which became the cultural background for the introduction of American ginseng ; the development of pharmacology,which contributed to the commercial opportunity for its diffusion; the shortage of resources of ginseng,resulting in the urgent need for its introduction; and the publication of popular books of materia medica,which accelerated the velocity of its diffusion.

  15. Investigation of Phenolic, Flavonoid, and Vitamin Contents in Different Parts of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the phenolic, flavonoid, and vitamin constituents in the main root, root hair, and leaf of ginseng. The total individual phenolic and flavonoid contents were the highest in the leaf, followed by the main root and root hair. Ferulic acid and m-coumaric acid were found to be the major phenolics in the main root and root hair, while p-coumaric acid and m-coumaric acid were the major phenolics in the leaf. Catechin was the major flavonoid component in the main root and root hair, while catechin and kaempferol were the major flavonoid components in the leaf. Pantothenic acid was detected in the highest quantity in the non-leaf parts of ginseng, followed by thiamine and cobalamin. Linolenic acid and menadione were the major components in all parts of ginseng. PMID:27752503

  16. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fung...

  17. Differentiation and authentication of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and ginseng products by using HPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T W; But, P P; Cheng, S W; Kwok, I M; Lau, F W; Xu, H X

    2000-03-15

    An LC/MS-based method is established for the differentiation and authentication of specimens and commercial samples of Panax ginseng (Oriental ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). This method is based on the separation of ginsenosides present in the ginseng methanolic extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by detection with electrospray mass spectrometry. Differentiation of ginsenosides is achieved through simultaneous detection of intact ginsenoside molecular ions and the ions of their characteristic thermal degradation products. An important parameter used for differentiating P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius is the presence of ginsenoside Rf and 24-(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11 in the RICs of Oriental and American ginsengs, respectively. It is important to stress that ginsenoside Rf and 24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11, which possess the same molecular weight and were found to have similar retention times under most LC conditions, can be unambiguously distinguished in the present HPLC/MS method. The method developed is robust, reliable, reproducible, and highly sensitive down to the nanogram level. PMID:10740871

  18. HPLC法测定人参毛状根及不同人参样品中9种人参皂苷的含量%Quantitation of nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng hairy roots and other Panax ginseng plant components by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泠; 李春艳; 王政; 贾敏; 韩婷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the quantitation of nine ginsenosides (Rc ,Rb1 ,Rb2 ,Re ,Rd , Rg1 ,Rg2 ,Rg3 and Rh2 ) in Panax ginseng samples .Methods An HPLC method was developed to determine the quantities of the nine ginsenosides .The determination was performed on a Zorbax SB C18 column (4 .6 mm × 250 mm ,5μm) with an Extend-C18 guard column (4 .6 mm × 12 .5 mm ,5 μm) at 35 ℃ .The mobile phase was a multi-step acetonitrile-water gradient run at a flow rate of 1 .0 ml/min .The detection wavelength was 203 nm .Results The nine ginsenosides were baseline separated with-in 120 min .The method had good linearity ,precision ,stability and reproducibility with RSDs all less than 2 .0% .The sample recoveries were between 98 .3% to 102% .The quantity of total saponins in leaves and fibrous roots of Panax ginseng ,which were measured as 48 .9 mg/g and 23 .6 mg/g ,respectively ,were higher than those in the other plant components .The amounts of total saponins in Panax ginseng hairy roots were similar to those in taproots and fruits of Panax ginseng ,which was 7 .47 mg/g .Conclusion The established HPLC method is accurate ,simple ,rapid ,precise and reproducible and could be used for the quantitation of these nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng samples .%目的:采用HPLC法测定不同人参样品中9种人参皂苷(Rc、Rb1、Rb2、Re、Rd、Rg1、Rg2、Rg3和 Rh2)的含量。方法色谱条件:Zorbax SB C18柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm ,5μm),保护柱Extend-C18柱(4.6 mm ×12.5 mm ,5μm);以乙腈-水为流动相,梯度洗脱;流速:1.0 ml/min;检测波长:203 nm ;柱温:35℃。结果9种人参皂苷Rg1、Rb1、Re、Rc、Rg2、Rh2、Rg3、Rb2和Rd在120 min内基线分离。方法学表明其线性关系良好,精密度、稳定性和重复性 RSD均小于2.0%,加样回收率在98.3%~102%之间。测得人参叶和人参须根中的总皂苷含量最高,分别为48.9、23.6 mg/g ;人参

  19. Content Determination of Ginseng Saponins of Wild American Ginseng Powder in Different Crushing Degree by HPLC Fingerprint%HPLC指纹图谱法测定不同粉碎度野山花旗参粉末中人参皂苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓丹如; 钱丽萍; 章宁; 林绥; 阙慧卿; 林善财

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)指纹图谱法,测定野山花旗参100目、200目、1000目粉三种粉末中人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量,通过指纹图谱相似度比较,考察粉碎对野山花旗参中人参皂苷的影响。方法:采用梯度洗脱、HPLC测定三种粒径粉末的HPLC指纹图谱,计算主要药效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的含量,并进行比较,通过“中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统”评价三个样品的相似度。结果:野山花旗参100目、200目、1000目粉的主要有效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量均大于3.96%,三种粉末的指纹图谱重叠率高,共有峰的相对保留时间吻合,与生成的对照指纹图谱相似度分别为0.946,0.979,0.970。结论:野山花旗参100目、200目与1000目粉的HPLC指纹图谱相似度大于0.946,化学成分的种类没有变化,主要有效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量基本相等,野山花旗参超微粉碎成1000目粉,化学成分保持不变。%Objective:To establish a HPLC fingerprint method for the determination of the total content of Re,Rb1 and Rg1 in ginseng saponins of the wild American ginseng powder(100,200 and 1 000 mesh powder). To investigate the crushing effect on ginseng saponins of wild American ginseng by comparing the similarity of HPLC fingerprints.Methods:Using HPLC and gradient elution,the fingerprints of three kinds of particle size of powders were determined,and the contents of the main effective components of Re,Rb1,Rg1 in ginseng saponin were calculated and compared. Through the Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM,the similarity of the three samples was evaluated. Results:As the main active ingredients of wild American ginseng,the contents of Re,Rb1,Rg1 of ginseng saponin were all greater than 3.96% in the powder of 100,200 and 1 000 mesh,the fingerprint overlap rate of three kinds of powders was high

  20. Evaluation of different grades of ginseng using Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines which have many kinds of pharmaceutical values. The discrimination of grades of ginseng includes the cultivation types and the growth years herein. To evaluate the different grades of ginseng, the fibrous roots and rhizome roots of ginseng were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy in this paper. The fibrous root and rhizome root of ginseng have different content of starch, calcium oxalate and other components. For the fibrous roots of ginseng, mountain cultivation ginseng (MCG), garden cultivation ginseng (GCG) and transplanted cultivation ginseng (TCG) have clear difference in the infrared spectra and second derivative spectra in the range of 1800-400 cm -1, and clearer difference was observed in the range of 1045-1160 and 1410-1730 cm -1 in 2D synchronous correlation spectra. Three kinds of ginseng can be clustered very well by using SIMCA analysis on the basis of PCA as well. For the rhizome roots, the content of calcium oxalate and starch change with growth years in the IR spectra, and some useful procedure can be obtained by the analysis of 2D IR synchronous spectra in the range of 1050-1415 cm -1. Also, ginsengs cultivated in different growth years were clustered perfectly by using SIMCA analysis. The results suggested that different grades of ginseng can be well recognized using the mid-infrared spectroscopy assisted by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy, which provide the macro-fingerprint characteristics of ginseng in different parts and supplied a rapid, effective approach for the evaluation of the quality of ginseng.

  1. Ginseng for managing menopausal woman's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Jiae; Lee, YoungJoo; Kil, Ki-Jung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this systematic review was to update, complete, and critically evaluate the evidence from placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ginseng for managing menopausal women's health. Methods: We searched the literature using 13 databases (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, 6 Korean Medical, and 3 Chinese Databases) from their inception to July 2016 and included all double-blind RCTs that compared any type of ginseng with a placebo control in postmenopausal women. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using a Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Ten RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Most RCTs had unclear risk of bias. One RCT did not show a significant difference in hot flash frequency between Korean red ginseng (KRG) and placebo. The second RCT reported positive effects of KRG on menopausal symptoms. The third RCT found beneficial effects of ginseng (Ginsena) on depression, well-being, and general health. Four RCTs failed to show significant differences in various hormones between KRG and placebo controls except dehydroepiandrosterone. Two other RCTs failed to show effects of KRG on endometrial thickness in menopausal women. The other RCT also failed to show the effects of American ginseng on oxidative stress markers and other antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: Our systematic review provided positive evidence of ginseng for sexual function and KRG for sexual arousal and total hot flashes score in menopausal women. However, the results of KRG or ginseng failed to show specific effects on hot flash frequency, hormones, biomarkers, or endometrial thickness. The level of evidence for these findings was low because of unclear risk of bias. PMID:27661038

  2. The Comparison Study on Dissolution and Pharmacodynamics Effects between Submicron and Normal Powder of American Ginseng%西洋参超微粉和普通粉的溶出度及药效学对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅; 袁崇均; 王笳; 罗森; 吴暇; 陈雏

    2011-01-01

    目的:对比不同粒径的西洋参粉末的溶出度、药效学的区别.方法:采用电子显微镜扫描,记录西洋参超微粉的粉体特征和细胞破碎照片,测定西洋参超微粉和普通粉的平均粒径;超声提取对比西洋参超微粉和普通粉收得率,高效液相色谱法测定超声提取西洋参超微粉皂苷类成分指纹图谱和人参皂苷Rb1、Rg1、Re的溶出度;动物试验对比口服西洋参超微粉和普通粉的小鼠耐缺氧实验耐缺氧存活时间,动物试验对比口服西洋参超微粉和普通粉末的小鼠低温游泳试验低温游泳时间.结论:超微粉碎技术可以提高西洋参的细胞破壁程度,提高了药物的生物利用度,增加有效成分溶出度,提高药材的功效.%Objective: To compare the dissolution and pharmacodynamics effects on different grain sizes of American ginseng powder. Methods; The powder characterization were measured by scanning electron microscope; the saponins fingerprint and the dissolutions of ginsenoside Rbl, Rgl and Re were investigated by HPLC; the hypoxia and hypothermy tolerance tests on mice were performed to compare the pharmacodynamics effects between submicron and normal powder of American ginseng. Results; In the submicron American ginseng powder, the crashed cells made the bioactive compounds easier to dissolute, and improved the mice performance in hypoxia and hypothermy tolerance tests. Conclusion; The submicron powder has better bioavailability and pharmacodynamics effect than the normal size of American ginseng powder.

  3. Ginseng pharmacology: a new paradigm based on gintonin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol eNah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is used as a traditional medicine. Despite the long history of the use of ginseng, there is no specific scientific or clinical rationale for ginseng pharmacology besides its application as a general tonic. The ambiguous description of ginseng pharmacology might be due to the absence of a predominant active ingredient that represents ginseng pharmacology. Recent studies show that ginseng abundantly contains lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs, which are phospholipid-derived growth factor with diverse biological functions including those claimed to be exhibited by ginseng. LPAs in ginseng form a complex with ginseng proteins, which can bind and deliver LPA to its cognate receptors with a high affinity. As a first messenger, gintonin produces second messenger Ca2+ via G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Ca2+ is an intracellular mediator of gintonin and initiates a cascade of amplifications for further intercellular communications by activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases, receptors, gliotransmitter and neurotransmitter release. Ginsenosides, which have been regarded as primary ingredients of ginseng, cannot elicit intracellular [Ca2+]i transients, since they lack specific cell surface receptor. However, ginsenosides exhibit non-specific ion channel and receptor regulations. This is the key characteristic that distinguishes gintonin from ginsenosides. Although the current discourse on ginseng pharmacology is focused on ginsenosides, gintonin can definitely provide a mode of action for ginseng pharmacology that ginsenosides cannot. This review article introduces a novel concept of ginseng ligand-LPA receptor interaction and proposes to establish a paradigm that shifts the focus from ginsenosides to gintonin as a major ingredient representing ginseng pharmacology.

  4. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jang Ho, Lee; Ki Rok, Kwon; Bae Chun, Cha

    2008-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG), and red wild ginseng(RWG) through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC). Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process ...

  5. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ginseng saponin by ultraviolet derivatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsenoides Rb1, b2, c, d, e and g1 quantitatively reacted with benzoyl chloride in pyridine to afford the respective derivatives having strong UV absorption. The UV-derivatized saponins were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the saponin-contents of the various Ginseng varieties were determined. It is possible to distinguish white Ginseng from the root hairs of Ginseng by the pattern analysis of HPLC. (orig.)

  6. Ginseng Metabolites on Cancer Chemoprevention: An Angiogenesis Link?

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Zhi Wang; Yi Cai; Samantha Anderson; Chun-Su Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been introduced for the treatment of cancer. Based on the fact that many anticancer agents have been developed from botanical sources, there is a significant untapped resource to be found in natural products. American ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in the U.S., which possesses antioxidant properties. After oral ingestion, natural ginseng saponins are biotransformed to their metabolites by the ent...

  7. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Byong-kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins re...

  8. The pragmatic roots of American Quaternary geology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1996-07-01

    hypotheses, the latter having been suggested by experience with nature itself rather than by our theories of nature. These distinctions and methods were described in G.K. Gilbert's papers on "The Inculcation of Scientific Method by Example" (1886) and "the Origin of Hypotheses" (1896). Portions were elaborated in T.C. Chamberlin's "Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses" (1890) and his "method of the Earth Sciences" (1904); in W.M. Davis's "Value of Outrageous Geological Hypotheses" (1926); and in D. Johnson's "Role of Analysis in Scientific Investigation" (1933). American Quaternary geology and geomorphology have their philosophical roots in the pragmatic tradition, enunciated most clearly by C.S. Peirce, now recognized as the greatest American philosopher and considered by Sir Karl Popper to be one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Quaternary geology and geomorphology afford numerous examples of Peirce's "method" of science, which might be termed "the critical philosophy of common sense". The most obvious influence of pragmatism in geology, however, has largely been conveyed by the tradition of its scientific community. The elements of this tradition include a reverence for field work, a humility before the "facts" of nature, a continuing effort "to discriminate the phenomena observed from the observer's inference in regard to them", a propensity to pose hypotheses, and a willingness to abandon them when their consequences are contradicted by reality.

  9. Effect of choline on carbon assimilation and phosphorus uptake by ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed that the choline sprayed at green fruit stage of 4 years old ginseng, photosynthetic rate increased by 14.22%, transfer rate of 14C-assimilates increased by 21.82%, a mount of 14C-assimilates transported in total ginsensidi of root increased by 10.66%. Choline treatment also promoted phosphorus absorption in ginseng, the ratio of 32P absorption increased by 17.81%, and the 32P accumulated in root increased by 31.2%. The yield of ginseng root was increased by 28.78%

  10. Progress in anti-cancer research of American ginseng:with an example of colorectal cancer%西洋参抗癌研究进展——以结直肠癌为研究范例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻春皓; 王冲之; 袁钧苏

    2013-01-01

    癌症是由细胞生长调控机制失控而引起的多种疾病群.目前使用的化疗药物许多来源于植物,因此从中草药及食源植物中筛选新的抗肿瘤药物是一个有效途径,包括先导化合物的发现及相应化疗衍生物的开发.本文主要以人参属药材抗结直肠癌为例,对西洋参抗癌研究进展加以综述.西洋参除具有潜在抗癌作用外,在癌症治疗中常被用作为辅助药物来缓解因化疗药物引起的毒副作用.研究表明,高温炮制西洋参及其人参皂苷的肠道菌群代谢产物可显著增加抗癌活性,揭示化学物质与构效关系.源于中草药成分及临床研究数据将有助于开发新的抗癌药物.%Cancer is a group of various diseases,all of which involve unregulated cell growth.Many currently used chemotherapeutic drugs are derived from botanicals.Thus,searching botanical sources for novel oncology medications,including identifying the lead compounds and their derivatives for chemoprevention,is an essential step in advancing cancer therapeutics.This article mainly focuses on the data from our previous American ginseng anti-colon cancer studies.In addition to the potential role of American ginseng on cancer,the herb as an adjuvant for cancer treatment is presented,including describing the attenuation of adverse events induced by chemotherapeutic agents and increasing of quality of cancer patient life.Since heat-treated American ginseng and ginsenoside gut microbiome metabolites showed significant increases in cancer chemopreventive effects,active constituents of the steamed herb and their gut metabolites should be clearly identified,and the structure-activity relationship should be further explored.Data obtained from herbal medicine studies and clinical trials will help develop useful anticancer agents.

  11. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  12. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  13. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  14. The Occupation of Alcatraz Island: Roots of American Indian Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to place in historical perspective the 19-month American Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island, which began in November 1969. Discusses societywide and specifically Native American events leading to occupation; occupation itself and responses by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Nixon Administration; and other Indian activist actions during…

  15. Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal compo-nents of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang-tae CHOI

    2008-01-01

    Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer is mainly used to maintain the homeostasis of the body, and the pharmacological efficacy of Korean ginseng identified by modern science includes improved brain function, pain-relieving effects, pre-ventive effects against tumors as well as anti-tumor activity, enhanced immune system function, anti-diabetic effects, enhanced liver function, adjusted blood pressure, anti-fatigue and anti-stress effects, improved climacteric disorder and sexual functions, as well as anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Further clini-cal studies of these pharmacological efficacies will continue to be carried out. Korean ginseng is found to have such main properties as ginsenoside, ployacety-lene, acid polysaccharide, anti-oxidative aromatic compound, and insulin-like acid peptides. The number of ginsenoside types contained in Korean ginseng (38 ginsenosides) is substantially more than that of ginsenoside types contained in American ginseng (19 ginsenosides). Furthermore, Korean ginseng has been identified to contain more main non-saponin compounds, phenol compounds, acid polysaccharides and polyethylene compounds than American ginseng and Sanchi ginseng.

  16. Ginseng for cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, JinSong; Dong, JianCheng; Ni, Hengjian; Lee, Myeong Soo; Wu, Taixiang; Jiang, Kui; Wang, GuoHua; Zhou, Ai Ling; Malouf, Reem

    2010-01-01

    Background Ginseng is a herbal medicine in widespread use throughout the world. Its effect on the brain and nervous system has been investigated. It has been suggested, on the basis of both laboratory and clinical studies, that it may have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. Objectives To e

  17. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandasi, Maxleene; Vermaak, Ilze; Chen, Weiyang; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The name "ginseng" is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng) and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spectroscopy-based techniques are here proposed as fast, non-destructive methods for the distinction of four ginseng species and the identification of raw materials in commercial ginseng products. Certified ginseng reference material and commercial products were analysed using hyperspectral imaging (HSI), mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and (orthogonal) partial least squares discriminant analysis models (OPLS-DA) were developed using multivariate analysis software. UHPLC-MS was used to analyse methanol extracts of the reference raw materials and commercial products. The holistic analysis of ginseng raw materials revealed distinct chemical differences using HSI, MIR and NIR. For all methods, Eleutherococcus senticosus displayed the greatest variation from the three Panax species that displayed closer chemical similarity. Good discrimination models with high R²X and Q² cum vales were developed. These models predicted that the majority of products contained either /P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius. Vibrational spectroscopy and HSI techniques in tandem with multivariate data analysis tools provide useful alternative methods in the authentication of ginseng raw materials and commercial products in a fast, easy, cost-effective and non-destructive manner. PMID:27077839

  18. Determination of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Ginseng and Other Botanical Roots by Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Oles, Carolyn; D’Ovidio, Kathleen; Rader, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds and are common contaminants of many important food crops, such as grains, nuts, and spices. Some mycotoxins are found in fruits, vegetables, and botanical roots. These contaminants have a broad range of toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. The public health concerns related to both acute and chronic effects of mycotoxins in animals have prompted...

  19. Ginseng Metabolites on Cancer Chemoprevention: An Angiogenesis Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been introduced for the treatment of cancer. Based on the fact that many anticancer agents have been developed from botanical sources, there is a significant untapped resource to be found in natural products. American ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in the U.S., which possesses antioxidant properties. After oral ingestion, natural ginseng saponins are biotransformed to their metabolites by the enteric microbiome before being absorbed. The major metabolites, ginsenoside Rg3 and compound K, showed significant potent anticancer activity compared to that of their parent ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rd. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ginseng metabolites on cancer chemoprevention, especially apoptosis and angiogenic inhibition, are discussed. Ginseng gut microbiome metabolites showed significant anti-angiogenic effects on pulmonary, gastric and ovarian cancers. This review suggests that in addition to the chemopreventive effects of ginseng compounds, as angiogenic inhibitors, ginsenoside metabolites could be used in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents in cancer management.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenicity of Cylindrocarpon destructans Isolates Obtained from Korean Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jeong Young; Seo, Mun Won; Kim, Sun Ick; Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Lim, Hyoun Sub; Kim, Hong Gi

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of Cylindrocarpon destructans isolates obtained from Korean ginseng (i.e., Panax ginseng) roots by performing virulence tests and nuclear ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mt SSU) rDNA sequence analysis. The phylogenetic relationship analysis performed using ITS DNA sequences and isolates from other hosts helped confirm that all the Korean C. destructans isolates belonged to Nectria/Neonectria radicicola complex...

  1. Rooting Memory, Rooting Place: Regionalism in the Twenty-First-Century American South

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Lewis Simpson first used the term ‘postsouthern’ to define the state of the American South in an era of postmodern capitalism. The recent swathe of transnational and transcultural theory has much bearing on this notion, as any questioning of the nation and its borders must have concomitant effects on those regions within it. The U.S. South is one such region that has long endured questioning of its contours, whether geographical, cultural, or ideological. Simpson’s ‘postsouth’ has gained much...

  2. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxleene Sandasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The name “ginseng” is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng, P. quinquefolius (American ginseng, P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng, each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spectroscopy-based techniques are here proposed as fast, non-destructive methods for the distinction of four ginseng species and the identification of raw materials in commercial ginseng products. Certified ginseng reference material and commercial products were analysed using hyperspectral imaging (HSI, mid-infrared (MIR and near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA and (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis models (OPLS-DA were developed using multivariate analysis software. UHPLC-MS was used to analyse methanol extracts of the reference raw materials and commercial products. The holistic analysis of ginseng raw materials revealed distinct chemical differences using HSI, MIR and NIR. For all methods, Eleutherococcus senticosus displayed the greatest variation from the three Panax species that displayed closer chemical similarity. Good discrimination models with high R2X and Q2 cum vales were developed. These models predicted that the majority of products contained either /P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius. Vibrational spectroscopy and HSI techniques in tandem with multivariate data analysis tools provide useful alternative methods in the authentication of ginseng raw materials and commercial products in a fast, easy, cost-effective and non-destructive manner.

  3. Identification of a Panax ginseng fruit fingerprint by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H F; Xu, F F; Guo, Y T; Mi, H

    2016-01-01

    Over many years, parts of Panax ginseng (root and rhizome) have been identified and applied for medical purposes as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, research has indicated that ginseng fruit also contains similar compounds and is as rich as the other parts of the ginseng. This discovery may dramatically improve the efficient of outputs derived from ginseng products. Here, a new technique combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to identify the fingerprint of P. ginseng fruit. Using HPLC, compounds that are important for medical purposes were extracted and purified. Combined with ESI-MS, the characteristic peaks (nine common peaks) of those compounds were identified, and the accuracy was confirmed by analysis using the Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004A edition). Overall, 15 batches of ginseng fruit had a similarity of more than 0.80, 13 batches of samples had a similarity between 0.97 and 0.99, and two batches had a similarity less than 0.90. The test solution and mobile phase selection was discussed. The HPLC-ESI-MS method can produce repeatable and reliable results and can be applied in the quality control of P. ginseng fruit. PMID:26985953

  4. Identification of a Panax ginseng fruit fingerprint by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H F; Xu, F F; Guo, Y T; Mi, H

    2016-03-11

    Over many years, parts of Panax ginseng (root and rhizome) have been identified and applied for medical purposes as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, research has indicated that ginseng fruit also contains similar compounds and is as rich as the other parts of the ginseng. This discovery may dramatically improve the efficient of outputs derived from ginseng products. Here, a new technique combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to identify the fingerprint of P. ginseng fruit. Using HPLC, compounds that are important for medical purposes were extracted and purified. Combined with ESI-MS, the characteristic peaks (nine common peaks) of those compounds were identified, and the accuracy was confirmed by analysis using the Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004A edition). Overall, 15 batches of ginseng fruit had a similarity of more than 0.80, 13 batches of samples had a similarity between 0.97 and 0.99, and two batches had a similarity less than 0.90. The test solution and mobile phase selection was discussed. The HPLC-ESI-MS method can produce repeatable and reliable results and can be applied in the quality control of P. ginseng fruit.

  5. Transfer and distribution of the assimilative products in Panax ginseng at different growing stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of assimilative products, the residue rate of 14C, and the contents of available components in four years old ginseng were determined by 14C trace technique during the different growing stage. The results showed that at seminal flower stage, about 60% of assimilative products were used for nutritive purpose so as to supply the carbon and energy sources to the upper ground organs. The assimilatve products produced after the green fruit stage are the main source of the dry matter and the available components in the root. The application of complex fertilizers to Panax ginseng increased the accumulation of the dry matter and available components in the root, and the dry weight of the root and the total saponins of Panax ginseng were raised by 16% and 4%

  6. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So W; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H; Min, Cheol W; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B; Jo, Ick H; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H; Kim, Sun T

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects. PMID:27458475

  7. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So W.; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H.; Min, Cheol W.; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B.; Jo, Ick H.; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K.; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H.; Kim, Sun T.

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects. PMID:27458475

  8. Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Marie Tobner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL, fine root diameter (D and branching intensity (BI of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e. plasticity. The first dataset included saplings of twelve North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e. humid organic, mesic and xeric podzolic. The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e. relative growth rate were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for A. balsamea and A. rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total (natural variation most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity. This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI.

  9. Antiallergic activity of ginseng and its ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Eun-Kyung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we measured the antiallergic activities of ginsenosides isolated from the root of Panax ginseng ( Araliaceae), and of their metabolites, as produced by human intestinal bacteria. Compound K, which was identified as a main metabolite, had the most potent inhibitory activity on beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells and on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory activity of compound K was more potent than that of disodium cromoglycate, one of the commercial anti-allergic drugs. This compound demonstrated a membrane stabilizing action on differential scanning calorimetry. However, compound K did not inhibit the activation of hyaluronidase and did not scavenge active oxygen. These results suggest that the antiallergic action of compound K originates from its cell membrane stabilizing activity and that the ginsenosides of ginseng are prodrugs with extensive antiallergic properties. Abbreviations. compound K:20- O-beta- D-glucopyranosyl-20( S)-protopanaxadiol DNP:dinitrophenol DSCG:disodium cromoglycate DPPC:dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine DPPH:1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl HSA:human serum albumin IC 50 :50% inhibitory concentration EC 50 :50% effective concentration XOD:xanthine oxidase ICR:Institute of Cancer Research PBS:phosphate buffered saline PCA:passive cutaneous anaphylaxis RAW264.7:mouse monocyte leukemiaRBL-2H3: rat basophil leukemia SD:Sprague-Dawley PMID:12865969

  10. The Common History and Popular Uses of Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Thomas L.; Sandler, Maureen L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the historical uses of popular plant roots such as mandrake, ginseng, chicory, belladonna, and blood root. Besides the text, information is organized into a table presenting use, application, and constituents. (MA)

  11. 西洋参对低舒张压的老年高血压血清相关炎性反应因子的影响%Effect of American Ginseng on the Serum E-selectin and Soluble ICAM-1 Levels in Elderly Hypertensive Patients with Low Diastolic Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳永扬

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of American ginseng on the serum E-selectin and soluble ICAM-1 levels in elderly hy-pertensive patients with low diastolic blood pressure.Methods:In the study,100 elderly hypertensive patients after regular anti-hypertensive therapy with low diastolic blood pressure,who were older than 65 years old,were randomized into two groups.The 50 patients in American ginseng group received combination therapy of American ginseng and anti-hypertensive drugs;the 50 patients in single drug group received only anti-hypertensive drugs.The sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels in the patients’blood were meas-ured before and after the treatment.Results:The systolic blood pressures in the two groups were reduced after treatment.The A-merican ginseng group showed a greater reduction than the single drug group (P <0.05).The diastolic blood pressures were sig-nificantly increased,and pulse pressures were significantly reduced after the treatment in the American ginseng group,which was superior to the single drug group (P <0.01).There was no significant difference in the sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels between the American ginseng group and the single drug group before the treatment.The sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels were effectively reduced in the two groups after the treatment,but the American ginseng group showed a greater reduction in the sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels than the single drug group (P <0.01).Conclusion:The combination therapy of American ginseng and anti-hyper-tensive drug can effectively treat elderly hypertensive patients with low diastolic blood pressure.It can protect and repair vascular endothelial cells through regulation of adhesion molecules expression and inhibition of inflammatory reaction.%目的:观察西洋参联合降压药物治疗对低舒张压的老年高血压患者血清 E-选择素及可溶性细胞间黏附分子水平的影响,并探讨西洋参治疗该疾病的机制。方法:选取100名65岁以上的经正规

  12. The Intervention of Chemical Constituents of Active Site from American Ginseng in Insulin Resistance Rats Ⅲ%西洋参干预胰岛素抵抗大鼠活性部位的化学成分研究Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冀; 马育轩; 葛鹏玲; 杨炳友; 尚广巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents of active site that American ginseng treats rat insulin resistance.Methods: They were extracted by ethanol and adsorbed by macroreticular resins , then eluted with ethanol and isolated by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC preparation chromatography.Their structures were determined by physical and chemical properties as well as spectrographical identification.Result and conclusion:Two compounds were isolated from the active site that American ginseng treats rat insulin resistance.Their structures were identified as β -Sitosterol ( Ⅰ ) , daucosterol ( Ⅱ ).%目的:研究西洋参干预胰岛素抵抗大鼠活性部位的化学成分.方法:以乙醇提取,用大孔树脂吸附,乙醇洗脱得其总皂苷,再用硅胶柱色谱及HPLC等分离技术与方法进行分离和纯化,并通过理化常数及光谱数据确定其结构.结果与结论:分得2个化合物,鉴定后分别为β-谷苗醇(Ⅰ);胡萝卜苷(Ⅱ).

  13. Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Quality Assessment of Red Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Li-xing; WANG Gang-li; LIN Rui-chao

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) was developed as a rapid analysis method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the quality of red ginseng. Discriminant analysis(DA) based on principal component analysis and Mahalanobis distance was used to distinguish red ginseng from counterfeits non-destructively. The result shows that the proposed method could distinguish red ginseng from counterfeits correctly and no tnisclassified sample was found in both training and test sets. The partial least squares(PLS) algorithm was used to predict the sum of ginseno-sides Re and Rgj and the content of ginsenoside Rbi. Two calibration models were developed to correlate NIR spectra with the reference values determined by HPLC method. The correlation coefficient(R), the root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) were as follows: R=0.9827, RMSEC=0.0163%, RMSEP=0.0250% for the sum of ginsenosides Re and Rg1; R=0.9869, RMSEC=0.0156%, RMSEP=0.0256% for content of ginsenoside Rb1. The overall results demonstrate that NIRS coupled with chemome-trics could be successfully applied as a rapid, precise and cost-effective method not only to identify the red ginseng from counterfeits but also to determine simultaneously some chemical compositions in red ginseng.

  14. Environ: E00406 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00406 Panax quinquefolius root American ginseng Crude drug; Medicinal herb Saponin...amily) E00406 Panax quinquefolius root Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) E00406 American ginseng ...

  15. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Young, Jang; Hee Soo, Park; Ki Rok, Kwon; Tae Jin, Rhim

    2008-01-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2’...

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Saponins from Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ming; ZHAO Xue-liang; LI Hong-mei; LIU Zhi-qiang; XING Jun-peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Ginseng( Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is one of the most valuable Chinese crude drugs and has been used widely for over 2000 years. Studies have demonstrated that ginseng can act on the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the endocrine system; it can enhance immune function and metabolism; it possesses a biomodulation action, anticancer effect, anti-stress and anti-ageing activities, and so on[1-8].

  17. Highly regarded medicine——Korean ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Korean ginseng,a medicinal herb,natu- rally exists in only three regions:“Korea”(33. 7-43.1),“Manchuria”(43-47),and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng,because ginseng has strin- gent requirements for the plant's growth,and Korea has the ideal temperature zone,plenty of rain in the summer,proper coldness in the winter,etc.

  18. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  19. Effect of Acupuncture Combined with American Ginseng on Cardiac Function in Rats with Spleen-deficiency Syndrome%针药结合对脾虚证大鼠心功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚丽; 晋志高

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of cardiac function of spleen-deficiency syndrome after joint administration of acupuncture and medication. Methods A total of 48 Wistar rats were randomized into normal control, model, medication (American ginseng, AG) and acupuncture + AG groups. Spleen-deficiency syndrome model was established by monophagia method. Rats of medication group were fed with AG decoction (1 ml/100 g), once daily for 10 days. Acupuncture stimulation (uniform reinforcing and reducing method) was applied to bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) for 1 min (with the needles retained for 20 min), once daily for 10 days. Then, all the rats anesthetized underwent right common carotid artery-left-cardiac catheter and right femoral arterial catheter surgery to accept detection of the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular pressure (LVP), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and cardiac output (CO). Results Compared with normal control group, the levels of SBP, DBP, HR and CO of model group were significantly lower (P0. 05). Conclusion Administration of both acupuncture + AG and AG can effectively improve spleen-deficiency syndrome rats' cardiac function.%目的:探讨脾虚证心功能的改变及针刺结合西洋参汤对脾虚证心功能改变的影响.方法:Wistar大鼠48只,随机分为正常对照组、模型组、西洋参组及针药结合组,每组各12只.模型组、西洋参组、针药结合组用偏食法建立脾虚证动物模型.造模成功后,西洋参组给予西洋参汤灌胃;针药结合组针刺双侧"足三里"、双侧"三阴交",平补平泻法捻转行针1 min,留针20 min,每日1次,并给予西洋参汤1 ml/100 g灌胃.治疗10 d后,测定左室舒张末期压(LVEDP)、左室内压(LVP)、心率(HR)、收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)和心输出量(CO).结果:与正常对照组比较,针药结合组、西洋参组的HR、SBP、DBP、CO均有所下

  20. American Ginseng Teaand Resist in Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The fatigue is a main factor to endanger the human health in the 21st century. In the current society, because the rhythm of life is accelerated and overworked for a long time or beared greater psychological pressure for a long time, if not rest reasonable for

  1. Meloidogyne platani n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing American Sycamore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, H

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne platani n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from roots of American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis, in Virginia. This new species shows certain similarities with M. arenaria but differs from it by a number of distinctive characters. The perineal pattern of females is rounded with fine, wavy to zig-zag striae and raised, convoluted striae in the inner lateral line regions. The stylet of females is 16.5 mum long with large, rounded stylet knobs set off from the shaft. Males have a low head cap and smooth head region. The styler length is 22.0 mum, and the stylet knobs are rounded and set off from the shaft. Mean second-stage juvenile length is 443.0 mum, and stylet length is 12.2 mum. The head region of juveniles is not annulated, and the tail has a definite terminus. This nematode causes severe galling and reproduces well on sycamore. Other good hosts include white ash and tobacco cv. NC 95. M. platani n. sp. reproduces by mitotic parthenogenesis and has a somatic chromosome number of approximately 45 (2n).

  2. Genetic and Epigenetic Diversities Shed Light on Domestication of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xu-Tong; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a medically important herb within Panax and has crucial cultural values in East Asia. As the symbol of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese ginseng has been used as a herbal remedy to restore stamina and capacity in East Asia for thousands of years. To address the evolutionary origin and domestication history of cultivated ginseng, we employed multiple molecular approaches to investigate the genetic structures of cultivated and wild ginseng across their distribution ranges in northeastern Asia. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that the four cultivated ginseng landraces, COMMON, BIANTIAO, SHIZHU, and GAOLI (also known as Korean ginseng), were not domesticated independently and Fusong Town is likely one of the primary domestication centers. In addition, our results from population genetic and epigenetic analyses demonstrated that cultivated ginseng maintained high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity, but showed distinct cytosine methylation patterns compared with wild ginseng. The patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation revealed by this study have shed light on the domestication history of cultivated ginseng, which may serve as a framework for future genetic improvements.

  3. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  4. A study on Heavy Metal Contents in Cultivated Wild Ginseng from Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yoon,Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Heavy metal contents in cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China were evaluated for the safety purpose. Methods : Arsenic(As, cadmium(Cd, lead(Pb, mercury(Hg, copper(Cu, chromium(Cr, and selenium(Se from the root, stem, and leaves of the Korean cultivated wild ginseng and the root of the Chinese cultivated wild ginseng were analyzed for the existence of heavy metal contents. Results : Most of heavy metals weren't detected in all the samples. Copper and lead were found in very minute volume and didn't reach the toxic concentration level of 10mg/kg. Samples used in the test were grown in non-contaminated areas, free from heavy metal contamination. Conclusions : Based on above results, cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China are relatively safe from the heavy metal exposure. But for more rigorous quality control, an epidemiological survey using the samples from more diverse areas should be conducted.

  5. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  6. Profiling and Identification of Oleanolic Acid Type Saponins in Different Parts of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey .and Panax quinquefolium L%人参、西洋参不同部位中齐墩果酸型皂苷含量的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 郑培和; 许世泉; 刘敏; 王英平

    2015-01-01

    To observe the distribution of Oleanolic Acid Type Saponins in ginseng and American ginseng ,we analyzed the species of oleanolic acid type saponins and the amount of ginsenoside Ro in roots ,stems and leaves of both of them with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry .Column:Agilent TC-C18 (4.6mm × 250mm ,5μm);The mobile phase consisted of two eluents:Acetonitrile and wa-ter with 2.5mmol/L Ammonium acetate(w/v) and 0.05‰ Ammonia(v/v);Gradient elution;The flow rate was 1mL/min;203nm as detection wavelength .Six compounds of oleanolic acid type saponins were identified .They were ginsenoside Ro(1) ,chikusetsusaponin Iva(2) ,zingibro-side R1 (3) ,Stipulenaoside R2 (4) ,Arrnatoslde(5) and Elatoside K(6) .The compound 1 ,2 and 3 were all found in root ,stem and leaf of gin-seng .About american ginseng ,compound 1 ,3 and 4 were in stem ,compound 1 and 4 were in leaf .And above all six compounds were in root . Root is a main storage part of ginsenoside Ro .The contents of ginsenoside Ro in American ginseng root(0.576% ) were more than in ginseng root(0.214% ) .The amounts of ginsenosides Ro in different parts from both ginsengs were root> stem> leaf .(conclusion )The Species of oleanolic acid type saponins are different in various parts of Panax ginseng and American ginseng .But the distribution of ginsenoside Ro are similar in both ginsengs .The roots are the main part for accumulation of oleanolic acid type saponins .%通过对比分析人参和西洋参根、茎、叶中齐墩果酸型皂苷种类及人参皂苷Ro含量的差异,观察齐墩果酸型皂苷的分布特征。采用高效液相色谱质谱联用技术对齐墩果酸型皂苷进行鉴定及 Ro含量测定。色谱柱:Agilent TC -C18(4.6mm ×250mm ,5μm );流动相:乙腈、2.5mmol/L乙酸铵(w/v )及0.05‰氨水(v/v )水溶液;梯度洗脱;流速:1mL/min;检测波长:203nm。共鉴定了6种齐墩果酸型

  7. Trade-Offs between Drought Survival and Rooting Strategy of Two South American Mediterranean Tree Species: Implications for Dryland Forests Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Ovalle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in water-acquisition strategies of tree root systems can determine the capacity to survive under severe drought. We evaluate the effects of field water shortage on early survival, growth and root morphological variables of two South American Mediterranean tree species with different rooting strategies during two growing seasons. One year-old Quillaja saponaria (deep-rooted and Cryptocarya alba (shallow-rooted seedlings were established under two watering treatments (2 L·week−1·plant−1 and no water in a complete randomized design. Watering improved the final survival of both species, but the increase was only significantly higher for the shallow-rooted species. The survival rates of deep- and shallow-rooted species was 100% and 71% with watering treatment, and 96% and 10% for the unwatered treatment, respectively. Root morphological variables of deep-rooted species such as surface area, volume, and diameter were higher under unwatered treatment. On the other hand, shallow-rooted species had a higher total root dry mass, length, surface area with watering treatments. Our findings suggest that deep-rooted species are highly recommended for reforestation in dry conditions, even under low soil water availability. Water supplements during the summer season can attenuate the differences between deep- and shallow-rooted species in their ability to survive drought during the early stage.

  8. 西洋参改善低舒张压的老年高血压患者预后的临床研究%American ginseng improving the prognosis of elderly hypertensive patients with low diastolic blood pressure of clinical research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳永扬

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察西洋参联合降压药物治疗低舒张压的老年高血压的临床疗效。方法选取100名65岁以上的经正规降压治疗后的低舒张压的老年高血压患者,其收缩压>150 mmHg、舒张压<70 mmHg,随机分为治疗组及对照组各50例,其中治疗组采用西洋参联合降压药物治疗,对照组单纯使用降压药物治疗,评价两组的治疗效果、副作用及再入院情况。结果治疗组和对照组治疗后的临床症状、血压均有所改善,但治疗组的疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.01),其舒张压稳定甚至有所回升,且因心脑血管疾病再住院率较对照组明显下降(P<0.01),两组均无明显不良反应。结论西洋参联合降压药物治疗低舒张压的老年高血压疗效确切,安全性较好,为临床用药提供了一个新选择。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of combination therapy of American Ginseng and antihypertensive drugs to treat elderly hypertensive patients with low diastolic blood pressure. Methods In the study, 100 elderly hypertensive patients after regular antihypertensive therapy with low diastolic blood pressure (systolic blood pressure>150mmHg and diastolic blood pressure<70mmHg), who were older than 65 years old, were enrolled and randomized into the treatment group and the control group. The patients in the treatment group received combination therapy of American Ginseng and antihypertensive drugs, and the patients in the control group were treated only with antihypertensive drugs. The clinical efifcacy, side effects and re-admissions in the two groups were evaluated. Results The two groups both had clinical improvements in symptoms and blood pressures. However, the treatment group showed a greater improvement than control group (P<0.01). The treatment group had a lower re-admission rate than the control group (P<0.01). There were no adverse drug reactions in either group. Conclusions The combination

  9. Korean red ginseng,a well-known medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy and applications of ginseng are also described in many other journals of Oriental medicine,which rate ginseng as a master medicine that plays a major role in prescriptions. Dr.I.I.Brekhmann.a Russian scientist

  10. Teleology and News: The Religious Roots of American Journalism, 1630-1730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    The nature and function of news in the public life of seventeenth-century New England and the legacy this conception of news left for the development of American newspaper journalism in the eighteenth century are explored in this paper. The paper argues that the origin of American news--its subject matter, style, and method of reporting--is deeply…

  11. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  12. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoguang, C; Hongyan, L; Xiaohong, L; Zhaodi, F; Yan, L; Lihua, T; Rui, H

    1998-02-01

    Red ginseng extract A and B are the active components of Panax ginseng. Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine. Among Chinese herbs, red ginseng has been considered as one of the tonics. Many studies indicated that red ginseng could enhance immune function of the human body. The effects of red ginseng extracts on transplantable tumors, proliferation of lymphocyte, two-stage model and rat liver lipid peroxidation were studied. In a two-stage model, red ginseng extracts had a significant cancer chemoprevention. At 50-400 mg/kg, they could inhibit DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice, decrease the incidence of papilloma, prolong the latent period of tumor occurrence and reduce tumor number per mouse in a dose-dependent manner. Red ginseng extract B could effectively inhibit the Fe2+/cysteine-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsome, suggesting that red ginseng extract B has a stronger antioxidative effect than that of extract A. The results indicated that red ginseng extracts (50 approximately 400 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable mouse sarcoma S180 and melanoma B16. Red ginseng extracts A (0.5 mg/ml) and B (0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml) might effectively promote the transformation of T lymphocyte, but there was no influence on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A. This suggests that red ginseng extracts have potent tumor therapeutic activity and improve the cell immune system. PMID:9533434

  13. Nihilism and the Roots of Crisis in American Democracy: A Diagnosis of Cornel West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jeliński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cornel West’s diagnosis of the crisis of the American democracy is the subject matter of this article. Analyzing the condition of the American democracy of the end of XX and the beginning of XXI centuries, C. West focused on the individual, existential character of the crisis. The diagnosed state had according to him much affect not only on political issues, but first and foremost on the spread of nihilism among American citizens. Nihilism – is understood in the C. West as senselessness of life and low self-esteem is the subject matter of this article.

  14. 不同品种和年限人参中糖类含量比较研究%A Comparative Study on Sugar Content in Different Varieties of Ginseng Grown for Different Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪媛; 赵雨; 刘海龙; 朱林林; 孙敏英

    2012-01-01

    [目的]检测不同品种和年限人参糖类成分的含量,并分析其分布规律.[方法]采用紫外分光光度法对高丽参、西洋参、林下参和园参的总糖、还原糖和可溶性多糖含量分别进行检测.[结果]不同品种人参总糖含量以林下参最低;还原糖含量以林下参最低,高丽参和园参含量最高;可溶性多糖含量以林下参和高丽参最高.不同年限园参的检测发现,7年生园参的总糖含量明显降低,还原糖含量明显升高.[结论]不同品种人参糖类含量存在差异,且差异与生长环境和加工程序有一定关系;不同年限园参中糖类的含量与其生长年限有关.%[ Objective ] To detect sugar content in different varieties of ginseng grown for different years and analyze the distribution rules of sugar content. [ Method] Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was adopted to detect the content of total sugar, reducing sugar and soluble polysaccha-ride in Korea ginseng, American ginseng, ginseng cultivated under forest and planted ginseng. [ Result] Of the four ginseng varieties, the ginseng cultivated under forest had the lowest content of total sugar and reducing sugar, the highest reducing sugar content was found in Korea ginseng and planted ginseng, the ginseng cultivated under forest and Korea ginseng had the highest content of soluble polysaccharide. Of the planted ginseng grown for different years, the total sugar content in planted ginseng reduced significantly, while the content of reducing sugar improved obviously. [ Conclusion ] The sugar content in ginseng varied from varieties to varieties, and was related to the growth environment and processing procedures; while the sugar content in planted ginseng was influenced by its growth years.

  15. Remarkable Impact of Acidic Ginsenosides and Organic Acids on Ginsenoside Transformation from Fresh Ginseng to Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Xia, Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Qiu; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Sun, Guang-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-07-01

    Panax ginseng contains many chemical components, including acidic ginsenosides and organic acids. However, whether these acidic substances play a role in ginsenoside transformation during steaming treatment has not yet been explored. In this paper, the content of neutral ginsenosides, acidic ginsenosides, and their degradation products in unsteamed and steamed P. ginseng were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that neutral ginsenosides were converted to rare ginsenosides during the root steaming but not during the individual ginsenoside steaming. In contrast, acidic malonyl ginsenosides released malonic acid and acetic acid through demalonylation, decarboxylation, deacetylation reactions during the steaming at 120 °C. These malonyl ginsenosides not only were converted to rare ginsenosides but also promoted the degradation of neutral ginsenosides. Further studies indicated that a low concentration of organic acid was the determining factor for the ginsenoside conversion. The related mechanisms were deduced to be mainly acidic hydrolysis and dehydration. In summary, acidic ginsenosides and organic acids remarkably affected ginsenoside transformation during the steaming process. Our results provide useful information for precisely understanding the ginsenoside conversion pathways and mechanisms underlying the steaming process.

  16. Distinguishing Ontario ginseng landraces and ginseng species using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jimmy; McIntyre, Kristina L; Fischer, Christian; Hicks, Joshua; Colson, Kimberly L; Lui, Ed; Brown, Dan; Arnason, John T

    2013-05-01

    The use of (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics to distinguish and identify unique markers of five Ontario ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) landraces and two ginseng species (P. quinquefolius and P. ginseng) was evaluated. Three landraces (2, 3, and 5) were distinguished from one another in the principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot. Further analysis was conducted and specific discriminating metabolites from the PCA loadings were determined. Landraces 3 and 5 were distinguishable on the basis of a decreased NMR intensity in the methyl ginsenoside region, indicating decreased overall ginsenoside levels. In addition, landrace 5 was separated by an increased amount of sucrose relative to the rest of the landraces. Landrace 2 was separated from the rest of the landraces by the increased level of ginsenoside R(b1). The Ontario P. quinquefolius was also compared with Asian P. ginseng by PCA, and clear separation between the two groups was detected in the PCA scores plot. The PCA loadings plot and a t-test NMR difference plot were able to identify an increased level of maltose and a decreased level of sucrose in the Asian ginseng compared with the Ontario ginseng. An overall decrease of ginsenoside content, especially ginsenoside R(b1), was also detected in the Asian ginseng's metabolic profile. This study demonstrates the potential of NMR-based metabolomics as a powerful high-throughput technique in distinguishing various closely related ginseng landraces and its ability to identify metabolic differences from Ontario and Asian ginseng. The results from this study will allow better understanding for quality assessment, species authentication, and the potential for developing a fully automated method for quality control. PMID:23250379

  17. Korean red ginseng,a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Korean ginseng is a medicinal herb, naturally exists in only three regions:“Korea”(33.7-43.1),“Manchuria”(43-47),and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng,because ginseng has strin- gent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer,proper cold- ness in the winter,etc.The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B.C.Books written in this era documented ginseng ...

  18. The effect of ginseng (genus Panax) on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komishon, A M; Shishtar, E; Ha, V; Sievenpiper, J L; de Souza, R J; Jovanovski, E; Ho, H V T; Duvnjak, L S; Vuksan, V

    2016-10-01

    Pre-clinical evidence indicates the potential for ginseng to reduce cardiovascular disease risk and acutely aid in blood pressure (BP) control. Clinical evidence evaluating repeated ginseng exposure, however, is controversial, triggering consumer and clinician concern. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess whether ginseng has an effect on BP. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and CINAHL were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials ⩾4 weeks that compared the effect of ginseng on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and/or mean arterial (MAP) BPs to control. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Seventeen studies satisfied eligibility criteria (n=1381). No significant effect of ginseng on SBP, DBP and MAP was found. Stratified analysis, although not significant, appears to favour systolic BP improvement in diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity (MD=-2.76 mm Hg (95% CI=-6.40, 0.87); P=0.14). A priori subgroup analyses revealed significant association between body mass index and treatment differences (β=-0.95 mm Hg (95% CI=-1.56, -0.34); P=0.007). Ginseng appears to have neutral vascular affects; therefore, should not be discouraged for concern of increased BP. More high-quality, randomized, controlled trials assessing BP as a primary end point, and use of standardized ginseng root or extracts are warranted to limit evidence of heterogeneity in ginseng research and to better understand its cardiovascular health potential.

  19. Preparative isolation and purification of ginsenosides Rf, Re, Rd and Rb1 from the roots of Panax ginseng with a salt/containing solvent system and flow step-gradient by high performance counter-current chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaocheng; Ignatova, Svetlana; Luo, Guoan; Liang, Qionglin; Jun, Frank Wu; Wang, Yiming; Sutherland, Ian

    2010-03-26

    Ginseng is a popular herb worldwide and has had varied uses in traditional Asian medicine for thousands of years. There are several different species of the herb, but all share the same constituents. Ginsenosides, the most extensively studied chemical components of ginseng, are generally considered to be one of the most important active ingredients of the plant. In this study, we have developed fast and efficient methodology for isolation of four known ginsenosides Rf, Rd, Re and Rb1 from Ginseng by high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). The crude sample for HPCCC was purified firstly from a ginseng extraction using macroporous resin. The enriched saponin fraction (480 mg) was separated by using methylene chloride-methanol-5 mM aqueous ammonium acetate-isopropanol (6:2:4:3, v/v,) as the two-phase solvent system and yielded 10.7 mg of Rf, 11.0 mg of Rd, 13.4 mg of Re and 13.9 mg of Rb1. The purity of these ginsenosides was 99.2%, 88.3%, 93.7% and 91.8%, respectively assessed by HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and their structures were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and compared with standards. Ammonium acetate was used to shorten the separation time and eliminate emulsification together with a flow step-gradient. The salt can be removed by re-dissolving the sample using acetone. PMID:20171644

  20. DNA MUTAGENESIS IN PANAX GINSENG CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev K.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, it is well documented that plant tissue culture induces a number of mutations and chromosome rearrangements termed “somaclonal variations”. However, little is known about the nature and the molecular mechanisms of the tissue culture-induced mutagenesis and the effects of long-term subculturing on the rate and specific features of the mutagenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare DNA mutagenesis in different genes of Panax ginseng callus cultures of different age. It has previously been shown that the nucleotide sequences of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC locus and the selective marker nptII developed mutations during long-term cultivation of transgenic cell cultures of P. ginseng. In the present work, we analyzed nucleotide sequences of selected plant gene families in a 2-year-old and 20-year-old P. ginseng 1c cell culture and in leaves of cultivated P. ginseng plants. We analysed sequence variability between the Actin genes, which are a family of house-keeping genes; the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and dammarenediol synthase (DDS genes, which actively participate in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides; and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK genes, which control plant development. The frequency of point mutations in the Actin, PAL, DDS, and SERK genes in the 2-year-old callus culture was markedly higher than that in cultivated plants but lower than that in the 20-year-old callus culture of P. ginseng. Most of the mutations in the 2- and 20-year-old P. ginseng calli were A↔G and T↔C transitions. The number of nonsynonymous mutations was higher in the 2- and 20-year-old callus cultures than the number of nonsynonymous mutations in the cultivated plants of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the total number of N→G or N→C substitutions in the analyzed genes was 1.6 times higher than the total number of N→A or N→T substitutions. Using methylation-sensitive DNA fragmentation

  1. Linking biological activity with herbal constituents by systems biology-based approaches: Effects of Panax ginseng in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, C.; Wei, H.; Kong, H.; Bouwman, J.; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, V.; Heijden, R. van der; Reijmers, T.H.; Bao, X.; Verheij, E.R.; Hankemeier, T.; Xu, G.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of animal experiments and clinical trials have investigated the effects of ginseng roots on diabetes, the relationship between their therapeutic effects on diabetes and the quality and the growth age of this herb have not yet been reported. This study systematically investigated th

  2. Korean red ginseng, a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Korean ginseng is a tonic, naturally exists in only three regions: Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Manchuria"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc. The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B. C.Books written in this era documented ginseng as emergent tonic for long-life. Ginseng was first mentioned as a tonic as early as 48-33 B. C. in Interpretation of Creatures written by You Shi of ancient China.

  3. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  4. Korean red ginseng,a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Korean ginseng is a tonic, naturally exists in only three regions: Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Manchuria"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc.

  5. Simultaneous analysis method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng by reversed-phase HPLC-PAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sa-Im; Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2012-02-23

    The paper describes the development of a simultaneous determination method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection method. This method could be applied directly without any pretreatment steps and enabled the performance of highly sensitive analysis within 1h. The detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N=10) limits for the ginsenosides ranged 0.02-0.10 ng and 0.1-0.3 ng, respectively. The linear regression coefficients ranged 0.9975-0.9998. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <9.91%. The mean recoveries ranged 98.08-103.06%. The total amount of ginsenosides in the hairy root of red ginseng was higher than that in the main root. PMID:22119615

  6. The Effect of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Extract on Preadipocyte Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Woo Kim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultivated wild ginseng extract on primary cultured preadipocyte and adipocytes. Methods : Diminish preadipocyte proliferation does primary role to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures with using Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ cultivated wild ginseng extract. Result : At all concentrations, cultivated wild ginseng extract wasn't show the suppress proliferation of preadipocytes significantly and failed to show effects on decomposition of adipocytes except high dosage. Conclusion : Based on these findings, cultivated wild ginseng is not a suitable choice for the treatment of localized obesity.

  7. Korean red ginseng, a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Korean ginseng is a medicinal herb, naturally exists in only three regions: "Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Man-churia"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc. The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B. C. Books written in this era documented gi...

  8. Use of multitoxin immunoaffinity columns for determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginseng and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, Mary W; Weaver, Carol M; Oles, Carolyn J; Rump, Lydia V; White, Kevin D; Betz, Joseph M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2007-01-01

    Conditions were optimized for the simultaneous, alkaline, aqueous methanol extraction of aflatoxins (AFL), i.e., B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), and G2 (AFG2), and ochratoxin A (OTA) with subsequent purification, isolation, and determination of the toxins in ginseng and ginger. Powdered roots were extracted with methanol-0.5% NaHCO3 solution (7 + 3). After shaking and centrifugation, the supernatant was diluted with 100 mM phosphate buffer containing 1% Tween 20 and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The AFL were separated and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with fluorescence detection after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. OTA was separated and determined by RPLC with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of AFL added at 2-16 ng/g and OTA added at 1-8 ng/g to ginseng were 72-80 and 86-95%, respectively. Recoveries of AFL and OTA added to ginger were similar to those for ginseng. A total of 39 commercially available ginger products from 6 manufacturers were analyzed. Twenty-six samples were found to be contaminated with AFL at 1-31 ng/g and 29 samples, with OTA at 1-10 ng/g. Ten samples contained no AFL or OTA. Ten ginseng finished products were also analyzed; 3 contained AFL at 0.1 ng/g and 4 contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.4 to 1.8 ng/g. LC/tandem mass spectrometry with multiple-reaction monitoring of 3 collisionally induced product ions from the protonated molecular ions of OTA, AFB1, and AFG1 was used to confirm the identities of the toxins in extracts of the finished products. PMID:17760342

  9. The Ginseng Growing District, Taxation and Trade in Ancient Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeong-Pil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The very first record of ginseng in the Korean peninsula dates back to early 6th century A.D., with its concentration in Chinese sources. Regardless of the fact that the Korean ginseng was introduced to China before the birth of Christ, there is no writing about it for 500 years. This is because the Chinese substituted Korean ginseng for the Chinese one, which was cultivated around the Shangdang Area. The ginseng, however, is greatly influenced by natural environment and its native area being Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. It is believed that ginseng range from the northern mountains of Pyongando and Hamkyongdo provinces to the southern Taebaek and Sobaek mountains in Korea. Especially the area of Madasan(Baekdusan? mountain was well-known for ginseng-growing district. The ginseng taxation of the Three Kingdoms period seems to have gone through certain changes along the development stages of the ancient state. The first taxation stage is estimated to be in the form of a tribute. Afterwards, as the governing power of central government was gradually strengthened in the subjugated places, there was a major replacement from tributary form to actual goods levy. The actual areas of such tributary collection is unknown, but the [Sejongshilok Chiriji](geographical records of Sejong chronicles of the early Choson era indicates 113 prefectures and counties as those which submit ginseng to the central government. These administrations provide permissible clues to the historic background of ginseng-taxed regions of the Three Kingdoms. The ginseng trade also is estimated to have flourished in ancient Korea through the Han commanderies of China. However, the writings of Korean ginseng trade is non-existent until 6th century A .D., Such phenomenon can be attributed to few reasons. First, the Chinese took little interest in Korean ginseng as they believed they had their own native ginseng in China. Second, same ignorance resulted from its inflowing but

  10. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng%杜仲和西伯利亚人参的化学成分及药理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEYAMA Takeshi; NISHIBE Sansei; NAKAZAWA Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    The bark and leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oiiv ( Eucommiaceae ) and "Siberian ginseng" ( Ezoukogi in Japanese) prepared from the root bark or stem bark of Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim ( Acanthopanax senticosta Harms) have been used as tonic and anti-stress drug. The extracts of Eucommia showed anti-hypertensive, anti-complementary, anti-oxidative, and antigastric ulcer effects, and promoting collagen synthesis, accelating granuloma formation, and other pharmacological effects. The Siberian ginseng exhibited anti-fatigue,anti-stress, immuno-enhancing effect, CNS activity, and anti-depressive effect. By now, 40, 28, and 10 compounds have been isolated from Eucommia ulmoides bark, Eucommia ulmoides leaves, and Siberian ginseng,respectively, and their structures were elucidated. Their pharmacological activities were mainly due to lignans and iridoid glycosides.

  11. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  12. Recent methodology in the phytochemical analysis of ginseng

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova, N.; Kong, H.-W.; Heijden, R. van de; Yang, S.-Y.; Choi, Y.H.; Kim, H.K.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Verpoorte, R.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent developments in ginseng analysis, in particular the novel approaches in sample pre-treatment and the use of high-performance liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. The review also presents novel data on analysing ginseng extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance

  13. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajesh; Sellaturay, Senthy; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China's mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE). Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing', we relive Emperor Shen-Nung's contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing' (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung), archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a 'crystal-like belly' to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung's contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng's resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  14. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Su Cho; Chan Woong Park; Chun-Ki Kim; Hee Young Jeon; Wan Gi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Young-Myeong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED),and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng.Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus,we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study.As a comparative control,the results were compared to those obtained using KRG.In addition,possible mechanisms of action for GB0710 were investigated.While KRG and GB0710 both displayed dose-dependent relaxation effects on precontracted rabbit CCSM in vitro,GB0710 was shown to be more potent than KRG.The GB0710-induced relaxation could be partially reduced by removing the endothelium.In addition,pre-treatment with several nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors significantly inhibited the relaxation of muscle strips.Furthermore,administration of GB0710 increased intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in a rat in vivo model in both a dose-and duration-dependent manner.Intracellular NO production in human microvascular endothelial cells could be induced by GB0710 and inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.In conclusion,GB0710 had a greater relaxation effect on rabbit CCSM than did KRG extract,and increased ICP in a rat model in both a dose-and a duration-dependent manner.This relaxing effect might be mediated by NO production.

  15. Enhanced thermogenesis in rats by Panax ginseng, multivitamins and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ratan; Grover, S. K.; Divekar, H. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Shyam, Radhey; Srivastava, K. K.

    1996-12-01

    Substances which enhance endurance for physical and mental work and increase non-specific resistance to stress during a prolonged stay in physiologically adverse habitats are called ‘adaptogens’. Panax ginseng is well known for its anti-stress and adaptogenic properties. In the present study, adaptogenic activity by the intake of a herbo-vitamin-mineral preparation (HVMP) containing P. ginseng and multivitamin-mineral preparation (MVMP) was evaluated using the cold-hypoxia-restrained (C-H-R) animal model. The aim was to determine whether the cold tolerance and recovery from acute hypothermia mediated by P. ginseng was modified by simultaneous intake of additional vitamins and minerals. Results suggest that the adaptogenic effect of HVMP was more or less the sum total of its two components P. ginseng and MVMP. In HVMP, P. ginseng was found to be effective for developing resistance to cooling and MVMP helped in stimulating faster recovery from acute hypothermia.

  16. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang;

    2011-01-01

    of P. aeruginosa at concentrations as low as 0.25%. Oral administration of ginseng extracts in mice promoted phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by airway phagocytes, but did not affect phagocytosis of a PAO1-filM mutant. Our study suggests that ginseng treatment may help to eradicate the biofilm......Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments...... protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Ginseng aqueous extract at concentrations of 0.5-2.0% did not inhibit the growth of P...

  17. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  18. Simultaneous quantification of 19 ginsenosides in black ginseng developed from Panax ginseng by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Shen; Gu, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhe-Ming; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, Zhen; Lee, Mi-Ra; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2009-08-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed to identify and quantify 19 ginsenosides (Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rc, Rb(2), Rd, F(4), Rg(6), Rk(3), Rh(4), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rg(3), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rs(3), Rk(1), Rg(5), Rs(4), and Rs(5)) in black ginseng (BG, Korean white ginseng that was subjected to nine cycles of steam treatment). Ultrasonication is employed for sample preparation, and the analysis is achieved on a Discovery C(18) column using gradient elution of CH(3)CN-H(2)O-CH(3)COOH without buffer in 40min. The method was validated by linearity (r(2)> or =0.9994), precision (92.0-107.5%), intra- and inter-day accuracy (R.S.D.<3.21%), and limit of detection (LOD< or =93ng). The quantification method was applied to analyze the composition of ginsenosides in Korean white, red, and black ginsengs. During the preparatory process of BG, ginsenosides transform into constituents of low polarity by hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration at C-20, and hydrolysis also occurs at C-3 or C-6. The validated HPLC method is expected to provide the basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products. PMID:19394786

  19. Simultaneous quantification of 19 ginsenosides in black ginseng developed from Panax ginseng by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Shen; Gu, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhe-Ming; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, Zhen; Lee, Mi-Ra; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2009-08-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed to identify and quantify 19 ginsenosides (Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rc, Rb(2), Rd, F(4), Rg(6), Rk(3), Rh(4), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rg(3), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rs(3), Rk(1), Rg(5), Rs(4), and Rs(5)) in black ginseng (BG, Korean white ginseng that was subjected to nine cycles of steam treatment). Ultrasonication is employed for sample preparation, and the analysis is achieved on a Discovery C(18) column using gradient elution of CH(3)CN-H(2)O-CH(3)COOH without buffer in 40min. The method was validated by linearity (r(2)> or =0.9994), precision (92.0-107.5%), intra- and inter-day accuracy (R.S.D.<3.21%), and limit of detection (LOD< or =93ng). The quantification method was applied to analyze the composition of ginsenosides in Korean white, red, and black ginsengs. During the preparatory process of BG, ginsenosides transform into constituents of low polarity by hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration at C-20, and hydrolysis also occurs at C-3 or C-6. The validated HPLC method is expected to provide the basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products.

  20. 人参不同部位中人参皂苷成分的分析%Composition Analysis of Ginsenoside from Different Fractions of Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫松

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the content of ginsenoside in ginseng extract by UV/HPLC. Through the approximate translation comparison of two different testing results with UV and HPLC in current market, and several typical HPLC peaks ratio analysis on contents of different ginsenoside extracted from the root, stem and leaves of ginseng, in order to establish identification method of ginsenoside from different sources. The results showed that the ratio for Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd in ginseng root extract was approximately 1:2.20:0.94:0.97. And the ratio for Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd in ginseng leave extract was approximately 1:(0.05~0.07):(0.10~0.16):(0.32~0.37). Compared with the mixture of ginseng root and ginseng leave extract, the theoretical value of Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd should between those two ratios. It was concluded that this method was simple, stable and reliable, which can be used as the identification method of ginsenoside from ginseng root, stem and leaves.%目的:建立UV/HPLC法测定人参不同部位中人参皂苷含量。方法:通过对市场上通行的UV法和HPLC法测得含量进行近似折算比较,以及对根部提取物与茎叶提取物中各人参皂苷成分HPLC出峰比例的分析,建立鉴别不同来源人参皂苷的方法。结果:人参根部提取物中,Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd皂苷比例近似为1:2.20:0.94:0.97;人参茎叶中,该比例近似为1:(0.05~0.07):(0.10~0.16):(0.32~0.37);对比掺混后的人参根部和人参茎叶提取物,Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd理论值在上述两比例之间。结论:该方法简易、稳定、可靠,可作为人参根部和茎叶提取物中人参皂苷的鉴别方法。

  1. On-line stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the separation and identification of triterpenoid saponins from ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyuan; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Hu, Chunxiu; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    A method based on stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (2D LC-ESI MS) was established and applied to analyze triterpenoid saponins from the main root of ginseng. Due to the special structure of triterpenoid saponins (they contain polar sugar side chains and nonpolar aglycones), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were used for the two dimensions, respectively. A trap column was used to connect the two dimensions. The dilution effect, which is one of the main shortcomings of traditional comprehensive 2D LC methods, was largely avoided. The peak capacity of this system was 747 and the orthogonality was 56.6 %. Compared with one-dimensional HILIC or RP LC MS analysis, 257 and 185 % more mass spectral peaks (ions with intensities that were higher than 1,000) were obtained from the ginseng main root extracts, and 94 triterpenoid saponins were identified based on MS(n) information and summarized aglycone structures. Given its good linearity and repeatability, the established method was successfully applied to classify ginsengs of different ages (i.e., years of growth), and 19 triterpenoid saponins were found through statistical analysis to vary in concentration depending on the age of the ginseng. PMID:25410638

  2. Localization of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with different age by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hangrui; Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Jianjun; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-07-15

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. (P. ginseng) is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines, with ginsenosides as its main bioactive components. Because different ginsenosides have varied pharmacological effects, extraction and separation of ginsenosides are usually required for the investigation of pharmacological effects of different ginsenosides. However, the contents of ginsenosides vary with the ages and tissues of P. ginseng root. In this research, an efficient method to explore the distribution of ginsenosides and differentiate P. ginseng roots with different ages was developed based on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI). After a simple sample preparation, there were 18 peaks corresponding to 31 ginsenosides with distinct localization in the mass range of m/z 700-1400 identified by MALDI-TOF-MSI and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. All the three types of ginsenosides were successfully detected and visualized in images, which could be correlated with anatomical features. The P. ginseng at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 could be differentiated finely through the principal component analysis of data collected from the cork based on the ion images but not data from the whole tissue. The experimental result implies that the established method for the direct analysis of metabolites in plant tissues has high potential for the rapid identification of metabolites and analysis of their localizations in medicinal herbs. Furthermore, this technique also provides valuable information for the component-specific extraction and pharmacological research of herbs. PMID:26520809

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of a formula developed from American ginseng and Chinese jujube extracts in mice%题目:复方西洋参和红枣制剂对小鼠免疫功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo-ping YU; Dong-dong XU; Lai-feng LU; Xiao-dong ZHENG‡; Wei CHEN‡

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评价复方西洋参和红枣制剂对于小鼠非特异性免疫和特异性免疫的影响,为开发新产品奠定基础。创新点:本文首次以西洋参提取物和红枣提取物为原料制成复方制剂,并通过动物实验发现该制剂具有增强免疫功能,为开发功能性食品提供新思路。方法:将西洋参与红枣提取物按一定比例制备复方制剂,以1.3、2.6和5.2 g/kg为低、中和高剂量给健康ICR小鼠连续灌胃此复方制剂4周,对照组灌胃同等剂量的无菌水,最后通过测定免疫相关指标对该复方制剂的免疫调节功能进行综合评价。结论:此款复方制剂可以显著提高小鼠的胸腺和脾脏指数(表1),同时低剂量组小鼠的血清溶血素水平显著高于对照组,高剂量组小鼠的脾淋巴细胞增值能力约是对照组的2.4倍,自然杀伤细胞的活性也得到显著增强,中剂量组小鼠的NK细胞活性与对照组相比提高了78.6%(图2)。另外,此复方制剂能有效提高小鼠组织(肝脏、脾脏和胸腺)和血清中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性,同时降低丙二醛( MDA )的含量(图3~6)。综上所述,此复方西洋参和红枣制剂可有效提高健康 ICR 小鼠的非特异性和特异性免疫功能,而其抗氧化功能有可能是其免疫调节活性的作用机制之一。%Background: American ginseng (Panax quinquefoliusL.) and Chinese jujube (Zizyphus jujubaMil.) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to enhance immune function. Objective: The present study aimed to develop one Chinese prescription, Shenzao Cha (SZC), consisting of American ginseng and Chinese jujube, and systematically investigate its immunomodulation in healthy ICR mice. Methods: Normal ICR mice received intragastric administration of SZC (1.3, 2.6, and 5.2 g raw material/kg body weight) once daily

  4. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byeon, Meong Uh; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-10-01

    The fourth year research program on Korean ginseng was carried out in order to improve in the microbiological quality and physical properties of red ginseng and its processing by application of irradiation technology. The quality of red ginseng and their products were strictly controlled by government invested Korean Tobacco Ginseng Co., but there is a need of alternative technology for decontaminating and disinfestating in view of supplying stable raw material and securing the hygienic production because the use of food fumigants and preservatives has been restricted due to their harmful effects on human and environment. It is desirable that the limited moisture content of red ginseng product should be increased, considering the economic and physical properties of its products, by application of irradiation technology for sterilization of prepackaged red ginseng products. Red ginseng products were irradiated at dose of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy respectively, following moisture content of sample were increased up to 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% by keeping at humidity controlled desiccator. Each sample stored at ambient temperature (20 deg C, 70% RH) and accelerated storage condition (40 deg C, 90% RH) were used for the evaluation of microbiological quality, TBA value, color difference measurement, hydrogen donating activity, HPLC pattern and content of saponins, change of fatty acids and characteristics of moisture absorption.

  5. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth year research program on Korean ginseng was carried out in order to improve in the microbiological quality and physical properties of red ginseng and its processing by application of irradiation technology. The quality of red ginseng and their products were strictly controlled by government invested Korean Tobacco Ginseng Co., but there is a need of alternative technology for decontaminating and disinfestating in view of supplying stable raw material and securing the hygienic production because the use of food fumigants and preservatives has been restricted due to their harmful effects on human and environment. It is desirable that the limited moisture content of red ginseng product should be increased, considering the economic and physical properties of its products, by application of irradiation technology for sterilization of prepackaged red ginseng products. Red ginseng products were irradiated at dose of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy respectively, following moisture content of sample were increased up to 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% by keeping at humidity controlled desiccator. Each sample stored at ambient temperature (20 deg C, 70% RH) and accelerated storage condition (40 deg C, 90% RH) were used for the evaluation of microbiological quality, TBA value, color difference measurement, hydrogen donating activity, HPLC pattern and content of saponins, change of fatty acids and characteristics of moisture absorption

  6. Effects of Ginseng and Echinacea on Cytokine mRNA Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Uluışık

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng and echinacea on the mRNA expression of IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 in healthy rats. Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats (n=48 were used. The animals were divided into three equal groups, as follows: control (C; ginseng (G; echinacea (E. While the C group was fed a standard rat diet (Purina ad libitum for a period of 40 days, the G and E groups animals received the same diet containing 0.5 g/kg of Panax ginseng root powder and 0.75 g/kg of Echinacea purpurea root powder, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from 8 rats in each group after 20 and 40 days of treatment, and the mRNA expression of IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 was determined. After 20 days of treatment, the expression of IL-10 mRNA in the G group was different from the C group (P<0.05; however, after 40 days of treatment, there was no difference between the groups. There was no difference after 20 and 40 days of treatment between the groups with respect to the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. After 20 days of treatment, the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the E group was higher (P<0.05 than the C group. After 40 days of treatment, the expression of TNF-α mRNA was similar in all of the groups. Based on the current study, the increase in expression of IL-10 mRNA in the G group and the increase in expression of TNF-α mRNA in the E group support the use of these plants for purposes of modulating the immune system. However, a more detailed study regarding the effects of ginseng and echinacea on these cytokines and other cytokines is needed.

  7. 栽参土壤提取物活性组分筛选及其对人参幼苗生理效应研究%Study on Screening of Active Constituents from Extracts on Soil Cultivated Ginseng and Their Effects on Physiology of Ginseng Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵财; 郭靖; 许世泉; 王志清; 王英平

    2012-01-01

    Two methods were applied in the study that used different chemical reagents (Ethyl acetate, Water-saturated N-butanol) to extract aquatic extracts from cultivated ginseng soil and directly used different chemical reagents (Ethyl acetate, N-butanol, Methanol, Distilled water) to extract cultivated ginseng soil. Activity of each constituent was determined with ginseng seeds. Root vigor and MDA content of ginseng seedling was determined after treated with higher activity constituents. The results showed that each constituent of extracts from cultivated ginseng soil had effects on radicles growth of ginseng seeds in various degree, and inhibited effects were strengthened with concentration increasing. Both ethyl acetate phase of aquatic extracts and ethyl acetate extracts from cultivated ginseng soil manifested stronger inhibited effects, and both constituents had significant effects on rool vigor and MDA content of ginseng seedling. The content of MDA increased 23.8% and 37.5%, respectively, which was dramatically different from that of control(P<0.01). The root vigor decreased 17.2% and 27.1%, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of control (P<0.01). Thus, it is an effective approach that we extract cultivated ginseng soil with ethyl acetate to gain a part of ginseng allelochemicals, which could promote root cell membrane lipid peroxidation and increase membrane permeability, and reduce root activity of ginseng seedling and influence its growth and development.%研究了栽参土壤水提取液用不同化学试剂(乙酸乙酯、水饱和正丁醇)萃取和直接采用不同化学试剂(乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、甲醇和蒸馏水)提取,对所得各个组分以人参种子为试材进行生物活性测定,经筛选所得活性较强组分再以人参幼苗为试材进行其根系活力和丙二醛含量测定.结果表明:栽参土壤提取液不同组分均对人参种子胚根生长有不同程度的影响,抑制作

  8. Expression of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Gene in Ginseng Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-peng; XUE Yan; AN Wei; LIU Dan; HAO Shu-mei; SHENG Jun

    2009-01-01

    The recombinant plasmid pBIBSa containing the HBsAg DNA fragment was transferred into Agrobacte-rium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 directly. Ginseng cells were transfected with A. Tumefaciens carrying pBIBSa and the ginseng cell lines carrying HBsAg-S gene were obtained. The presence of target gene in the transfect cells was confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR. A clear band at the site of 700 bp was observed by agarose electrophoresis analysis of the samples containing the target gene. HBsAg expressed by the transgenic ginseng cells was detected by Western blot. Maximum expression levels of 184 ng HBsAg/g FW and 0. 009% of the total soluble proteins were observed by ELISA. HBsAg in ginseng cells was located both on the cell membrane and in the nuclei.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Six Novel Candidate Genes in Ginsenoside Biosynthesis from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong LUO; Shui-Ping LIU; Xiang-Hui CHEN; Ying RUAN; Jian-Qing LUO; Bin WEN; Chun-Lin LIU; Wei-Xin HU

    2005-01-01

    To explore the mode of the spatio-temporal expression of six newly discovered ginsenoside biosynthesis candidate gene transcripts, both Northern blotting and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to elucidate the mRNA expression levels of the transcripts in various tissues and organs of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer during different growth development stages. The six gene transcripts were all differentially expressed in cultured callus, root, stem, leaf, and seed.The mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in four-year-old roots than in one-year-old roots, and results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays were in accordance with those of Northern blotting analyses.The results strongly suggest that all six genes were differentially expressed at root-specific developmental stages. In particular, when a quiescent early stage culture suspension of P. ginseng cells was exposed to the ginsenoside biosynthesis-promoting elicitor Aspergillus niger polysaccharide, the GBR6 gene transcript response showed time-dependent increments and was parallel with ginsenoside productivity (P < 0.01).Overexpression of the GBR6 gene is likely to play a critically important role in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.The results of the present study provided a background for the further elucidation of the structure and physiological function of these six candidate genes.

  10. Processed Vietnamese ginseng: Preliminary results in chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Seo Young; Kim, Tae Ryong; Kim, Jae Young; Kwon, Sung Won; NGUYEN, NGOC KHOI; Park, Jeong Hill; Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the steaming process on chemical constituents, free radical scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effect of Vietnamese ginseng. Methods Samples of powdered Vietnamese ginseng were steamed at 120°C for various times and their extracts were subjected to chemical and biological studies. Results Upon steaming, contents of polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1, were rapidly decreased, whereas less polar ginsenos...

  11. New Achievements in Ginseng Research and Its Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚世峰; 张均田

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades,scientists in Asian and Western countries have been paying great attention to ginseng research.Today,more than 200 ginsenosides and non-saponin constituents have been isolated and identified.Ginsenosides show biological activities only after being deglycosylated by intestinal bacteria.Aglycone protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol show the highest bioactivities.According to literature,the noticeable action of ginseng is that of delaying aging and especially increasing the nootropic effec...

  12. Isolation of Organochlorine Pesticide from Ginseng with Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芬; 王幼君; 全灿; 田松江

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of removal of the organochlorine pesticides residues of hexachlorocyclohexane(BHC) from radix ginseng with supercritical CO2 was explored. Some factors, such as extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and kinds of co-solvents were investigated. The experimental results indicate that it is possible to reduce BHC residues in radix ginseng to the level of 0.1 × 10-6 with supercritical CO2 in the presence of suitable amount of co-solvent, such as water.

  13. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  14. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the feasibility for the sterilization of Korean red and white ginseng powder by irradiation, red and white ginseng powder (120 mesh) was irradiated by 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad with 60Co irradiator (dose rate: 4000 rad/h). Extraction rate of crude saponins by buthanol and by 50% ethanol were slightly increased according to the irradiation dose (buthanol ex. 1.7%, 50% ethanol ex. 2.6%) at 1.0 Mrad irradiation. There are no remarkable changes in HPLC patterns of crude saponins by radiation. It was found that irradiation up to 1 Mrad on Korean ginseng products have no significant effect on proximate component, reducing sugar and amino nitrogen of ginseng powder and on the color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. Irradiation up to 1 Mrad could be utilized for the sterilization of Korean ginseng powder without changes of physicochemical properties. (Author)

  15. Black Ginseng Extract Counteracts Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Kim

    Full Text Available Black ginseng, a new type of processed ginseng that has a unique ginsenoside profile, has been shown to display potent pharmacological activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Although red ginseng is considered beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, the relationship between black ginseng and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of black ginseng extract (BGE in streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice, in comparison with red ginseng extract (RGE. HPLC analyses showed that BGE has a different ginsenoside composition to RGE; BGE contains Rg5 and compound k as the major ginsenosides. BGE at 200 mg/kg reduced hyperglycemia, increased the insulin/glucose ratio and improved islet architecture and β-cell function in STZ-treated mice. The inhibition of β-cell apoptosis by BGE was associated with suppression of the cytokine-induced nuclear factor-κB-mediated signaling pathway in the pancreas. Moreover, these anti-diabetic effects of BGE were more potent than those of RGE. Collectively, our data indicate that BGE, in part by suppressing cytokine-induced apoptotic signaling, protects β-cells from oxidative injury and counteracts diabetes in mice.

  16. Ethosomes and Transfersomes for Topical Delivery of Ginsenoside Rhl from Red Ginseng: Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sun-Hang; Yun, Je-Jung; Yu, Young-Beob; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    Red ginseng (the steamed root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer), which contains ginsenosides as its main constituents, is frequently used to treat tumor, inflammation, diabetes, stress and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Asian countries. Ginsenoside Rhl, a bacterial metabolite of ginsenoside Rgl, is a protopanaxatriol type of ginsenosides. Liposomes do not deeply penetrate the skin and remain confined to the stratum corneum.Thus, new vesicular colloidal carriers such as ethosomes and transfersomes have been developed as an enhanced type of liposomes, recently. The aim of this study was to improve the topical delivery of ginsenoside Rhl isolated from red ginseng employing new vesicular system of ethosomes and transfersomes compared to conventional liposome. Characterization of ginsenoside Rhl-loaded vesicles were prepared and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. In addition, skin permeation profile was obtained using frantz diffusion cells and rat dorsal skin treated with ethosome and transfersome compared with conventional iposome. The size of vesicles range from 108.5 to 322.9 nm, and negatively charged from -20.95 to -31.37 mV. The % EE of ginsenoside Rh1 was obtained between 45.0 to 65.0%. Transfersomes provided a significantly higher skin permeation of ginsenoside Rhl compared to ethosome and conventional liposome. Therefore, based on the current study, ginsenoside Rhl-loaded transfersomes can act as a topical therapeutic effects potential. PMID:26369134

  17. Ethosomes and Transfersomes for Topical Delivery of Ginsenoside Rhl from Red Ginseng: Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sun-Hang; Yun, Je-Jung; Yu, Young-Beob; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    Red ginseng (the steamed root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer), which contains ginsenosides as its main constituents, is frequently used to treat tumor, inflammation, diabetes, stress and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Asian countries. Ginsenoside Rhl, a bacterial metabolite of ginsenoside Rgl, is a protopanaxatriol type of ginsenosides. Liposomes do not deeply penetrate the skin and remain confined to the stratum corneum.Thus, new vesicular colloidal carriers such as ethosomes and transfersomes have been developed as an enhanced type of liposomes, recently. The aim of this study was to improve the topical delivery of ginsenoside Rhl isolated from red ginseng employing new vesicular system of ethosomes and transfersomes compared to conventional liposome. Characterization of ginsenoside Rhl-loaded vesicles were prepared and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. In addition, skin permeation profile was obtained using frantz diffusion cells and rat dorsal skin treated with ethosome and transfersome compared with conventional iposome. The size of vesicles range from 108.5 to 322.9 nm, and negatively charged from -20.95 to -31.37 mV. The % EE of ginsenoside Rh1 was obtained between 45.0 to 65.0%. Transfersomes provided a significantly higher skin permeation of ginsenoside Rhl compared to ethosome and conventional liposome. Therefore, based on the current study, ginsenoside Rhl-loaded transfersomes can act as a topical therapeutic effects potential.

  18. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  19. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author)

  20. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  1. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65℃ was the highest, at 1...

  2. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, JunSang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, KwangHo; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in...

  3. Cytotoxic metabolites from the cultures of endophytic fungi from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Xu, Li-Li; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Han, Ting; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Ming, Qian-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2013-09-01

    Two strains of endophytic fungi, Penicillium melinii Yuan-25 and Penicillium janthinellum Yuan-27, with strong anti-Pyricularia oryzae activity, were obtained from the roots of Panax ginseng. Based on bioactivity-oriented isolation, a new benzaldehyde derivative, ginsenocin (1), together with six known compounds, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzoate (2), 3,4,5-trimethyl-1,2-benzenediol (3), penicillic acid (4), mannitol (5), ergosterol (6), and ergosterol peroxide (7), were separated from the EtOAc extract of Yuan-25 culture, while brefeldin A (8) was isolated as the major constituent from the EtOAc extract of Yuan-27 culture. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines. Brefeldin A (8) was the most cytotoxic constituent against all the tested cell lines with IC50 values <0.12 μg/ml, while ginsenocin (1) and penicillic acid (4) also exhibited potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 7.46 μg/ml. Our results suggest that endophytic fungi isolated from P. ginseng are a promising natural source of potential anticancer agents. PMID:23793342

  4. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos; Luiz A. Lima Júnior

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008) linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011). The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear cha...

  5. Determination of 10 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng of different harvest times based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengqin; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2013-01-01

    A combinative method of HPLC fingerprinting and quantitative determination was successfully applied to monitor dynamic accumulation of ginsenosides in five-year-old Panax ginseng roots from different harvest times. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 1 mmol · L(-1) KH2PO4 buffer solution at 203 nm. The result indicated that the contents of total ginsenosides showed significant variations, and a decrease tendency appeared in the growth period of the fifth year. PMID:22871218

  6. Ginsenosides from different parts in Dunhua ginseng%敦化人参各部位皂苷组分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常建涛; 富瑶瑶; 吴迪; 鱼红闪; 金凤燮

    2011-01-01

    采用薄层层析、高效液相色谱检测等方法,对敦化产四年白参参头、主根和须根部位皂苷的组成和含量进行测定.研究结果表明,白参各部位中皂苷组成区别不大,参头、主根和须根部位中均含有原人参二醇型皂苷Rb1、Rc、Rb2、Rd和原人参三醇型皂苷Rg1、Re、Rf,其中人参参头部位皂苷含量最高,须根部分次之,主根部分最低.总皂苷质量分数分别为参头0.781%,须根0.308%,主根0.068%.经高效液相色谱检测未发现敦化人参中含有C-K、Rh2、Rg3等人参稀有皂苷.%The components of Dunhua ginseng was studied and organic solvent extraction, TLC, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC methods were used to detect ginsenoside in Dunhua ginseng.Ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd was obtained from the rhizome, roots and fiber of Dunhua ginseng, the highest content was rhizome, the second was the fiber, the least was the roots.The contents of total ginsenoside were 0. 781% in roots, 0. 308% in fiber, and 0.068% in rhizome.The minor ginsenoside C-K, Rh2, Rg3 were not detected in Dunhua ginseng.

  7. A Role of Ginseng and Its Constituents in the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokot, Natasya Trivena; Kairupan, Timothy Sean; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Runtuwene, Joshua; Kapantow, Nova Hellen; Amitani, Marie; Morinaga, Akinori; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the Panax genus of the Araliaceae family, has been used in China, Korea, and Japan as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. Ginseng is recorded to have exhibited a wide variety of beneficial pharmacological effects and has become a popular and worldwide known health supplement and drug. The protective effects of ginseng on central nervous system are discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are concisely introduced. The molecular mechanisms of the effects of ginseng on central nervous system, mainly focused on the neuroprotection properties of ginseng, memory, and learning enhanced properties, and the effects on neurodegenerative disorders are presented. Thus, ginseng and its constituents are of potential merits in the treatment of cerebral disorders. PMID:27630732

  8. Chasing ancestors: searching for the roots of American Sign Language in the Kentish Weald, 1620-1851

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzel, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Late twentieth-century discourses regarding deaf people and sign language provide the theoretical background for investigating early modern families with hereditary deafness within the Kentish Weald. The first of its kind, this thesis described the methods used to ascertain the presence of sufficient numbers of networked deaf people to maintain natural sign language. A source-driven work, it began with two data sources - a list generated by previous American genealogical research of the f...

  9. Simultaneous quantification of 14 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean red ginseng) by HPLC-ELSD and its application to quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Na; Ha, Young Wan; Shin, Heungsop; Son, Sung Ho; Wu, Song Ji; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2007-09-21

    A new method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 14 major ginsenosides, which are the marker compounds of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean red ginseng). Various types of ginseng samples were extracted, and the amounts of the 14 ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd, Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, and Rh2) were determined by reverse-phase HPLC-ELSD using digoxin as an internal standard. The mobile phase consisted of a programmed gradient of aqueous acetonitrile. Calibration curves for each ginsenoside were determined for the quantification. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. This quantification method was applied to several finished ginseng products including white ginseng, red ginseng powder, and red ginseng concentrate. The amounts of the 14 ginsenosides in the various ginseng samples could be analyzed simultaneously. This validated HPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products. PMID:17560064

  10. Analysis of the NASA AirMOSS Root Zone Soil Water and Soil Temperature from Three North American Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Root zone soil water and temperature are controlling factors for soil organic matter accumulation and decomposition which contribute significantly to the CO2 flux of different ecosystems. An in-situ soil observation protocol developed at Oregon State University has been deployed to observe soil water and temperature dynamics in seven ecological research sites in North America as part of the NASA AirMOSS project. Three instrumented profiles defining a transect of less than 200 m are installed at each site. All three profiles collect data for in-situ water and temperature dynamics employing seven soil water and temperature sensors installed at seven depth levels and one infrared surface temperature sensor monitoring the top of the profile. In addition, two soil heat flux plates and associated thermocouples are installed at one of three profiles at each site. At each profile, a small 80 cm deep access hole is typically made, and all below ground sensors are installed into undisturbed soil on the side of the hole. The hole is carefully refilled and compacted so that root zone soil water and temperature dynamics can be observed with minimum site disturbance. This study focuses on the data collected from three sites: a) Tonzi Ranch, CA; b) Metolius, OR and c) BERMS Old Jack Pine Site, Saskatchewan, Canada. The study describes the significantly different seasonal root zone water and temperature dynamics under the various physical and biological conditions at each site. In addition, this study compares the soil heat flux values estimated by the standard installation using the heat flux plates and thermocouples installed near the surface with those estimated by resolving the soil heat storage based on the soil water and temperature data collected over the total soil profile.

  11. Studies on safety and efficiency of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the biological quality improvement and preservation of white ginseng which has problems in a hygienic quality and storage stability. The current phosphine treatment showed no influence on microorganisms contaminated even though it was very useful for disinfestation of the sample, while 5 kGy irradiation effectively controlled the biological quality of the stored sample, with minimal effects on the quality parameters of white ginseng. Thus, it is concluded that gamma irradiation at a range of 5 kGy can be an alternative method of chemical fumigants provided air-tight packaging excluding recontamination is used for the stored product. (Author)

  12. Isoconiferoside, a New Phenolic Glucoside from Seeds of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Young Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic glucoside, isoconiferoside (1, was isolated from the seeds of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae. The structure was determined to be 9-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-coniferyl alcohol based on spectroscopic analyses (1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC and acid hydrolysis.

  13. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were ac

  14. 放线菌制剂对人参生长及根域土壤微生物区系的影响%Effects of actinomycetes agent on ginseng growth and rhizosphere soil microflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿雁; 薛泉宏; 申光辉; 王东胜

    2013-01-01

    Taking the ginseng in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as test object,this paper studied the effects of applying Streptomyces pactum (Act12) on ginseng growth and on the soil microflora in root zone and root surface.After treated with Act12,the yield and quality of ginseng' s medicinal part improved,the induced enzyme activities in leaves and the root activity increased,and the numbers and proportions of soil bacteria and actinomycetes increased significantly while those of soil fungi decreased.Compared with the control,the soil microflora in treatment Act12 changed.The numbers of the dominant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens,Pseudomonas koreensis,and Microbacterium oxydans were much higher in root zone soil and root surface soil,and the pathogen Plectosphaerella cucumerina decreased in root zone soil and disappeared in root surface soil.These results suggested that the addition of Act12 could improve the soil microflora,enhance the resistance and root activity of ginseng plant,and increase the ginseng yield and its quality.%以小兴安岭地区人参为研究对象,探索放线菌制剂对人参的促生效应及对人参根区、根表土壤微生物区系的影响.结果表明:经放线菌制剂Streptomyces pactum(Act12)处理后,人参药用部分产量增加,品质改善;叶片诱导酶活性提高,根系活力增强;土壤中细菌、放线菌的数量和比例显著增加,真菌的数量和比例减少.与对照相比,土壤微生物区系结构改变:优势菌荧光假单胞菌、韩国假单胞菌和氧化微杆菌在根区、根表土壤中的数量大幅提高;病原真菌烟色织孢霉在根区土壤中减少,在根表土壤中消失.表明施用放线菌制剂Act12能够改善土壤微生物区系,提高人参植株的抗性和根系活力,增加产量并改善品质.

  15. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Hwan Kim; Seung Hyun Jeon; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek; Jong Kwan Park; Nae Young Youn; Hyung-Lae Lee

    2009-01-01

    Korean ginseng and mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) are important traditional herbal plants whose ginsenosides are generally accepted as serving to improve sexual functions, such as penile erection. We investigated the effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng extract (TMGE) on male patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 143 patients experiencing ED. Over the course of 8 weeks, one group took 1 000 mg of TMGE twice a day, and the other group took 1 000 mg of placebo twice a day. The effects of the TMGE and the placebo were analyzed using the Korean version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. A total of 86 patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. The scores on the five domains of the IIEF after medication were significantly higher than the baseline scores in the group treated with TMGE (P0.05). Erectile function and overall satisfaction scores after medication were significantly higher in the TMGE group than in the placebo group (P<0.05). Erectile function of patients in the TMGE-treated group significantly improved, suggesting that TMGE could be utilized for improving erectile function in male patients.

  16. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B1 and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2, Rg3 and Rg5, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg3 and Rg5 showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh2 had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5 and Rh2

  17. Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed usin...

  18. The Efficacy of Ginseng-Related Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Qi-Feng; Xu, Zhe-Rong; Xu, Ke-ying; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of ginseng in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current meta-analysis evaluated the ginseng-induced improvement in glucose control and insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Randomized clinical trials comparing ginseng supplementation versus control, in patients with T2DM or impaired glucose tolerance, were hand-searched from Medline, Cochrane, and Google Scholar d...

  19. Anti-metastatic mechanism of mountain cultivated wild ginseng in human cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang SB

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Ginseng is one of most widely used herbal medicine. Ginseng showed anti-metastasis activities. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are unknown. So we want to report the wild ginseng repress which plays key roles in neoplastic epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Methods : Treatment of the human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells and human gastric carcinoma SNU601 cells with the increased concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng extracts resulted in a gradual decrease in the AXIN2 gene expression. Results : Metastasis-suppressor genes, maspin and nm23 was not affected by the treatment of ginseng extracts in LOVO cells. Moreover, the mountain cultivated wild ginseng or mountain wild ginseng are similar in their inhibitory effects on the expression of AXIN2 gene, but are substantially stronger than cultivated ginseng. Conclusion : We described the novel mechanism of wild ginseng-induced anti-metastasis activity by repressing the expression of AXIN2 gene that plays key roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

  20. 3种人参中的皂苷的组成%Ginsenoside contents in three different ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春莹; 宋建国; 李鹏飞; 鱼红闪; 金凤燮

    2011-01-01

    研究了市销人参、西洋参和三七参根部中总皂苷的含量及组成.采用正丁醇萃取法提取总皂苷发现:总皂苷在人参主根、须根中的质量分数分别为4.0%、6.1%;在西洋参主根、须根中的质量分数分别为4.1%、6.3%;在三七参主根、须根中的质量分数分别为8.2%、1.7%.人参、西洋参须根中总皂苷的质量分数均高于主根,是其1.5倍;而三七参主根中总皂苷的质量分数高于须根,是其3倍.TLC和HPLC检测结果表明,人参中各种皂苷的质量分数差别不大,主根、须根的ω(PPD)/ω(PPT)分别为37:58、66:33,人参中含有特征皂苷Rf,其质量分数为5%~8%,人参中还含有微量R1.西洋参中Re、Rb1含量较高,占总皂苷的40%~50%,主根、须根的ω(PPD)/ω(PPT)分别为50:43、58:39,西洋参中不含有R1和Rf皂苷.三七参中Rg1、Rb1的质量分数较高,占总皂苷的70%,其主根、须根总皂苷组成相似,三七参中含有特征皂苷R1,其质量分数为9%~11%.%The component of ginsenosides in different ginseng was investigated. The content of total ginsenosides extracted by butanol from root and fiber was 4.0% and 6.1% in ginseng, 4. 1% and 6.3 % in gen-seng and 8.2 % and 1.7 % in notoginseng. The ginsenoside in fiber is higher than that in root for ginseng and gen-seng, but ginsenoside in root is higher than that in fiber for notoginseng. When detected by TLC and HPLC, the value of w(PPD)/w(PPT) were 48: 52 and 70: 30 in the root and fiber respectively and the content of Rf was 5%-8%. Ginseng also contained R1. The higher content of gen-seng is Re and Rb1 which is about 40%-50% in total ginsenoside. The value of w(PPD)/w(PPT) is 57: 43 and 61: 39 in the root and fiber respectively. R1 and Rf can not detected in gen-seng. The higher content of notoginseng is Rg1 and Rb1 with 70% in the total ginsenoside. The composition of total ginsenoside in the root is similar to that in fiber of notoginseng. The

  1. The ginseng of ancient herbalism research study%古之人参的本草学考证的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方琪; 毛泽玲

    2015-01-01

    From the ginseng of ancient origin and ginseng in literature are summarized, in order to solve the ginseng campanulaceae codonopsis or five plus families and ginseng.%从人参的古今产地及人参的文献资料中进行了综述,以期能够解决人参是桔梗科党参还是五加科人参之争。

  2. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population. PMID:27420983

  3. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-06-27

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population.

  4. Metabolomic Approach for Discrimination of Four- and Six-Year-Old Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Using UPLC-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Sub; Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Seo, Hyun Kyu; Won, Tae Hyung; Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Chang Kyun; Shin, Jongheon

    2016-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER is one of the most popular medicinal herbs in Asia and the chemical constituents are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. Metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish age discrimination of four- and six-year-old red ginseng using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear discrimination between extracts of red ginseng of different ages and suggest totally six discrimination markers (two for four-year-old and four for six-year-old red ginseng). Among these, one marker was isolated and the structure determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis was 13-cis-docosenamide (marker 6-1) from six-year-old red ginseng. This is the first report of a metabolomic study regarding the age differentiation of red ginseng using UPLC-QToF-MS and determination of the structure of the marker. These results will contribute to the quality control and standardization as well as provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research on red ginseng.

  5. A 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate the geographical authenticity of herbal medicine and its application in building a model effectively assessing the mixing proportion of intentional admixtures: A case study of Panax ginseng: Metabolomics for the authenticity of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Geun; Min, Jung-Eun; Yoon, Sang Jun; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Lim, Johan; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-05-30

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng has long been the subject of adulteration, especially regarding its origins. Here, 60 ginseng samples from Korea and China initially displayed similar genetic makeup when investigated by DNA-based technique with 23 chloroplast intergenic space regions. Hence, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with orthogonal projections on the latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied and successfully distinguished between samples from two countries using seven primary metabolites as discrimination markers. Furthermore, to recreate adulteration in reality, 21 mixed samples of numerous Korea/China ratios were tested with the newly built OPLS-DA model. The results showed satisfactory separation according to the proportion of mixing. Finally, a procedure for assessing mixing proportion of intentionally blended samples that achieved good predictability (adjusted R(2)=0.8343) was constructed, thus verifying its promising application to quality control of herbal foods by pointing out the possible mixing ratio of falsified samples. PMID:26942336

  6. A 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate the geographical authenticity of herbal medicine and its application in building a model effectively assessing the mixing proportion of intentional admixtures: A case study of Panax ginseng: Metabolomics for the authenticity of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Geun; Min, Jung-Eun; Yoon, Sang Jun; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Lim, Johan; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-05-30

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng has long been the subject of adulteration, especially regarding its origins. Here, 60 ginseng samples from Korea and China initially displayed similar genetic makeup when investigated by DNA-based technique with 23 chloroplast intergenic space regions. Hence, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with orthogonal projections on the latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied and successfully distinguished between samples from two countries using seven primary metabolites as discrimination markers. Furthermore, to recreate adulteration in reality, 21 mixed samples of numerous Korea/China ratios were tested with the newly built OPLS-DA model. The results showed satisfactory separation according to the proportion of mixing. Finally, a procedure for assessing mixing proportion of intentionally blended samples that achieved good predictability (adjusted R(2)=0.8343) was constructed, thus verifying its promising application to quality control of herbal foods by pointing out the possible mixing ratio of falsified samples.

  7. 人参和其他中草药的遗传学鉴定%Genetic authentication of ginseng and other traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C C HON; Y C CHOW; F Y ZENG; F C C LEUNG

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the chemical and genetic methods used in authentication of ginseng, especially the recent advances in microsatellite genotyping and its application to the authentication of other traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The standardization and modernization of TCM hinge on the authentication of their botanical identities. Analysis of well-characterized marker compounds is now the most popular method for identifying the herbal materials and quality control of TCM, eg, ginsenoside profiling for authentication of Panax species. However, in many herbal species the chemical composition of the plant changes with the external environment and processing conditions, which lowers the reliability of these authentication methods. In the light of the advances in molecular biotechnology in the past few decades, genetic tools are now considered to provide more standardized and reliable methods for authentication of herbal materials at the DNA level. These genetic tools include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), DNA fingerprinting using multi-loci probes, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and microsatellite marker technology. The practicality of these methods varies in terms of their sensitivity, reliability, reproducibility, and running cost. Using ginseng as an example, we reviewed the advantages and limitations of these molecular techniques in TCM authentication. We have developed a set of microsatellite markers from American ginseng that are able to differentiate Panax ginseng and Panax quinquetolius with the resolution down to farm level, ie, confirmation of its botanical identity and origin. Compared with other molecular techniques, microsatellite marker technology is more robust, accurate, reproducible, reliable, and sensitive. This is essential for large-scale TCM authentication centers.

  8. Comparison of the pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chieh-fu CHEN; Wen-fei CHIOU; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Medical application of Panax ginseng was first found in "Shen-Nong Herbal Classic" around 200 AD Panax quinquefolium was first introduced in "Essential of Materia Medica" in 1694 in China. The most important bioactive compo-nents contained in P ginseng and P quinquefolium are ginseng saponins (GS). The contents of ginsenoside Rb1, Re, and Rd in P quinquefolium are higher than they are in P ginseng. In P ginseng, the contents of Rg1,Rb2, and Rc are higher than they are in P quinquefolium. P ginseng had a higher ratio of Rg1: Rb1, and which was lower in P quinquefolium. After steaming for several hours, the total GS will decrease. However, some ginsenosides (Rg2, 20R-Rg2, Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2) increase, while others (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1) decrease. However, variation, especially in P quinquefolium, is high. P ginseng and P quinquefolium are general tonics and adaptogens. Rg1 and Rb1 enhance central nervous system (CNS) activities, but the effect of the latter is weaker. Thus, for the higher contents of Rg1, P ginseng is a stimulant, whereas the Rb1 contents of P quinquefolium are mainly calming to the CNS. Re, Rg1, panaxan A and B from P ginseng are good for diabetes. Re and Rg1 enhance angiogenesis, whereas Rb1, Rg3 and Rh2 inhibit it. Rh2, an antitumor agent, can be obtained from Rb1 by steaming. The content of Re in P quinquefolium are higher than in P ginseng by 3-4 times. The vasorelax, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and angiogenic effects of Re are reported. Thus, for the CNS "hot," wound healing and hypoglycemic effects, P ginseng is better than P quinquefolium. For antican-cer effects, P quinquefolium is better.

  9. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  10. Alteration of Panax ginseng saponin composition by overexpression and RNA interference of the protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase gene (CYP716A53v2)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong-Bum; Chun, Ju-Hyeon; Ban, Yong-Wook; Han, Jung Yeon; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-01-01

    Background The roots of Panax ginseng contain noble tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins derived from dammarenediol-II. Dammarene-type ginsenosides are classified into the protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) groups based on their triterpene aglycone structures. Two cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are critical for the production of PPD and PPT aglycones, respectively. CYP716A53v2 is a protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase that catalyzes PPT production from PPD in P. g...

  11. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds. PMID:26270079

  12. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang;

    2014-01-01

    and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  13. Effects of Temperature variations on the Super Fine Powderization of Korean Cultivated Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ho Kim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to find optimal conditions for producing red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng using the Turbo Mill. Methods : Characteristics of powdered cultivated wild ginseng based on various temperature settings of the Turbo Mill were observed, and changes in the content was measured by HPLC for various ginsenosides. Results : 1. The diameter of cultivated wild ginseng powder ground by the Turbo Mill was around 10㎛. 2. As the temperature rose, presusre, Specific Mechanical Energy(SME, and density decreased, whileas Water Solubility Index(WSI increased. 3. As the temperature rose, super fine powder showed tendency to turn into dark brown. 4. Measuring content changes by HPLC, there was no detection of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenosideRg1, Rb1, and Rh2 concentrations decreased with increase in temperature. Conclusions : Super fine powder of cultivated wild ginseng produced by the Turbo Mill promotes easy absorption of effective ingredients by breaking the cell walls. Using this mechanism to produce red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng, it yielded less than satisfactory results under the current experiment setup. Furtherresearches are needed to verify more suitable condition for the production of red ginseng.

  14. Panax ginseng natural populations: their past, current state and perspec-tives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri N ZHURAVLEV; Olga G KOREN; Galina D REUNOVA; Tamara I MUZAROK; Tatiyana Yu GORPENCHENKO; Irina L KATS; Yuliya A KHROLENKO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:The mating system of Panax ginseng, genetics and ontogenetic structure of its natural populations of Primorye (Russia) were investigated. Methods: Genetic diversity was assessed using allozyme and the fluorescently based au-tomated amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Results: Total genetic diversity at species level is low with allozyme assay (0.023), and high with AFLP (0.255) and SSR (0.259) meth-ods. It is observed within populations according to allozyme (>99%), AFLP (>85%), and SSR (>73%) assays. The indices of genetic variability distribution point out the re-colonization of the Sikhote-Alin by ginseng plants from southern refuges during the warming period in the early Holocene. The capability of gin-seng plants to cross- and self-pollinate was shown and the assumption that Panax ginseng is a facultative apomictic plant was confirmed. The reproductive system of ginseng possesses high plasticity and stability of the fertilization process that help the species to survive in stress conditions. Disturbances caused by external or internal factors can be reduced due to the morphogenetic potential of ginseng ovule or apomictic embryo development. Analysis of life stages structure of gin-seng populations demonstrates that all of them are not full-constituents because some life stages are absent or occur rarely. Conclusion: In all 3 populations, virgin and young generative individuals are predominant. This means that popu-lations studied are viable and the reintroduction of natural ginseng population is possible yet.

  15. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng AGENCY: Agricultural... Department of Agriculture (USDA), is revising the voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated... efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy. Other changes will include a revised...

  16. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V;

    1997-01-01

    the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... against P. aeruginosa sonicate and a shift from an acute type to a chronic type of lung inflammation compared to those in the control and cortisone-treated groups were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng treatment of an experimental P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats promotes a cellular response...... resembling a TH1-like response. On the basis of these results it is suggested that ginseng may have the potential to be a promising natural medicine, in conjunction with other forms of treatment, for CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  17. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-15

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small.

  18. Hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary: a novel conditioning agent for hair care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Dae, K; Chang-Kew, K; Chung-Nam, L; Byung-Jo, H

    1989-10-01

    Synopsis A new quaternary ammonium compound, hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary (HGSQ), from Korean ginseng saponin and 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, has been developed as a conditioning agent for hair care products. This structure has a hydrophobic group from the aglycone of ginseng saponin which is biologically active and considered as the most important component of Korean ginseng. Its properties of surface tension, conductivity, critical micelle concentration (CMC), eye irritation, sorption onto hair, tensile strength for 20% extension and moisture retention effect were studied. Its cationic character allows the molecule to be more substantive than ginseng saponin. HGSQ had good physical properties and was safe enough as a cosmetic raw material. Also half-head tests of HGSQ-containing shampoo were carried out to evaluate the conditioning effects in shampoos. HGSQ showed good conditioning properties in a shampoo.

  19. Steaming-induced chemical transformations and holistic quality assessment of red ginseng derived from Panax ginseng by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS(n)-based multicomponent quantification fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-yuan; Luo, Dan; Cheng, Yi-jun; Ma, Jin-fang; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2012-08-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the steaming-induced chemical transformation of red ginseng manufactured from fresh ginseng by means of simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analyses with a combinative high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS(n)) technique. Thirty-six ginsenosides were identified in red ginseng and white ginseng by comparing the mass spectrum and/or matching the empirical molecular formula with that of known published compounds, and 11 of them were determined to be newly generated during the red ginseng preparatory process. The mechanisms involved were further deduced to be hydrolysis, dehydration, isomerization, and decarboxylation at C-20, and hydrolysis also occurs at C-3 or C-6 of the original ginsenosides through the mimic process of steaming and heating in laboratory. The multicomponent quantification fingerprint of ginseng was also established by HPLC-UV method, and the contents of 12 ginsenosides in red and white ginsengs from different sources were determined simultaneously. The ratio of the total content of determined malonyl ginsenosides to the corresponding neutral ginsenosides (T(m-PPD)/T(PPD)) in white ginseng ranged from 0.46 to 0.62 and from 0 to 0.19 in red ginseng. The validated method is expected to provide an effective approach to standardize the processing procedures of ginseng products and regulate the usage of ginseng in Traditional Chinese Medical prescription. PMID:22839102

  20. Identification of Target Genes Involved in the Antiproliferative Effect of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Il Jang; Yeon-Weol Lee; Chong-Kwan Cho; Hwa-Seung Yoo; Jun-Hyeog Jang

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30  μ g/mL), which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Ag...

  1. Ginseng for health care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Korean literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiae Choi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This systematic review was performed to summarise randomised clinical trials (RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of ginseng in the Korean literature. METHOD: The study involved systematic searches conducted in eight Korean Medical databases. The methodological quality of all of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We included all RCTs on any type of ginseng compared to placebo, active treatment or no treatment in healthy individuals or patients regardless of conditions. RESULTS: In total, 1415 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 30 randomised clinical trials were included. Nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng on exercise capacity, cognitive performance, somatic symptoms, quality of life, and sleeping in healthy persons. Six RCTs tested ginseng compared with placebo for erectile dysfunction, while another four studies evaluated the effects of ginseng against no treatment for gastric and colon cancer. Two RCTs compared the effect of red ginseng on diabetes mellitus with no treatment or placebo, and the other nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng compared with placebo or no treatment on various conditions. The methodological caveats of the included trials make their contribution to the current clinical evidence of ginseng somewhat limited. However, the 20 newly added trials (66.7% of the 30 trials may provide useful information for future trials. Ginseng appears to be generally safe, and no serious adverse effects have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of ginseng have been tested in a wide range of conditions in Korea. Although the quality of RCTs published in the Korean literature was generally poor, this review is useful for researchers to access studies that were originally published in languages that they would otherwise be unable to read and due to the paucity of evidence on this subject.

  2. Oral administration of ginseng ameliorates cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. METHODS: Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measurements of serum insulin level, β cell area, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis. Using an in vitro model, we further examined the effect of ginseng on a cyclosporine-treated insulin-secreting cell line. Oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in serum, tissue sections, and culture media. RESULTS: Four weeks of cyclosporine treatment increased blood glucose levels and decreased insulin levels, but cotreatment with ginseng ameliorated the cyclosporine-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic β cell area was also greater with ginseng cotreatment compared with cyclosporine monotherapy. The production of proinflammatory molecules, such as induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokines, and the level of apoptotic cell death also decreased in pancreatic β cell with ginseng treatment. Consistent with the in vivo results, the in vitro study showed that the addition of ginseng protected against cyclosporine-induced cytotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. These in vivo and in vitro changes were accompanied by decreases in the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in pancreatic β cell in tissue section, serum, and culture media during cotreatment of ginseng with cyclosporine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ginseng has a protective effect against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic β cell injury via reducing oxidative stress.

  3. Efficacy of Compound Therapy by Ginseng and Ciprofloxacin on Bacterial Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Miri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Genitourinary tract infections play a significant role in male infertility. Infections of reproductive sex glands, such as the prostate, impair function and indirectly affect male fertility. The general aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG on prostatitis in male rats treated with ciprofloxacin (CIPX. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 72 two male Wistar rats into 9 groups. The groups were treated as follows for 10 days: i. Control (no medication, ii. Sham [(normal saline injection into the vas deferens and oral administration of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS], iii. Ginseng, iv. CPIX, v. CIPX+ginseng, vi. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli (UPEC, vii. UPEC+ginseng, viii. UPEC+CIPX, and ix. UPEC+ginseng+CIPX. The rats were killed 14 days after the last injection and the prostate glands were removed. After sample preparation, routine histology was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL method was used to determine the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: The severity score for acinar changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the UPEC+CIPX group did not significantly different from the UPEC group. However this score significantly decreased in the UPEC+CIPX+ginseng group compared to the UPEC group. Apoptotic index of all ginseng treated groups significantly decreased compared to the UPEC and CPIX groups. Conclusion: These results suggested that ginseng might be an effective adjunct in CIPX treatment of prostatitis. The combined use ginseng and CIPX was more effective than ginseng or CIPX alone.

  4. Ginseng Extracts Restore High-Glucose Induced Vascular Dysfunctions by Altering Triglyceride Metabolism and Downregulation of Atherosclerosis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hoi-huen Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The king of herbs, Panax ginseng, has been used widely as a therapeutic agent vis-à-vis its active pharmacological and physiological effects. Based on Chinese pharmacopeia Ben Cao Gang Mu and various pieces of literature, Panax ginseng was believed to exert active vascular protective effects through its antiobesity and anti-inflammation properties. We investigated the vascular protective effects of ginseng by administrating ginseng extracts to rats after the induction of diabetes. We found that Panax ginseng can restore diabetes-induced impaired vasorelaxation and can reduce serum triglyceride but not cholesterol level in the diabetic rats. The ginseng extracts also suppressed the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered the expression of lipid-related genes. The results provide evidence that Panax ginseng improves vascular dysfunction induced by diabetes and the protective effects may possibly be due to the downregulation of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered lipid metabolism, which help to restore normal endothelium functions.

  5. [White ginseng commercialization and sales expansion activities of Gaesung merchants in the 1910s and 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2011-06-30

    Ginseng has always been the typical export item in Korean history. Until the 18th century, exporting ginseng was wild ginseng from the mountains. Since the 19th century, exporting ginseng became red ginseng, which was red due to steaming and drying process. Red ginseng was produced by Gaesung merchants, so that these merchants were able to gain the control of the output. Gaesung merchants of the 19th century exported red ginseng to China and made huge economic success. However, when the Korean Empire and Japanese colonial government established red ginseng monopoly, it essentially blocked Gaesung traders from manufacturing and exporting any further of its prized commodity. Then, the traders turned to sun-dried white ginseng as a substitute to red ginseng. As a result, white ginseng production dramatically increased after 1914, which in turn made Gaesung merchants newly aware of the commercial value of white ginseng, which was previously ignored. The traders made good use of the traditional medicine herb market, which opened annually, to promote the expansion of white ginseng sales. Moreover, the merchants also adopted modern marketing techniques, as they founded companies to handle solely white ginseng sales, refreshed packaging to raise commodity values, and made an effort in advertising and mail order sales. Due to such endeavors, demand for white ginseng grew exponentially both in domestic and foreign markets, which generated steady growth of white ginseng prices despite the rapid increase of its supply. This phenomenon naturally brought about the rich economic accomplishments of Gaesung merchants. Through the white ginseng sales activities of Gaesung merchants in post-1910s era, two facts can be newly uncovered. First, the mass consumption of white ginseng today in Korean society took a full-scale step after the 1910s. Second, it was a widely-held view that during the Japanese rule, majority of Korean traditional merchants were economically ruined, while a

  6. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, Micha, E-mail: micha.horacek@ait.ac.at [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1 Shinwol-7dong, Yangcheon-ku, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-12-03

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed {delta}{sup 2}H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for {delta}{sup 13}C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for {delta}{sup 15}N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave {delta}{sup 2}H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , {delta}{sup 13}C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and {delta}{sup 15}N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in {delta}{sup 2}H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  7. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  8. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  9. Roots Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barnabas

    1998-01-01

    Offers historical information about square roots. Presents three different methods--Hero's method, visual method, and remainder method--which can be used to teach the finding of square roots and one method for determining cube roots. (ASK)

  10. Drying characteristics and quality of red ginseng using far-infrared rays

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Xiaofeng; Lee, Junsoo; Han, Chungsu

    2015-01-01

    Background The current typical drying methods for red ginseng are sun drying and hot-air drying. The purpose of this study was to investigate drying characteristics of red ginseng by using far-infrared drying. Methods The far-infrared drying tests on red ginseng were conducted at two drying stages: (1) high temperature for 24 h drying and (2) low temperature drying until the final moisture content was 13 ± 0.5% (wet basis). The high temperature drying stage included three drying chamber tempe...

  11. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  12. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  13. The retention behavior of ginsenosides in HPLC and its application to quality assessment of Radix Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Luo, Guo-An; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2009-05-01

    This study systematically investigated the retention behavior of seven neutral ginsenosides Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, and an acidic ginsenoside R(0), the major pharmacologically active components of Radix Ginseng with RP-HPLC. The effects of solvent, pH value, ionic strength of the mobile phase, and column temperature were investigated using an octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica gel column. Based on the ginsenosides' retention characteristics, the concentration of acetonitrile and the gradient of the mobile phase needed to maintain the baseline separation of the major neutral ginsenosides in Radix Ginseng were theoretically predicted. Furthermore, the ionic strength of mobile-phase necessary to achieve good resolution of the neutral ginsenosides and acidic ginsenosides was carefully investigated. According to the results of the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in eight batches of ginseng samples from different sources, the developed HPLC technique may be a valuable tool for the quality assessment of Radix Ginseng. PMID:19471880

  14. 76 FR 53875 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... that affect the scab, or other means that affect appearance or marketing quality. the appearance or...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural...

  15. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  16. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 106 to 103 CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  17. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder

  18. Improvement of erectile function by Korean red ginseng(Panax ginseng) in a male rat model of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Dae Kim; Young-Joo Kim; Jung-Sik Huh; Sae-Woong Kim; Dong-Wan Sohn

    2013-01-01

    The seriousness of metabolic syndrome is not due to the disease itself but its promotion of other diseases,such as erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.We investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG,Panax ginseng) extract on erectile function in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.We divided the rats into three groups:control,metabolic syndrome+normal saline (N/S) and metabolic syndrome+ KRG.To determine the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in all groups,body weight and various biochemical parameters (e.g.,blood glucose,insulin,cholesterol) were measured,and the intra-abdominal glucose tolerance test was performed.To investigate penile erection,the peak intracavernosal pressure (ICP),mean arterial pressure (MAP) and Masson's trichrome stain were evaluated.Erectile function was also investigated by measuring the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)levels of the corpus cavernosum.We found that the various biochemical parameters and body weight were similar in the metabolic syndrome+KRG group and the control group,although the values were slightly higher.The peak ICP/MAP ratio of the metabolic syndrome+ N/S group was markedly decreased compared to the other groups.The cGMP level of the corpus cavemosum in the metabolic syndrome+N/S group was significantly lower than that of the other groups.As demonstrated in this model of metabolic syndrome with erectile dysfunction,KRG may improve erectile function.

  19. HPLC method for determination of eleutherosides e and b in dry extract of Siberian Ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    BOBOK MAXIM NIKOLAEVICH; PAVLOVA LUDMILA ANATOLIEVNA; SMIRNOV VALERIY VALERIEVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a modern method for quantitative determination of eleutherosides B and E in dry extract of Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. Et Maxim.)). The dry extract of Siberian Ginseng contains eleutherosides B (syringin) and E (syringaresinol-4’,4’-O-bis-β-D-glucoside) as the most pharmacologically active compounds. In connection with the above, it is important to develop and validate a method for determining eleutherosides B and E. Quantification of eleutheroside...

  20. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Materials and Methods: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. Results: For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H2O2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H2O2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. Conclusion: In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  1. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Fermented Red Ginseng in Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Ji, Geun-Eog; Park, Myeong-Soo; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kwon, Jae-Woo; Kim, Tae-Whan; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Allergic rhinitis is clinically defined as a disorder of the nose induced by IgE mediated inflammation after allergen exposure of the nasal mucosa. Many reports have stated that Panax ginseng and fermented red ginseng have anti-inflammatory effects, especially against Th2-type inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fermented red ginseng in allergic rhinitis. Methods In this 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 59 patients with persiste...

  3. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh pressure (UHP treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS. Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  4. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples. PMID:27338333

  5. 人参蒸炖炮制的研究%Research progress of ginseng processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 孙佳明; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    There are many kinds of ginseng processed products,such as red ginseng and black ginseng. Deepening the process concocted is named the“black ginseng”;steaming and dry as“red ginseng”. The chemical composition of black ginseng is ginsenosides,polysaccharides,amino acids,trace elements. Chemical composition of red ginseng is basically the same as black ginseng,as with different content and composition ratio of each component,pharmacody-namic activity will change.%人参的蒸炖炮制品主要是黑参和红参。深化加工炮制即为“黑参”,蒸制后干燥的为“红参”。黑参的化学成分是人参皂苷、多糖、氨基酸、微量元素等;红参与黑参的化学成分基本相同,但含量及每种成分的组成比例不同,因而药效活性也会发生变化。

  6. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  8. Overview on the analytical tools for quality control of natural product-based supplements: a case study of ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Chan, Sui Yung; Weng Chan, Yew; Sing Lim, Chu

    2005-12-01

    The quality of pharmaceutical products like ginseng is important for ensuring consumer safety and efficacy. Many ginseng products sold today are in various formulations such as powder, capsules, tablets, soft-gels, liquid extracts, and tea. This renders ginseng less identifiable by smell, taste, or physical appearance. Furthermore, as ginseng is expensive, adulteration with other cheaper products occurs. Hence quality assurance of ginseng is needed. This paper reviews the major techniques for ascertaining the level of ginsenosides, the primary active ingredients for ginseng, and covers high-performance liquid, gas, and thin-layer chromatographies, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, enzyme immunoassays, and other molecular methods. Supporting techniques such as ultraviolet, fluorescence, diode array and evaporative light scattering detections, and mass spectrometry will also be touched upon. This review also discusses the principles and applications of biosensors-in particular fiber optic-based sensors-and their feasibility in ginseng analysis based on preliminary studies. Despite their potential, there is currently no or limited commercial exploitation of fiber optic-based sensors to perform ginseng quality analysis. The opportunity for biosensors to be used for the rapid quality surveillance of ginseng is appealing, but several key issues still need to be addressed before they find widespread applications in the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:16438663

  9. Protective effects of Ginseng mixture on myocardial fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Lai; Zhang; Yue-Hong; Li; Hong-Xia; Zhou; Yu-Xin; Zhang; Yong-Sheng; Wang; Zhi-Yong; Zhang; Ling-Li; Meng; Xiao-Ming; Shang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the protective effects of ginseng mixture on myocardial fibrosis(MF)in rats.Methods:A total of 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group without modeling operation,and another 4 groups using subcutaneous injections of isopropyl adrenaline for 10 d to set up the MF model:model group with saline lavage treatment after modeling,captopril group with captopril lavage,ginseng mixture group A and group B with low and high dose mixture treatment respectively.After treatment for 14 d,abdominal aorta and myocardial tissue were extracted to observe the pathological morphological changes and heart weight index in each group.Results:The left ventricular weight and heart heavy index of captopril group and group B were significantly lower than that of model group and group A(P<0.05);Model group and group A showed a higher hydroxyproline(Hyp)content in myocardial tissue than the control group and lower catalase(CAT)activity than Gontrol group(P<0.05);captopril group and group B showed a lower Hyp content and higher CAT activity compared with group A and model group(P<0.05),a significantly lower level of serum glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX)and CAT and a higher level of serum creatine kinase,lactate dehydrogenase and H2O2 in model group and group A were observed compared with the control group(P<0.05).A higher level of GSH-PX and CAT and a lower level of creatine kinase,lactate dehydrogenase and H2O2 in captopril group and group B were observed compared with group A and model group(P<0.05);and histopathological examination showed that in captopril group and group B,secretion of collagen fiber was significantly inhibited and myocardial injury was significantly lighter than that of model group.Conclusions:Ginseng mixture plays a protective effect on myocardium by inhibiting antioxidant process of MF.

  10. 石柱参与林下山参及传统园参成分差异的比较研究%Comparison Study on Chemical Composition of Chinese Shizhu Panax, Ginseng Under Forest and Traditional Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可强; 薛振东; 魏汉莲; 宋宇宁; 关昕

    2013-01-01

    Objective;To compare the composition differences of Chinese Shizhu panax, ginseng under forest and traditional ginseng. Methods; The ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rgl and ginsenoside Rbl were tested by HPLC;the total saponins of panax ginseng were tested by Visible - UV Spectrophotometry. Results: The content of the total saponins of panax ginseng of Chinese Shizhu panax and ginseng under forest is nearly the same. The content of the total saponins of panax ginseng in Chinese Shizhu panax is higher than that in Fu song ginseng and Jian bian tiao ginseng. The ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rgl and ginsenoside Rbl content of Chinese Shizhu panax was higher than that in ginseng under forest, Fu song ginseng and Jian bian tiao ginseng. Conclusion ; Chinese Shizhu panax contains higher ginsenoside, providing the theoretical basis for the evaluation of the inner quality.%目的:比较石柱参与林下山参及传统园参成分差异.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定人参皂苷Re、Rg1、Rb1;采用可见紫外分光光度法测定人参总皂苷的含量.结果:石柱参与林下山参人参总皂苷的含量相当,但高于抚松普通参和集安边条参的含量;石柱参中人参皂苷Re、Rg1、Rb1的含量均高于林下山参和抚松普通参和集安边条参.结论:石柱参人参皂苷的含量较高,可为其内在质量评价提供理论依据.

  11. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  12. Mania and Psychosis Associated with St. John's Wort and Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kaustubh G; Faubion, Matthew D

    2005-09-01

    The use of complimentary/alternative medicine has become popular as evidenced by grocery store aisles and "infomercials" devoted to herbal products. These products are often misconstrued as safe because of their natural origin. With an increase in the consumption of these products, physicians need to be aware of their potential adverse effects. There are several popular over-the-counter herbal products that can affect one's behavior, especially resulting in acute mania and/or psychosis. This article provides an overview of existing literature regarding the increased use of herbal agents, reviews several case reports describing a potential association between herbal products (St. John's Wort and ginseng) and the development of mania and psychosis, and discusses the limitations in determining the frequency of serious adverse effects due to herbal products. PMID:21120109

  13. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. (Agriculture Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  14. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  15. Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Nawab John; Hamid, Abid; Ahmad, Muzamil

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera, also called 'Indian ginseng', is an important medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used, singly or in combination, with other herbs against many ailments in Indian Systems of Medicine since time immemorial. Withania somnifera contains a spectrum of diverse phytochemicals enabling it to have a broad range of biological implications. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic properties. Additionally, it has demonstrated the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, modulate mitochondrial function, regulate apoptosis, and reduce inflammation and enhance endothelial function. In view of these pharmacologic properties, W. somnifera is a potential drug candidate to treat various clinical conditions, particularly related to the nervous system. In this review, we summarize the pharmacologic characteristics and discuss the mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications of the plant and its active constituents.

  16. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  17. Square Root +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  18. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  19. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    H.-J. Kim; K.-H. Yoon; M.-J. Kang; H.-W. Yim; K.-S. Lee; Vuksan, V.; M.-K. Sung

    2012-01-01

    We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood bi...

  20. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  1. Effects of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties of extruded red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Gil, Sun Kuk; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2012-09-01

    The effects of variable moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the physicochemical properties of red ginseng powder extrudates were investigated. The raw red ginseng powders were processed in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. Primary extrusion variables were feed moisture content (20 and 30%), screw speed (200 and 250 rpm) and barrel temperature (115 and 130°C). Extruded red ginseng showed higher crude saponin contents (6.72~7.18%) than raw red ginseng (5.50%). Tested extrusion conditions did not significantly affect the crude saponin content of extrudates. Increased feed moisture content resulted in increased bulk density, specific length, water absorption index (WAI), breaking strength, elastic modulus and crude protein content and decreased water solubility index (WSI) and expansion (p<0.05). Increased barrel temperature resulted in increased total sugar content, but decreased reducing sugar content in the extrudate (p<0.05). Furthermore, increased barrel temperature resulted in increased amino acid content and specific length and decreased expansion and bulk density of extrudates only at a higher feed moisture content. The physicochemical properties of extrudates were mainly dependent on the feed moisture content and barrel temperature, whereas the screw speed showed a lesser effect. These results will be used to help define optimized process conditions for controlling and predicting qualities and characteristics of extruded red ginseng. PMID:24471085

  2. Modulating effect of ginseng saponins on heterologously expressed HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk-seong KIM; Sook-jin SON; Hyo-shin KIM; Yong-duk KIM; Kyu-seung LEE; Byeong-hwa JEON; Kwang-jin KIM; Jin-kyu PARK; Jin-bong PARK

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of ginseng saponins on the heterologously expressed human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) that encodes the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ channel. Methods: A two-electrode voltage clamp tech nique was used. HERG currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes injected with HERG cRNA. Results: Crude saponins of Korean red ginseng (GS) induced a minimal increase of the maximal HERG conductance without changes in the voltage-dependent HERG current activation and inactivation curves. GS, however,decelerated HERG current deactivation in a concentration-dependent manner,which was more noticeable with panaxitriol (PT) than panaxidiol (PD). Consistently,ginseng saponins increased the HERG deactivation time constants with the order of potency of Rg1 (a major component of PT)>Rf 1>Rb1 (a major component of PD).Re had little effect on HERG deactivation. During a cardiac action Potential, GS increased the outward HERG current. Conclusion: Ginseng saponins enhance HERG currents, which could be in part a possible mechanism of the shortening cardiac action potential of ginseng saponins.

  3. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hwa Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cation channel of sperm (CatSper protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.

  4. Effects of extrusion cooking on physicochemical properties of white and red ginseng (powder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), extruded white ginseng (EWG), red ginseng (RG), and extruded red ginseng (ERG) was performed. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties of ginseng by extrusion cooking. The highest value of the water absorption index (WAI) was 3.64 g/g obtained from EWG, and the highest value of the water solubility index (WSI) was 45.27% obtained from ERG. The ERG had a better dispersibility compared with other samples. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in acidic polysaccharide and total sugar content but resulted in a decrease in crude fat and reducing sugar contents. Enzyme treatment led to a sharp increase in acidic polysaccharide content, especially the cellulose enzyme. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the increases in WG and RG were 13.56% (0.038) and 3.56% (0.026), respectively. The data of this study provide valuable information about the effects of extrusion on quality changes of EWG and ERG. PMID:24748839

  5. The ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-kui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest, called "Lin-Xia-Shan-Shen" (LXSS in China′s Pharmacopoeia. In recent years, it has been quickly propelled to plant at a large scale. Objective: To study the profiles of ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of LXSS. Materials and Methods: The contents of ginsenosides and carbohydrates, such as soluble sugar, polysaccharide, pectin, and starch in LXSS, were determined. All the above components were profiled, and the correlations between them were analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the contents of total ginsenoside, protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, Rg 1 , Re, Rb 1 , Rc, Rb 2 , Rd, starch, and pectin were negatively correlated with the growing years within 17 years. Among them, the content of starch was positively correlated with that of pectin. The total ginsenosides was positively correlated with starch and pectin, which cannot be found in garden ginseng, maybe resulting of fertilizer and other manual intervention in process of cultivation of garden ginseng. Discussion and Conclusions: The accumulation of ginsenosides and carbohydrate, especially starch and pectin, was different in garden ginseng and LXSS. This research may provide the scientific basis for germplasm evaluation, the cultivation and utilization of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest.

  6. 人参土壤改良技术研究进展%Advances in ginseng soil amendment research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显娇; 张连学

    2012-01-01

    本文就我国人参在不同的生长环境中土壤改良技术进行综述,从传统的伐林栽参、农田栽参、林下参栽培等方面阐述了人参土壤在改良过程中的优缺点,并提出了研究中存在的不足及对今后的展望。%In this paper, our ginseng grown in different soil environment, soil improvement techniques are reviewed. Described in the improvement process of soil strengths and weaknesses from the traditional planting ginseng, farmland planted ginseng, forest ginseng ginseng cultivation, etc,and made a study of the shortcomings and future prospects.

  7. Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Singh, Priyanka; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Lee, Hyun A; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated DCY106(T), was isolated from soil collected from the rhizosphere of ginseng (Panax ginseng), in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY106(T) is Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellate, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and strictly aerobic. The strain grows optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. Phylogenetically, strain DCY106(T) is closely related to Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans KCTC 22507(T) (98.41 %), followed by Flavobacterium cutihirudini LMG 26922(T) (97.67 %), Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens LMG 28694(T) (97.59 %), Flexibacter auranticus LMG 3987(T) (97.38 %), Flavobacterium defluvi KCTC 12612(T) (97.21 %) and Flavobacterium chilense LMG 26360(T) (97.05 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Flavobacterium species were below 97 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY106(T) is 34.2 mol% and the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY106(T) and F. cutihirudini LMG 26922(T), F. auranticus LMG 3987(T), F. defluvi KCTC 12612(T) and F. chilense LMG 26360(T) were below 40.0 %. The menaquinone of the type MK-6 was found to be the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unidentified aminolipids (APL1, APL6) and one unidentified lipid L2. C15:0, iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2OH/C16:1 ω7c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in DCY106(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY106(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY106(T) (= JCM 31468(T)= KCTC 42747(T)). PMID:27357576

  8. The History of Adulterants in Ginseng and the Survey of Ginseng Quality in Current Traditional Chinese Medicinal Material Market%人参混伪品发展历史及当前药材市场人参品质调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 陈娜; 韩雪; 陆志成; 王佳雯; 赓迪; 王春梅; 林瑞超

    2016-01-01

    人参混伪品现象从古至今一直存在,古代存在以相似植物假冒人参和浸泡后再销售的情况。为了了解当前人参药材市场现状,对河北省安国市、安徽省亳州市、江西省樟树市3大药材市场进行了市场调研。结果发现,人参伪品已经很少发现,但随着人参价格增长,以次充好问题凸显,主要表现在生晒参和保鲜参经乙醇浸提后加工再售、熏硫防腐、加工红参掺糖、销售病害人参等问题。针对这些问题本文提出增强人参供应能力,建立人参品质评价体系等解决思路,为国家有关部门加强对人参市场监管及质量控制提供参考。%The phenomenon of adulterants in ginseng has been existed since ancient times .that the similar vegetation substituted for ginsengor the soaked ginseng was sold as fresh ginseng .To have a good understanding of current situation of ginseng market ,this paper investigated three traditional Chinese medicinal material market :Anguo market in Hebei province ,Bozhou market in Anhui province and Zhangshu market in Jiangxi province .The investigation of three traditional Chinese medicinal material markets showed that adulterants in ginseng were rarely found , but the problem that shoddy and fake ginseng substituted for the high -quality ones was serious ,especially when the price of ginseng was in-creasing .The dried raw ginseng or fresh ginseng was sold after being soaked in ethanol .Some ginseng was treated with sulfur for anticorrosion . Most of the red ginseng was treated with sugar .We also found the ginseng with disease was sold .To solve these problems ,this paper put forward some suggestions ,for example ,enhancing the ability to supply and setting up quality evaluation system of ginseng .The research might provide ideas for the government to strengthen market supervision and quality control .

  9. Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

  10. Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer.

  11. The Efficacy of Red Ginseng in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Na Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most modern chronic metabolic diseases in the world. Moreover, DM is one of the major causes of modern neurological diseases. In the present study, the therapeutic actions of Korean red ginseng were evaluated in type 1 and type 2 diabetic mouse models using auditory electrophysiological measurement. The comprehensive results from auditory brainstem response (ABR, auditory middle latency response (AMLR, and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE demonstrate auditory functional damage caused by type 1 or 2 DM. Korean red ginseng improved the hearing threshold shift, delayed latencies and signal intensity decrease in type 2 diabetic mice. Type 1 diabetic mice showed a partial improvement in decreasing amplitude and signal intensity, not significantly. We suggest that the Korean red ginseng has a more potent efficacy in hearing loss in insulin resistance type 2 diabetes than in type 1 diabetes.

  12. Absorption of nitrogen by ginseng and effect of nitrogen on 14C-assimilate distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using 15N and 14C tracer technique, the utilization, recovery and loss rate of N fertilizer in ginseng ware studied. With different applying levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 gN/m214CO2 assimilating ability, NR activity, N compound, sugar and ginseng saponin were determined. The results showed that the N fertilizer utilization rate was 9.85% in the first year, the accumulative utilization rate for two years was 19.06%. Recovery rate of the fertilizer-N was 81.5% in the first year and 69.78% in second year. Loss rate of the fertilizer-N was 30.22%. With the treatment of 10 gN/m2, 14CO2 assimilation ability and NR activity was the highest. With the treatment of 40 gN/m2, total soluble sugar, sucrose and ginseng saponin content decreased and starch content increased

  13. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-09-01

    A β-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract→Rd→F2→compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively.

  14. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiju Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells, we investigated the possible synergistic anti-cancer effects between ginseng extract Rg3 and cytarabine on acute myeloid leukemia cells. Results of this study demonstrate that Rg3 can enhance the anti-proliferation effect of cytarabine on hl60 cells and may decrease the dosage of cytarabine needed for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome provides insight into the evolution and polymorphism of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbing eZhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng is an important medicinal plant and is often used in traditional Chinese medicine. With next generation sequencing (NGS technology, we determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Chinese P. ginseng strains, which are Damaya (DMY, Ermaya (EMY, Gaolishen (GLS and Yeshanshen (YSS. The total chloroplast genome sequence length for DMY, EMY and GLS was 156,354 bp, while that for YSS was 156,355 bp. Comparative genomic analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences indicate that gene content, GC content, and gene order in DMY are quite similar to its relative species, and nucleotide sequence diversity of inverted repeat region (IR is lower than that of its counterparts, large single copy region (LSC and small single copy region (SSC. A comparison among these four P. ginseng strains revealed that the chloroplast genome sequences of DMY, EMY, and GLS were identical and YSS had a 1-bp insertion at base 5472. To further study the heterogeneity in chloroplast genome during domestication, high-resolution reads were mapped to the genome sequences to investigate the differences at the minor allele level; 208 minor allele sites with minor allele frequencies (MAF of ≥ 0.05 were identified. The polymorphism site numbers per kb of chloroplast genome sequence for DMY, EMY, GLS, and YSS were 0.74, 0.59, 0.97, and 1.23, respectively. All the minor allele sites located in LSC and IR regions, and the four strains showed the same variation types (substitution base or indel at all identified polymorphism sites. Comparison results of heterogeneity in the chloroplast genome sequences showed that the minor allele sites on the chloroplast genome were undergoing purifying selection to adapt to changing environment during domestication process. A study of P. ginseng chloroplast genome with particular focus on minor allele sites would aid in investigating the dynamics on the chloroplast genomes and different P. ginseng

  16. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  17. Investigation of distribution of elements in a Korean ginseng by using a neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Na; Sun, Gwang Min; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The Distinction of production areas of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). This study was done as a part of those efforts. As is well known, the distribution of elements varies according to the part of plant due to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So a correlation study between plants and soil is an important issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  18. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher a

  19. Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian ginseng) impairs acquisition and expression of ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference and conditioned place aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Liliana; Longoni, Rosanna; Rosas, Michela; Collu, Maria; Peana, Alessandra T; Espa, Elena; Kasture, Sanjay; Cotti, Elisabetta; Acquas, Elio

    2015-11-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian Ginseng) has recently been shown to impair ethanol self-administration. In order to gain further insights on the ability of the Withania somnifera standardised root extract (WSE) to affect the motivational properties of ethanol, this study investigated whether WSE may also affect ethanol (2 g/kg)-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). To this end male CD-1 mice were conditioned under two distinct schedules: in backward conditioning experiments ethanol was administered before mice were placed in the conditioning apparatus (CPP) while, in forward conditioning experiments, ethanol was administered immediately after removing mice from the apparatus (CPA). Following these schedules, mice developed significant CPP and CPA, respectively. Administration of WSE significantly impaired both the acquisition (50 and 100 mg/kg) and the expression (50 mg/kg) of CPP and CPA without affecting spatial memory (50 mg/kg), as determined by a two-trial memory recognition task. Overall, the study highlights the ability of WSE to interfere with both positive and negative motivational properties of ethanol and suggests that the effects of WSE may target both ethanol's motivational properties and underpinning associative learning mechanisms. In conclusion, these results cast new light on Withania somnifera as an agent potentially useful to counteract distinct aspects of ethanol effects.

  20. MALDI imaging for the localization of saponins in root tissues and rapid differentiation of three Panax herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujuan; Bai, Hangrui; Cai, Zongwei; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-07-01

    The roots of Panax genus with ginseng saponins as bioactive ingredients have been widely used as herbal medicines and food additives. Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax notoginseng are three major commercial species in Panax genus, with similar morphological appearance but different pharmacological functions. Various methods have been developed and applied for the differentiation of these species. In this work, MALDI-TOF-MS imaging (MSI) was employed for the localization of saponins in root tissues and for the rapid differentiation of the three Panax species for the first time. After a simple sample preparation, MALDI-TOF-MSI analysis of root tissue allowed the detection of 51 saponins. Localization of saponins in the tissue was mapped in ion images, which were obviously related to botanical structure. The localization modes varied with Panax species, providing valuable information for the discrimination of ginseng species. Principal component analysis (PCA) of data collected from areas with abundant saponins based on ion images was applied for the differentiation. Nine characteristic saponin peaks were identified from the PCA analysis. The MALDI-TOF-MSI together with area-specific data analysis provided high potential for the rapid differentiation of Panax herbs. PMID:26990111

  1. Physiological and Biochemical Studies on The Possible Protective Role of Ginseng in Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of Ginseng prior to radiation exposure at both doses 2 or 6 Gy of gamma rays minimize the hazardous effect of radiation by decreasing the level of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, MDA and lipids of RBCS membrane. Also, Ginseng treatment before exposure to single separate doses 2 and 6 Gy of γ- rays increasing the levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, albumin, globulin, RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin content and erythropoietin. Morphological studies of bone marrow revealed that administration of Ginseng before exposure to 2 or 6 Gy of γ- radiation improve the cellularity comparing to the irradiated one. While administration of Ginseng after exposure to 6 Gy of γ-rays had no effect and showed severe hypo cellularity and loss cell wall. The radioprotective effect of Ginseng administration before exposure to irradiation was more effective than that of Ginseng administered after exposure to irradiation. Ginseng was obviously investigated as an effective agent on hematopoiesis

  2. Comparative Study of Sugar Content in Panax ginseng, P.quinquefolium and Red Ginseng%人参、西洋参和红参中糖类含量的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐滨; 刘莉; 赵大庆; 赵雨; 白雪媛; 张鹤; 管莹莹; 赵姝囡

    2013-01-01

    目的:测定不同产地、不同年限的人参、西洋参和红参中糖类成分的含量,并分析其含量分布规律.方法:以葡萄糖作为对照品,采用紫外分光光度法对不同产地、不同年限的人参、西洋参、红参中的总糖、还原糖和可溶性多糖的含量进行测定.结果:不同产地、不同年限的人参、西洋参和红参总糖的含量差别不大;还原糖含量以西洋参最低,人参和红参差别不明显;可溶性多糖含量红参最高,人参次之.结论:人参、西洋参和红参中糖类含量存在差异,这种差异与产地和生长年限有关,亦导致它们的药效有差异.%OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of sugar in Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius and red ginseng of different ages from different producing area, and to analyze the distribution regularity of it. METHODS: Using glucose as control, UV spectro-photometry was used to test the contents of total sugar, reducing sugar and soluble polysaccharide in P. ginseng, P. quinquefolium and red ginseng of different ages from different producing area. RESULTS: There was little difference of the total sugar content in P. ginseng, P. quinquefolium and red ginseng of different ages from different producing area; the content of reducing sugar was the lowest in P. quinquefolium, but there was no significant difference in P. ginseng and red ginseng. The content of soluble polysaccharide was the highest in red ginseng, followed by in P. ginseng. CONCLUSION: There were differences of the sugar content in P. ginseng, P. quinquefolium and red ginseng. The differences relate to producing areas and producing years. This leads to the difference of efficacy.

  3. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp. and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S Goddard

    Full Text Available Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis, in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP, which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP. Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female

  4. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    -an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium), a middle layer-composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory...... formerly been demonstrated how demyelinization of the myelin sheaths in the peripheral nerves close to the root provoke resorption. Accordingly, conditions affecting these tissue layers can be associated not only with different morphologies but also with general symptoms and diseases (e.g., ectodermal...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...

  5. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  6. An Experimental Study on Apoptosis of cultivated Wild Ginseng Distilled Herbal Acupuncture by Concentration Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Chul Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to measure the efficacy of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture by concentration level, we've treated A549 human lung cancer lines with different concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and examined mRNA and proteins which take parts in apoptosis. Methods : A549 human lung cancer lines were treated with various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and cell toxicity was carefully examined. From the analysis of DNA fragmentation, RT-PCR, and Western blot, manifestation of mRNA and proteins which are associated with apoptosis were inspected. Results : The following results were obtained on apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer lines after administering various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture. 1. Measuring cell toxicity of lung cancer cells, strong cell toxicity was detected at high concentration level (1000㎕, 1200㎕, but no consistent concentration dependent reliance was detected. 2. Through DNA fragmentation, we were able to confirm cell destruction in all groups. 3. Experiment groups treated with cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed inhibition of Bcl-2 and COX-2 at mRNA and Protein level, whileas increase of Bax was shown. 4. Manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1 were confirmed in all groups. 5. Extrication of Cytochrome C was detected at all groups, as well as increased activity of the enzyme caspase-3 and caspase-9, and PARP fragmentation were confirmed. Conclusion : According to the results, we can carefully deduce cell destruction of A549 human lung cancer lines were induced by Apoptosis. At the fixed level, cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed decrease of Bcl-2 and COX-2, as well as increase of Bax. Since cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture increases manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1, it affects

  7. Validation of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR has become a popular method for gene expression studies. Its results require data normalization by housekeeping genes. No single gene is proved to be stably expressed under all experimental conditions. Therefore, systematic evaluation of reference genes is necessary. With the aim to identify optimum reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of Panax ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, we investigated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes, including elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-β, elongation factor 1-gamma (EF1-γ, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3G (IF3G, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3B (IF3B, actin (ACT, actin11 (ACT11, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and cyclophilin ABH-like protein (CYC, using four widely used computational programs: geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method. The results were then integrated using the web-based tool RefFinder. As a result, EF1-γ, IF3G and EF1-β were the three most stable genes in different tissues of P. ginseng, while IF3G, ACT11 and GAPDH were the top three-ranked genes in seedlings treated with heat. Using three better reference genes alone or in combination as internal control, we examined the expression profiles of MAR, a multiple function-associated mRNA-like non-coding RNA (mlncRNA in P. ginseng. Taken together, we recommended EF1-γ/IF3G and IF3G/ACT11 as the suitable pair of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, respectively. The results serve as a foundation for future studies on P. ginseng functional genomics.

  8. Radioprotective potency of ginseng on some haematopoietic and physiological parameters in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, investigations focus on co administration of natural products with radiation treatment. The present study was assessed to investigate the potency of ginseng as a radioprotective agent on haematopoietic cell recovery, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) level in addition to physiological bio markers. Panax ginseng was intraperitoneally injected (100 mg/ kg) to female rats 24 h before gamma irradiation of 7 Gy which is liable to disturb the haematopoietic system and the organs involved as the bone marrow and spleen. Animals were investigated after 5 and 9 days from irradiation, ginseng or dual treatments. Irradiation caused significant wt loss of the body and spleen, decrease in bone marrow (B.M.) viable cells, significant depression in leukocytes with its differential counts, significant drop in erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrite values besides elevation in MCV. Gamma-irradiation treatment resulted in significant increase in serum MDA and glucose as well as significant reduction in blood GSH. Significant elevations in transaminases (ALT and AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were recorded after gamma irradiation. Preservation of body wt, B.M. viable cells, spleen wt and haematopoietic cell recovery was evident upon ginseng pre-administration. It ameliorated the depression in GSH content and the elevation in MDA level. ALT, AST and ALP were depressed approaching the control level after 9 days from dual treatments and blood sugar level was maintained. The study points out the promising positive role played by ginseng as a nontoxic natural product to reduce the time necessary for reconstituting haematopoietic cells and protecting vital physiological processes after irradiation

  9. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  10. Inhibition of TNF-α-mediated NF-κB Transcriptional Activity in HepG2 Cells by Dammarane-type Saponins from Panax ginseng Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok Bean; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Kim, Young Ho

    2012-04-01

    Panax ginseng (PG) is a globally utilized medicinal herb. The medicinal effects of PG are primarily attributable to ginsenosides located in the root and leaf. The leaves of PG are known to be rich in various bioactive ginsenosides, and the therapeutic effects of ginseng extract and ginsenosides have been associated with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. We examined the effect of PG leaf extract and the isolated ginsenosides, on nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcriptional activity and target gene expression by applying a luciferase assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Air-dried PG leaf extract inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB transcription activity and NF-κB-dependent cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression more efficiently than the steamed extract. Of the 10 ginsenosides isolated from PG leaves, Rd and Km most significantly inhibited activity in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 12.05±0.82 and 8.84±0.99 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the ginsenosides Rd and Km inhibited the TNF-α-induced expression levels of the COX-2 and iNOS gene in HepG2 cells. Air-dried leaf extracts and their chemical components, ginsenoside Rd and Km, are involved in the suppression of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent iNOS and COX-2 gene expression. Consequently, air-dried leaf extract from PG, and the purified ginsenosides, have therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory. PMID:23717114

  11. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Kong, K F; Wu, H;

    2010-01-01

    immune systems and cystic fibrosis. The QS systems of P. aeruginosa use N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules. Previously we have demonstrated that Panax ginseng treatment allowed the animals with P. aeruginosa pneumonia to effectively clear the bacterial infection. We postulated......A and LasB and down-regulated the synthesis of the AHL molecules. Ginseng has a negative effect on the QS system of P. aeruginosa, may explain the ginseng-dependent bacterial clearance from the animal lungs in vivo in our previous animal study. It is possible that enhancing and repressing activities...... of ginseng are mutually exclusive as it is a complex mixture, as shown with the HPLC analysis of the hot water extract. Though ginseng is a promising natural synergetic remedy, it is important to isolate and evaluate the ginseng compounds associated with the anti-QS activity....

  12. Effect of "Ginseng" administration on the structural and ultrastructural changes produced by restraint stress in theultrastructural changes produced by restraint stress in the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A.R. Salem

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the antistress effects of "Ginseng" in cases of chronic restraint stress by studying the structural and ultrastructural changes of the liver cells. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used. They were divided equally into 3 groups: control, stress and stress/Ginseng groups. Restraint stress was applied to both stress and stress/Ginseng groups 4 hours every other day for 4 weeks.15 mg Ginseng/kg/ was given to stress /Ginseng group every other day for 4weeks. Examination of liver specimens processed for both light and electron microscopic study revealed that chronic restraint stress causes fatty degeneration which may proceed to necrosis of the liver cells. A hepatoprotectective effect of ginseng was observed.

  13. 人参、红参皂苷类成分指纹图谱研究%Fingerprint Study on Ginsenoside in Ginseng and Red Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑重; 宋凤瑞; 刘淑莹; 刘志强

    2012-01-01

    A rapid analysis method was established to identify ginseng and red ginseng. Gin-senosides in ginseng and red ginseng were studied as the fingerprint compounds by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MSn). Power of ginseng sample was extracted with methanol at room temperature. The extract was centrifuged and filtered through a 0. 22 μm filter before analyzed by UPLC-MS. UPLC separations were carried out using a BEH Shield RP18 col-umn (1. 7 μm×2.1×50 mm, Waters ,USA) and a BEH RP18 guard column(Waters). The column temperature was kept at 25 ℃. The flow rate was set to 0. 3 mL/min, and the elu-ting gradient was as follows: [acetonitrile (A) and water (B)]: 0-5 min, 25%-50%A; 5-8 min,50%-90% A; 8-10 min, 90% -100% A; 10-12 min, 100%A. The injection volume was 10 μL. The detection wavelength was 195 nm. The mass spectrometer was op-erated in the negative ion mode with source voltage of 4. 5 kV. The metal capillary voltage was 45 V, and temperature was 250 ℃. The sheath gas(N2) flow-rate was 27 L/h, the auxiliary gas (He) flow-rate was 180 L/h. The scan range was m/z 200-1 500. Helium was used as collision gas, and collision energy was adjusted for the intensity ratio of the base peak to the parent ion between 2 and 20. The fragments got from ESI-MSn supplied very important information to identify the ginsenosides. The data of the UPLC-ESI-MSn for ginseng samples and red ginseng samples revealed that the chemical composition changes during the red ginseng steaming process. The result shows different batches of ginseng and red ginseng are clearly distinguished, which explain the chemical composition changes during the red ginseng steaming process. The method is rapid, simple, characteristic and good reproducibility.%为了建立一种快速鉴定人参和红参的方法,应用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱研究人参和红参中的皂苷类成分指纹图谱.室温下用甲醇

  14. Rapid method for simultaneous determination of flavonoid, saponins and polyacetylenes in folium ginseng and radix ginseng by pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z M; Lu, J; Gao, Q P; Li, S P

    2009-05-01

    A rapid pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of one flavonoid (panasenoside), nine saponins (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd) and two polyacetylenes (panaxydol and panaxynol) in folium ginseng and radix ginseng was developed. A Prevail C(18) rocket column (33 mm x 7 mm, 3.0 microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. Flavonoid was quantified at 355 nm, and saponins and polyacetylenes were determined at 203 nm. The chromatographic peaks of 12 investigated compounds in samples were unambiguously identified by compared their UV spectra and/or MS data with the related reference compounds. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999) within the test ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 12 analytes were less than 1.17% and 2.17%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of radix ginseng and folium ginseng, respectively. The result showed that PLE combined with rocket column HPLC analysis could provide a rapid method for analysis of compounds in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which is helpful to comprehensive evaluation of quality of radix ginseng and folium ginseng. PMID:19272605

  15. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. Methods The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17...

  16. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Braz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d with amitriptyline (25 mg/d and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline, 13 in Group II (placebo, and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng. Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS revealed a reduction in pain in the P. ginseng group (p < .0001, an improvement in fatigue (p < .0001 and an improvement in sleep (p < .001, with respect to baseline characteristics, but there were no differences between the three groups. With respect to anxiety, improvements occurred in the P. ginseng group compared to baseline (p < .0001; however, amitriptyline treatment resulted in significantly greater improvements (p < .05. P. ginseng reduced the number of tender points and improved patients' quality of life (using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire - FIQ; however, there were no differences between groups. The beneficial effects experienced by patients for all parameters suggest a need for further studies to be performed on the tolerability and efficacy of this phytotherapic as a complementary therapy for fibromyalgia.

  17. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the {gamma}-irradiated Liver of Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Ho [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Jeju Halla College, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Maskey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca2+ concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca2+ levels in the hippocampus.

  19. Establishment of Withania somnifera Hairy Root Cultures for the Production of Withanolide A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte N.Murthy; Camelia Dijkstra; Paul Anthony; Daniel A.White; ,Mike R.Davey; J.Brian Power; Eun J.Hahn; Kee Y.Paek

    2008-01-01

    Withanla sominifera (Indian ginseng) was transformed by Agrobacterlum rhizogenes.Explants from seedling roots,stems,hypocotyls,cotyledonary nodal segments,cotyledons and young leaves were inoculated with A.rhizogenes strain R1601.Hairy (transformed) roots were induced from cotyledons and leaf explants.The transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using nptll and roIB specific primers and,subsequently,by Southern analysis for the presence of nptll and roIB genes in the genomes of transformed roots.Four clones of hairy roots were established;these differed in their morphology.The doubling time of faster growing cultures was 8-14 d with a fivefold increase in biomass after 28 d compared with cultured,non-transformed seedling roots.MS-based liquid medium was superior for the growth of transformed roots compared with other culture media evaluated (SH,LS and N6),with MS-based medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose being optimal for biomass production.Cultured hairy roots synthesized withanolide A,a steroidal lactone of medicinal and therapeutic value.The concentration of withanolide A in transformed roots (157.4 μg/g dry weight) was 2.7-fold more than in non-transformed cultured roots (57.9 μg/g dry weight).

  20. 通化地区参后地重复利用的几种模式%Tonghua Area Repeated Use of Land after Ginseng Several Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 王吉顺; 朱英东

    2012-01-01

    After the ginseng to use again, is to improve the efficiency of using the forest and forest land productivity, increasing the income of ginseng farmers attempt, this paper, combined with the practice, to reuse after ginseng introduced several mode, ginseng farmers for reference.%参后地重复利用,是提高林地使用效率和林地生产力,增加参农收益的有益尝试,结合实践,就参后地再利用介绍几种模式,供参农参考。

  1. Ginsenoside Analysis on the Wild Ginseng and the Ginseng Cultivated in Forest by HPLC/MS%利用HPLC/MS对野山参和林下参皂苷的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海; 张亚玉; 王英平; 郑培和

    2011-01-01

    The ginsenoside was analyzed by High performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry detector (HPLC/MS) for evaluated ginsenoside composition characteristics and content diversity in wild gineng and the ginseng cultivated in forests. Results showed that the ginsenoside Re, Rg,, Ro, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd were detected in different source ginseng, notoginsenoside R1, R2, R3 and propylene acyl ginseng saponins Rb1 Rc were detected in wild ginseng in the same time, by contrast, propylene acyl ginseng saponins Rb,, Rc and Rd were detected exclusively in wild ginseng under forest and no notoginsenoside R1 and R3. The ginsenoside contents of Rg,, Ro, Rf, Rg2, Rb,, Rc, Rb2 and Rd were similar except Re in wild ginseng and the ginseng cultivated in forests ginsenoside Re content in the ginseng cultivated in forests was higher than that of the wild ginseng and the difference was significant in the P<0.01 level, the average value was 5.042mg/g.%为了明确野山参和林下参中人参皂苷的组成特征及差异所在,利用高效液相色谱-质谱联用仪对野山参和林下参中皂苷进行分析测定.结果表明:野山参和林下参中均含有常见的9种人参皂苷(Re、Rg1、Ro、Rf、Rg2、Rb1、Rc、Rb2、Rd),野山参中还检测到三七皂苷R1、R2和R3以及丙二酰基人参皂苷Rb1和Rc,林下参仅检测到了丙二酰基人参皂苷Rb1、Rc和Rd,没有检测到三七皂苷R1和R3;林下参中Re含量显著高于野山参,平均含量为5.042g/mg,二者达到极显著差异(P<0.01),野山参和林下参中其它8种人参皂苷含量差别不大.

  2. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbai R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragavendran Abbai,1,* Ramya Mathiyalagan,1,* Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Chao Wang,2 Priyanka Singh,2 Sungeun Ahn,2 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,2 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Ginseng Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology, 2Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs. First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E, total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line at 10 µg·mL-1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844, and Escherichia coli (BL21 treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1

  3. Root canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endodontic therapy ... the root of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... You may have some pain or soreness after the procedure. An over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve ...

  4. 咪鲜胺在人参和土壤中的残留动态及安全性评价%Residual dynamics and safety evaluation of prochloraz in ginseng and soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 王春伟; 高洁; 崔丽丽; 吕雁斌

    2014-01-01

    To determine the residual dynamics and environmental safety of prochloraz 25% EC and ensure the quality safety of ginseng products, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determining residual dynamics and final residues of prochloraz in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with PSA solid phase extraction cartridge, separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode by employing the external standard method, using electron spray ionization source (ESI). The results show-ed that the recoveries of prochloraz were 86.8%-90.8%, and the relative standard deviations were 3.95%-7.15%in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The half-lives of prochloraz were from 8.39 to 13.20 d at spraying dosage of 1 000 g·hm-2. Final residues of prochloraz were less 0.0417 mg·kg-1 in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil, below the MRLs of Japan (0.05 mg·kg-1), EU (0.20 mg·kg-1) and Korea (0.30 mg·kg-1) over 60 d, which at spraying dosage range from 500 to 1 000 g·hm-2. Therefore, it is safe to apply prochloraz to ginseng at the recommended dosage.%为明确人参中咪鲜胺的残留量及环境安全性,确保人参产品质量安全,采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定25%咪鲜胺乳油在人参根、茎、叶及土壤中的残留动态及最终残留量。样品经乙腈提取,PSA固相萃取柱净化后以液相色谱分离,采用电喷雾电离源,以质谱正离子扫描多反应监测模式进行定量分析,外标法定量。结果表明,咪鲜胺在人参根、茎、叶及土壤中的回收率为86.8%~90.8%,相对标准偏差为3.95%~7.15%。施药剂量为1000 g·hm-2(以有效成分计)时,咪鲜胺在人参根、茎、叶和土壤中的降解半衰期为8.39~13.20 d。施药剂量为500~1000 g·hm-2时,施药后60 d咪鲜胺在人参根、茎、

  5. Postprandial glucose-lowering effects of fermented red ginseng in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-hyun; Kim, Sun-Young; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Ha, Ki-Chan; Na, Won-Taek; Cha, Youn-Soo; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sun; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Red ginseng is prepared by steaming raw ginseng, a process believed to increase the pharmacological efficacy. Further bioconversion of red ginseng through fermentation is known to increase its intestinal absorption and bioactivity, and bioconversion diminishes the toxicity of red ginseng’s metabolite. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily supplementation with fermented red ginseng (FRG) on glycemic status in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 di...

  6. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P=0.037. The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 (P=0.014 and ICAM-1 (P=0.048 were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P=0.003. These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

  7. Recent advances in ginseng as cancer therapeutics: a functional and mechanistic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alice S T; Che, Chi-Ming; Leung, Kar-Wah

    2015-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Ginseng, a key ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, shows great promise as a new treatment option. As listed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health as a complementary and alternative medicine, its anti-cancer functions are being increasingly recognized. This review covers the mechanisms of action of ginsenosides and their metabolites, which can modulate signaling pathways associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, metastasis, and stem/progenitor-like properties of cancer cells. The emerging use of structurally modified ginsenosides and recent clinical studies on the use of ginseng either alone or in combination with other herbs or Western medicines which are exploited as novel therapeutic strategies will also be explored.

  8. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Culture-dependent method (Biolog was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare.

  9. Protein chemotaxonomy. XIII. Amino acid sequence of ferredoxin from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Yoshiki

    2006-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl protein and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. This ferredoxin has a unique amino acid sequence, which includes an insertion of Tyr at the 3rd position from the amino-terminus and a deletion of two amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus. This ferredoxin had 18 differences in its amino acid sequence compared to that of Petroselinum sativum (Umbelliferae). In contrast, 23-33 differences were observed compared to other dicotyledonous plants. This suggests that Panax ginseng is related taxonomically to umbelliferous plants. PMID:16880642

  10. The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Young Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1, vina-ginsenoside R4 (2 and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3, were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS, 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 µM. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Theta Glutathione S-transferase Gene from Panax ginseng Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Plants have versatile detoxification systems to encounter the phytotoxicity of the wide range of natural and synthetic compounds present in the environment. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is an enzyme that detoxifies natural and exogenous toxic compounds by conjugation with glutathione (GSH). Recently, several roles of GST giving stress tolerance in plants have demonstrated, but little is known about the role of ginseng GSTs. Therefore, this work aimed to provide further information on the G...

  12. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Hwa Park; Do Rim Kim; Ha Young Kim; Seong Kyu Park; Mun Seog Chang

    2014-01-01

    The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluoro...

  13. Ginseng, a Potentially Therapeutic Drug in γ-Irradiated Whole Blood Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginseng is commonly used as herbal medicines with wide range of beneficial effects. It is also approved as effective agent against radiation hazards, through its immunomodulating role in irradiated experimental animals. This experiment aimed to assess cytogenetic and biochemical changes of ginseng at a working dose (100µg/ ml) in suppressing radiation effects of human peripheral blood. The treatment times were 6, 48 and 72h after γ-irradiation at dose of 4 Gy (the last two treatment periods were done through blood culture). Triple blood cultures for each blood sample were set up. Cytogenetic investigations were evaluated using chromosome aberration (CA) analysis and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). The levels of malondialdhyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in blood plasma and in 48 and 72h blood cultures. In addition, immune function response was assessed by estimation of the levels of (Immunoglobulin G) IgG and IgM for the same treatment periods. Ionizing irradiation induced significant decrease of SOD activity. While, CA (dicentric, ring, breaks and polyploidy), micronucleus (MN), MDA level and NO concentration were significantly increased. For IgG and IgM, there is temporary over-production of them after 6h of irradiation, and then their levels decreased in the periods 48 and 72h within the cultures. Ginseng post-irradiation treatment exhibits increase in the level of IgG and IgM production, and improvement in NO concentration. In addition, there is reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), CA and MN frequencies. Results concluded that ginseng has antimutagenic effect and benefit against oxidative stress involved by irradiation

  14. Improvement of hygienic quality of white ginseng powders by {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han-Ok; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Youk, Hong-Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho

    1994-12-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of white ginseng powders, the comparative effects of ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation and {gamma}-irradiation (5-10 kGy) on the sterilization, physiochemical properties and organoleptic quality were investigated. EO fumigation and {gamma}-irradiation (5-10 kGy) completely eliminated the microorganisms contaminating in white ginseng powder. There was no growth of microorganisms after 7 months storage at 30degC and different relative humidities. In the physiochemical properties, ginseng saponins were considerably resistant to {gamma}-irradiation (less than 10 kGy) and commercial EO fumigation, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar and acidity were significantly changed by EO fumigation. EO residues were 570 ppm in the samples taken immediately after deaeration and 170 ppm in the stored samples of 8 days at 30degC, respectively. Ethylene chlorohydrin and ethylene glycol residues as the secondary products of EO were 9,595 ppm immediately after deaeration and 221 ppm in the stored samples of 3 months at 30degC. (author).

  15. Improvement of hygienic quality of white ginseng powders by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of white ginseng powders, the comparative effects of ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation and γ-irradiation (5-10 kGy) on the sterilization, physiochemical properties and organoleptic quality were investigated. EO fumigation and γ-irradiation (5-10 kGy) completely eliminated the microorganisms contaminating in white ginseng powder. There was no growth of microorganisms after 7 months storage at 30degC and different relative humidities. In the physiochemical properties, ginseng saponins were considerably resistant to γ-irradiation (less than 10 kGy) and commercial EO fumigation, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar and acidity were significantly changed by EO fumigation. EO residues were 570 ppm in the samples taken immediately after deaeration and 170 ppm in the stored samples of 8 days at 30degC, respectively. Ethylene chlorohydrin and ethylene glycol residues as the secondary products of EO were 9,595 ppm immediately after deaeration and 221 ppm in the stored samples of 3 months at 30degC. (author)

  16. Intravenous Single-dose Toxicity of Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP is an extract distilled from either mountain cultivated ginseng or mountain wild ginseng. This is the first intravenous injection of pharmacopuncture in Korea. The word intravenous does not discriminate between arteries, veins, and capillaries in Oriental Medicine, but only the vein is used for MGP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intravenous injection toxicity of MGP through a single-dose test in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: Male and female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intravenously with MGP (high dosage of 20 mL/kg or low dosage of 10 mL/kg. Normal saline was injected into the rats in the control group by using the same method. After the rats has treated, we conducted clinical observations, body-weight measurements and histological observations. Results: In this study, no mortalities were observed in any of the experimental groups. Also, no significant changes by the intravenous injection of MGP were observed in the body weights, or the histological observations in any of the experimental groups compared to the control group. The lethal dose for intravenous injection of MGP was found to be over 20 mL/kg in SD rats. Conclusion: Considering that the dosage of MGP generally used each time in clinical practice is about 0.3 mL/kg, we concluded with confidence that MGP is safe pharmacopuncture.

  17. GINSENG, GREEN TEA OR FIBRATE: valid options for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza de MIRANDA-HENRIQUES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis and bezafibrate were compared for their lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as potential agents to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: G1 (feed with standard diet; G2 (feed with high-fat diet with 58% of energy from fat; G3 (high-fat diet + standardized Panax ginseng extract at 100 mg/kg/day; G4 (high-fat diet + standardized Camellia sinensis extract at 100 mg/kg/day; and G5 (high-fat diet + bezafibrate at 100 mg/kg/day, given by gavage. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks later and blood was collected for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase determinations. The score system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was used to analyse the liver samples. Results and conclusions High-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in animal body weight, biochemical changes and enzymatic elevations. Steatosis, inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning scores were significant high in this group. The biochemical and histological variables were statistically similar in the bezafibrate group and control group. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract prevented obesity and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (steatosis and inflammation compared to high-fat diet. Camellia sinensis showed a less effective biochemical response, with small reduction in steatosis and inflammation but lower ballooning scores.

  18. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose and leptin hormone decreased, but insulin increased by administration of RGE. it increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT antioxidant enzymes in kidneys tissues. Conclusion: Red ginseng extract produces antiobesity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in obese diabetic rats. The study suggests that red ginseng plant may be beneficial for the treatment of patients who suffer from obesity associated with diabetes. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 165-172

  19. Four new ginsenosides from red ginseng with inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi-Le; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-08-15

    During a search for novel melanogenesis inhibitors originating from nature sources, four new ginsenosides, including three dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rf-1a (1), 20Z-ginsenoside-Rs4 (2), 23-O-methylginsenoside-Rg11 (3), and one oleanane-type saponin, ginsenoside-Ro-6'-O-butyl ester (4) were isolated from red ginseng (the steamed ginseng) to evaluate their protective effects against melanogenesis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, and were more potent than the positive control arbutin, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. The results indicated that just the two carbon-20(22) double-bond-type ginsenosides showed strong inhibiting activity on melanogenesis through reducing tyrosinase activity. Thus, ginsenosides with such similar chemical structure in red ginseng may be potential natural products as tyrosinase inhibitors against malignant melanoma. PMID:26087936

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Epimedium and Ginseng Contained Combinations Using HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYuan-chun; LUOMai; SarahWittenberg; CliveBarwell; ZHOUYu-xin; WEILu-xue

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To develop a rapid,effective method for the detemination of flavonoids and ginsenosides in one injection and evaluate the flavonoids and ginsenosides content to control the ratio of Epimedium and Ginseng herbs in botanical combinations.Methods: The quality evaluation was determinatted using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatog raphy(HPLC),referred by the major flovonoids from Epimedium,epimedin A,epimedin B,epimedin C,and icariin as the standards,and the major ginsenosides Rg1,Re,Rf,Rb1,Rb2,and Rd as the standards,included Epimedium brevicornum Maxim.,E.sagittatum(Sieb.et Zucc)Maxim.,E.koreanum NaKai,P.ginseng C.A.Meyer,P.quinquefolium L.,P.notoginseng and some products containing the above herbs.Results:The main flavonoids and ginsenosides could be clearly resolved in the single analysis.Conclusion.The results can be effectively used in evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively the ration of Epimdium and Ginseng contained products.

  1. Zbiorowiska mikroorganizmów w glebie spod leśnej uprawy żeń-szenia amerykańskiego

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Pastucha; Barbara Kołodziej

    2012-01-01

    The investigations were carried out in 2003-2004 on American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) plantation localised in the mixed forest in Trzciniec (Lubelski province). The object of the study was the soil from ginseng culture protected by the biological and chemical method. In the experiment there was also control plot - without any protection during plants vegetation. There were also analysed the infected roots of ginseng plants. Microbiological analyses showed that soil from control plots ...

  2. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics.

  3. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    YOUSOFZADEH, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  4. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis. PMID:26726017

  5. Quality Standard of Ginseng Rhizome%参芦的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林世和; 易艳东; 余南才

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立参芦的质量标准.方法:根据2005年版方法,鉴别参芦的性状、显微特征,检查其水分、总灰分、酸不溶灰分;采用薄层色谱(TLC)法进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rb1的含量.结果:性状、显微特征明显;TLC斑点清晰、分离度好;人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rb1的进样量分别在1.01~10.10(r=0.9997)、0.69~6.90(r=0.9994)、1.01~10.10(r=0.9998)μg范围内与各自峰面积积分值呈良好线性关系,平均回收率分别为99.91%、99.55%、99.65%,RSD分别为1.54%、1.67%、2.50%(n=9).结论:所建标准可用于参芦饮片的质量控制.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the quality standard for Ginseng Rhizome. METHODS: According to Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 edition), the property and microscopic characteristics of Ginseng Rhizome, moisture, total ashes content, acid-insoluble ashes content were identified by TLC. The contents of ginsenoside Rb1, Re and Rg1 in Ginseng Rhizome were determined by HPLC. RESULTS: The property and microscopic characteristics of Ginseng Rhizome were significant. The spot of TLC were clear and well-separated. The linear range of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1 and Re were 1.01-10.10 (r=0.999 7) , 0.69-6.90 (r=0.999 4) ,1.01-10.10(r=0.999 8). The average recoveries were 99.91%,99.55% ,99.65%, and RSD of them were 1.54%,1.67%,2.50%(n=9). CONCLUSION: The method is suitable for quality control of Ginseng Rhizome decoction pieces.

  6. Panax Ginseng in combination with brewers' yeast (Gerivet) as a stimulant for geriatric dogs: a controlled-randomized blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielm-Björkman, A; Reunanen, V; Meri, P; Tulamo, R-M

    2007-08-01

    The study was performed on two groups of dogs, one (n = 41) given Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) together with brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) and the other (n = 39) given only brewers' yeast (control group, but not a true placebo), for 8 weeks. Using a questionnaire and three visual analogue scales, the blinded owners evaluated the dogs before the trial, weekly for the 8 weeks of the trial and twice, at 12th and 16th weeks, after the trial (follow-up). At 8th, 12th and 16th weeks the owners also answered questions concerning what treatment their dogs likely had been getting, willingness to continue medication and the dogs' general status. The changes from baseline to the end of the treatment period in the variable scores were calculated for each dog and used in statistics. Panax Ginseng plus yeast significantly improved all evaluated variables within the group. Four of the seven primary (mentally) outcome measures were significant when comparing the changes in the Ginseng group with the control group, and six of the seven were significant when compared to an external group. As the secondary (physical) outcome measures were significantly better in both the Ginseng and the control group compared to the external group, it indicates that brewers' yeast is the ingredient that has impact on physical performance. No significant changes in blood- or urine analyses and no side effects were seen.

  7. De novo sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of Panax ginseng in the leaf-expansion period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Wang, Siming; Liu, Meichen; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Shiyang; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Panax ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, is used worldwide for its variety of health benefits and its treatment efficacy. However, it is difficult to cultivate due to its vulnerability to environmental stresses. The present study provided the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of transcriptome analysis of ginseng at the leaf‑expansion stage. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, >40,000,000 high‑quality paired‑end reads were obtained and assembled into 100,533 unique sequences. When the sequences were searched against the publicly available National Center for Biotechnology Information protein database using The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, 61,599 sequences exhibited similarity to known proteins. Functional annotation and classification, including use of the Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, revealed that the activated genes in ginseng were predominantly ribonuclease‑like storage genes, environmental stress genes, pathogenesis-related genes and other antioxidant genes. A number of candidate genes in environmental stress‑associated pathways were also identified. These novel data provide useful information on the growth and development stages of ginseng, and serve as an important public information platform for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional genomics of ginseng. PMID:27278773

  8. Anti-cancer and potential chemopreventive actions of ginseng by activating Nrf2 (NFE2L2 anti-oxidative stress/anti-inflammatory pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews recent basic and clinical studies of ginseng, particularly the anti-cancer effects and the potential chemopreventive actions by activating the transcriptional factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2-mediated anti-oxidative stress or anti-inflammatory pathways. Nrf2 is a novel target for cancer prevention as it regulates the antioxidant responsive element (ARE, a critical regulatory element in the promoter region of genes encoding cellular phase II detoxifying and anti-oxidative stress enzymes. The studies on the chemopreventive effects of ginseng or its components/products showed that Nrf2 could also be a target for ginseng's actions. A number of papers also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of ginseng. Targeting Nrf2 pathway is a novel approach to the investigation of ginseng's cancer chemopreventive actions, including some oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions responsible for the initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis.

  9. Protective Effect of Vitamin C and Ginseng on Experimental Liver and Kidney Injuries Induced by Insecticide Profenophos In Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma A. Morsy

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with histopathological and histochemical studies of profenophos on liver and kidney of male albino rats and the protective effects of vitamin C and ginseng to reduce the deleterious effect induced by profenophos. Oral administration of profenophos at dose level of 1/10 LD50 for 15 successive days induced histological changes in liver and kidney. No histological or histochemical change could be detected in liver and kidney of rats treated with each of vitamin C and ginseng. Profenophos treatment also resulted in histochemical changes in liver and kidney including decrease in protein granules and marked decrease in DNA and mucopolysaccharides content. Administration of vitamin C (0.01/ 100 g b.w and ginseng (20 mg/ kg b.w to profenophos treated animals resulted in an improvement in histological picture of liver and kidney as well as the histochemical parameters.

  10. Protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid against murine fetal deformities caused by hyperthermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荷莲; 王博蔚; 赵丹; 韩丽英

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid on mouse embryos subjected to high heat.Methods Mice were used for the experiment.Results After exposure of pregnant mice to high heat, the rates of teratism, stillbirth, and fetal absorption were markedly lower in mice treated with ginseng saponin and folic acid following heat exposure than in untreated mice. There were no significant differences in these rates when comparing mice treated with vitamin B12 with the untreated mice.Conclusions Ginseng saponin and folic acid can lessen injuries to murine embryos caused by high heat, while vitamin B12 has little protective effect against high temperature except for promoting overall embryonic growth.

  11. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  12. 西洋参与人参的简易鉴别方法%Difference and Simple Identification between Panax quinquefolium L. and Radix Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀龙; 徐桂萍; 孙巍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To prevent phenomena of using Radix Ginseng (dry Radix Ginseng and white sugar Radix Ginseng) instead of Panax quinquefolium L. and to avoid the occurrence of side effects. Methods Panax quinquefolium L and Radix Ginseng were distinguished by their characters and fluorescence identification. Results Fluorescence color was observed by using ultraviolet lamp (254 nm) under the light-shading condition. The hadromestome of Panax quinquefolium L showed amethyst fluorescence, the dry Radix Ginseng showed blue fluorescence, and the white sugar Radix Ginseng showed bright blue fluorescence. Conclusion Fluorometric method can be used to identify Panax quinquefolinm L and Radix Ginseng, This method is simple and easy for spread.%目的 防止以人参(生晒参、白参)伪充西洋参使用,避免发生副反应.方法 利用性状鉴别和荧光鉴别区分人参与西洋参.结果 在遮光条件下用紫外光灯(254 nm)观察荧光色泽,西洋参的断面木质部显蓝紫色荧光,生晒参的断面木质部显蓝色荧光,白参的断面木质部显亮蓝色荧光.结论 利用性状鉴别法和荧光法鉴别人参与西洋参,操作方法简便,易于推广.

  13. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  14. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Min Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Hye Yoom; Yoon, Jung Joo; Ahn, You Mee; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Cha, Jeong Dan; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27322312

  15. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chul Kho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG on a high-fructose (HF diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4 in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.

  16. Fermented Ginseng Contains an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors α and γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Nakano, Fusako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor that is one of the transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Fermented ginseng (FG) is a ginseng fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei A221 containing minor ginsenosides and metabolites of fermentation. DNA microarray analysis of rat liver treated with FG indicated that FG affects on lipid metabolism are mediated by PPAR-α. To identify a PPAR-α agonist in FG, PPAR-α transcription reporter assay-guided fractionation was performed. The fraction obtained from the MeOH extract of FG, which showed potent transcription activity of PPAR-α, was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into 16 subfractions, and further separation and crystallization gave compound 1 together with four known constituents of ginseng, including 20(R)- and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1. The structure of compound 1 was identified as 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and by EI-MS analysis of the methyl ester of 1. Compound 1 demonstrated much higher transcription activity of PPAR-α than the other isolated compounds. In addition, compound 1 also showed 5.5-fold higher transcription activity of PPAR-γ than vehicle at the dose of 20 μg/mL. In the present study, we identified 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in FG. Our study suggested that metabolites of fermentation, in addition to ginsenosides, contribute to the health benefits of FG. PMID:27627700

  17. Changes of Ginsenoside Content by Mushroom Mycelial Fermentation in Red Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-01-01

    To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 μg/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 μg/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 2...

  18. [Determination of saponosides from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Comparison of official methods and HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, D; Abbe, P; Cappelaere, N; Rames, N

    1989-01-01

    Official methods for determination of ginsenosides of the French and Helvetic Pharmacopoeias have been compared with HPLC method. Sample preparation schemes used are those of monographs with conventional solvent extraction and solid phase extraction with a polar and a non-polar sorbents, respectively kieselguhr and C 18 octadecyl. Liquid-solid sample clean-up with C 18 cartridge is the most effective procedure. Prior HPLC method, an hydrolysis step of malonylginsenosides is necessary. Very selective extraction resulting in highly purified solution authorizes reliable and rapid colorimetric determination from ginseng saponosides. PMID:2634933

  19. Effect of the Ginseng extractive E on experimental climacteric disturbance in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tian-yu; XU Feng; YU Yao-hong; GANG Guang-xi

    2008-01-01

    Objective To search the effects of the extractive E of Ginseng (EG) on experimental climacteric syndrome in rats. Methods Extirpating the both sides of ovary of rats to turbulence estrogen secretion, induce climacteric syndrome. The weight, bite and sup, substance of bone, blood lipid, calcium urine biochemistry, estrodiol, behavior perfomance were also observed. Results The body weight of ovariotomied rat was controlled, bone density was increased, estradiol level increased, the weight of bone increased. Conclusions EG ameliorated climacteric syndrome. Increase bone density and bone mine content, enhanced the level of estradiol.

  20. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbai, Ragavendran; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs) and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs). First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E), total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line) and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) at 10 µg⋅mL−1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844), and Escherichia coli (BL21) treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay demonstrated that both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs possess strong antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report unraveling the potential of Eleutherococcus senticosus for silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis along with its biological applications, which in turn would promote widespread usage of the endemic Siberian ginseng. PMID:27468232

  1. 13-week subchronic toxicity study of a novel ginsenoside composition from ginseng leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Won-Ho; Ri, Yu; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Sang-Joon

    2014-01-01

    UG0712 is a new ginsenoside extract processed from ginseng leaves. A subchronic toxicity study of UG0712 was conducted in male and female SD rats. Rats were treated with UG0712 at doses of 100, 400 and 1,600 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks, and observed followed by 4-week recovery period at a highest dose. No-treatment-related effects were observed regarding the mortality, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis and histopathology. Although the changes in clinical sign, body weight, organ weight, hematolog...

  2. Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each. The first group (I served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days before day 0 of gestation and extended to 13th day of pregnancy. Then 6 females of each group were sacrificed, feotuses sample from each female were taken and subjected to cytogenetic analysis. The rest females of each group (4 females were continuously treated and sacrificed at day 17 of getation, foetuses were examined morphologically and for different features such as implanation sites, living feotuses, resorbed foetuses and foetus body weight. Chromosome analysis of the present study (Table 1 revealed that there were numerical aberrations (peridiploidy. There was a difference only between group II and III in respect to hypodiploid (2n-, meanwhile, hyperdiploid (2n+ were more frequent in group IV and VI than that in control group (group I. For the total numerical aberrations, there were significant differences between groups II, VI compared to the control group. All groups had little frequencies of structural aberrations especially for chromatid gaps, breaks and fragments. There were a significant differences between group IV and VI compared with the control group for the deletions. Chromosome breaks were more frequent in the groups III and IV compared to the control group, whereas groups V, VI had more frequencies of centromeric attenuations than the control group. There were no differences between control group and the rest of all groups investigated for implantation sites, living foetuses and resorbed foetuses (Table 2, whereas for gross malformation, 5

  3. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  4. Determination of twelve ginsenosides in Panax ginseng by HPLC%HPLC同时测定人参药材中12种人参皂苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥秀英; 郑一敏; 傅善权; 赵颖; 李杰; 王琳琳

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC测定人参药材中12种人参皂苷含量的方法.方法:采用lunna NH2色谱柱(4.6 mm×150mm,5 μm);流动相为乙腈-水梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长203 nm,柱温为室温.结果:12种人参皂苷Rh2,Rh1,Rg2,Rg3,Rg1,Rf,Re,Rd,Rc,Rb2,Rb3,Rb1在60min内达基线分离,线性关系良好(Γ≥0.999 5).加样回收率分别为98.1%,95.3%,96.1%,95.6%,97.3%,98.6%,98.0%,96.4%,96.1%,97.6%,96.8%,96.9%(RSD≤3%).结论:该方法简便,快速,可作为人参药材质量控制指标.%Objective: To determine the contents of twelve ginsenosides in the root of Panax ginseng by HPLC. Method: The analysis is carried out at room temperature on a Luna NH2 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm,5 μm) eluted with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phases in a gradient elution. The flow-rate was 1.0 mL. min- 1, the detection wavelength was 203 nm. Result: Twelve ginsenosides(Rh2, Rh1, Rg2, Rg3, Rg1, Rf, Re, Rd, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rb1) were separated at baseline within 60 min with good linearity (r≥0.999 5). The recovery rates were 98.1%, 95.3% , 96.1%, 95.6%, 97.3% , 98.6% , 98.0%, 96.4%, 96.1% , 97.6%,96.8%, 96.9% ( RSD ≤ 3.0% ). Conclusion: The method was simple,fast and could control the quality of P. ginseng effectively.

  5. Absorption of Ginsenosides of Ginseng Preparations in Rat Small Intestine%人参制剂中人参皂甙在大鼠小肠中的吸收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩如; 李振泉

    2002-01-01

    AIM Since bioavailability of ginsenosides is small by oral administration, the absorption of ginsenosides in the small intestine was studied. METHODS The absorption action was investigated in an in situ perfusion model of rat small intestine. A ginseng (root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) decoction and a ginsenosides liquor was used as perfusion solution. RESULT AND CONCLUSION A mean value for ginsenosides absorbed in 3 hours per rat was 21. 79 mg and 18.41 mg, respectively. Absorption of ginsenosides in the ginsenosides liquor basically followed first-order reaction of kinet-ics. The absorption of ginsenosides in the decoction was delayed in the second hour. The results confirm that the small intes tine has normal ability to absorb ginsenosides. It is suggested that the preparations containing ginsenosides should be protect-ed from acid hydrolysis in stomach and absorbed as completely as possible in small intestine.%目的 由于口服人参皂甙的生物利用度较小,本文研究了小肠对人参皂苷甙的吸收功能.方法 采用在体大鼠小肠吸收模型,以人参煎剂和人参总皂甙溶液剂作为灌流液.结果与讨论 在3小时中每只大鼠吸收的人参皂甙平均值分别为21.79mg和平共处8.41mg.大鼠小肠对人参总皂甙溶液中人参皂甙的吸收基本遵循动力学一级反应; 对人参煎剂中人参皂甙的吸收在第二小时时受到阻滞.该结果显示大鼠小肠对人参皂甙具有正常吸收功能,建议含人参制剂应参避免胃酸水解,并尽可能在小肠得到完全的吸收.

  6. Induction of Hairy Roots of Panax ginseng and Studies on Suitable Culture Condition of Ginseng Hairy Roots%人参发根的诱导及其适宜培养条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵寿经; 李昌禹; 钱延春; 骆晓佩; 张昕; 王雪松; 康波愈

    2004-01-01

    利用发根农杆菌A4菌株在人参根外植体上直接诱导产生发根.在1/2MS固体培养基上建立起发根离体培养系,经连续多代的培养,发根仍保持旺盛生长状态.PCR扩增结果表明,发根农杆菌Ri质粒的rolC基因已在人参发根基因组中整合并得到表达.液体培养基中发根生长速度约为固体培养的2倍.经对发根中人参皂苷含量及比生长速率的测定,筛选出高产发根系R9923.利用HPLC法测定了R9923发根系中单体皂苷Rg1、Re、Rf、Rb1、Rc、Rb2和Rd的含量,人参总皂苷含量达15.2mg/g.确定1/2MS培养液(30g/L蔗糖)、摇床转速110r/min、每2周更换一次培养液、继代培养时间4周,为人参发根生长适宜条件.探讨了培养容积、发根初始接种量以及分级放大培养工艺对发根大规模生产过程中生物产量和皂苷含量的影响.

  7. "Roots" in Britain: A Uses and Gratifications Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, K. Kyoon; Robinson, John P.

    A study was undertaken to investigate, from a uses and gratifications perspective, the effects of serious television drama shown in a foreign country. Specifically, the study examined the impact of "Roots," a highly acclaimed American television drama on slavery, in Great Britain and provided comparisons with the findings of "Roots" research…

  8. Korean red ginseng saponin fraction modulates radiation effects on LPS-induced NO production in RAW267.4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean Red Ginsengs are popular both as food and as a source of natural compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. Some Ginseng derived compounds such as saponin have been shown to be anti-inflammatory; this study explores the radio-protective properties of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGSF). We sought to identify the molecular mechanism of action of RGSF by determining their effects on Irradiation (IR) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in murine macrophage cells. In activated RAW264.7 cells, RGSF strongly down regulated irradiated and LPS-mediated inflammatory responses, including Nitric Oxide production, Interleukin-1beta release, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. RGSF was found to exert its radio-protective effects by inhibiting a signaling cascade that activates nuclear kappa B, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. In particular, RGSF strongly inhibited the radiation-induced hemeoxyganase-1 (HO-1) expression, implying that HO-1 may be a potential pharmacological target of saponin. Taken together, our data suggest that RGSF, a functional compound in Ginseng, can be developed an effective radioprotective agent. (author)

  9. Effects of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are saponins derived from sterols. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for biochemical and genetic studies in animals. Although cholesterol is an essential requirement for the growth and development of C. ...

  10. Effects of 5-FU combined compound Ginseng and Astragalus on biological behavior of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦尉元

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the in vitro effects of 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) combined Compound Ginseng and Astragalus(CGA) on the biological behaviors such as the proliferation,the cloning,apoptosis and migration of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. Methods The cell proliferation inhibition rate was detected by MTT assay,

  11. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  12. Comparative research of chemical constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Panax ginseng and its endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Li; Han, Ting; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Bao-Kang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of ether extracts of an endophytic fungus Paecilomyces sp. isolated from Panax ginseng were reported, and the comparative analysis of the constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of the ether extracts from this fungus and its host ginseng were also conducted. By means of GC/MS technique, 51 compounds of Panax ginseng and 38 compounds of Paecilomyce sp. were determined. It is attractive that the extracts derived from Paecilomyce sp. and ginseng samples contained the same compound falcarinol, a natural pesticide and anti-cancer agent. The ether extracts of Paecilomyce sp., tested at 7.8 microg/ml, completely inhibited the visible growth of Pyricularia oryzae. Furthermore, both extracts were tested against four human pathogenic fungi and showed the IC(80) of Paecilomyce sp. was 4 microg/ml against Trichophyton rubrum, equally to the control. Finally, the in vitro antitumor experience showed that the most of the IC(50) values were all being below 20 microg/ml. PMID:19403293

  13. Extraction and identification of ginseng root exudates%人参根系分泌物的提取及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 彭洪利; 雷锋杰; 张连学

    2014-01-01

    [目的]鉴定人参根系分泌物中的化学物质,为研究人参化感作用的发生及其连作障碍提供科学依据.[方法]采用灭菌复合基质复配无土栽培人参,对人参根系分泌物进行原位收集,依次用蒸馏水和乙醇提取人参根系分泌物,合并后用有机溶剂萃取,获得水层及有机相石油醚层和乙酸乙酯层,用HPLC和GC-MS检测水层和2层有机相的物质组成.[结果]人参根系分泌物石油醚层中含有1,3-二氧戊环,4-甲基,4-乙基-2-十五烷、乙基柠檬酸、棕榈酸乙酯和二十五烷等20种化合物,其中,烷烃类物质占46.56%,有机酸酯类物质占22.75%,酚酸类物质占13.78%,烷烃衍生物占3.59%,吡喃类物质占5.39%.乙酸乙酯层中含有丁基柠檬酸、邻苯甲二酸二丁酯和单(2-乙基己基)邻苯二甲酸酯等9种化合物,其中,烷烃类物质占22.77%,有机酸酯类物质占63.71%,酚酸类物质占13.52%.人参根系分泌物水层中含有微量人参皂苷.[结论]采用无土栽培基质可避免人参栽培中微生物的干扰,能很好地培养收集人参根系分泌物,人参根系分泌物中含有人参皂苷及烷烃类物质、有机酸酯类物质和酚酸类物质.

  14. Combination of HPLC and 252-Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry for identifying composition of ginseng tinctures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Y N; Makhankov, V V; Uvarova, N L; Bondarenko, P V; Zubarev, R A; Knysh, A N

    1993-03-01

    The 252-Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry (252-Cf PDMS) determination or confirmation of the ginsenoside saponins has been proposed to investigate the composition of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks of ginseng tinctures and galenic preparations. That ionization technique is well suitable for the analysis of natural mixtures of these saponins. The 252-Cf PD mass spectra of standard ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rg1, Rd, NG-R2, Z-R1 contain the peaks of two types of ions, namely, molecular adduct ions (MAI) and aglycone ions. By mass the latter may be referred to either protopanaxadiol or protopanaxatriol. The masses of MAI and aglycone ions are determined by the carbohydrate chains. The collected HPLC fractions of P ginseng tincture can be tested for content of ginsenosides. After studying two MAI peaks from the 252-Cf PD mass spectra of the basic ginsenosides, an example of distinction between two galenic preparations from different Panax has been shown. PMID:8352021

  15. Role of the Red Ginseng in Defense against the Environmental Heat Stress in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Jin Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global temperature change causes heat stress related disorders in humans. A constituent of red ginseng has been known the beneficial effect on the resistance to many diseases. However, the mechanism of red ginseng (RG against heat stress still remains unclear. To determine the effect of RG on heat stress, we examined the effect of the RG on the gene expression profiles in rats subjected to environmental heat stress. We evaluated the transcripts associated with hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats subjected to heat stress. We also analyzed the reactive oxygen species (ROS contents. Our results suggested RG inhibited heat stress mediated altering mRNA expressions include HSPA1, DEAF1, HMGCR, and FMO1. We also determined RG attenuated fat accumulation in the liver by altering C/EBPβ expression. RG promoted to repress the heat stress mediated hepatic cell death by inhibiting of Bcl-2 expression in rats subjected to heat stress. Moreover, RG administered group during heat stress dramatically decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and ROS associated genes compared with the control group. Thus, we suggest that RG might influence inhibitory effect on environmental heat stress induced abnormal conditions in humans.

  16. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Tetradecapeptide from Ginseng Polypeptides with Enhancing Memory Activity for Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hao-ming; JIANG Rui-zhi; YANG Xiao-hong; CHEN Ying-hong; HONG Tie; WANG Ying

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at isolating and investigating the active ingredients of the aqueous extract from Panax ginseng which showed enhancing memory activity,the authors characterized one ingredient.To separate the oligosaccharides and polypeptides,a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 colum was used.The enhanced memory activity in mice was studied by Mirros water maze tesk in mice.The dose of oligosacchrides,polypeptides or Piracetam was 30 mg/kg per day with intraperitoneal administration.The oligosaccharides did not show enhancing memory effect,but polypeptides did show.This result demonstrates that the active ingredients of the aqueous extract from Panax ginseng which showed enhancing memory effect was polypeptides.The purification of the polypeptides was performed on a Sephadex G-25 column.A novel tetradecapeptide was purified from the polypeptides and its structure was determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) with the amino acid sequence of Lys-Ser-Leu-Thr-Leu-Thr-Ser-Ser-Leu-Ser-Tyr-Thr-Asp-Ser.

  17. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Miao, Jiacheng; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Linfeng; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In the application of electronic noses (E-noses), probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM) was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt's method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes). Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt's method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine) was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples. PMID:27420074

  18. Identification of suitable sites for mountain ginseng cultivation using GIS and geo-temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hag Mo; Choi, Soo Im; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore an accurate site identification technique using a geographic information system (GIS) and geo-temperature (gT) for locating suitable sites for growing cultivated mountain ginseng (CMG; Panax ginseng), which is highly sensitive to the environmental conditions in which it grows. The study site was Jinan-gun, South Korea. The spatial resolution for geographic data was set at 10 m × 10 m, and the temperatures for various climatic factors influencing CMG growth were calculated by averaging the 3-year temperatures obtained from the automatic weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Identification of suitable sites for CMG cultivation was undertaken using both a conventional method and a new method, in which the gT was added as one of the most important factors for crop cultivation. The results yielded by the 2 methods were then compared. When the gT was added as an additional factor (new method), the proportion of suitable sites identified decreased by 0.4 % compared with the conventional method. However, the proportion matching real CMG cultivation sites increased by 3.5 %. Moreover, only 68.2 % corresponded with suitable sites identified using the conventional factors; i.e., 31.8 % were newly detected suitable sites. The accuracy of GIS-based identification of suitable CMG cultivation sites improved by applying the temperature factor (i.e., gT) in addition to the conventionally used factors.

  19. Optimizing SSR-PCR system of Panax ginseng by orthogonal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tian-tian; MU Li-qiang; WANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    An orthogonal design was used to optimize SSR-PCR amplification system using Panax ginseng genomic DNA as template. Four levels of five factors (DNA template, Taq DNA polymerase, Mg2+, primer, and dNTP) and annealing temperature have been tested separately in this system. The results demonstrated the reaction efficiency was affected by these factors. Based on the results, a stable, productive and reproducible PCR system and cycling program for amplifying a ginseng SSR locus were obtained: 20 μL system containing 1.0 U Taq DNA polymerase, 2.0 mmol·L-1 Mg2+, 0.2 mmol· L-1 dNTPs, 0.3 μmol· L-1 SSR primer, 60 ng·μL-1 DNA template, performed with a program of 94℃ for 5 min, 94℃ for 30 s, annealing at 56.3℃ for 30 s, 72℃ for 1 min, 37 cycles, finishing at 72℃ for 7 min, and storing at 4℃.

  20. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Miao, Jiacheng; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Linfeng; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In the application of electronic noses (E-noses), probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM) was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt’s method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes). Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt’s method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine) was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples. PMID:27420074

  1. [Screening and identification of indoleacetic acid producing endophytic bacterium in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Chen, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guan-jun; Li, Tong; Chen, Jing-xiu; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria which was producing indoleacetic acid was screened from Panax ginseng by using the Salkowski method. The active strain was also tested for its ability of nitrogen fixation by using the Ashby agar plates, the PKV plates and quantitative analysis of Mo-Sb-Ascrobiology acid colorimetry was used to measure its ability of phosphate solubilization, for its ability of potassium solubilization the silicate medium and flame spectrophotometry was used, for its ability of producing siderophores the method detecting CAS was used, for its ability of producing ACC deaminase the Alpha ketone butyric acid method was applied. And the effect on promoting growth of seed by active strain was tested. The results showed that the indoleacetic acid producing strain of JJ5-2 was obtained from 118 endophytes, which the content of indoleacetic acid was 10.2 mg x L(-1). The JJ5-2 strain also had characteristics of phosphate and potassium solubilization, nitrogen fixation, producing siderophores traits, and the promoting germination of ginseng seeds. The JJ5-2 strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis by analyzing morphology, physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:26080547

  2. 近红外在线检测技术在人参提取物生产中的应用%Application of Near-infrared Spectroscopy On-line Detection to Production Process of Ginseng Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 王英平; 刘宏群; 许世泉; 闫梅霞; 赵景辉

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aims to use near-infrared spectroscopy to generate the spectrum of Chinese ginseng samples. The total ginseno-sides contents and near-infrared spectroscopy figure were determined in raw materials of ginseng and SS8 extract solutions. Raw materials of ginseng came from 93 different places, and born in different years. Using partial least squares (PLS), the methematical models were developed to correlate near infrared spectra and total ginsenosides contents. Method of cross-validation was adopted to evaluate these models, the results showed: Trie correlation coefficients of model were all above 0.95, the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEC V) values were 0.0716 and 0.032 7, ratio of deviation to performances (RPD) of model finally developed were 2.83 and 3.97 respectively. The model achieved the best prediction performance, and there is no significant difference between predictive contents and chemical reference values. The result indicates that NIR spectroscopy could be used in practice to fast determine the total ginsenoside contents of powder and extract solutions.%采用比色法和近红外漫反射、液体透射在线检测技术,分别测定93个不同产地、不同年生人参原材料固体样品和558个人参提取液样品的总皂苷含量和近红外光谱,结合偏最小二乘回归法,建立样品总皂苷含量与近红外光谱之间的数学模型.采用内部交叉检验对模型进行评价.评价结果显示:内部交叉检验的决定系数R2> 0.95,交义检验均方差(RMSECV)值分别为0.071 6和0.032 7,相对分析误差(RPD)分别为2.83和3.97.模型评价数据均有较好的表现,原材料、提取液检验样品近红外测定结果与化学参考值之间无显著性差异,近红外检测技术可以应用于人参原材料固体样品和人参提取液样品中总皂苷含量的快速测定.

  3. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius Reduces Cell Growth, Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Rou Yeo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius extract (GE that contained a quantifiable amount of ginsenosides was investigated for the potential to inhibit proliferation, affect the cell cycle, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Six fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and the respective molecular weights were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. The extract contained Rg1 (347.3 ± 99.7 μg g−1, dry weight, Re (8280.4 ± 792.3 μg g−1, Rb1 (1585.8 ± 86.8 μg g−1, Rc (32.9 ± 8 μg g−1, Rb2 (62.6 ± 10.6 μg g−1 and Rd (90.4 ± 3.2 μg g−1. The GE had a dose-dependent effect on 3T3-L1 cell growth, the LC50 value was determined to be 40.3 ± 5 μg ml−1. Cell cycle analysis showed modest changes in the cell cycle. No significant changes observed in both G1 and G2/M phases, however there was a significant decrease (P<.05 in the S phase after 24 and 48 h treatment. Apoptotic cells were modest but significantly (P<.05 increased after 48 h (3.2 ± 1.0% compared to untreated control cells (1.5 ± 0.1%. Lipid acquisition was significantly reduced (P<.05 by 13 and 22% when treated at concentrations of 20.2 and 40.3 μg ml−1 compared to untreated control cells. In relation to adiponectin activation, western blot analysis showed that the protein expression was significantly (P<.05 increased at concentrations tested. A quantified GE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated the accumulation of lipid and up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model.

  4. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  5. Effect of ginseng pretreatment on cerebral glucose metabolism in ischaemic rats using animal positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of ginseng on damaged brain activity, we evaluated the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) as a functional index in post-ischaemic rats and compared the results with those obtained after the administration of a ginseng extract. CMRglc was measured using high resolution animal positron emission tomography with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG). The rats subjected to a 30-min occlusion showed a significant reduction of k3, the rate constant for phosphorylation of 18F-FDG by hexokinase, compared with the normal value. The ginseng pretreatment prevented the reduction in k3 and CMRglc caused by ischaemia. Although further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanism of action, ginseng may be useful for prevention and treatment of ischaemia. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  6. RAPID METHOD OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF GINSENOSIDES FROM PLANT MATERIALS AND GINSENG PRODUCTS APPLICABLE FOR HPLC-MS/MS ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Stavrianidi, A. N.; Rodin, I. A.; Braun, A. V.; Shpigun, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE ARTICLE. In the past decades a number of extraction methods for biologically active compounds of ginseng coupled with different detection techniques were created. For HPLC-MS profiling of these compounds in plant material and related products a fast non-destructive way to extract ginsenosides from plant materials and ginseng products based on ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed.FINDINGS. Calculated by means of "Added-Found" approach recoveries of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1,...

  7. Red Ginseng Marc Oil Inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NFκB and p38 Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Sik Jeong; Jong-Won Lee; Soon-Gi Hong; Min-Ji Bak

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of red ginseng marc oil (RMO) in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. RMO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste product generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. RMO significantly inhibited the production of oxidative stress molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Levels of inflammatory targets including prostaglandin E2, tumor necr...

  8. Antioxidant effect of parsley and panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenosides Rg3 against alteration induced in reproductivefunctions in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza M. Hassan1 and Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab2

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antigcidant effects of parsley oil and panax ginseng have been evaluated against the clastogenecity of ZEN. One hundred and eight mature male mice were distributed into nine treatment groups, including the control group and the groups treated with parsley oil (0.6 ml/kg b.w, panax ginseng extract (40 mg/kg b.w or parsley oil plus panax ginseng extract with or without ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w. Animals within different treatment groups were divided into two subgroups (A and B. Subgroup A were used for the determination of serum testosterone levels and chromosomal aberrations and received their respective doses for two weeks whereas, subgroup B were used for sperm abnormality and received their respective doses twice a day for one week and sacrificed after 30 days. The results indicated that ZEN treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone concentration, sperm count and sperm motility. Whereas it caused a significant increase in abnormal sperms counts and total chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. Animals treated with parsley oil or panax ginseng extract alone or in combination were comparable to the controls regarding all the tested parameters. The combined treatment with ZEN and parsley oil, panax ginseng or parsley oil plus panax ginseng extract resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters. Moreover, parsley oil was found to be effective than panax ginseng extract and the combined treatment was more effective than the single treatment. It could be concluded that both parsley oil and panax ginseng extract induced a protective action against ZEN-induced alteration in the reproductive performance and the combined treatment may be useful than the single treatment.

  9. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  10. Cama-de-frango em mono e policultivo de fáfia com cravo-de-defunto e manjericão Poultry manure in mono and intercrop of Brazilian ginseng with marigold and basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenise C Barboza

    2010-09-01

    os policultivos foram efetivos.This study was carried out in field of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, in Dourados, Brazil, during the period from March 2005 to September 2006. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen yield under monocropping system or intercropped with Tagetes erecta L. and Ocimum basilicum L, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol, using semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM. The study objects were Brazilian ginseng (BG, marigold (M and basil (B under monocropping and the intercropping of two Brazilian ginseng, three marigold (BG2M3 and three basil (BG2B3 lines, all of them with or without semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM as fertilizer. Ten treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design, with four replications. Fresh and dry weight production from shoot of Brazilian ginseng were higher (13.22 t ha-1 and 4.39 t ha-1, respectively under monocropping, independently of the use of poultry manure. Nevertheless, none of experimental designs influenced the dry and fresh weight production or root number of Brazilian ginseng which produced average values of 10.02 and 2.07 t ha-1 and 417,916 roots ha-1, respectively. Root diameter was higher (23.5 mm under intercropping system with basil. Dry and fresh weight of marigold flowers were higher (14.28 t ha-1and 1.278 t ha-1, respectively when intercropped with Brazilian ginseng, but only fresh weight of the flowers was increased (14.17 t ha-1 by poultry manure application. Basil shoot production was higher (52.91 t ha-1 when intercropped, independently of the used species; however, they were not influenced by the use of poultry manure. Land equivalent ration (LER for the Brazilian ginseng intercropped with marigold was 2.15 under poultry manure application and 1.99 without it, and for the basil 2.44 under poultry manure application and 3.08 without it. Values higher than 1.0 indicate that the intercropping systems were effective.

  11. A Quantified Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Extract Influences Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Rou Yeo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Panax ginseng extract (PGE with a quantified amount of ginsenosides was utilized to investigate its potential to inhibit proliferation, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Seven fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography and their respective molecular weights were further confirmed via LC-ESI-MS analysis from four different extraction methods. Extraction using methanol under reflux produced significantly higher amounts of ginsenosides. The methanol extract consisted of Rg1 (47.40 ± 4.28 mg/g, dry weight of extract, Re (61.62 ± 5.10 mg/g, Rf (6.14 ± 0.28 mg/g, Rb1 (21.73 ± 1.29 mg/g, Rc (78.79 ± 4.15 mg/g, Rb2 (56.80 ± 3.79 mg/g, Rd (5.90 ± 0.41 mg/g. MTT analysis showed that PGE had a concentrationdependent cytotoxic effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and the LC50 value was calculated to be 18.2 ± 5 μg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed minimal changes in all four phases. Differentiating adipocytes treated with ginseng extract had a visible decrease in lipid droplets formation measured by Oil red O staining. Consequently, triglycerides levels in media significantly (P < 0.05 decreased by 39.5% and 46.1% when treated at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL compared to untreated control cells. Western blot analysis showed that the adiponectin protein expression was significantly (P < 0.05 increased at 10 μg/mL, but not at 1 μg/mL. A quantified PGE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated lipid accumulation and up-regulated adiponectin expression in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model.

  12. Identification of Target Genes Involved in the Antiproliferative Effect of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30 μg/mL, which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7 were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE. Furthermore, several genes implicated in cell cycle progression (CDCA3, CDCA8, CABLES2, CDC25B, CNNM3, and CCNK showed decreased expression in HepG2 cells treated with EMGE. Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%, compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.

  13. Intravenous Toxicity Study of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in SD Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sang Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been used for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of diseases. Radix ginseng has also been used as a traditional medicine for boosting Qi energy and tonifying the spleen and lungs. Traditionally, its effect could be obtained orally. Nowadays, a new method, the injection of herbal medicine, is being used. This study was performed to investigate the single-dose intravenous toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (WSGP in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: All experiments were carried out at Biotoxtech, an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulation of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. At the age of six weeks, 40 SD rats, 20 male rats and 20 female rats, were allocated into one of 4 groups according to the dosages they would receive. The WSGP was prepared in the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under the regulation of Korea-Good Manufacturing Practice (K-GMP. Dosages of WSGP were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/animal for the experimental groups, and normal saline was administered to the control group. The rat's general conditions and body weights, the results of their hematological and biochemistry tests, and their necropsy and histopathological findings were investigated to identify the toxicological effect of WSGP injected intravenously. The effect was examined for 14 days after the WSGP injection. This study was performed under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotoxtech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test on the intravenous injection of WSGP, and no significant changes in the rat's general conditions and body weights, the results on their hematological and biochemistry test, and their necropsy findings were observed during the test. The local area of the injection site showed minial change. The lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results indicate that WSGP is safe at dosages up to

  14. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome probably induced by a lamotrigine-ginseng drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy P; Watson, Troy A; Strock, Steven B

    2015-03-01

    The likelihood of a drug reaction with lamotrigine is increased by dose escalation that is too rapid or drug interactions that increase the concentration of lamotrigine. There is a well-documented interaction between valproic acid and lamotrigine in which lamotrigine levels are increased, subsequently increasing the risk of a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, diffuse maculopapular rash, multivisceral involvement, eosinophilia, and atypical lymphocytes and has a mortality rate of 10-40%. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of DRESS syndrome that was probably induced by a drug interaction between lamotrigine and ginseng. A 44-year-old white man presented to the emergency department after experiencing a possible seizure. His medical history included two other lifetime events concerning for seizures at ages 14 and 29 years old. After referral to the neurology clinic, he was diagnosed with generalized tonic-clonic seizure disorder, and lamotrigine was started with up-titration according to the drug's package insert to a goal dosage of 150 mg twice/day. The patient had also been taking deer antler velvet and ginseng that he continued during his lamotrigine therapy. On day 43 of therapy, the patient presented to the emergency department with a pruritic rash that had started on his extremities and spread to his torso. He was thought to have experienced a drug reaction to lamotrigine, and the drug was discontinued. Thirteen days later, the patient was admitted from the acute care clinic for inpatient observation due to laboratory abnormalities in the setting of continued rash, headache, and myalgias. His admission laboratory results on that day were remarkable for leukocytosis, with a white blood cell count up to 17.6 × 10(3) /mm(3) , with a prominent eosinophilia of 3.04 × 10(3) /mm(3) ; his liver enzyme levels were also elevated, with an aspartate

  15. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  16. Collagen/chitosan porous bone tissue engineering composite scaffold incorporated with Ginseng compound K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Aravinthan, Adithan; Sharmila, Judith; Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    In this study, suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering were successfully prepared using fish scale collagen, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Porous composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying method. The Korean traditional medicinal ginseng compound K, a therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis that reduces inflammation and enhances production of bone morphogenetic protein-2, was incorporated into the composite scaffold. The scaffold was characterized for pore size, swelling, density, degradation, mineralization, cell viability and attachment, and its morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy. This characterization and in vitro analysis showed that the prepared scaffold was biocompatible and supported the growth of MG-63 cells, and therefore has potential as an alternative approach for bone regeneration. PMID:27516305

  17. Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Treatment on Three Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients -Case Report-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Young-jin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study is to report the change of progress in symptoms and various scales after treated with Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP on the patients of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS. Methods : The three ALS patients who treated with MGP, were checked the change of progress by ALS Functional Rating Scale(ALSFRS, ALS Severity Score(ALSSS, grasping power on both arms and circumference of both thighs and calves. Results : After MGP treatment on three ALS patients, first case did not grow worse during MGP treated whereas she got worse rapidly during none treated period . Second case did not grow worse during treated period and third case got worse in progress by slow degrees despite of MGP treatment. Conclusions : Although MGP could not control the progress of ALS completely, MGP may help the improving of quality of life(QOL in ALS patients and have the effect of delayed ALS progression.

  18. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  19. Adição de extratos de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng em néctares mistos de frutas tropicais Addition of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts to mixed tropical fruit nectars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Machado de Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou desenvolver formulações de néctares mistos de frutas tropicais, acrescidos de diferentes concentrações de extratos de Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng e misturas de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng, avaliar características sensoriais, físico-químicas e químicas dos néctares selecionados. As formulações dos néctares tiveram a seguinte composição de polpa: caju (Anacardium occidentale, 12,25%; manga (Mangifera indica L, 21%; e acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C., 1,75%. Foram desenvolvidas diferentes formulações, com a adição dos extratos nas concentrações variando de 15 a 30 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar. A avaliação sensorial da impressão global, sabor e aroma foi feita por meio de teste de aceitação. Para as bebidas formuladas com Panax ginseng, somente o atributo sabor apresentou variação com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para as bebidas acrescidas de Ginkgo biloba, observou-se um decréscimo linear para todos os atributos avaliados com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para a mistura de extratos, não se observou variação das médias com o aumento da concentração dos extratos. Conclui-se que a adição de extrato de Panax ginseng até a concentração de 20 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar e a mistura dos extratos, em concentrações de 7,5 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar de cada extrato, apresentam boa aceitação sensorial. A adição dos extratos não afetou a composição química dos néctares que apresentaram quantidades elevadas de vitamina C, carotenoides, fenólicos totais e antocianinas.The objectives of this study were to develop formulations of mixed nectars of tropical fruits adding different concentrations of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and a mixture of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts and to assess sensory, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of selected nectars. The nectar formulations had the following pulp composition: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, 12.25%, mango

  20. Ginseng Rb fraction protects glia, neurons and cognitive function in a rat model of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangning Xu

    Full Text Available The loss and injury of neurons play an important role in the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases, while both microgliosis and astrocyte loss or dysfunction are significant causes of neuronal degeneration. Previous studies have suggested that an extract enriched panaxadiol saponins from ginseng has more neuroprotective potential than the total saponins of ginseng. The present study investigated whether a fraction of highly purified panaxadiol saponins (termed as Rb fraction was protective for both glia and neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons, against kainic acid (KA-induced excitotoxicity in rats. Rats received Rb fraction at 30 mg/kg (i.p., 40 mg/kg (i.p. or saline followed 40 min later by an intracerebroventricular injection of KA. Acute hippocampal injury was determined at 48 h after KA, and impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory as well as delayed neuronal injury was determined 16 to 21 days later. KA injection produced significant acute hippocampal injuries, including GAD67-positive GABAergic interneuron loss in CA1, paralbumin (PV-positive GABAergic interneuron loss, pyramidal neuron degeneration and astrocyte damage accompanied with reactive microglia in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. There was also a delayed loss of GAD67-positive interneurons in CA1, CA3, hilus and dentate gyrus. Microgliosis also became more severe 21 days later. Accordingly, KA injection resulted in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment. Interestingly, the pretreatment with Rb fraction at 30 or 40 mg/kg significantly protected the pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons against KA-induced acute excitotoxicity and delayed injury. Rb fraction also prevented memory impairments and protected astrocytes from KA-induced acute excitotoxicity. Additionally, microglial activation, especially the delayed microgliosis, was inhibited by Rb fraction. Overall, this study demonstrated that Rb fraction protected both

  1. Antihyperglycemic effects of total ginsenosides from leaves and stem of Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-tian XIE; Chong-zhi WANG; An-bao WANG; Jian WU; Daniel BASILA; Chun-su YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The antihyperglycemic effects of the total ginsenosides in Chinese ginseng (TGCG), extracted from leaves and the stem, were evaluated in diabetic C57BL/6J ob/ob mice. Methods: Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of TGCG (100 and 200 mg/kg) or oral administration (150 and 300 mg/kg) for 12 d. Fasting blood glucose levels and body weight were measured after fasting the animals for 4 h. Peripheral glucose use was also measured using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Results: In the injection group, a high dose of TGCG (200 mg/kg)significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose levels in ob/ob mice on d 12 (153±16 mg/dL vs 203±9.8 mg/dL, P<0.01, compared to vehicle-treated group). In the oral group, blood glucose decreased notably with a dose of TGCG (300 mg/kg) on d 12 (169.1±12.6 mg/dL vs 211.6±13.8 mg/dL, P<0.05, compared to the vehicletreated group). Glucose tolerance was also improved markedly in ob/ob mice.Furthermore, a significant reduction in bodyweight (P<0.05) was observed after 12 d of TGCG (300 mg/kg) treatment in mice from the oral group. Conclusion: The results indicated that in a diabetic ob/ob mouse model TGCG was endowed with significant anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity properties. Therefore, the total ginsenosides extracted from Chinese ginseng leaves and the stem may have some potential for treating diabetes.

  2. Effect of Korean red ginseng on blood pressure and nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEON Byeong Hwa; KIM Cuk Seong; KIM Hoe-Suk; PARK Jin-Bong; NAM Ki Yeul; CHANG Seok Jong

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of crude saponin and nonsaponin fraction of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on the blood pressure and nitric oxide (NO) production in the conscious rats and cultured endothelial cell line, FCV 304 cells. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in the conscious rats. Nitric oxide levels and the expression of nitric oxide synthase were measured by a spectrophotometric assay using Griess reagents and Western blotting, respectively. Nitric-oxide synthase activity was measured based on the conversion rate of [3H]arginine to [3H]citmlline. RESUITS: Systolic blood pressure was decreased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, iv) of KRG in the conscious control and one-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive (1K, 1C-GBH) rats. The hypotensive effect induced by crude saponin of KRG reached maximum at 2 - 4 min and slowly recovered after 20 min to the initial level in both groups. Crude saponin of KRG induced tacliycardia in the conscious rats but induced bradycardia in the anesthetized rats. In contrast to crude saponin of KRG, hypotensive effect induced by saponin-free fraction was minimal. Nitric oxide concentrations were increased by the treaunent of crude saponin in conscious rats as well as in the cultured FCV 304 cells. The protein expression level of endothelial constitutive nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) in the aorta of rats was not increased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, ip for 3 d). However, nitric-oxide synthase activity was increased by crude saponin of KRG in the aortic homogenate of rats. CONCLUSION: The hypotensive effect of red ginseng is mainly due to saponin fraction of KRG in the conscious rats, and this effect may be due to an increase in the nitric-oxide production by KRG.

  3. Root Graded Lie Superalgebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    We define root graded Lie superalgebras and study their connection with centerless cores of extended affine Lie superalgebras; our definition generalizes the known notions of root graded Lie superalgebras.

  4. Using Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William Wynne

    1976-01-01

    This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

  5. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on some chemical quality of white ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginseng saponins and proximate components were considerably resistant to both gamma irradiation at less than 10 kGy and commercial ethylene oxide cycle, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar, pH, and acidity of white ginseng powder were significantly changed by EO fumigation. The contents of saponins, reducing sugar, pH and acidity were relatively liable to change under the higher relative humidity (90%), especially in the non-treated control sample. However, irradiated samples at optimum-dose range (5 to 10 kGy) depending on the microbial load following airtight packaging showed a good chemical quality for 7 months of storage at 30 pm 2 deg. C irrespective of relative humidity

  6. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  7. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  8. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  9. Effect of Intraperitoneal Administered Ginseng Total Saponins on Hyperalgesia Induced by Repeated Intramuscular Injection of Acidic Saline in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Won Joong; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Geun Joo; Shin, Hwa Yong; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Choel; Kim, Su Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antinociceptive activity of ginseng total saponins (GTS) on hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline in rats and to examine the mechanisms involved. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with a 0.9% saline vehicle or various doses of GTS after the development of hyperalgesia. Rats were then injected with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or naloxone 10 min before GTS injection. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was ass...

  10. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Na, Ha-Young; Kim, Hong-Bae; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center study in 60 subjects who were not taking drugs that could affect metabolic and vascular functions. Subjects were randomized into either a KRG (4.5 g/d) group or a placebo group for a 12-week study. We collected anthr...

  11. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover. PMID:24458173

  12. Remarks on American Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Language serves as the tool of communication between people.In any language persons,things and activities that are ta⁃boos should not be talked about or should be mentioned in a roundabout way. it is not only a linguistic phenomenon but also a social phenomenon.The origin of taboo is deeply rooted in the social and cultural background. Today in the increasingly frequent cross-cultural communication, if you do not understand the language taboos, it will hinder the smooth communication. This pa⁃per will talk about American taboos from two aspects.It is designed to help English learners understand American culture and im⁃prove competence of cross-cultural communication.

  13. Effects of distilled Cultivated Wild Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture in Rats with Diabetes Induced by High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Pil Park

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was to verify the effects of distilled cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture(CWGHA on diabetes by hematological analysis. Methods : Rats were fed with high fat diet for 8 weeks and the rats with hyperglycemia were selected for the experiment. Various treatments of distilled cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture were administered intravenously and glucose, β-lipoprotein, triglyceride, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty acid(FFA, TBARS, superoxide dismutase(SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver were analyzed. Results : 1. Experiment group 3(0.1㎖ of CWGHA was injected intravenously 10 times showed significant decrease in serum glucose, β-lipoprotein, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol levels and liver TBARS compared to the control group, whileas showed significant increase in liver glutathione peroxidase activity. 2. Experiment group 2 and 3 (treated with 0.5㎖, 1㎖, respectively, showed significant decrease in serum FFA, total cholesterol and TBARS levels compared to the control group, and showed significant increase in liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. 3. Serum HDL-cholesterol didn't show significant changes in both experiment and control groups. Conclusion : Above results indicate that distilled cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture plays significant role as a hypoglycemic agent and in lipid metabolism. Increase in the number of administrations yielded more significant results.

  14. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  15. Efficacy of Polyphenon E, Red Ginseng, and Rapamycin on Benzo(apyrene-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in A/J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of several novel agents in preventing lung tumorigenesis in mice. We evaluated polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin in A/J mice treated with the tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(apyrene for their ability to inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth. We found that treatment with polyphenon E exhibited a significant reduction on both tumor multiplicity and tumor load (tumor multiplicity × tumor volume in a dose-dependent fashion. Polyphenon E (2% wt/wt in the diet reduced tumor multiplicity by 46% and tumor load by 94%. This result provided key evidence in support of a phase II clinical chemoprevention trial of lung cancer. Administration of red ginseng in drinking water decreased tumor multiplicity by 36% and tumor load by 70%. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin showed significant efficacy against lung tumor growth in the tumor progression protocol and reduced tumor load by 84%. The results of these investigations demonstrate that polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin significantly inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth in A/J mice.

  16. Planting Environment of Imitation Wild Ginseng and a High Efficient Cultivation Techniques by the Artificial Mediated Method%仿山参种植环境与人工介导高效种植技术1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绍鹏; 顾宇书; 陈红伟

    2013-01-01

      根据山参的生长习性和品质特征,在依据多年从事林下参种植经验和充分调查基础上,总结了仿山参适宜种植环境和人参人工介导仿山参高效种植技术,采用该项技术能够培养出身形和质量与野山参相媲美人参珍品,为培育高质量的仿山参珍品提供可靠的实用技术。%According to the ginseng growth habit and quality characteristics ,the ginseng planting environ-ment of Imitation wild ginseng was summarized by the way of comprehensive investigation .Based on sev-eral years of experience engaged in planting ginseng under forest ,a technolyge which was differente from the current planting ginseng was adopted .In this way ,a kind of manual mediated method for imitation wild ginseng in body shape and quality by the way of plantation was summarized .with the technology we can cultivate the same body shape and similar quality wild ginseng treasures and provide reliable technolo-gy of mimic wild ginseng .

  17. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Publication No.: D284 Created: September 2005 Updated: ...

  18. DNA Barcoding Used in the Identification of Ginseng%DNA条形码技术应用于人参鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 滕少娜; 孔德英; 宋云; 许谨; 李应国; 王昱; 李明福

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) , known as "the King of Herbs" , which is endangered famous, precious chinese herbal and senior tonic, and in urgent need of resources protection. With the internationalization of Chinese herbal ,more and more pseudo mix products appeared. So,the right identification become the chief condition of resources protection. Identification and sustainable use of the medicinal plant resources in ginseng have been extensively studied by scholars from domestic and abroad. DNA barcoding is the latest development in molecular identification, it is a method of rapid and accurate species identification and recognition using a short, standardized DNA region. DNA barcoding has become one of hotspots of biodiversity research, shows the broad application prospects in terms of species identification. The scope and limitations of the traditional identification methods were analyzed, and the features and application of new DNA barcoding technology and its analysis mothod used in the identification of ginseng were emphatically induced.%人参(Panax ginsengC.A.Meyer),被人们称为“百草之王”,是国内外常用的珍稀名贵中草药和高级滋补品,濒临灭绝,是急需进行资源保护的珍贵物种.随着中草药市场的国际化,由于利益的驱动,市场上伪混品屡见不鲜,对其正确鉴定就成为进行资源保护的首要条件.国内外学者对人参等药用植物资源的鉴定和可持续利用进行了广泛研究.DNA条形码(DNA barcoding)技术是分子鉴定的最新发展,即通过比较一段或几段通用DNA片段,对物种进行快速、准确的识别和鉴定,是近年来生物分类和鉴定的研究热点,在物种鉴定方面显示了广阔的应用前景.在分析传统的鉴定方法在适用范围和局限性的基础上,着重介绍了新兴的DNA条形码技术及其分析方法在人参鉴定上的特点及应用.

  19. Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Lipolysis and Lipid Oxidation in C2C12 Myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seok-Yeong; Lee, Jin-Ha; Cho, MyoungLae; Lee, Jong Seok; Hong, Hee-Do; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Young-Chan; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG), a highly valuable medicinal herb in oriental societies, has biological activity similar to that of Panax ginseng. Recently, it has been discovered that the biological activities of red ginseng can vary according to heating and steaming processes under different conditions that change the principal components of KRG and result in changes in biological activity. This study evaluated and compared the effects of high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) and commercial red ginseng (RG) on β-oxidation in C2C12 myotubes. HRG enhanced the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), but RG did not affect the phosphorylation of AMPK in C2C12 myotubes. HRG also promoted the nuclear translocation of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), and the translocation exerted an increase in the protein expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). As a consequence, HRG increased the mRNA expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) compared to the control. Taken together, our results indicated that HRG promotes the lipolysis of triglycerides and mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids in C2C12 myotubes, suggesting that alterations to the principal components by high temperature and pressure may positively influence the nutraceutical functions of HRG. PMID:26501225

  20. 西洋参辐照效应的研究%The Research on Effect of Irradiation American Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章月红; 李兆龙; 岳巍; 沈美玲; 毛咏甬; 谢裕颖; 刘亚建

    2014-01-01

    应用电子束射线对西洋参进行辐照灭菌,使用电子顺磁共振波谱仪(ESR),研究了辐照剂量与西洋参产生的自由基ESR谱的相关性,及不同含水量、放置时间和温度对ESR谱的影响;使用高效液相色谱仪(HPLC)和氨基酸分析仪检测了不同辐照剂量对西洋参皂甙、氨基酸成分的影响,以及西洋参的辐照灭菌剂量和储存效果.试验表明西洋参的辐照剂量、水分含量及放置温度和时间与ESR谱信号强度具有显著相关性.辐照剂量在15kGy以下时对所测皂苷成分没有影响,在较高辐照剂量40kGy时对氨基酸含量基本没有影响.西洋参的最佳辐照灭菌剂量为10kGy.

  1. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  2. Root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ′root canal irrigants′ and ′endodontic irrigants.′ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  3. Translational Enhancer of Tobacco mosaic virus Enhancing Expression of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Transgenic Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer Callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 5'-nontranslated leader(omega sequence) of Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) was used as a translational enhancer sequence in the expression of the hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) gene in transgenic ginseng callus cultures.The adr subtype HBsAg gene was placed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus(CaMV) 35S promoter linking to the TMV leader sequence. The antisense omega sequence was used in a control construct. The resulting constructs cloned in the binary vector pBI121 were used to transform the ginseng callus tissue via the Agrobacterium-mediated procedure. The integration and expression of the HBsAg gene were evaluated by PCR and western blot, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunoassays(ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody directed against human serum-derived HBsAg revealed a three to four-fold enhanced expression of HBsAg in ginseng cells conferred by the TMV omega element.

  4. Roots and routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2011-01-01

    arguing that there is a dynamic interplay between roots and routes in people's lives. The empirical point of departure is narratives about roots and routes by ethnic minorities settled in Aalborg East, an underprivileged neighbourhood in northern Denmark. One of the main findings is a gap between the...... somewhat paradoxical finding is that it appears to be more difficult for transnational migrants to maintain their roots in the country of origin when they go back than it was to establish new roots in the host country...

  5. Roots of Dehn twists

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Darryl; Rajeevsarathy, Kashyap

    2009-01-01

    D. Margalit and S. Schleimer found examples of roots of the Dehn twist about a nonseparating curve in a closed orientable surface, that is, homeomorphisms whose nth power is isotopic to the Dehn twist. Our main theorem gives elementary number-theoretic conditions that describe the values of n for which an nth root exists, given the genus of the surface. Among its applications, we show that n must be odd, that the Margalit-Schleimer roots achieve the maximum value of n among the roots for a gi...

  6. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  7. Ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum use after breast cancer diagnosis and quality of life: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ping Bao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between quality of life (QOL and use of ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum among breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Included in this study were 4,149 women with breast cancer who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. Ginseng use was assessed at 6-, 18-, and 36-month post-diagnosis surveys; G. lucidum use was assessed at the 6- and 36-month surveys. QOL was evaluated at the 6- and 36-month surveys. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between ginseng and G.lucidum use and QOL assessed at the 36-month survey, with adjustment for potential confounders and baseline QOL. RESULTS: At 6 months post-diagnosis, 14.2% of participants reported regular use of ginseng and 58.8% reported use of G. lucidum. We found no significant associations between ginseng use at 6, 18, and 36 months post-diagnosis and participants' total QOL score or individual scores for psychological, physical, or social well-being. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was positively associated with social well-being (adjusted mean difference: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.86, but was inversely associated with physical well-being (adjusted mean difference: -1.16; 95% CI: -1.86, -0.47 with a dose-response pattern observed for cumulative number of times of use (P for trend <0.001 for both. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that post-diagnosis ginseng use improved the QOL of breast cancer survivors. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was associated with better social well-being scores, but poorer physical well-being scores.

  8. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  9. The Effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius on Thermoregulation in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Na Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We devised a study using animal models of hyperthermia and hypothermia and also attempted to accurately assess the effects of Panax ginseng (PG and Panax quinquefolius (PQ on body temperature using these models. In addition, we investigated the effects of PG and PQ in our animal models in high and low temperature environments. The results of our experiments show that mice with normothermia, hyperthermia, and hypothermia maintained their body temperatures after a certain period in accordance with the condition of each animal model. In our experiments of body temperature change in models of normal, low, or high room temperature, the hyperthermic model did not show any body temperature change in either the PG- or PQ-administered group. In the normal and low room temperature models, the group administered PG maintained body temperature, while the body temperature of the PQ-administered group was lower than or similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, the fact that PG increases body temperature could not be verified until now. We also showed that the effect of maintaining body temperature in the PG-administered group was superior in a hypothermia-prone low temperature environment.

  10. [Effects of several factors on cell growth and ginsenoside accumulation of Panax ginseng suspension culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie-Jun; Lian, Mei-Lan; Yu, Dan; Shao, Chun-Hui; Piao, Xuan-Chun

    2013-12-01

    To improve cell suspension culture system of Panax ginseng, the dynamic of cell growth and medium consumption were studied, and the effects of filter on the culture vessel, revolution number, and inoculation density on cell growth and ginsenoside accumulation were also investigated. The maximum cell growth and ginsenoside accumulation was found on the 20th days of suspension culture, therefore, 20 days were confirmed as a suitable culture period for mass production of ginsenoside. Cell growth and ginsenoside content were promoted when the culture vessel had a ventilated filter. Revolution speed during suspension culture affected cell growth, but not ginsenoside content, a peak of ginsenoside productivity was found in the treatment of 120 r x min(-1). Inoculation density also influenced cell growth and ginsenoside accumulation, inoculation density of 6 g was better than other inoculation densities, the ginsenoside content and productivity were up to 12.8 mg x g(-1) DW and 146.6 mg x L(-1), respectively. PMID:24791486

  11. Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON, alcohol control (ET, and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively. Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays.

  12. Background Reduction around Prompt Gamma-ray Peaks from Korean White Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. N.; Sun, G. M.; Moon, J. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. E. [Chung-buk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is recognized as a very powerful and unique nuclear method in terms of its non-destruction, high precision, and no time-consuming advantages. This method is used for the analysis of trace elements in various types of sample matrix such as metallurgical, environmental, biological samples, etc. When a spectrum is evaluated, background continuum is a major disturbing factor for a precise and accurate analysis. Furthermore, a prompt gamma spectrum is complicate with a wide range. To make the condition free from this limitation, a reduction of the background is important for the PGAA analysis. The background-reducing methods are divided into using the electronic equipment like a suppression mode and principal component analysis (PCA) based on a multivariate statistical method. In PGAA analysis, Lee et al. compared the background reduction methods like PCA and wavelet transform for the prompt gamma-ray spectra. Lim et al. have applied the multivariate statistical method to the identification of the peaks with low-statistics from the explosives. In this paper, effective reduction of background in the prompt gamma spectra using the PCA is applied to the prompt gammaray peaks from Korean Baeksam (Korean white ginseng)

  13. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP, 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18 and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20. Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (P<0.05 and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (P<0.05. More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (P<0.01. Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH.

  14. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress activation mediates Ginseng Rg3-induced anti-gallbladder cancer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keren; Li, Ning; Sun, Huaqin; Xu, Tao; Jin, Fa; Nie, Jifeng

    2015-10-23

    In the current study, we examined the potential effect of Ginsenoside Rg3 against gallbladder cancer cells, the underlying signaling mechanisms were also studied. We demonstrated that Rg3 exerted potent cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity against established and primary human gallbladder cancer cells. Yet it was safe to non-cancerous gallbladder epithelial cells. At the molecular level, we showed that Rg3 induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation, the latter was evidenced by C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) upregulation, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)/PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) phosphorylations, and caspase-12 activation in gallbladder cancer cells. Reversely, the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal, the caspase-12 inhibitor z-ATAD-fmk as well as CHOP shRNA knockdown significantly attenuated Rg3-induced cytotoxicity against gallbladder cancer cells. In vivo, we showed that Rg3 oral administration significantly inhibited GBC-SD gallbladder cancer xenograft growth in nude mice, its activity was, however, compromised with co-administration of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal. Thus, we suggest that ER stress activation mediates Ginseng Rg3-induced anti-gallbladder cancer cell activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26361144

  16. Effect of Korea red ginseng on cerebral blood flow and superoxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk Seong KIM; Jin Bong PARK; Kwang-Jin KIM; Seok Jong CHANG; Sung-Woo RYOO; Byeong Hwa JEON

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) on the cerebral perfusion rate in the rats and the generation of superoxide anion in the endothelial cells. METHODS: The cerebral perfusion rate was measured using laser-doppler flowmetry before and after the administration of crude saponin (CS) and saponin-free fraction (SFF) of KRG in the anesthetized rats. The superoxide generation was measured by the method based on lucigeninenhanced chemiluminescence in the cultured endothelial cells. RESULTS: The relative cerebral perfusion rate (rCBF) was significantly increased by the intraperitoneal injection of CS (100 mg/kg) in the rats, but SFF had no effect on the rCBF. Chronic treatment with CS for 7 d significantly inhibited the decrease of forebrain cerebral blood flow induced by clamping both carotid arteries in the rats. Furthermore, CS (0.1 g/L) significantly suppressed NADPH-induced superoxide generation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that crude saponin fraction of KRG enhanced cerebral blood flow in rats. Furthermore, crude saponin fraction of KRG abrogated the NADPH-driven superoxide generation in endothelial cells.

  17. An Experimental Study on Effects of Distilled White-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on A549 human ephithelial lung cancer cell in vitro and implanted Sarcoma-180 in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Seong We; Ki-Rok Kwon; Hee-Soo Park

    2004-01-01

    Objectives : In order to investigate effects and immune improvement of distilled white-ginseng herbal extract, expression of Cox-1, Cox-2, and mRNA of Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed in A549 cell in vivo. Survival time and expression of cytokine mRNA were measured for the mice with Sarcoma-180 induced abdominal cancer. Methods : Balb/c mouse was treated with distilled white-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at Wisu(BL21) and Chung-wan(CV12) to investigate anti-cancer effects and immune response. R...

  18. An Experimental Study on Effects of Distilled Red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on A549 human ephithelial lung cancer cell in vitro and implanted Sarcoma-180

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Hwan Won; Ki-Rok, Kwon; Sun-Gu, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Objectives : In order to investigate effects and immune improvement of distilled red-ginseng herbal Acupuncture, expression of Cox-1, Cox-2, and mRNA of Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed in A549 cell in vivo. Survival time and expression of cytokine mRNA were measured for the mice with Sarcoma-180 induced abdominal cancer. Methods : Balb/c mouse was treated with distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at Wisu(BL21) and Chung- wan(CV12) to investigate anti-cancer effects and immune response. ...

  19. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result is...

  20. Systematic development of a group quantification method using evaporative light scattering detector for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwang Jin; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Ahn, Jongsung; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-09-01

    The determination for the contents of multi-components in ginseng products has come to the fore by demands of in-depth information, but the associated industries confront the high cost of securing pure standards for the continuous quality evaluation of the products. This study aimed to develop a prospective high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products without a considerable change from the conventional gradient analysis. We investigated the effects of mobile phase composition and elution bandwidth, which are potential variables affecting the ELSD response in the gradient analysis. Similar ELSD response curves of nine major ginsenosides were obtained under the identical flow injection conditions, and the response increased as the percentage of organic solvent increased. The nine ginsenosides were divided into three groups to confirm the effect of elution bandwidth. The ELSD response significantly decreased in case of the late eluted ginsenoside in the individual groups under the isocratic conditions. With the consideration of the two important effects, stepwise changes of the gradient condition were carried out to reach a group quantification method. The inconsistent responses of the nine ginsenosides were reconstituted to three normalized responses by the stepwise changes of the gradient condition, and this result actualized relative quantification in the individual groups. The availability was confirmed by comparing the ginsenoside contents in a base material of ginseng products determined by the direct and group quantification method. The largest difference in the determination results from the two methods was 8.26%, and the difference of total contents was only 0.91%. PMID:27262109

  1. Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsien Yu

    Full Text Available Dammarane steroids (DS are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE-induced muscle damage (downhill running. Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight. Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

  2. Volatile Discrimination of Irradiated and Fumigated White Ginseng Powders at Different Storage Times and Temperatures Using the Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of volatile emissions from white ginseng powders (WGP) that were treated with selected preservatives was investigated during 5-months of storage (at-10 and 25℃) by an electronic nose system equipped with 12 metal-oxide sensors. WGP were treated with gamma radiation at 5 kGy, commercial methyl bromide (MeBr), and phosphine fumigations. Electronic nose differentiated the volatile patterns of the WGP with each different preservative treatment. In addition, each volatile pattern was affected by both storage time (1, 2 and 5 months) and temperature (-10 and 25℃)

  3. Influences of Plant Growth Regulators,Basal Media and Carbohydrate Levels on Cell Suspension Culture of Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangWei; WuJiongyuan; 等

    1995-01-01

    A cell suspension culture of Panax ginseng which may be continuously subcultured has been established.Embryogenic callus derived from clutured young leaves was used to initiate the culture,Plant growth regulators,basal medium formula and carbohydrate levels were examined to determine their various effects on suspension culture cell growth and development ,The best selection of plant growth regulator,basal medium and carbohydrate level is 2mg/L 2,4-D:0.5mg/L KT,MS and 3% sucrose respectively.

  4. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  5. Engineering and technology system analysis on pseudo-ginseng industrial seedling production in Yunnan%云南三七工厂化育苗工程技术体系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文彩; 朱有勇; 杜迁; 奚琪

    2012-01-01

    The pseudo-ginseng industrial seedling production and corresponding basic technological process from the systems-engineering perspective were summarized according to the growth characteristics of pseudo-ginseng. The pseudo-ginseng industrial seedling production cycle was divided into 3 stages, including pre-seeding preparation, sowing period implementation, and late-sowing implementation management, to analyze related facilities and equipment status and to discover the problems in the equipment selection process. Recommendations, which include creating R&D pseudo-ginseng precision seeding machine, improving the automatic control equipment according to different seedling growth stage of pseudo-ginseng, researching pseudo-ginseng transplantation and fertilization precision related equipment, and developing the engineering equipment for mechanized pseudo-ginseng harvesting and drying, were presented to prodive engineering and technical guidance on pseudo-ginseng industrial seedling production and to promote the sustainable and healthy development of pseudo-ginseng industry in Yunnan.%结合三七的生长特性,从系统工程视角分析了三七工厂化育苗的基本工艺流程;将三七工厂化育苗周期划分为播种前期准备、播种期实施和播种后期管理三个阶段,分析了各阶段相关设施设备的现状,指出设备选型过程中出现的问题.提出研发适宜三七的精密播种机,针对三七育苗不同生长阶段对自动控制设备进行改进,研发三七大田移载与精准施肥相关设备,研发三七机械化收获与烘干工程等设备的建议.

  6. 桂花林下间种人参果高产栽培配套技术研究%Under Osmanthus Forests Interplanting Ginseng Fruit High-yield Cultivation Supporting Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申时利

    2012-01-01

    为探索桂花和人参果生物学特征及适生环境,在桂花林下间种人参果,研究桂花和人参果的高产栽培配套技术.结果表明在湖南省影响桂花林下间种人参果成活的主要因子是气候条件,温度对桂花、人参果生长发育呈显著相关,种植蜜度直接影响到桂花和人参果的产量.桂花林下间种人参果高产栽培配套技术,需营造适应人参果生长的小气候,桂花和人参果才会生长发育良好,且经济效益显著.%To explore the sweet osmanthus and ginseng fruit biology characteristics and optimal growth environment,in the sweet osmanthus forests interplanting ginseng fruit,the sweet osmanthus and ginseng fruit high-yield cultivation of supporting technology.The results indicate that the influence of hunan province osmanthus forests interplanting ginseng fruit survival of the main factor is the climate conditions,temperature on sweet osmanthus,ginseng fruit growth has significant correlation,planting honey degree directly affect the sweet osmanthus and ginseng fruit production.Osmanthus forests interplanting ginseng fruit high-yield cultivation supporting technology,need to build adapt to ginseng fruit growth microclimate,osmanthus flowers and ginseng fruit will growth is good,and the economic benefit is remarkable.

  7. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  8. ROOT User Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Since almost two decades, ROOT has established itself as the framework for HENP data processing and analysis. The LHC upgrade program and the new experiments being designed at CERN and elsewhere will pose even more formidable challenges in terms of data complexity and size. The new parallel and heterogeneous computing architectures that are either announced or already available will call for a deep rethinking of the code and the data structures to be exploited efficiently. This workshop, following from a successful series of such events, will allow you to learn in detail about the new ROOT 6 and will help shape the future evolution of ROOT.

  9. Studies on influence of funal elicitor on hairy root of Panax ginseng biosynthesis ginseng saponin and biomass%真菌诱导子对人参毛状根皂苷生物合成和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峻; 丁家宜; 周倩耘; 何林; 王峥涛

    2004-01-01

    目的:考察真菌诱导子对人参毛状根的生长和人参皂苷生物合成影响.方法:提取黄瓜炭疽病菌Colletorichum lagnarinm、青菜炭疽病菌Phoma filtrate、棉花枯萎病菌Fusarium oxysponum、黑曲霉Asperillus niger中的真菌诱导子与人参毛状根共培养,应用HPLC及比色法对培养物中总苷及几种单体皂苷进行分析测定.结果:真菌诱导子不但能影响人参毛状根总苷的合成量,也能使某些单体皂苷消失或增加,如培养液中黑曲霉多糖诱导子增加到20mg·L-1浓度时,使总苷含量增加到3.649%,而单体皂苷中Rg1和Re未检出,Rg2和Rb1的含量则有明显增加,并可促进人参毛状根的生长.结论:真菌诱导子对人参毛状根某些皂苷的合成具有特异性,同时也影响人参毛状根的生物量.培养过程中通过外源性诱导子的添加,有利于人参毛状根次生代谢产物的定向积累.

  10. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  11. Quantitative measurements of root water uptake and root hydraulic conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Javaux, Mathieu; Meunier, Felicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    How is root water uptake distributed along the root system and what root properties control this distribution? Here we present a method to: 1) measure root water uptake and 2) inversely estimate the root hydraulic conductivities. The experimental method consists in using neutron radiography to trace deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. The method was applied to lupines grown aluminium containers filled with a sandy soil. When the lupines were 4 weeks old, D2O was locally injected in a selected soil regions and its transport was monitored in soil and roots using time-series neutron radiography. By image processing, we quantified the concentration of D2O in soil and roots. We simulated the transport of D2O into roots using a diffusion-convection numerical model. The diffusivity of the roots tissue was inversely estimated by simulating the transport of D2O into the roots during night. The convective fluxes (i.e. root water uptake) were inversely estimating by fitting the experiments during day, when plants were transpiring, and assuming that root diffusivity did not change. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the lateral roots and it decreased by a factor of 10 towards the distal parts. We used the data of water fluxes to inversely estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The water fluxes in the lupine roots were simulated using the Hydraulic Tree Model by Doussan et al. (1998). The fitting parameters to be adjusted were the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of the roots. The results showed that by using the root architectural model of Doussan et al. (1998) and detailed information of water fluxes into different root segments we could estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots. We also found that: 1) in a tap-rooted plant like lupine water is mostly taken up by lateral roots; (2) water

  12. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract Involves Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Im

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5, an inhibitor of Gα(q and Gα(i activation, has been reported to have antiatherosclerosis. Previous studies showed antiatherosclerotic effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE via multiple signaling pathways. However, potential protective effect of KRGE through RGS5 expression has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic effect of KRGE in vivo and in vitro and its role on RGS5 mRNA expression. Elevated levels of total cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and triglyceride (TG in western diet groups of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient LDLr−/− mice were reversed by oral administration of KRGE. KRGE suppressed transcriptional activity of tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and leptin in adipose tissue. It also potently repressed western diet-induced atheroma formation in aortic sinus. While KRGE showed reduced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, it enhanced mRNA expression of RGS5. Moreover, RGS5 siRNA transfection of microglia cells pretreated with KRGE reversed its inhibitory effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1β mRNA. In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr−/− mice and this effect could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression.

  13. Korean Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Huntington’s-Like Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean red ginseng (KRG possesses neuroprotective activity. However, the potential neuroprotective value of KRG for the striatal toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated whether KRG extract (KRGE could have a neuroprotective effect in a 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP induced (i.p. Huntington’s disease (HD model. KRGE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, p.o. was administrated 10 days before 3-NP injection (pre-administration, from the same time with 3-NP injection (co-administration, or from the peak point of neurological impairment by 3-NP injection (post-administration. Pre-administration of KRGE produced the greatest neuroprotective effect in this model. Pre-administration of KRGE significantly decreased 3-NP-induced neurological impairment, lethality, lesion area, and neuronal loss in the 3-NP-injected striatum. KRGE attenuated microglial activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway. KRGE also reduced the level of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and OX-42. Interestingly, the intrathecal administration of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor or PD98059 (an inhibitor of MAPK Kinase, MEK increased the survival rate in the 3-NP-induced HD model. Pre-administration of KRGE may effectively inhibit 3-NP-induced striatal toxicity via the inhibition of the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, indicating its therapeutic potential for suppressing Huntington’s-like symptoms.

  14. Negligible Pharmacokinetic Interaction of Red Ginseng and Losartan, an Antihypertensive Agent, in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sung Ha; Kim, Yong Soon; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Red ginseng (RG) is one of the top selling herbal medicines in Korea, but is not recommended in hypertensive patients. In this study, the pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between RG and losartan, an antihypertensive drug, was examined. RG was orally administered for 2 wk to male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats at either control (0), 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg/d for 2 wk. After the last administration of RG and 30 min later, all animals were treated with 10 mg/kg losartan by oral route. In addition, some S-D rats were administered RG orally for 21 d at 2 g/kg followed by losartan intravenously (iv) at 10 mg/kg/d. Post losartan administration, plasma samples were collected at 5, 15, and 30 min and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Plasma concentrations of losartan and E-3174, the active metabolite of losartan, were analyzed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer system (LC-MS/MS). Oral losartan administration showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics (PK) increase with time to maximum plasma, but this was not significant between different groups. There was no significant change in tmax with E-3174 PK. With iv losartan, pharmacokinetics showed elevation of area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinitity. There was not a significant change in AUCinf with E-3174 PK. Therefore, RG appeared to interfere with biotransformation of losartan, as RG exerted no marked effect on E-3174 PK in S-D rats. Data demonstrated that oral or iv treatment with losartan in rats pretreated with RG for 2 wk showed that losartan PK was affected but E-3174 PK remained unchanged among different dose groups. These results suggested that RG induces negligible influence on losartan and E-3174 PK in rats.

  15. Inhibitory effects of ginseng total saponins on behavioral sensitization and dopamine release induced by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, BomBi; Yang, Chae Ha; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hye-Jung; Han, Seung-Moo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Insop

    2008-03-01

    Many studies have suggested that the behavioral and reinforcing effects of cocaine can be mediated by the central dopaminergic systems. It has been shown that repeated injections of cocaine produce an increase in locomotor activity, the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos, and the release of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which is one of the main dopaminergic terminal areas. Several studies have shown that behavioral activation and changes in extracellular dopamine levels in the central nervous system induced by psychomotor stimulants are prevented by ginseng total saponins (GTS). In order to investigate the effects of GTS on the repeated cocaine-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations, we examined the influence of GTS on the cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and on c-Fos expression in the brain using immunohistochemistry in rats repeatedly treated with cocaine. We also examined the effect of GTS on cocaine-induced dopamine release in the NAc of freely moving rats repeatedly treated with cocaine using an in vivo microdialysis technique. Pretreatment with GTS (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited the repeated cocaine-induced increase in locomotor activity as well as the c-Fos expression in the core and shell in a dose-dependent manner. Also, pretreatment with GTS significantly decreased the repeated cocaine-induced increase in dopamine release in the NAc. Our data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of GTS on the repeated cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization were closely associated with the reduction of dopamine release and the postsynaptic neuronal activity. The results of the present study suggest that GTS may be effective for inhibiting the behavioral effects of cocaine by possibly modulating the central dopaminergic system. These results also suggest that GTS may prove to be a useful therapeutic agent for cocaine addiction. PMID:18310906

  16. Supplementation of Korean Red Ginseng improves behavior deviations in animal models of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luck T. Gonzales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that primarily display social and communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence has increased in recent years, yet very limited therapeutic targets and treatments are available to counteract the incapacitating disorder. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a popular herbal plant in South Korea known for its wide range of therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits and has recently been gaining great scientific attention, particularly for its positive effects in the central nervous system. Objectives: Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of KRG in alleviating the neurobehavioral deficits found in the valproic acid (VPA-exposed mice models of ASD. Design: Starting at 21 days old (P21, VPA-exposed mice were given daily oral administrations of KRG solution (100 or 200 mg/kg until the termination of all experiments. From P28, mice behaviors were assessed in terms of social interaction capacity (P28–29, locomotor activity (P30, repetitive behaviors (P32, short-term spatial working memory (P34, motor coordination (P36, and seizure susceptibility (P38. Results: VPA-exposed mice showed sociability and social novelty preference deficits, hyperactivity, increased repetitive behavior, impaired spatial working memory, slightly affected motor coordination, and high seizure susceptibility. Remarkably, long-term KRG treatment in both dosages normalized all the ASD-related behaviors in VPA-exposed mice, except motor coordination ability. Conclusion: As a food and herbal supplement with various known benefits, KRG demonstrated its therapeutic potential in rescuing abnormal behaviors related to autism caused by prenatal environmental exposure to VPA.

  17. Primary structures of two ribonucleases from ginseng calluses - New members of the PR-10 family of intracellular pathogenesis-related plant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseyev, GP; Fedoreyeva, LI; Zhuravlev, YN; Yasnetskaya, E; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ribonucleases from a callus cell culture of Panax ginseng were determined, The two sequences differ at 26% of the amino acid positions, Homology was found with a large family of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, food allergens and tree pollen allergens from

  18. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  19. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠子

    2014-01-01

    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture, widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life. Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization, this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance, value, literature creation and customs etc., helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  20. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠子

    2014-01-01

    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture,widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life.Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization,this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance,value,literature creation and customs etc.,helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  1. Quality changes of ready-to-eat ginseng chicken porridge during storage at 25 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Keun Taik

    2012-12-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) ginseng chicken porridge was heated in a retort with an F-value of 4.0 after being packaged in a gas-tight plastic tray (PP/EVOH/PP) with top film (PET/PA/CPP). Various quality changes were investigated during the storage for 28 weeks at 25 °C. Over the storage period, microorganisms were not detected above 1.0 log cfu/cm² (detection limit). The viscosity increased sharply from 775 to 2025 cp for initial 4 weeks and increased steadily until 16 weeks, with a slight reduction thereafter. During the 28 weeks of storage, the ratio of residual oxygen and pH decreased from 10.8% and 6.49 to 5.7% and 6.05, while retrogradation degree increased from 0% to 55.9%. Hunter L*, b*, and ΔE values increased until 20 weeks and remained for the rest of storage. Based on sensory, microbiological and physicochemical evaluations, the RTE ginseng chicken porridge could be marketable for at least 24 weeks at 25 °C.

  2. Analysis of Low-polar Ginsenosides in Steamed Panax Ginseng at High-temperature by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-chi; PI Zi-feng; LIU Chun-ming; SONG Feng-rui; LIU Zhi-qiang; LIU Shu-ying

    2012-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis and identification of ginsenosides in the extracts of raw Panax ginseng(RPG) and steamed Panax ginseng at high temperatures(SPGHT).A total of 25 ginsenosides were extracted include of which 10 low-polar ginsenosides,such as ginsenosides F4,Rk3,Rh4,20S-Rg3,20R-Rg3 and so on,were identified according to their HPLC retention time and MS/MS data.The results indicated that the low polar ginsenosides were seldom found in RPG.For the exploration of the transformation pattern of the ginsenosides in steam processing,the standards of ginsenosides Re,Rgl,Rbl,Rc,Rb2,Rb3 and Rd were selected and hydrolyzed at a temperature of 120 ℃.The results show that these polar ginsenosides can be converted to low-polar ginsenosides such as Rg2,Rg6,F4,Rk3 and Rg5 by hydrolyzing the sugar chains.

  3. Detoxifying effect of fermented black ginseng on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min-Ji; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Fermented black ginseng (FBG) is prepared by repeated steaming and drying processes with fresh ginseng followed by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has recently been shown to have several bioactivities. FBG contains crude saponin (1,440 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rg2 (2.86 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rg3 (24.52 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rh1 (12.64 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rh2 (0.63 µg/ml) and ginsenoside Rf (1.32 µg/ml). The present study investigated the antioxidant defense properties of FBG against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidative stress in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner when the cells were pre-treated with FBG (10-50 µg/ml). FBG induced both the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effects of FBG on the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 were also observed. Overall, our results demonstrate that FBG protects HepG2 cells from oxidative stress through the induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and the inhibition of MAPK pathways. PMID:25319719

  4. Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schwarz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw. The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root

  5. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  6. Evolution of Sustainability in American Forest Resource Management Planning in the Context of the American Forest Management Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Straka

    2009-01-01

    American forest resource management and planning goes back to the European roots of American Forestry. Timber management plans, documents based on forest regulation for timber production, were the foundation of American forestry. These types of management plans predominated until World War II. Multiple use forestry developed after World War II and issues like recreation, wildlife, water quality, and wilderness became more important. In the 1970’s harvest scheduling became part of the planni...

  7. Extraction of Angiotensin Ⅰ-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Protein from Ginseng%人参中ACE抑制蛋白的提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晶; 李海涛; 程海涛; 张秋菊; 张爱华; 张连学

    2011-01-01

    The ginseng protein was extracted from ginseng powder, and the inhibitory activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was detected. Ginseng powder was prepared by stirring in water (pH 9.0), followed by centrifugation at 3000 r/m for 20 min. An ACE inhibitor was purified by using consecutive chromatographic methods, including: D101 macroporous resin chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The inhibitory activity of ACE was determined as ACE inhibitory activity in vitro of ginseng protein. The ginseng protein had inhibitory activity for ACE, the ACE inhibitor could be extracted by using consecutive chromatographic methods, and the ACE inhibitory ratio could achieve 92.5%.%从人参粉中提取纯化人参蛋白,以检测人参蛋白对血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)的抑制活性.将人参粉加水(pH 9.0)搅拌,3000 r/min离心20 min.用连续的色谱柱分离:D101大孔树脂分离色谱,离子交换色谱,凝胶过滤色谱.以体外ACE抑制率为指标确定提取的人参蛋白具有抑制ACE的作用.结果表明:人参蛋白对ACE酶具有很高的抑制效果,通过连续的色谱分离方法可将ACE抑制蛋白分离,得到具有较高抑制率的ACE抑制蛋白,该抑制蛋白的抑制率可达92.5%.

  8. 长白山黑参加工技术研究%Research on processing technology for Changbai Mountain black ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宇; 魏建华; 张国荣; 丛登立

    2012-01-01

    Objective Exploration of ginseng saponins transformation method, to determine the best process condition, make it one of ginseng saponins 20 (S)-Rg3 component increased. Methods With red ginseng as raw material, with red ginseng fermented liquid mainly accessories, through stewing, drying, And by HPLC method for the determination of the content of ginsenoside 20 (S)- Rg3 as indicator, using the orthogonal experimental method to optimize the process conditions. Results The optimum conditions are: 5 times the amount of material 1, pH value of 4, stew 35 hours. Conclusion Through this process, the content of 20(S)-Rg3 in black ginseng can be increased by 136 times.%目的探索人参皂苷转化方法,确定最佳工艺条件,使人参皂苷Rg,等成分增加。方法以红参为原料,以红参发酵液为主的辅料,经过炖制、干燥制得黑参,用HPLC法测定20(S)-人参皂苷Rg,含量,采用正交实验法优化工艺条件。结果最佳工艺条件为:5倍原辅料量稀释,pH值为4,炖制时间为35小时。结论通过此工艺条件,黑参中20(S)-人参皂苷Rg,含量为原料红参的200倍以上。

  9. Application of cytoplasmic Ca2+ fluorescence imaging techniques to study the molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by Chinese medicine ginseng extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Heming; Liu, Songhao

    2009-11-01

    The exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by Chinese medicine offers advantages including good efficiency and smaller side-effects, however, the exact mechanisms have not been classified. A lot of literatures indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations of skeletal muscle cells increased significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. This study is aimed to establish a rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue. We applied cytoplasmic Ca2+ fluorescence imaging techniques to study the molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by Chinese medicine ginseng extract. In our research, the muscle tissues from the newborn 3 days rats were taken out and digested into cells. The cells were randomly divided into the ginseng extract group and the control group. The cells from the two groups were cultured in the medium respectively added 2mg/ml ginseng extract and 2mg/ml D-hanks solution. After differentiating into myotubes, the two groups of cells treated with a fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM were put on the confocal microscope and the fluorescence intensity of cells pre- and post- stimulation with dexamethasone were detected. It was found that cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations of the two groups of cells both increased post-stimulation, however, the increasing amplitude of fluorescence intensity of the ginseng extract group was significantly lower than that of the control group. In conclusion, stimulating the cells with dexamethasone is a kind of workable cell models of exercise-induced fatigue, and the molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by ginseng extract may be connected to regulatating cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations.

  10. 云南三七主根干燥特性及其功效指标评价%Drying characteristics and efficacy index evaluation for main root of Yunnan panax notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭徽; 杨薇; 刘英

    2014-01-01

    In foreign countries, the research of drying characteristics about medicinal plants mainly includes ginseng and American ginseng. In China, the study on Yunnan panax notoginseng mainly focuses on the physiological property and effects of ginsenosides on human bodies, but the research on processing technology is superficial. According to the national standard in China, the main efficacy index of panax notoginseng is the panax notoginsenoside(PNS) content. However, there are no reports on the effect of drying methods and drying conditions to PNS content. In order to study the influence of drying process to PNS content of Yunnan panax notoginseng, Yunnan panax notoginsengs and their slices were dried by three different methods (natural drying, oven drying and hot-air drying) in this work. The drying curves and drying rate curves of these methods were obtained. The drying kinetics models of main roots within different temperatures in oven drying were established. Meanwhile, the PNS contents of main roots dried by these methods were tested through High-performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC), and the regression equation about temperature and time to PNS content was established and optimized. Results showed that oven drying had a shorter drying time and faster drying rate compared with natural drying. The PNS contents of dried products within natural drying, oven drying and hot-air drying were 7.246%, 11.305%, 8.259%, respectively. It showed that the oven drying kept the PNS content of panax notoginseng higher. Through drying curves and drying rate curves of panax notoginseng, it could be found that there was only falling rate period and no constant rate period during the drying process. The parameters of Lewis model, Page model and Henderson-Pabis model were evaluated through R2. Page model was found to be more suitable in describing the drying characteristics of panax notoginseng. The drying kinetics equation was MR=exp[-0.0037exp(0.0623T)t1.5336exp(-0.0156T)]. It

  11. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  12. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  13. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  14. Isolation of Organochlorine Pesticide from Ginseng with Supercritical CO2%超临界流体萃取脱除人参中痕量有机氯农药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芬; 王幼君; 全灿; 田松江

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of removal of the organochlorine pesticides residues of hexachlorocyclohexane(BHC)from radix ginseng with supercritical CO2 was explored. Some factors, such as extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and kinds of co-solvents were investigated. The experimental results indicate that it is possible to reduce BHC residues in radix ginseng to the level of 0.1 × 10-6 with supercritical CO2 in the presence of suitable amount of co-solvent, such as water.

  15. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  16. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  17. Root development under drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Leemhuis, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Serving as interfaces between plant and the soil, roots are much more exposed to drought stress than the upper plant parts. Therefore, the root system can be as affected, or even more affected, than the aerial parts of the plant for drought stress (Franco et al., 2011). Nevertheless, the influence of this stress on root activity and development has been much less studied. Undoubtedly, this is due to limitations on accessibility for root observations; being studies on root system dynamics espe...

  18. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. PMID:24853104

  19. Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-06-01

    To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 μg/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 μg/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 μg/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 μg/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 μg/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 μg/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 μg/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 μg/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 μg/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 μg/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

  20. 人参总蛋白的酶解及氨基酸含量测定%Enzymolysis of Ginseng Total Proteins and Determination of Amino Acid Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红艳; 张江华; 张惠; 陶震宇; 杨静娴; 康廷国

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The final active substances of ginseng proteins functioning in vivo were explored by comparing the component changes in ginseng proteins before and after enzymolysis.Methods:The ginseng proteins were hydrolyzed by pepsin,trypsin and double enzymes (pepsin and trypsin ), the protein and peptide content was detected by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),and the amino acid composition was analyzed by HPLC.Results:The results of SDS-PAGE showed that ginseng proteins were hydrolyzed into high concentration and low molecular weight (around 5000)proteins by pepsin,lower concentration proteins by trypsin,and proteins by double enzymes similar to those of pepsin hydrolysis.The results of HPLC showed that the amino acids in ginseng proteins decreased significantly after pepsin,trypsin and double enzymes hydrolysis.Conclusion:Ginseng proteins were converted into low molecular weight proteins and a small amount of amino acids after enzymolysis.%目的:比较人参蛋白酶解前后成分的变化,以探讨人参蛋白在体内发挥作用的最终活性物质。方法:采用胃蛋白、胰蛋白酶及双酶(胃蛋白酶与胰蛋白酶联合)水解人参蛋白,采用 SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测蛋白及多肽含量,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析氨基酸组成。结果:SDS-PAGE 检测结果显示,人参蛋白经胃蛋白酶水解后,仅出现分子量5000左右的高浓度、低分子量蛋白条带;经胰蛋白酶水解后,出现多条蛋白带,但浓度较水解前低;经双酶水解后,蛋白条带显示与胃蛋白酶接近。HPLC 检测结果显示,人参蛋白经胃蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶及双酶水解后,氨基酸种类变化不大,含量明显减少。结论:人参蛋白酶解后转变为多肽及少量氨基酸。

  1. Single-run HPLC/ESI-LITMS profiling of ginsenosides in plant extracts and ginseng based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianidi, Andrey; Rodin, Igor; Braun, Arkady; Stekolshchikova, Elena; Shpigun, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    A rapid single-run analytical approach suitable to achieve a comprehensive characterization of ginsenosides - the main bioactive compounds present in plant materials from Panax species and ginseng-based products - was developed. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LITMS). The main ions in the ESI-LITMS spectra were attributed to molecular adducts with sodium and potassium and fragments corresponding to cleavage of the glycosidic bonds. The simplicity of the approach allows laborious sample preparation and sophisticated spectral information-dependent acquisition to be avoided, and provides an opportunity for rapid screening. The method may replace existing HPLC-DAD profiling approaches. The results of this study indicate that HPLC/ESI-LITMS is applicable for quality control purposes on processed products and allows the rapid and direct identification of ginsenosides in crude plant extracts. PMID:25355704

  2. 一年生农田人参及西洋参多种皂苷质量评价%Content determination of ginsenoside monomers in one-year-old farmland ginseng and American ginseng by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冲; 郜玉钢; 臧埔; 杨鹤; 赵岩; 何忠梅; 刘双利; 张连学

    2014-01-01

    为评价一年生农田人参和西洋参中多种皂苷含量,采用RP-HPLC法测定了一年生农田人参与西洋参中人参皂苷含量.结果表明:一年生农田人参含有9种人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rf、Rg2、Rb1、Rc、Rb2、Rb3、Rd,一年生西洋参含有7种人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rb1、Rc、Rb2、Rb3、Rd,除Rb2以外,西洋参的人参皂苷含量均高于农田人参(p<0.05).两种参皂苷含量均达到药典要求.

  3. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  4. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  5. Advances in root reinforcement experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Niedda, Marcello

    2013-04-01

    Root reinforcement is considered in many situations an important effect of vegetation for slope stability. In the past 20 years many studies analyzed root reinforcement in laboratory and field experiments, as well as through modeling frameworks. Nearby the important contribution of roots to shear strength, roots are recognized to impart stabilization also through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. Lateral root reinforcement under tensile solicitations (such as in the upper part of a shallow landslide) was documented and discussed by some studies. The most common method adopted to measure lateral root reinforcement are pullout tests where roots (single or as bundle) are pulled out from a soil matrix. These conditions are indeed representative for the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope (such in a tension crack). However, there is also the situation where roots anchored at the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding soil mass. In this last case it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study discussed this mechanism so far. The main objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of roots considering the two presented cases of lateral root reinforcement discussed above - roots slipping out from stable soil profile or sliding soil matrix from anchored roots-, and discuss the implication of the results for slope stability modeling. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments for both roots pullout and soil sliding mechanisms using a tilting box with a bundle of 15 roots. Both Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots and soil were collected from the study area in Sardinia (Italy), and reconstructed in laboratory, filling the root and soil layer by layer up to 0.4 meter thickness. The results show that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil sliding range from 0.5 to 1. This results indicate that

  6. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  7. Inhibitory effect of ginsenosides from steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers on the LPS-stimulated IL-12 production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Hong; Son, Jeong-Hyun; Koo, Jung-Eun; Hong, Hye-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Song, Gyu Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-04-01

    Interleukin-12, a heterodimeric cytokine comprising p40 and p35 subunits, plays an essential role in the regulating the differentiation of Th cells, which establish and maximize the capabilities of the immune system. The aim of present study is to screen the effect of 21 ginsenosides from steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers on IL-12 production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Noticeably, ginsenoside Rg(6) (12) and ginsenoside F(4) (13) exhibited particularly inhibitory effect on LPS-induced IL-12 production with the inhibition values of 80 and 82%; and ginsenoside ST(1) (4), ginsenoside SL(2) (8), ginsenoside SL(3) (9), ginsenoside Rh(3) (14), ginsenoside Rk(2) (15), and ginsenoside Rs(4) (18) showed moderate effects with inhibition rates of 63, 65, 67, 68, 71, 73, and 67%, respectively. These results warrant further studies concerning potential of saponin extracts of steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers for medicinal uses. PMID:21544734

  8. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  9. Inhibitory Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Yeong Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our results show that the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatic malondialdehyde in the HRG group were significantly lower than those of the exercise groups supplemented with commercial red ginseng (CRG or not supplemented. The muscular glycogen level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of the HGR group were higher than that of the CGR group. Furthermore, the HRG treatment group displayed upregulated mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and muscle regulatory factor 4. These results indicate that HRG may protect oxidative stress induced by exercise as well as improve exercise performance capacity.

  10. The Gaudi Framework and ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, B; Clemencic, M

    2013-01-01

    The Gaudi framework, at the core of LHCb applications, relies on many features of ROOT, from the Mathematical libraries, to the tools for reflection and persistency. While Gaudi's architecture is under review in order to fulfill the LHCb computing requirements after LS1 and upgrade, significant changes are also announced for ROOT 6. This talk will review the usage of ROOT within Gaudi and LHCb applications, in order to present the features needed by LHCb to migrate to the new ROOT.

  11. Root canal retained restorations: 3. Root-face attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, P M; Edmunds, D H; Gidden, J R

    1990-10-01

    It has been common practice for many years to use retained roots to provide support and stability for partial or full dentures. The retention of such overdentures is greatly enhanced if the remaining roots are modified and restored with posts and root-face attachments. The final article in this series on root canal retained restorations classifies and describes some of the root-face attachments currently available, and also describes a number of prefabricated post systems with integral overdenture attachments. Guidelines for clinical and laboratory procedures are given. PMID:2097234

  12. Preparation of ginseng pills and determination of ginsenoside Re%人参滴丸的制备及功能成分人参皂苷Re的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠竹; 陈金鸾; 郝会娜; 林萍; 姜雨含; 李平亚; 刘金平

    2012-01-01

    To determine the optimum production process of ginseng pills and establish ginseng pill's quality control method. Methods: The production process of ginseng pills were selected and optimized by conducting parallel tests, and the HPLC was adopted to conduct the quality controlling of ginsenoside Re in ginseng pills. Results: Three batches of ginseng pill samples were prepared according to the established production process, all fitted with the standards of dropping pills. The linear range of ginsenoside Re's content measured by HPLC was 0.84~ 2.52μg (r -- 0.9998), with the average recovery rate of 99.5%. Conclusion: The preferred ginseng pill production process is simple and feasible. The method to measure the content of ginsenoside Re in Ginseng pills is simple and convenient, sensitive, efficient and accurate.%目的确立人参滴丸的最佳生产工艺和建立人参滴丸的质控方法。方法采用平行试验法.优选人参滴丸的生产工艺:采用HPLC法对人参滴丸中人参皂苷Re进行质量控制。结果根据实验所确定的工艺.制备了三批人参滴丸样品,符合滴丸的规定。HPLC法测定人参皂苷Re含量的线性范围为0.84~2.52μg(r=0.9998),平均回收率为99.5%。结论优选的人参滴丸制备工艺简便可行。人参滴丸中人参皂苷Re的含量测定方法简便、灵敏、快速、准确。

  13. Reclaiming our roots: accomplishments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Best practices for Native Americans are rooted in culture. However, reclaiming best practices is a challenge given the genocidal policies that outlawed Native culture. Despite this challenge Native people have proven resilient in restoring culture. The Native American Health Center in Oakland, California, has made cultural interventions an option for an urban, intertribal and sometimes multiracial Native American population to create and maintain their health on a spiritual, emotional, mental and physical level. Nevertheless, sustaining these cultural options to maintain health continues to be a challenge. While the passage of the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 in California to transform treatment of mental and behavioral health "as we know it" would seem to create a gateway for cultural options, mainstream mental health has a hard time perceiving cultural interventions as a viable means to treat mental illness and maintain wellness. Frequently, the author has attended meetings of decisionmaking bodies that oversee how MHSA money is spent and someone will blurt out after someone has described an innovative cultural intervention "What does that have to do with mental illness?" The following article discusses how the clash of the two cultures, Native and mainstream, continues to be a challenge for sustained funding to implement culturally competent programs. PMID:22400460

  14. “Ninjinto” (Ginseng Decoction), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Improves Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Immune Competence in Patients with Chronic Intestinal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichiro Uehara; Keiko Ogawa; Junsuke Arimitsu; Hiroomi Okuyama

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treating functional gastrointestinal disorders is extremely difficult. We herein report the effect of the oral administration of Ninjinto (NJT, ginseng decoction), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, on chronic intestinal failure. Patients and Methods. Seven patients with chronic intestinal failure treated with NJT were evaluated in this study. The primary diseases included chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO: n = 4), short bowel syndrome (SBS: n = 2), and intestinal atr...

  15. Identification of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs and validation of a mighty one named MAR in Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meizhen Wang; Bin Wu; Chao Chen; Shanfa Lu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non‐coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in plants. However, little is known about lncRNAs in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, an economical y significant medicinal plant species. A total of 3,688 mRNA‐like non‐coding RNAs (mlncRNAs), a class of lncRNAs, were identified in P. ginseng. Approximately 40%of the identified mlncRNAs were processed into smal RNAs, implying their regulatory roles via smal RNA‐mediated mechanisms. Eleven miRNA‐generating mlncRNAs also pro-duced siRNAs, suggesting the coordinated production of miRNAs and siRNAs in P. ginseng. The mlncRNA‐derived smal RNAs might be 21‐, 22‐, or 24‐nt phased and could be generated from both or only one strand of mlncRNAs, or from super long hairpin structures. A ful‐length mlncRNA, termed MAR (multiple‐function‐associated mlncRNA), was cloned. It gener-ated the most abundant siRNAs. The MAR siRNAs were predominantly 24‐nt and some of them were distributed in a phased pattern. A total of 228 targets were predicted for 71 MAR siRNAs. Degradome sequencing validated 68 predicted targets involved in diverse metabolic pathways, suggesting the significance of MAR in P. ginseng. Consistently, MAR was detected in al tissues analyzed and responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. It sheds light on the function of mlncRNAs in plants.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Yeong Yu; Bo-Ra Yoon; Young-Jun Lee; Jong Seok Lee; Hee-Do Hong; Young-Chul Lee; Young-Chan Kim; Chang-Won Cho; Kyung-Tack Kim; Ok-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our results show that the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatic malondialdehyde in the HRG group were significantly lower than those of the exercise grou...

  17. LC/MS-based metabolomics strategy to assess the amelioration effects of ginseng total saponins on memory deficiency induced by simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Yue, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xi; Liu, Xin-Min; Wang, Li-Sha; Cao, Fang-Rui; Wang, Qiong; Liao, Yong-Hong; Pan, Rui-le; Chang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Microgravity-induced memory deficiency seriously affects learning and memory ability of the astronaut during spaceflight, with few effective countermeasures. Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. has been used as a nootropic herb for thousands of years in Asian countries. Saponins are recognized as its major active components. Previous studies have shown that ginseng saponins offer protection against memory deficits caused by various factors. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of their nootropic effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the memory-improving effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) on simulated microgravity hindlimb-unloaded rats using a metabolomics approach. After being exposed to a 7-days hindlimb unloading (HU), variations of plasmatic and hippocampal metabolic profiles of rats with and without GTS intervention were examined by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based untargeted metabolomics method. Subsequently, 8 hippocampal neurotransmitters were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. Finally, a LC-MS/MS based targeted metabolomics was performed to validate biomarkers found in the untargeted analysis. Besides, to support the metabolomics results, passive avoidance (PA) test, Nissl staining, and plasmatic corticosterone (CORT) levels determination were performed. The results showed that HU could lead to variations of 7 neurotransmitters and significantly different plasmatic and hippocampal metabolic profiles. GTS could restore most of the imbalanced neurotransmitters, especially glutamic acid and acetylcholine, and correct the levels of various disturbed learning and memory relevant biomarkers such as asparagine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and choline. In addition, GTS could markedly ameliorate HU-induced memory deficiency, protect hippocampal neurons from damage, and down-regulate elevated CORT levels. In conclusion, GTS exhibits memory-improving effects mainly through regulating the metabolism of amino acids

  18. Up-regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract as a Cytoprotective Effect in Human Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hana; Lee, Seung Eun; Jeong, Seong Il; Park, Cheung-Seog; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Yong Seek

    2011-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) is used worldwide as a popular traditional herbal medicine. KRG has shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. Up-regulation of a cytoprotective protein, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, is considered to augment the cellular defense against various agents that may induce cytotoxic injury. In the present study, we demonstrate that KRG water extract induces HO-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU...

  19. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  20. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.