WorldWideScience

Sample records for american ginseng root

  1. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  2. Red American Ginseng: Ginsenoside Constituents and Antiproliferative Activities of Heat-Processed Panax quinquefolius Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Ni, Ming; Wu, Ji-An; Tong, Robin; Wicks, Sheila; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Red Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used in many Oriental countries. In this study, the saponin constituents and anticancer activities of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots were evaluated. The contents of 12 ginsenosides in the roots were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the steaming treatment (100 – 120 °C for 1 h and 120 °C for 0.5 – 4 h), the quantity of 7 ginsenosides decreased and that of 5 others increase...

  3. The Yin and Yang actions of North American ginseng root in modulating the immune function of macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Charpentier Paul; Azike Chike; Hou Jirui; Pei Hua; King Lui Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Immuno-modulatory effects of ginseng, including both immuno-stimulatory and immuno-suppressive effects, have been widely reported. This study aims to determine whether the paradoxical immuno-modulatory effect is related to unique phytochemical profiles of different North American (NA) ginseng, namely aqueous (AQ) and alcoholic (ALC) extracts. Methods AQ and ALC extracts were prepared and their immuno-bioactivity were studied in vitro in murine macrophages (Raw 264.7) throu...

  4. Comprehensive analysis of Panax ginseng root transcriptomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Yun Sun; Park, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Hyun Oh; Joh, Ho Jun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a highly effective medicinal plant containing ginsenosides with various pharmacological activities, whose roots are produced commercially for crude drugs. Results Here, we used the Illumina platform to generate over 232 million RNA sequencing reads from four root samples, including whole roots from one-year-old plants and three types of root tissue from six-year-old plants (i.e., main root bodies, rhizomes, and lateral roots). Through de...

  5. Dove Stewed with American Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; MIN

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:Three doves, 10g American ginseng, 5g salt, 10g cookingwine, 30g scallion and ginger, 3g MSG, 2g white pepperpowder, 5g sesame oil arid 700g broth.Method:1. Cook the doves in boiling water for a short while, softenthe American ginseng in lukewarm water, then cut it intopieces;, mince the scallion and ginger.2. Put the doves into a clay pot, add broth, sliced Americanginseng and flavorings. Bring to the boil, then reduce heatand stew gently until the doves are tender. Remove fromheat and place on a flat plate. Sprinkle the sesame oil andserve

  6. Red notoginseng: higher ginsenoside content and stronger anticancer potential than Asian and American ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, SHI; Qi, Lian-Wen; Du, Guang-Jian; MEHENDALE, SANGEETA R.; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and anticancer activities was performed among white (air-dried) and red (steamed) roots of notoginseng (NG, Panax notoginseng), Asian ginseng (AG, P. ginseng), and American ginseng (AmG, P. quinquefolius). Chemical profiles of different ginseng species were characterized, through simultaneous quantification of nineteen major ginsenosides, by HPLC-UV at 202 nm. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer cells were dete...

  7. The Yin and Yang actions of North American ginseng root in modulating the immune function of macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charpentier Paul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immuno-modulatory effects of ginseng, including both immuno-stimulatory and immuno-suppressive effects, have been widely reported. This study aims to determine whether the paradoxical immuno-modulatory effect is related to unique phytochemical profiles of different North American (NA ginseng, namely aqueous (AQ and alcoholic (ALC extracts. Methods AQ and ALC extracts were prepared and their immuno-bioactivity were studied in vitro in murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 through measuring the direct stimulatory production of pro-inflammatory mediator and cytokines as well as the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulatory response by the two extracts. Gel permeation chromatography was used to fractionate and isolate phytochemicals for characterization of ginseng extracts. Results AQ extract up-regulated the production of nitric oxide (NO, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 while ALC extract did not. ALC extract but not AQ extract suppressed LPS-induced macrophage NO and TNF-α production. These immuno-stimulatory and suppressive effects were exhibited at similar extract concentrations. Moreover, the macrophage-stimulating activity of the AQ extract was inhibited in the presence of ALC extract. Fractionation of AQ extract revealed the presence of two major peaks at 230 nm with average molecular weights of 73,000 and 37,000 Da. The first fraction had similar elution volume as the crude polysaccharide (PS fraction isolated from the AQ extract, and it was the only bioactive species. Parallel fractionation study of ALC extract yielded similar elution profiles; however, both sub-fractions were devoid of PS. Fraction I of the ALC extract suppressed LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently. Conclusion ALC extract of NA ginseng, which was devoid of PS, was immuno-inhibitory whereas the AQ extract, which contained PS, was immuno-stimulatory. These extract-related anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory effects

  8. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, e...

  9. Chemical and pharmacological studies of saponins with a focus on American ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chun-Su; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; Wicks, Sheila M.; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) are the two most recognized ginseng botanicals. It is believed that the ginseng saponins called ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both ginsengs. Although American ginseng is not as extensively studied as Asian ginseng, it is one of the best selling herbs in the U.S., and has garnered increasing attention from scientists in recent years. In this article, after a brief introduction of the distribution an...

  10. The content and the composition of ginsenosides in different parts of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Ludwiczuk; Barbara Kołodziej; Tadeusz Wolski

    2012-01-01

    Percentage of ginsenosides in roots of American ginseng is ranged from 6.5 to 12.5%. 4-year-old roots are characterized by the highest content of ginsenosides. The highest amount of ginsenosides was found in ginseng leaves (24.8 - 37.5%). Stems and fruits of Panax quinquefolium are characterized by much lower content of saponins. Maximum level of ginsenosides, in case of leaves, stems and fruits, was observed in 4-year-old organs. The results show, that Polish ginseng for medicinal uses shoul...

  11. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2) Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Popovich, David G.; Shi Yun Yeo; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2). An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in co...

  12. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component ana...

  13. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  14. [Autotoxic effect of ginsenoside extrats on growth of American ginseng in different medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiao-lin; Bi, Xiao-bao; Zhang, Xue-song; Gao, Wei-wei

    2015-04-01

    Ginsenosides are the abundant secondary metabolites in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium), it could be released into soil through root exudation and decomposition during plant growth. This study determined ginsenoside contents in American ginseng cultivated soil by HPLC. Three ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb2 and Rd, were detected in the rhizosphere soil of 3-4 years old American ginseng cultivated in Huairou District, Beijing, and their contents were 0.80-3.19 mg x kg(-1). Correspondingly, the contents of the three ginsenosides in soil solution were 4-16 mg x L(-1) at field water-holding capacity of 20%. According to the field soil test data, we designed the concentration of ginsenosides for bioassays (0.2-125 mg x L(-1) in solution or 0.2-125 mg x kg(-1) in soil). The results showed that radicle lengths of American ginseng were reduced by 6%-23% in solution containing 0.2-125 mg x L(-1) ginsenoside extract, and a significant difference was observed at concentration of 125 mg x L(-1) (P ginseng were not significantly inhibited by 0.2-125 mg x L(-1) ginsenosides extractions. After 20 days of growth in nutrient solution amended with 25 mg x L(-1) ginsenosides extraction, plant height of 3-year-old American ginseng seedling was decreased by 28% compared to the control, and the biomass of aerial parts was also reduced by 50% (P ginseng embryos were cultivated into sterile or non-sterile soil, neither radicle lengths nor shoot lengths were significantly affected by 0.2-125 mg x kg(-1) ginsenoside extracts. In conclusion, ginsenosides showed autotoxic effect on growth of American ginseng radicle and adult seedling, however, this effect was weakened in field soil. PMID:26281575

  15. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, expression profiling was performed. Results Assemblies were generated from ∼85 million and ∼77 million high-quality reads from CP and CS cultivars, respectively. A total of 35,527 and 27,716 transcripts were obtained from the CP and CS assemblies, respectively. Annotation of the transcriptomes showed that approximately 90% of the transcripts had significant matches in public databases. We identified several candidate genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis. In addition, a large number of transcripts (17%) with different gene ontology designations were uniquely detected in adventitious roots compared to normal ginseng roots. Conclusion This study will provide a comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of ginseng adventitious roots, and a way for successful transcriptome analysis and profiling of resource plants with less genomic information. The transcriptome profiling data generated in this study are available in our newly created adventitious root transcriptome database (http://im-crop.snu.ac.kr/transdb/index.php) for public use. PMID:25379008

  16. De novo sequencing and analysis of the American ginseng root transcriptome using a GS FLX Titanium platform to discover putative genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Edmund MK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in the world. Its major bioactive constituents are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. However, little is known about ginsenoside biosynthesis in American ginseng, especially the late steps of the pathway. Results In this study, a one-quarter 454 sequencing run produced 209,747 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 427 bases. De novo assembly generated 31,088 unique sequences containing 16,592 contigs and 14,496 singletons. About 93.1% of the high-quality reads were assembled into contigs with an average 8-fold coverage. A total of 21,684 (69.8% unique sequences were annotated by a BLAST similarity search against four public sequence databases, and 4,097 of the unique sequences were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Based on the bioinformatic analysis described above, we found all of the known enzymes involved in ginsenoside backbone synthesis, starting from acetyl-CoA via the isoprenoid pathway. Additionally, a total of 150 cytochrome P450 (CYP450 and 235 glycosyltransferase unique sequences were found in the 454 cDNA library, some of which encode enzymes responsible for the conversion of the ginsenoside backbone into the various ginsenosides. Finally, one CYP450 and four UDP-glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis through a methyl jasmonate (MeJA inducibility experiment and tissue-specific expression pattern analysis based on a real-time PCR assay. Conclusions We demonstrated, with the assistance of the MeJA inducibility experiment and tissue-specific expression pattern analysis, that transcriptome analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing is a powerful tool for determining the genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in non-model plants. Additionally, the

  17. Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yea...

  18. The mitochondrial pathway is involved in American ginseng-induced apoptosis of SW-480 colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Qian-fei; MEHENDALE, SANGEETA R.; FISHBEIN, ANNA B.; HAN, AUNG H.; SUN, SHI; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    Numerous effective anticancer drugs have been developed from botanical sources, and there remains a significant untapped resource in herbal medicines. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of extracts from American ginseng after steaming, the antiproliferative effects of the ginsenosides in the extracts on SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells, and their apoptotic mechanisms. American ginseng roots were steamed at 120°C for 2 or 4 h. Representative ginsenosides in the unsteamed ...

  19. Antioxidant Protection by American Ginseng in Pancreatic ß-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Elaine; Wang, Yong; Mehendale, Sangeeta; Sun, Shi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Xie, Jing-Tian; Aung, Han H.; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2008-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic conditions may cause oxidative stress in pancreatic ß-cells, leading to their dysfunction and insulin resistance within peripheral tissues. Previous studies suggest that American ginseng berry extract may have hypoglycemic effects, as well as offer antioxidant protection. We examined effects of American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re in a pancreatic ß-cell line, MIN-6, to determine if these two properties are related. Cells were exposed to oxidative stress ...

  20. American Ginseng Acutely Regulates Contractile Function of Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao eJiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ginseng treatments have been purported to improve cardiac performance. However reports of acute administration of ginseng on cardiovascular function remain controversial and potential mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we examined effects of acute North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius administration on rat cardiac contractile function by using electrocardiogram (ECG, non-invasive blood pressure measurement (BP and Langendorff isolated, spontaneously beating, perfused heart measurements (LP. Eight-week old male Sprague Dawley rats (n= 8 per group were gavaged with a single dose of water-soluble American ginseng at 300 mg/kg body weight. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior to and at 1 and 24 hr after gavaging (ECG and BP. Additional groups were used for each time point for Langendorff measurements. Heart rate was significantly decreased (ECG: 1 hr: 6 ± 0.2%, 24 hr: 8 ± 0.3%; BP: 1 hr: 8.8 ± 0.2%, 24 hr: 13 ± 0.4% and LP: 1 hr: 22 ± 0.4%, 24 hr: 19 ± 0.4% in rats treated with water-soluble ginseng compared with pre or control measures. An initial marked decrease in left ventricular developed pressure was observed in LP hearts but blood pressure changes were not observed in BP group. A direct inhibitory effect of North American ginseng was observed on cardiac contractile function in LP rats and on fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium transient in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes when exposed to ginseng (1 µg/ml and 10 µg/ml. Collectively these data present evidence of depressed cardiac contractile function by acute administration of North American ginseng in rat. This acute reduction in cardiac contractile function appears to be intrinsic to the myocardium.

  1. The content and the composition of ginsenosides in different parts of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ludwiczuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Percentage of ginsenosides in roots of American ginseng is ranged from 6.5 to 12.5%. 4-year-old roots are characterized by the highest content of ginsenosides. The highest amount of ginsenosides was found in ginseng leaves (24.8 - 37.5%. Stems and fruits of Panax quinquefolium are characterized by much lower content of saponins. Maximum level of ginsenosides, in case of leaves, stems and fruits, was observed in 4-year-old organs. The results show, that Polish ginseng for medicinal uses should be harvested from fourth year of plant vegetation. Qualitative TLC analysis showed presence of the same ginsenosides in the same ginseng organs in different age of plants. In ginseng rots were identified 6 compounds: Rb1, Re, Rc, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2, in leaves 7: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2; in stems 6 ginsenosides: Rb1, Rc, Re, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2, instead in fruits 5 compounds: Rb2, Re, Rd, Rg1 and Rg2.

  2. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leave...

  3. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  4. The Spatial and Temporal Transcriptomic Landscapes of Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kangyu; Jiang, Shicui; Sun, Chunyu; Lin, Yanping; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yi(Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA U.K.); Zhang, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.), is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia and North America, but significantly understudied. This study sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 14 tissues and four different aged roots of Asian ginseng. A total of 265.2 million 100-bp clean reads were generated using the high-throughput sequencing platform HiSeq 2000, represen...

  5. American Ginseng Regulates Gene Expression to Protect against Premature Ovarian Failure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Xing, Nannan; Han, Dongwei; Kuang, Haixue; Ge, Pengling

    2015-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as lost ovarian functions before the age of 40. Three possible molecular markers (PLA2G4A, miR-29a, and miR-144) have been identified in our previous study by integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression profiles. The present study aimed to evaluate American ginseng root's protective potential against POF by studying transcriptional and protein variations between American ginseng treatments and controls in rats. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) was administered to rats for 14 days to induce POF. Additionally, American ginseng was administered to POF rats for one month, and PLA2G4A, miR-29a, and miR-144 expressions were measured in rat ovaries by qRT-PCR. PLA2G4A protein expression was examined by Western Blot, and PGE2, LH, FSH, and E2 serum levels were detected by ELISA. PLA2G4A mRNA and protein were downregulated in American ginseng-treated rats, miR-29a and miR-144 levels increased, and PGE2 serum levels decreased, while LH, FSH, and E2 increased compared to POF induction alone. Analysis of transcriptional and protein variations suggested that American ginseng protects the ovary against POF by regulating prostaglandin biosynthesis, ovulation, and preventing ovarian aging. High hormone levels (PGE2, FSH, and LH) were reduced, and E2 secretion approached normal levels, leading to improved POF symptoms and abnormal ovulation. PMID:25705687

  6. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  7. Metabolomic quality control of commercial Asian ginseng, and cultivated and wild American ginseng using (1)H NMR and multi-step PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiying; Xu, Jin; Ghebrezadik, Helen; Hylands, Peter J

    2015-10-10

    Ginseng, mainly Asian ginseng and American ginseng, is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world . However, the existing quality control method is not adequate: adulteration is often seen in the market. In this study, 31 batches of ginseng from Chinese stores were analyzed using (1)H NMR metabolite profiles together with multi-step principal component analysis. The most abundant metabolites, sugars, were excluded from the NMR spectra after the first principal component analysis, in order to reveal differences contributed by less abundant metabolites. For the first time, robust, distinctive and representative differences of Asian ginseng from American ginseng were found and the key metabolites responsible were identified as sucrose, glucose, arginine, choline, and 2-oxoglutarate and malate. Differences between wild and cultivated ginseng were identified as ginsenosides. A substitute cultivated American ginseng was noticed. These results demonstrated that the combination of (1)H NMR and PCA is effective in quality control of ginseng. PMID:26037159

  8. Mass spectrometric imaging of ginsenosides localization in Panax ginseng root

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Shu; Ikeda, Ryuzo; Yokota, Naohiko; OSAKA, Issey; Sakamoto, Manabu; Kato, Mitsuro; Sahashi, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in performing mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) of the localization of ginsenosides (Rb_1, Rb_2 or R_c, and Rf) in cross-sections of the Panax ginseng root at a resolution of 100 μm using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of alkali metal-adducted ginsenoside ions revealed structural information of the corresponding saccharides and agricones. MALDI-MSI confirmed that localization of ginsenosides in the cortex ...

  9. Cultivation of ginseng root cultures in various reactor systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Tampere: BBI, 2004 - (Sorvari, S.), s. 54-60 ISBN 952-99302-0-8. [International Congress on Bioreactor Technology in Cell, Tissue Culture and Biomedical Applications /1./. Tampere (FI), 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 843.10; GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk ME 671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Panax ginseng * adventitious roots * ginsenosides Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  10. Effect of boron nutrition on American ginseng in field and in nutrient cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, John T A; Shelp, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Field and nutrient cultures of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) were used to establish foliar symptoms related to boron (B) concentration in leaves and soils, and to evaluate radish as a time-saving model system for B nutrition. Application of excess B, 8 kg/ha versus the recommended 1.5 kg/ha, to field plantings of 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old American ginseng plants just prior to crop emergence caused, within 4 wk after crop emergence, leaf symptoms of chlorosis followed by necrosis starting at the tips and progressing along the margins. The B concentration in leaves of 2-4-yr-old plants receiving 1.5 kg/ha B was 30 μg/g dry mass compared to 460 μg/g dry mass where 8 kg/ha B was applied. Similarly, B concentration in soils receiving the lower B concentration was 1.8 μg/g dry mass and 2.2-2.8 μg/g dry mass where the higher B concentration was applied. Application of 8 kg/ha B reduced the dry yield of 3rd-yr roots by 20% from 2745 kg/ha to 2196 kg/ha and 4th-yr roots by 26% from 4130 kg/ha to 3071 kg/ha. Ginseng seedlings and radish were grown under greenhouse conditions in nutrient culture with four B concentrations ranging from 0 mg/L to 10 mg/L. At 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L ginseng and radish developed typical leaf B toxicity symptoms similar to those described above for field-grown plants. Increasing B in the nutrient solution from 0.5 mg/L to 10 mg/L decreased, in a linear fashion, the root and leaf dry mass of ginseng, but not radish. Given the many similarities of ginseng and radish to B utilization, radish might be used as a time-saving model system for the study of B, and other micronutrients, in the slow-growing perennial ginseng. PMID:24558314

  11. Mass culture of mountain Ginseng roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) was used in this experiments. Various concentration of lanthanide were tested to find out optimal conditions for biomass and ginsenoside contents in mountain ginseng roots. The MS basal medium with 100 μg/L lanthanide created the most optimum condition for growth of adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Batch culture with 100 μg/L lanthanide and 0.5 g (F.W) inoculation volume produced maximum final biomass of 1.89 g(F.W/flask) within 4 weeks. However, lanthanide was not effect the ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. In bioreactors, 3.23 g F.W./L of biomass were obtained when 100 μg/L lanthanide were added to the MS basal medium at 26 .deg. C

  12. Mass culture of mountain Ginseng roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ha Lim [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    An adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) was used in this experiments. Various concentration of lanthanide were tested to find out optimal conditions for biomass and ginsenoside contents in mountain ginseng roots. The MS basal medium with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide created the most optimum condition for growth of adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Batch culture with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide and 0.5 g (F.W) inoculation volume produced maximum final biomass of 1.89 g(F.W/flask) within 4 weeks. However, lanthanide was not effect the ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. In bioreactors, 3.23 g F.W./L of biomass were obtained when 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide were added to the MS basal medium at 26 .deg. C

  13. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  14. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography. PMID:27108314

  15. American ginseng suppresses inflammation and DNA damage associated with mouse colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yu; Kotakadi, Venkata S.; Ying, Lei; Hofseth, Anne B.; Cui, Xiangli; Wood, Patricia A; Windust, Anthony; Matesic, Lydia E.; Pena, Edsel A.; Chiuzan, Codruta; Singh, Narendra P.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Wargovich, Michael J.; Hofseth, Lorne J.

    2008-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. American ginseng has antioxidant properties and targets many of the players in inflammation. The aim of this study was to test whether American ginseng extract prevents and treats colitis. Colitis in mice was induced by the presence of 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water or by 1% oxazolone rectally. American ginseng extract was mixed in the chow at level...

  16. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  17. Effect of seeding depth on seedling growth and dry matter partitioning in American ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, John T. A.; Sullivan, J. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) stratified seed sown at depths of 10 to 100 mm were carried out to determine effects of seeding depth on seedling emergence, growth and development and to calculate optimum seeding depth. The time to 50% seedling emergence (E50) in the field increased linearly from 17 d at 20 mm seeding depth to 42.5 d at 80 mm. Seedling emergence and root weight (economic yield) at the end of the first year each increased quadrat...

  18. Active compounds and distinctive sensory features provided by American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) extract in a new functional milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, A; Salvador, A; Meyer, M; Feuillère, N; Ibarra, A; Roller, M; Terroba, D; Madera, C; Iglesias, J R; Echevarría, J; Fiszman, S

    2012-08-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has recognized neurocognitive effects, and a ginsenoside-rich extract of the root of the plant has been shown to improve cognitive functions in young adults. This study aimed at assessing the chemical and sensory profiles of a UHT-treated, low-lactose functional milk containing American ginseng. Individual ginsenosides in the milk were analyzed by HPLC. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel to quantitatively document sensory changes resulting from the addition of ginseng and the UHT process on flavored and unflavored milks. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated. Total ginsenoside content in the UHT-treated milk enriched with the ginseng extract after UHT process treatment was 7.52 mg/100 g of milk, corresponding to a recovery of 67.6% compared with the content in the unprocessed extract. The intake of 150 to 300 mL of this ginseng-enriched milk provides the amount of total ginsenosides (11.5 to 23 mg) necessary to improve cognitive function after its consumption. Both the presence of ginsenosides and their thermal treatment affected some sensory properties of the milk, most notably an increase in bitterness and metallic taste, the appearance of a brownish color, and a decrease in milky flavor. Levels of brown color, bitterness, and metallic taste were highest in the industrially processed ginseng-enriched milk. The bitterness attributable to ginseng extract was reduced by addition of vanilla flavor and sucralose. A consumer exploratory study revealed that a niche of consumers exists who are willing to consume this type of product. PMID:22818438

  19. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications. PMID:25706249

  20. Effects of Cultured Wild-Ginseng Root and Xylitol on Fermentation of Kimchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Jong; Sung, Jung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Chung, Heajung

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of cultured wild ginseng root (0.05%, 0.1% v/w) and xylitol in kimchi. The fermented characteristics of kimchi were investigated during 28 days of fermentation at 4°C. The pH value in the sample with the cultured wild ginseng root was higher than that of control group. The total acidity in the sugar groups (SG groups) was higher than that of xylitol groups (XG groups). Comparing total bacterial count, XG groups were lower than SG groups, regardless of the additional ratio of the cultured wild ginseng root. Reducing sugar of XG groups decreased more slowly than SG groups for seven days; glucose and fructose of XG groups were lower than the control group. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in groups with cultured wild ginseng root than in control. In the result of sensory evaluation, XG groups were more preferred than other groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that cultured wild-ginseng root and xylitol have a positive effect on the quality of kimchi, such as antimicrobial and antioxidant functions. PMID:24772409

  1. Effects of Cultured Wild-Ginseng Root and Xylitol on Fermentation of Kimchi

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kun-Jong; Sung, Jung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Chung, Heajung

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of cultured wild ginseng root (0.05%, 0.1% v/w) and xylitol in kimchi. The fermented characteristics of kimchi were investigated during 28 days of fermentation at 4°C. The pH value in the sample with the cultured wild ginseng root was higher than that of control group. The total acidity in the sugar groups (SG groups) was higher than that of xylitol groups (XG groups). Comparing total bacterial count, XG groups were lower than SG groups, regardless of the addi...

  2. [The historical conditions of introduction and diffusion of American ginseng in the Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    The American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.), originally a native product of the United States and Canada, was introduced into China in the Qing Dynasty, and then spread and applied extensively. This was closely related to the contemporary exchange between China and foreign counties, which became the cultural background for the introduction of American ginseng; the development of pharmacology, which contributed to the commercial opportunity for its diffusion; the shortage of resources of ginseng, resulting in the urgent need for its introduction; and the publication of popular books of materia medica, which accelerated the velocity of its diffusion. PMID:24774892

  3. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  4. Determination of Seven Major Ginsenosides in Different Parts of Panax quinquefolius L.(American Ginseng) with Different Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun; WANG Xiao; DING Lan; LI Juan; QU Chen-ling; CHEN Li-gang; JIN Hai-yan; ZHANG Han-qi

    2008-01-01

    Ginsenosides Rg1,Re,Rb1,Rc,Rb2,Rb3,and Rd in different parts of the American ginseng plant were investigated.The extraction process was a pressurized microwave-assisted extraction(PMAE).The seven ginsenosides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) with a ultraviolet(UV) detector,at 203 nm.The experiment results showed significant variations in the individual ginsenoside contents of the American ginseng in different parts and ages of the plant.The results demonstrated that the leaves,root hairs,and rhizomes of Panax quinquefolius L.contained higher ginsenoside contents,followed by the main roots and stems.The leaves contained dramatically higher levels of ginsenoside Rg1,Rb3,and Rd than the other four parts.Higher contents of Rb1 and Re were present in the main roots,root hairs,and rhizomes.The amount of ginsenoside content in the stems was the lowest.The total content of the seven ginsenosides in main roots,root hairs and rhizomes increased with the age of the plant.In contrast,the ginsenoside contents in the leaves and stems decreased with a year of growth.

  5. Ginseng on Hyperglycemia: Effects and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that American ginseng attenuates hyperglycemia and may present itself as a supplement to diabetes therapy. However, the lack of standardization in the usage of ginseng root leads to inconclusive results when applied to diabetes treatment. The mechanisms of American ginseng root in the treatment of diabetes remains a mystery. This greatly limits the effective utilization of American ginseng in facilitating diabetic therapy. Initiating studies have shown that American ginseng increases insulin production and reduces cell death in pancreatic β-cells. Also, studies have revealed American ginseng's ability to decrease blood glucose in type II diabetes patients as well as in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals (STZ-diabetic mice. These data suggest that effects of ginseng in improving hyperglycemia may alter mitochondrial function as well as apoptosis cascades to ensure cell viability in pancreatic islet cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge of ginseng components and clinical studies related to diabetes. Further research will be needed to explore and identify the component(s of ginseng, which may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed in animal studies which could then be extrapolated to human islets.

  6. Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Scholey, Andrew; Ossoukhova, Anastasia; Owen, Lauren; Ibarra, Alvin; Pipingas, Andrew; HE, KAN; Roller, Marc; Stough, Con

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Over the last decade, Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been shown to improve aspects of human cognitive function. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) has a distinct ginsenoside profile from P. ginseng, promising cognitive enhancing properties in preclinical studies and benefits processes linked to human cognition. Objectives The availability of a highly standardised extract of P. quinquefolius (Cereboost™) led us to evaluate its neurocognitive properties in humans for the first ...

  7. American Ginseng Berry Juice Intake Reduces Blood Glucose and Body Weight in ob/ob Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, J.T.; Wang, C.Z.; Ni, M.; Wu, J.A.; Mehendale, S.R.; Aung, H.H.; Foo, A.; Yuan, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply ...

  8. Radioprotective activity of various portions of raw ginseng roots from the three habitats in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect was compared among extracts prepared from raw ginseng roots harvested in 1981 and 1982 in Japan. The extract from xylem was more radioprotective than that from cortex and rootlet. Among the extracts from roots harvested in the three districts those of Nagano had more activity than those of the other two districts, Fukushima and Shimane. The roots from Nagano grown in loamy soil were better than those grown in clay. (author)

  9. A Nucleotide Signature for the Identification of American Ginseng and Its Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng (derived from Panax quinquefolius is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in the world. Because of its high price and increasing demand, there are many adulterants on the market. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 has been used to identify raw medicinal materials, but it is not suitable for the identification of Chinese patent medicine ingredients. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed American ginseng and its corresponding Chinese patent medicines would be profitable. In this study, 94 samples of American ginseng and Asian ginseng were collected from all over the world. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region was sequenced, and a nucleotide signature was developed based on one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP site unique to American ginseng. The nucleotide signature (atcactcctt tgcgggagtc gaggcgg consists of 27 bases over the length of the ITS2 sequence (420 bp. Furthermore, we also designed primer pairs to amplify the nucleotide signature; the specific primer pair 4F/4R has been found to be unique to the ginseng species and capable of amplifying the nucleotide signatures from Chinese patent medicines and decoctions. We used the nucleotide signature method to inspect ginseng products in Chinese patent medicines; 24 batches of Chinese patent medicine from stores in Beijing were amplified and sequenced successfully. Using the double peaks at the SNP sites of the nucleotide signature, 5 batches were found to be counterfeits, and 2 batches were found to contain adulterants. Thus, this nucleotide signature, with only 27 bp, has broadened the application of DNA barcoding in identification of decoctions, Chinese patent medicines and other ginseng products with degraded DNA. This method can rapidly identify ginseng products and could also be developed as an on-site detection method.

  10. 山参和西洋参淀粉粒微观结构研究%Microstructure research of wild ginseng and American ginseng starch granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜威; 吴平; 周凤丽; 孙亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Through the microstructure contrast of the starch granules of wild ginseng and American ginseng , to provide basis for the ginseng starch granules extraction. Methods: Starch granules of wild ginseng and American ginseng were studied with field emission scanning electron microscopy. Results: There were fewer round particles and smaller diameter for the starch granules of wild ginseng compared with that of American ginseng. Conclusion: The starch granules of wild ginseng were composed of 2 - 6 compound starch granules and they were easy to split.%目的:通过山参和西洋参淀粉粒的微观结构对比,为人参淀粉粒的提取提供依据.方法:用场发射扫描电子显微镜方法对山参和西洋参淀粉粒进行研究.结果:山参淀粉粒与西洋参淀粉粒比较后的特征是,直径小,圆形颗粒少.结论:山参淀粉粒颗粒由2个~6个淀粉复粒组成,淀粉粒容易分裂.

  11. Ethyl Acetate Extract from Tissue-Cultured Mountain Ginseng Adventitious Roots Inhibits In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Whole Human Blood and Augments Peripheral Blood Flow in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, In Sun; Kim, Seul-Ki; Jeon, Min Hwa; Jeon, Won Kyung

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in vitro anti-platelet activity of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (TCMG) ethanol extracts show improved efficacy when compared with commercial ginseng products such as Korean red ginseng and Panax ginseng. However, information on the anti-platelet activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from TCMG adventitious roots is limited. Therefore, in this study, we further investigated the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of TCMG (EA-TCMG) adventitious roots on in vitro ...

  12. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America.Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose depen...

  13. Antioxidant properties of a North American ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, D D; Wijewickreme, A N; Hu, C

    2000-01-01

    A North American ginseng extract (NAGE) containing known principle ginsenosides for Panax quinquefolius was assayed for metal chelation, affinity to scavenge DPPH-stable free radical, and peroxyl (LOO*) and hydroxyl (*OH) free radicals for the purpose of characterizing mechanisms of antioxidant activity. Dissociation constants (Kd) for NAGE to bind transition metals were in the order of Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Fe3+ and corresponded to the affinity to inhibit metal induced lipid peroxidation. In a metal-free linoleic acid emulsion, NAGE exhibited a significant (p DPPH radical scavenging activity up to a concentration of 1.6 mg/mL (r2 = 0.996). Similar results were obtained for scavenging of both site-specific and non site-specific *OH, using the deoxyribose assay method. Moreover, NAGE effectively inhibited the non site-specific DNA strand breakage caused by Fenton agents, and suppressed the Fenton induced oxidation of a 66 Kd soluble protein obtained from mouse brain over a concentration range of 2-40 mg/mL. These results indicate that NAGE exhibits effective antioxidant activity in both lipid and aqueous mediums by both chelation of metal ions and scavenging of free radicals. PMID:10724326

  14. Effect of plant growth regulators on adventitious roots of Panax ginseng

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Fišerová, Darina

    Bratislava: IPGB SAS, 2005, s. 25-27. [Final Conference COST 843 and COST 851 Joint Meeting. Stará Lesná (SK), 28.06.2005-03.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 843.10; GA ČR(CZ) GP521/02/P064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Panax ginseng * adventitious roots * growth regulators Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os

    2015-06-01

    The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and γ-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue. PMID:23406953

  16. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  17. 西洋参与人参中人参皂甙含量的比较%Comparisons of saponin contents of American ginseng, ginseng and red ginseng (prepared ginseng)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹妮; 杨力; 严永清

    2000-01-01

    采用TLC和HPLC方法分析比较西洋参(Panax quinquefolium L.)、人参(P.ginseng C.A.Mey.)及其加工品红参(red ginseng),以及不同规格的西洋参中人参皂甙的含量.结果表明,西洋参中人参皂甙总量及人参二醇型皂甙的含量明显高于人参及红参,且含有1种人参及红参中未发现的未知人参皂甙Rx,但不含人参及红参中含有的Rf;人参中人参二醇型皂甙的含量高于人参三醇型皂甙,其加工品红参则相反.生长年限是影响西洋参人参皂甙含量的主要因素,人参皂甙含量随着生长年限的增长而增加.

  18. North American ginseng protects against muscle damage and reduces neutrophil infiltration after an acute bout of downhill running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaki, Mehrbod; Noble, Earl G

    2015-02-01

    Eccentric muscle contractions such as those experienced during downhill running are associated with inflammation, delayed-onset of muscle soreness, myofiber damage, and various functional deficits. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and thus may offset some of this exercise-induced damage. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that intervention with North American ginseng would reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed (300 mg/(kg·day)(-1)) of either an alcohol (AL) or aqueous (AQ) extract of North American ginseng for 14 days before a single bout of downhill running and were compared with matching nonexercised (C) groups. Plasma creatine kinase levels were significantly reduced in both ginseng treated groups compared with the C group that received a water placebo (p exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. PMID:25531801

  19. North American ginseng influences adipocyte–macrophage crosstalk regulation of inflammatory gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Garbett, Jaime; Wilson, Sarah A.F.; Ralston, Jessica C.; Anna A. De Boer; Lui, Ed M.K.; Wright, David C.; Mutch, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adipocyte–macrophage communication plays a critical role regulating white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammatory gene expression. Because WAT inflammation contributes to the development of metabolic diseases, there is significant interest in understanding how exogenous compounds regulate the adipocyte–macrophage crosstalk. An aqueous (AQ) extract of North American (NA) ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) was previously shown to have strong inflammo-regulatory properties in adipocytes. This st...

  20. American ginseng attenuates azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunhao; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-hui; Martin, Adiba; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for this malignancy. We previously reported colon cancer chemoprevention potential using American ginseng (AG) in a xenograft mice model. However, the nude mouse model is not a gut-specific colon carcinogenesis animal model. Methods In this study, an experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, chemically induced by azoxymethane/dextran...

  1. Regulation of tissue differentiation by plant growth regulators on tTCLs of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2012), s. 154-159. ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550705; GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Adventitious roots * Panax ginseng * Ginsenosides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  2. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Ju, Han; Ki-Rok, Kwon; Bae-Chun,Cha; Oh-Man,Kwon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of lea...

  3. The complete chloroplast genome of North American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zeng-Jie; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    We report complete nucleotide sequence of the Panax quinquefolius chloroplast genome using next-generation sequencing technology. The genome size is 156 359 bp, including two inverted repeats (IRs) of 52 153 bp, separated by the large single-copy (LSC 86 184 bp) and small single-copy (SSC 18 081 bp) regions. This cp genome encodes 114 unigenes (80 protein-coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes), in which 18 are duplicated in the IR regions. Overall GC content of the genome is 38.08%. A phylogenomic analysis of the 10 complete chloroplast genomes from Araliaceae using Daucus carota from Apiaceae as outgroup showed that P. quinquefolius is closely related to the other two members of the genus Panax, P. ginseng and P. notoginseng. PMID:27158867

  4. 人参毛状根生物合成熊果苷的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of arbutin biosynthesis by hairy roots of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗建明; 赵明强; 丁家宜

    2004-01-01

    Using ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.) hairy roots as a bioreactor, exogenous hydroquinone (HQ) was added aseptically to suspension of hairy roots on 22 d. Twenty-four hours after the addition of HQ, the hairy roots were separated from the medium. Through identification of TLC and HPLC, it was proved that hydroquinone has been bioconversed into arbutin, and arbutin from hairy root of P. ginseng was isolated and identified.

  5. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  6. The effects of Ginseng Java root extract on uterine contractility in nonpregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sukwan, Catthareeya; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng Java or Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Geartn has long been used in herbal recipes because of its various therapeutic properties. Ginseng Java is believed to be beneficial to the female reproductive system by inducing lactation and restoring uterine functions after the postpartum period. There are, however, no scientific data on verifying the effects on the uterus to support its therapeutic relevance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Ginseng...

  7. Extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Flores

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras foram extraídas com metanol, e a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em banho ultrasônico. O conteúdo de ecdisterona foi determinado em Cromatógrafo Líquido de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Em ambas as espécies, um maior conteúdo de ecdisterona foi detectado nas amostras extraídas com metanol e em Soxhlet. A metodologia proposta mostrou-se eficaz para a quantificação da ecdisterona a partir das raízes de P. glomerata e P. tuberosa, podendo ser aplicada no controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e/ou fitoterápicos.This study aimed at optimizing the extraction method from ecdysterone of Brazilian ginseng. Root samples of two accessions (BRA and JB-UFSM of P. glomerata were extracted in a Soxhlet with methanol or chloroform for 4h. In the second trial, the extration was conduced in a Soxhlet or ultrasonic using metanol as a solvent. In P. tuberosa, the roots samples were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet or in ultrasonic. The ecdysterone content was determinated using high efficiency liquid chromatography methods. In both studied species, the highest ecdisterone content was detected from samples extracted in a Soxhlet and using methanol as a solvent. This extration method has been successfully applied for determination of ecdysterone content from roots of Brazilian ginseng, and could be useful for the quality control of drugs and pharmaceutical formulations.

  8. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  9. [Determination of myclobutanil 25% WG degradation dynamics in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil by HPLC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Wei; Gao, Jie; Cui, Li-Li; Xu, Yun-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determining degradation dynamics and final residues of myclobutanil 25% WG in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with primary secondary amine (PSA) solid phase extraction cartridge, separated by Kromasil Eternity-5-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) column with a gradient of acetonitrile and 0.1% formate in water as mobile phases, and analyzed with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode by employing the external standard method. The average recoveries and the relative standard derivations (RSDs) of myclobutanil at the spiked level of 0.01-0.20 mg x kg(-1) were 80.9%-90.7% and 5.54%-9.29%, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.005 mg x kg(-1). The method with good reproducible, high precision and low detection limit could meet the requirements of residual analysis on ginseng production. The half-lives of myclobutanil were from 6.25 days to 9.94 days in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil at spraying dosage of 1 152 g x hm(-2) The final residues were below 0.060 1 mg x kg(-1) in root, below 0.081 7 mg x kg(-1) in stem, 0.006 0-0.102 2 mg x kg(-1) in leaf and below 0.037 6 mg x kg(-1) in soil at spraying dosage range from 576 to 1 152 g x hm(-2). It is recommended that the MRLs of myclobutanil in dried ginseng may be suggested to be 0.10 mg x kg(-1) temporarily, and the preharvest interval was set at 35 days. PMID:25276964

  10. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  11. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of root transcriptomes from different varieties of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer grown in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Gang; Zhang, Lei; Du, YaNan; Yu, RenBo; Liu, XinMin; Cao, FangRui; Chang, Qi; Deng, XingWang; Xia, Mian; He, Hang

    2015-11-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is an important traditional herb in eastern Asia. It contains ginsenosides, which are primary bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. Although ginseng has been cultivated since at least the Ming dynasty to increase production, cultivated ginseng has lower quantities of ginsenosides and lower disease resistance than ginseng grown under natural conditions. We extracted root RNA from six varieties of fifth-year P. ginseng cultivars representing four different growth conditions, and performed Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 163,165,706 raw reads were obtained and used to generate a de novo transcriptome that consisted of 151,763 contigs (76,336 unigenes), of which 100,648 contigs (66.3%) were successfully annotated. Differential expression analysis revealed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated (246 out of 258, 95.3%) in ginseng grown under natural conditions compared with that grown under artificial conditions. These DEGs were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms including response to stimuli and localization. In particular, some key ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes, including HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS), mevalonate kinase (MVK), and squalene epoxidase (SE), were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. Moreover, a high proportion of disease resistance-related genes were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. This study is the first transcriptome analysis to compare wild-grown and cultivated ginseng, and identifies genes that may produce higher ginsenoside content and better disease resistance in the wild; these genes may have the potential to improve cultivated ginseng grown in artificial environments. PMID:26563176

  12. Structure Analysis of Pectin SB1-1 from the Root of Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Mei-hong; WEI Min; ZHANG Li-ping; LIANG Zhong-yan

    2005-01-01

    A water-soluble pectin SB1-1 was isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. The HPLC analysis indicates that SB1-1 is homogenous. Its molecular weight was estimated via gel filtration to be 10000. The GC analysis indicated that it contains the monosaccharides of GalA, Gal, Ara and Rha. Their molar ratio is 2.10∶1.00∶0.12∶0.13. Partial hydrolysis with acid, pectinase treatment, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analyses, GC/MS analyses and NMR analyses were used for the structure analyses of SB1-1. The results reveal that SB1-1 has a lower branched structure. The main chain is composed of GalA and Gal; the inner part is α-1,4-linked-GalA; the border is 1,4-linked-Gal. Some of the 1,4-linked-GalA and 1,4-linked-Gal residues are substituted at O6. On an average, there is one branch for every ten hexose residues. The side chain is composed of 1,6-linked-Gal and 1,3,6-linked-Gal. The nonreduced end is composed of Rha, Ara and Gal. The main glycosidic link of SB1-1 has an α configuration.

  13. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... season might prevent cold or flu symptoms in adults between the ages of 18 and 65. People ... loss. Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. ...

  14. A key role of microRNA-29b for the suppression of colon cancer cell migration by American ginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Poudyal

    Full Text Available Metastasis of colon cancer cells increases the risk of colon cancer mortality. We have recently shown that American ginseng prevents colon cancer, and a Hexane extract of American Ginseng (HAG has particularly potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Dysregulated microRNA (miR expression has been observed in several disease conditions including colon cancer. Using global miR expression profiling, we observed increased miR-29b in colon cancer cells following exposure to HAG. Since miR-29b plays a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells, we hypothesized that HAG induces miR-29b expression to target matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 thereby suppressing the migration of colon cancer cells. Results are consistent with this hypothesis. Our study supports the understanding that targeting MMP-2 by miR-29b is a mechanism by which HAG suppresses the migration of colon cancer cells.

  15. The effect of irrigation and foliar fertilization on the colonization of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium l. diseased parts by different micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pastucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on the health of American ginseng cultivated in the Lublin district on poor sandy soil were conducted in the years 2004-2006. The studies involved treatment combinations with irrigation and without irrigation as well as foliar fertilization with Alkalin PK and Resistim of American ginseng plants. Mycological analysis was made of diseased ginseng parts with the aim of determining the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi-like organisms and fungi threatening the cultivation of this plant. Fungi from the genera of Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and the following species Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, as well as fungi-like organisms: Pythium irregulare and Phytophthora sp., were isolated from the infected parts of ginseng. The smallest number of fungi was isolated from the plants growing on the plots without irrigation and those where foliar application with Alkalin PK was applied.

  16. Ginseng, Siberian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... simplex 2 (HSV-2). Taking a specific Siberian ginseng extract, standardized to contain a specific ginseng ingredient called ... MOUTH: For herpes simplex type 2 infections: Siberian ginseng extract standardized to contain eleutheroside E 0.3% in ...

  17. (1)H-NMR-based discrimination of thermal and vinegar treated ginseng roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the changes in nonvolatile metabolites of thermal and/or vinegar treated ginseng (TVG), samples prepared using various treatment conditions were analyzed using an (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics technique. The processing conditions of the ginseng in this study were 100, 140, and 180 degrees C with and without vinegar and the duration of exposure to each temperature was 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively. There was a clear separation in the score plots among various treatment conditions. Major compounds contributing to the separation of 50% methanol extracts of TVG with various process conditions were valine, lactate, alanine, arginine, glucose, fructose, and sucrose. As temperature increased, valine, arginine, glucose, fructose, and sucrose concentrations decreased, whereas lactate, glucose, and fructose increased in the vinegar-treated samples compared to non-vinegar-treated samples. The present study suggests the usefulness of an (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics approach to discriminate TVG samples, subjected to different processing conditions. PMID:20722913

  18. North American (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Kuhle; Tamara Durec; Jennifer Krebs Seida

    2011-01-01

    Background: Standardized ginseng extract has become the best-selling cold and flu remedy in Canada, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of ginseng in preventing common colds remains. Objective: To assess the efficacy of ginseng preparations for the prevention of common colds in healthy adults. Methods: Comprehensive bibliographic database, trial registry and grey literature searches were conducted up to December 2007. Randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparin...

  19. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chen Hsu; Min-Chen Ho; Li-Chin Lin; Borcherng Su; Mei-Chich Hsu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium) supplementation was able to improve endurance exercise performance.METHODS: Thirteen physically active male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo)and received supplementation for 4 wk, before the exhaustive running exercise. Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80% VO2max of the subject. A 4-wk washout period followed before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate supplement for the next 4 wk.They then completed a second exhaustive running exercise. The physiological variables that were examined included time to exhaustion and oxygen pulse. Moreover,the plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured prior to the exercise, at 15 and 30 min during exercise,immediately after exercise, and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after exercise.RESULTS: The major finding of this investigation was that the production plasma CK during the exercise significantly decreased for group AG than for group P. Secondary physiological finding was that 80% VO2max running was not improved over a 4-wk AG supplementation regimen.CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity. The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high-intensity treadmill run.

  20. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  1. Chemoprevention of chemical-induced skin cancer by Panax ginseng root extract

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Jyoti; Pradeep K. Goyal

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticanc...

  2. Cultivation of ginseng root cultures in different bioreactors and production of both biomass and ginsenosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Tampere, 2003, s. 8. [International Congress on Bioreactor Technology in Cell, Tissue Culture and Biomedical Applications /1./. Tampere (FI), 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  3. Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginseng and other botanical roots by immunoaffinity column cleanup and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Oles, Carolyn; D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Rader, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds and are common contaminants of many important food crops, such as grains, nuts, and spices. Some mycotoxins are found in fruits, vegetables, and botanical roots. These contaminants have a broad range of toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. The public health concerns related to both acute and chronic effects of mycotoxins in animals have prompted more than 100 countries to establish regulatory limits for some of the well-known mycotoxins, such as the aflatoxins (AFL). Our research focused on method development for 2 of these toxins, AFL and ochratoxin A (OTA), in ginseng and other selected botanical roots. Methods using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation, and fluorescence detection were modified and evaluated. Two types of IAC cleanup were evaluated: IAC for AFL, and IAC for both AFL and OTA. Three derivatization techniques to enhance the fluorescence of the AFL were compared: precolumn trifluoroacetic acid, postcolumn bromination, and postcolumn ultraviolet irradiation. No derivatization was needed for OTA. Results for AFL using the single analyte IAC cleanup and the 3 derivatization techniques were all comparable for ginseng and for other roots such as ginger, licorice, and kava-kava. Recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at levels from 2 to 16 ng/g were about 80%. Using IAC cleanup for both AFL and OTA recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at 4-16 ng/g were about 70%, and for ginger, licorice, and kava-kava were about 60%. Recoveries of added OTA for ginseng, ginger, and echinacea at 4 ng/g were about 55%. PMID:16792061

  4. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides. PMID:27171066

  5. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Jingtian; Peng Dacheng; Wang Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysa...

  6. American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L.) Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Iva Mucalo; Elena Jovanovski; Vladimir Vuksan; Velimir Božikov; Željko Romić; Dario Rahelić

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The objective of the present study was to test the safety of supplementation with the American ginseng (AG) interventional material as an adjunct to conventional therapy (diet and/or medications) in type 2 diabetes, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. ----- Methods. Each participant received either AG (10% ginsenosides) or placebo capsules (500 mg/meal = 3 g/day) for a period of 12 weeks. Outcomes included measures of safety including kidney function (u...

  7. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production. PMID:27068520

  8. Ginseng, a traditional herbal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ginseng is a root vegetable whose shape resembles the human body, and its name (pronounced "insam" in Korean) contains the Chinese characters for "man". Korean ginseng is also known by the names of Korea's last two royal dynasties: Goryeo and Joseon. Its scientific name is "Panax Ginseng C.A.Meyer, " panax being a composite term formed from the Greek words pan (all) and axos (medicine), which also give us the English word "panacea". Although Korean ginseng belongs to the same botanical genus as the product ...

  9. Identification of ginsenosides in roots of Panax ginseng by HPLC-APCI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Qiong; Liang, Xin-Miao; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2005-01-01

    A new HPLC-APCI/MS method for the identification of ginsenosides has been developed. The analyses were performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using a binary eluent (acetonitrile and water) under gradient conditions. Although APCI is a high-temperature evaporative process, HPLC-APCI/MS could effectively identify thermo-labile ginsenosides. The [M-H]- ions and the thermal degradation ions of ginsenosides could be clearly observed under negative and positive ion conditions, respectively, and these were used to identify the molecular masses, the aglycone structures and the sugar groups of ginsenosides. APCI/MS can provide more explicit information than ESI/MS for identifying and distinguishing ginsenosides. Using the HPLC-APCI/MS method, 35 ginsenosides were identified in Panax ginseng. PMID:15997851

  10. Panax ginseng C.A Meyer root extract for moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD impairs quality of life and leads to premature mortality. COPD sufferers experience progressive deterioration of lung function and decreased ability to undertake day-to-day activities. Ginseng has been used for thousands of years in Chinese medicine for respiratory symptoms. Several controlled clinical trials using ginseng for COPD have shown promising clinical effect, however these studies were generally small and with some potential bias, prompting the need for rigorously designed studies. Aim The objective of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic value and safety profile of a standardised root extract of Panax ginseng C.A Meyer (ginseng for symptomatic relief, with a focus on quality of life (QoL improvements in individuals with moderate (Stage II COPD FEV1/FVC 1 50% - 80% predicted. Methods This paper describes the design of a randomised, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo controlled, two-armed parallel clinical trial. Two trial sites in Melbourne Australia will proportionately randomise a total of 168 participants to receive either ginseng capsule (100 mg or matching placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcomes will be based on three validated QoL questionnaires, St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT. Secondary outcomes are based on lung function testing, relief medication usage and exacerbation frequency and severity. Safety endpoints include blood tests and adverse event reporting. Intention-to-treat will be applied to all data analyses. Discussion Findings from this study may lead to new therapeutic development for chronic respiratory diseases, particularly COPD. This protocol may also guide other investigators to develop quality herbal medicine clinical trials in the future. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000768099

  11. The development of a green approach for the biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by using Panax ginseng root extract, and their biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-06-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received attention because of the development of economic and environmentally friendly technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The study develops a convenient method for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by utilizing fresh root extract of the four-year old Panax ginseng plant, and evaluated the antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles against pathogenic microorganisms. P. ginseng is a well-known herbal medicinal plant, and its active ingredients are mainly ginsenosides. The fresh root of the 4 year old P. ginseng plant has been explored for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles without the use of any additional reducing and capping agents. The reduction of silver nitrate led to the formation of silver nanoparticles within 2 h of reaction at 80°C. The gold nanoparticles were also successfully synthesized by the reduction of auric acid at 80°C, within 5 min of reaction. The biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles were characterized by techniques using various instruments, viz. ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis spectroscopy), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), elemental mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the silver nanoparticles have shown antimicrobial potential against Bacillus anthracis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus. PMID:25771716

  12. Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yeonmi Lee; Kyoung-Tack Kim; Sung Soo Kim; Jinyoung Hur; Sang Keun Ha; Chang-Won Cho; Sang Yoon Choi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory...

  13. American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L. Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Mucalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of the present study was to test the safety of supplementation with the American ginseng (AG interventional material as an adjunct to conventional therapy (diet and/or medications in type 2 diabetes, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. Methods. Each participant received either AG (10% ginsenosides or placebo capsules (500 mg/meal = 3 g/day for a period of 12 weeks. Outcomes included measures of safety including kidney function (urates and creatinine, liver function (AST and ALT, and haemostatic function (PV and INR. Results. Seventy-four participants with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (sex: 28 M and 46 F, age: 63 ± 9.5, BMI: 32 ± 5, and HbA1c: 7 ± 1.3, randomized to either intervention (n=35 or control (n=39 group, completed the study. There was no change in any of the measures of safety between treatments from baseline. The number or severity of adverse events did not differ between the AG intervention and placebo. Conclusion. Following 12 weeks of supplementation with AG, safety was not compromised in a high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes. This demonstrated that safety is noteworthy, as reviews have continuously warned of possible adverse effects of ginseng consumption.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Methyl Jasmonate-Elicited Panax ginseng Adventitious Roots to Discover Putative Ginsenoside Biosynthesis and Transport Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer belonging to the Araliaceae has long been used as an herbal medicine. Although public databases are presently available for this family, no methyl jasmonate (MeJA elicited transcriptomic information was previously reported on this species, with the exception of a few expressed sequence tags (ESTs using the traditional Sanger method. Here, approximately 53 million clean reads of adventitious root transcriptome were separately filtered via Illumina HiSeq™2000 from two samples treated with MeJA (Pg-MeJA and equal volumes of solvent, ethanol (Pg-Con. Jointly, a total of 71,095 all-unigenes from both samples were assembled and annotated, and based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 56,668 unigenes was obtained. Out of these annotated unigenes, 54,920 were assigned to the NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr database, 35,448 to the Swiss-prot database, 43,051 to gene ontology (GO, and 19,986 to clusters of orthologous groups (COG. Searching in the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway database indicated that 32,200 unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Moreover, we obtained several genes showing a wide range of expression levels. We also identified a total of 749 ginsenoside biosynthetic enzyme genes and 12 promising pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR genes related to ginsenoside transport.

  15. Structural Analysis of an Oligosaccharide and Glycopeptide Mixture from Panax Ginseng Root with Inhibition SHP-1 Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; GAO Qi-pin; LI Gui-rong; CHEN Ying-hong; LUO Hao-ming; GAO Yang; JIANG Rui-zhi

    2011-01-01

    A mixture of oligosaccharide and glycopeptide was isolated from the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng roots.The mixture inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase(SHP-1)function,implying it enhances immune activity.The peak molecular mass of the oligosaccharide portion is 1800 calculated via GPC software after separation by HPLC.And the structure of the oligosaccharide portion is the backbone of(1→3)-and(1→4)-linked arabinopyranoside,and (1→4)-and(l→6)-linked glucopyranoside,with non-reducing terminals of arabinopyranoside and glucopyranoside.The peak molecular mass of glycopeptide portion is 1900 calculated via GPC software after separation by HPLC. The structure of glycopeptide portion is the backbone of(1→3)-and(1→4)-linked arabinopyranoside,and (l→3,6)-linked glucopyranoside,with non-reducing terminals of galactopyranose and glucopyranoside.The peptide composition is Glu,Asp,Hyp,Ser,Arg,Gly,Thr,Pro,Ala,Val,lle,Leu and Lys.The oligosaccharide-peptide linkage is formed by Ara and Hyp.

  16. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... and site visits. On August 30, 2011, AMS published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 53875... ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), but not to wild ginseng. The U.S. Premium... the main root, including any portion growing off the main root that is too large to be a prong....

  17. Enraizamento e germinação na propagação de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro Rooting and germination in propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2009-10-01

    first experiment was in factorial design 2 (light levels x 6 (pre-soak treatment in 4 repetitions of 20 seeds per repetition. The second in ERD in 5 treatments, 4 repetitions of 15 cuttings per repetition. Brazilian Ginseng seeds need pre-soak treatment to accelerate germination. We found immersion in KNO3 the most efficient method, providing 63% germination. They presented neuter photoblastism with an average germination of 45%. The Brazilian Ginseng cuttings immersed in water presented 100% rooting, a higher number of sprouts (2,5, and greater length (8,6 cm. The species presents potential for both propagation methods.

  18. Cultivation of root cultures of Panax ginseng in different bioreactors and in temporary immersion - Comparison of growth and saponin production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, Tomáš; Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2005 - (Hvoslef-Eide, A.; Preil, W.), 539-546 ISBN 1-4020-3199-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 843.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bioreactor * saponin * Panax ginseng Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  19. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction Process of Polysaccharides from American Ginseng and Evaluation of Its Immunostimulating Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-shi; WANG Li-jun; DONG Chuan; Edmund Man King Lui; REN Gui-xing

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of American ginseng polysaccharides (AGP) was investigated using response surface methodology. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the ultrasonic power, extraction time and ratio of water to raw material to obtain a high AGP yield. The analysis of variance and response surface plots indicated that ultrasonic power was the most important factor affecting the extraction yield. The optimal conditions were ultrasonic power 400 W, extraction time 71 min, and ratio of water to raw material 33 mL g-1. Under these conditions, the yield of AGP was 8.09%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that AGP was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, and galacturonic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of AGP. In addition, AGP exhibited good immunostimulating activities by up-regulating the production of nitric oxide and cytokines. Compared with hot water extraction, UAE required shorter extraction time and gave a higher extraction yield, without changing the structure and immunostimulating activity of AGP. The results indicated that UAE could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides.

  20. Cereboost™, an American ginseng extract, improves cognitive function via up-regulation of choline acetyltransferase expression and neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyungha; Guo, Haiyu; Cha, Yeseul; Ban, Young-Hwan; Seo, Da Woom; Choi, Youngjin; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Jong-Choon; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Yon, Jung-Min; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-07-01

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides induce the degeneration of presynaptic cholinergic system, in which decreased activity of enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is observed. Cereboost™, an extract of American ginseng extract, contains a high concentration of Rb1 ginsenoside which is a well-known ingredient improving human cognitive function. We investigated the effects of Cereboost™ on learning and memory function of mice challenged with an Aβ1-42 peptide and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Cereboost™ protected against Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity in F3.ChAT stem cells, and enhanced the ChAT gene expression. Aβ1-42 injection into the mouse brain impaired the cognitive function, which was recovered by oral administration of Cereboost™. In addition, Cereboost™ restored brain microtubule-associated protein 2 and synaptophysin as well as acetylcholine concentration. The results demonstrate that Cereboost™ administration recovered the cognitive function of AD model animals by enhancing acetylcholine level via ChAT gene expression and neuroprotection. PMID:27112419

  1. A Limited Role of p53 on the Ability of a Hexane Fraction of American Ginseng to Suppress Mouse Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Poudyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is debilitating and carries a high colon cancer risk. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a key mechanism regulating UC. We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG, and to a greater extent, a Hexane fraction of AG (HAG can cause apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis through a p53-mediated mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HAG suppresses colitis through a p53 mechanism. We found only a limited impact of p53 in the ability of HAG to induce inflammatory cell apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we asked whether HAG could cause cell cycle arrest of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, HAG caused a G1 arrest of such cells independent of p53 status. Findings are significant because HAG suppresses colitis and associated colon cancer, and mutation in p53 is observed in most colitis-driven colon cancers. Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53−/− and WT p53 colon cancer cells.

  2. Taste threshold of Panax ginseng (C.A. Meyer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginseng has been used for centuries in Asian folk medicine. While made up of hundreds of compounds, it has long been regarded that ginseng saponins (gensenosides) are responsible for ginseng’s pharmacological properties. Most Americans find the taste of ginseng to be unappealing; therefore, the conc...

  3. The absorption distribution and utilization of N in different nitrogen forms by american ginsengs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NH4+ and NO3- uptake by 2,3,4-year old Panax quinquefolium and their distribution in the plants were studied with 15N tracer in both soil and water cultures. The results showed that P. quinquefolium can absorb both NH4+ and NO3- from sprouting stage to leaf expansion stage, but the absorbing capacity for NH4+ was twice as that for NO3-, and during this period more fertilizer was distributed in stem and leaves than in roots. During the stage of root growth, however, the plants absorbed the both forms of fertilizer well, and more fertilizer was distributed in root than in stem and leaves. Of the total nitrogen content absorbed by P. quinquefolium cultured in soil, more than 80% was from soil, about 5% was from fertilizer, and the rest was from original root. It is concluded that improving fertility of soil and culturing strong root are keys to improve yield and quality of P. quinquefolium

  4. Detection of Adulteration of Notoginseng Root Extract with Other Panax Species by Quantitative HPLC Coupled with PCA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Ni, Ming; Sun, Shi; Li, Xiao-Li; He, Hui; Mehendale, Sangeeta R; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    To distinguish the extract of notoginseng root from that of other species in the genus Panax, we used reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a principal component analysis (PCA) method. The content of 12 saponins in notoginseng root extracts from different sources was evaluated. Herbal extracts from different plant parts of notoginseng, Asian ginseng, and American ginseng were also evaluated. With an HPLC assay, however, it is difficult to determine whether n...

  5. Roots of Contemporary Native American Activism. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy R.

    1996-01-01

    Traces the foundations and development of Native American activism, 1950s-90s. Discusses relocation of reservation American Indians to urban areas in the 1950s without promised aid or vocational training, changing aspirations of Indian veterans and college students, lessons of the civil rights movement, occupations of Alcatraz Island and Wounded…

  6. Substrate specificity of β-glucosidase from Gordonia terrae for ginsenosides and its application in the production of ginsenosides Rg₃, Rg₂, and Rh₁ from ginseng root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Hye-Ji; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-05-01

    A β-glucosidase from Gordonia terrae was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme with a specific activity of 16.4 U/mg for ginsenoside Rb1 was purified using His-trap chromatography. The purified enzyme specifically hydrolyzed the glucopyranosides at the C-20 position in protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides and hydrolyzed the glucopyranoside at the C-6 or C-20 position in protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides. The reaction conditions for the high-level production of Rg3 from Rb1 by the enzyme were pH 6.5, 30°C, 20 mg/ml enzyme, and 4 mg/ml Rb1. Under these conditions, G. terrae β-glucosidase completely converted Rb1 and Re to Rg3 and Rg2, respectively, after 2.5 and 8 h, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme converted Rg1 to Rh1 at 1 h with a molar conversion yield of 82%. The enzyme at 10 mg/ml produced 1.16 mg/ml Rg3, 1.47 mg/ml Rg2, and 1.17 mg/ml Rh1 from Rb1, Re, and Rg1, respectively, in 10% (w/v) ginseng root extract at pH 6.5 and 30°C after 33 h with molar conversion yields of 100%, 100%, and 77%, respectively. The combined molar conversion yield of Rg2, Rg3, and Rh1 from total ginsenosides in 10% (w/v) ginseng root extract was 68%. These above results suggest that this enzyme is useful for the production of ginsenosides Rg3, Rg2, and Rh1. PMID:25457989

  7. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jingtian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems. In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem.

  8. Proteome analysis of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins extracted from hairy root, main root and leaf of Panax ginseng were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and protein spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and ESI-Q TOF Mass Spectrometry. 2D profiles from each tissue were different and about 2,000 protein spots were detected on silver stained 2D gel. 49 major protein spots from hairy root were used for identification. Interestingly, because the genomic database of ginseng was not established yet, only 3 protein spots (superoxide dismutase, ribonuclease 1 and ribonuclease 2) were identified from ginseng sequence data and internal amino acid sequence of 12 protein spot has no significant homology. However 32 protein spots were identified using database of other plant organism such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. From this experimental approach using the EST data of Panax ginseng, which are being under construction, we are trying to understand the proteome of Panax ginseng

  9. The Roots of American Religious Liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Haynes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available From the colonial era to the present, religions and religious beliefs have played a significant role in the political life of the United States. Religion has been at the heart of some of the best and some of the worst movements in American history. The guiding principles that the framers intended to govern the relationship between religion and politics are set forth in Article VI of the Constitution and in the opening sixteen words of the First Amendment.

  10. LC-MS-MS法测定参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc含量%Simultaneous Quantitation of Rb1, Rb2 and Rc in Ginseng Tail and the Main Root of Ginseng by LC-MS-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫寒; 赵松岩; 刘运嘉; 吴睿凡; 范斌; 郭娜; 彭娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method to determine the content-of ginsengnoside Rb1, Rb2 and Rc in ginseng tail and the main root of ginseng by using HPLC-MS-MS. Method: C18 HPLC column was used in the system including HPLC-MS-MS with a gradient elution program. The mobile phase was consisted of; A for water (0. 05% FA) , B for acetonitrile, A: B =65: 35; gradient elution program was as follows; 0-3 min, 65% ( B) ; 3-4 min, 100% (B). The flow rate was 0.35 mL·min-1; column temperature was kept at 40℃. Result: Simultaneous quantitation of ginsengnoside Rb1, Rb2 and Rc in ginseng tail and the main root of ginseng by HPLC-MS-MS was developed. Conclusion; The method is accurate, convenient and rapid, which can be applied for the quality control of ginseng tail and the main root of ginseng.%目的:建立检测参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc的LC-MS-MS方法.方法:应用液质联用,C18色谱柱系统,采用梯度洗脱方法,A-水(0.05%FA),B-乙腈,A-B=65∶35,梯度洗脱(0~3 min,65% B;3 ~4 min,100%B),流速0.35mL·min-1,柱温40℃,建立了参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc含量测定方法并进行了方法学考察.结果:建立了同时检测参体和参须中人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rc含量测定方法.结论:该方法准确、简便、快速,可用于参体和参须的质量控制.

  11. Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Review of Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art. Dale Rosengarten, Theodore Rosengarten, and Enid Schildkrout, eds. 2008. Museum for African Art, New York. Distributed by University of Washington Press, Seattle. Pp. 269, copiously illustrated in black-and-white and color. ISBN (cloth) 978-0-945802-50-1, (paper) 978-0-945802-51-8.

  12. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.68 How can I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in...

  13. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KS; Park, CW; Kim, CK; Jeon, HY; Kim, WG; Lee, SJ; Kim, YM; Lee, JY; Choi, YD

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED), and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus, we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study. As a comparative control, the results were com...

  14. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterol and triterpene in hairy root cultures of Platycodon grandiflorum by overexpression of Panax ginseng 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Kyoung; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Soo-Un; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-27

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway. To elucidate the functions of HMGR in triterpene biosynthesis, Platycodon grandiflorum was transformed with a construct expressing Panax ginseng HMGR (PgHMGR). We used PCR analysis to select transformed hairy root lines and selected six lines for further investigation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed higher expression levels of HMGR and total platycoside levels (1.5-2.5-fold increase) in transgenic lines than in controls. Phytosterols levels were also 1.1-1.6-fold higher in transgenic lines than in controls. Among these lines, line T7 produced the highest level of total platycosides (1.60 ± 0.2 mg g(-1) dry weight) and α-spinasterol (1.78 ± 0.16 mg g(-1) dry weight). These results suggest that metabolic engineering of P. grandiflorum by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation may enhance production of phytosterols and triterpenoids. PMID:23298228

  15. Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonmi Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory effect and analyzed their effects on melanin production in melan-a-cells. Results: Ethanol extract of ginseng seed was applied to melan-a-cells at a concentration of 100 ppm and melanin production was reduced by 35.1% without cytotoxicity. In addition, the ethanol extract of ginseng seed was shown to reduce tyrosinase activity. Conclusion: Because the results showed excellent melanin inhibitory activity compared with that obtained by arbutin, ethanol extracts of ginseng leaf and ginseng root at the same concentration, it can be concluded that ginseng seeds show great potential as a skin depigmenting substance.

  16. An Edible Gintonin Preparation from Ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Tae-Joon; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung Hee; Kang, Jiyeon; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Park, Chan-Woo; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is one of the oldest herbal medicines. It has a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. Recently, we isolated a subset of glycolipoproteins that we designated gintonin, and demonstrated that it induced transient change in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cells via G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway(s). The previous method for gintonin isolation included multiple steps using methanol, butanol, and other organic solvent...

  17. Variation of Ginsenosides in Ginseng of Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Luo, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Mu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Panax ginseng has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, the major chemical components of the roots, are considered to be responsible for the medicinal properties of ginseng. Ginsenosides increase with the age of ginseng root in general knowledge, and in this study the content of ginsenosides in ginseng of different ages was quantified. Separation and determination of eight main ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd, was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 203 nm. The content of Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2 and Rd increased from 5 to 16-year-old ginseng and then decreased, while Rb2 and Rb3 increased in the range of 5-12 years, but then slowly decreased. However, the total eight ginsenosides in 16 year old ginseng had a higher content than that in any other from 5-18 years old. As a result, the content of ginsenosides and total ginsenosides was not positively related to age from 5-18 years, which is not in full agreement with the general knowledge of ginseng. Thus, this study suggests that the older wild ginseng may not result in better medicinal ginseng for herbal medicines. PMID:27534105

  18. Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Myung; Bae, Bong-Seok; Park, Hee-Weon; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Cho, Byung-Gu; Cho, Yong-Lae; Kwak, Yi-Seong

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction (90(°)C for 14-16 h) and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70-73 Brix at 50-60(°)C). The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG) is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0-1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5-7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development. PMID:26869832

  19. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Maxleene Sandasi; Ilze Vermaak; Weiyang Chen; Alvaro Viljoen

    2016-01-01

    The name “ginseng” is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng) and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spec...

  20. [Simultaneous analysis of ginsenosides of various ginseng radix by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samukawa, K; Yamashita, H; Matsuda, H; Kubo, M

    1995-03-01

    A simultaneous analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng by high performance liquid chromatography recently established by us was applied to the analysis of various Ginseng Radix. The contents of ginsenosides in P. ginseng were examined according to the differences of the growth year, the used part of the plant, the method of processing and the cultivated location. In the case of P. ginseng cultivated in Nagano, Japan, the ratio (total ginsenosides content/total dry root weight) increases annually for three years. And it decreased at the fourth year and increases again at the fifth and the sixth years. Concerning the distribution of ginsenosides in the parts of the plant, they were contained at the highest level in a lateral root and in succession, in a rhizome > in a root hair > in a main root. They were also distributed much richer at periderm than at phloem or at xylem of a main root. The contents of panaxadiol- and panaxatriol-saponins gradually increase with the growth year, whereas an oleananesaponin, ginsenoside-Ro, drastically increases at the sixth year and goes to 15-fold, which suggests that the content of ginsenoside-Ro needs to be estimated much more when Ginseng Radix is evaluated. The fact that the processing for preparation of Red Ginseng increases the total content of saponins was clearly revealed by the present study. The highest contents of saponins among Red Ginsengs (all 6-year-old) were observed in ones prepared in Korea, and in Japan > in China, successively. PMID:7738782

  1. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fung...

  2. Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Myung; Bae, Bong-Seok; Park, Hee-Weon; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Cho, Byung-Gu; Cho, Yong-Lae; Kwak, Yi-Seong

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine ro...

  3. Tissue-Specific Distribution of Ginsenosides in Different Aged Ginseng and Antioxidant Activity of Ginseng Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chun Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of the cultivation year on the quality of different ginseng tissues. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of ginsenosides were conducted using a UPLC-UV-MS method. Eight main ginsenosides in three tissues (leaf, rhizome and main root and four parts (periderm, phloem, cambium and xylem of ginseng aged from 1 to 13 years were determined using a UPLC-PDA method. Additionally, the antioxidant capacities of ginseng leaves were analyzed by the DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods. It was found that the contents of ginsenosides increased with cultivation years, causing a sequential content change of ginsenosides in an organ-specific manner: leaf > rhizome > main root. The ratio between protopanaxatriol (PPT, Rg1, Re and RF and protopanaxadiol (PPD, Rb1, Rb2, RC and Rd in the main root remained stable (about 1.0, while it increased in leaf from 1.37 to 3.14 and decreased in the rhizome from 0.99 to 0.72. The amount of ginsenosides accumulated in the periderm was 45.48 mg/g, which was more than twice as high compared with the other three parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of ginseng leaves were measured as Trolox equivalents, showing that antioxidant activity increased along with time of cultivation. The results show that the best harvest time for shizhu ginseng is the fifth year of cultivation, and the root and rhizome could be used together within seven planting years for their similar PPT/PPD level. Besides, the quality of the ginseng products would be enhanced with the periderm. The ginseng leaf is rich in ginsenosides and has potential application for its antioxidant capacity.

  4. Differentiation and authentication of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and ginseng products by using HPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T W; But, P P; Cheng, S W; Kwok, I M; Lau, F W; Xu, H X

    2000-03-15

    An LC/MS-based method is established for the differentiation and authentication of specimens and commercial samples of Panax ginseng (Oriental ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). This method is based on the separation of ginsenosides present in the ginseng methanolic extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by detection with electrospray mass spectrometry. Differentiation of ginsenosides is achieved through simultaneous detection of intact ginsenoside molecular ions and the ions of their characteristic thermal degradation products. An important parameter used for differentiating P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius is the presence of ginsenoside Rf and 24-(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11 in the RICs of Oriental and American ginsengs, respectively. It is important to stress that ginsenoside Rf and 24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11, which possess the same molecular weight and were found to have similar retention times under most LC conditions, can be unambiguously distinguished in the present HPLC/MS method. The method developed is robust, reliable, reproducible, and highly sensitive down to the nanogram level. PMID:10740871

  5. An approach for simultaneous determination for geographical origins of Korean Panax ginseng by UPLC-QTOF/MS coupled with OPLS-DA models

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Doo-Young; Woo, Soyeun; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the origins of Panax ginseng has been issued in Korea scientifically and economically. We describe a metabolomics approach used for discrimination and prediction of ginseng roots from different origins in Korea. The fresh ginseng roots from six ginseng cooperative associations (Gangwon, Gaeseong, Punggi, Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, and Anseong) were analyzed by UPLC-MS-based approach combined with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis multivariate analysis....

  6. HPLC法测定人参毛状根及不同人参样品中9种人参皂苷的含量%Quantitation of nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng hairy roots and other Panax ginseng plant components by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泠; 李春艳; 王政; 贾敏; 韩婷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the quantitation of nine ginsenosides (Rc ,Rb1 ,Rb2 ,Re ,Rd , Rg1 ,Rg2 ,Rg3 and Rh2 ) in Panax ginseng samples .Methods An HPLC method was developed to determine the quantities of the nine ginsenosides .The determination was performed on a Zorbax SB C18 column (4 .6 mm × 250 mm ,5μm) with an Extend-C18 guard column (4 .6 mm × 12 .5 mm ,5 μm) at 35 ℃ .The mobile phase was a multi-step acetonitrile-water gradient run at a flow rate of 1 .0 ml/min .The detection wavelength was 203 nm .Results The nine ginsenosides were baseline separated with-in 120 min .The method had good linearity ,precision ,stability and reproducibility with RSDs all less than 2 .0% .The sample recoveries were between 98 .3% to 102% .The quantity of total saponins in leaves and fibrous roots of Panax ginseng ,which were measured as 48 .9 mg/g and 23 .6 mg/g ,respectively ,were higher than those in the other plant components .The amounts of total saponins in Panax ginseng hairy roots were similar to those in taproots and fruits of Panax ginseng ,which was 7 .47 mg/g .Conclusion The established HPLC method is accurate ,simple ,rapid ,precise and reproducible and could be used for the quantitation of these nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng samples .%目的:采用HPLC法测定不同人参样品中9种人参皂苷(Rc、Rb1、Rb2、Re、Rd、Rg1、Rg2、Rg3和 Rh2)的含量。方法色谱条件:Zorbax SB C18柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm ,5μm),保护柱Extend-C18柱(4.6 mm ×12.5 mm ,5μm);以乙腈-水为流动相,梯度洗脱;流速:1.0 ml/min;检测波长:203 nm ;柱温:35℃。结果9种人参皂苷Rg1、Rb1、Re、Rc、Rg2、Rh2、Rg3、Rb2和Rd在120 min内基线分离。方法学表明其线性关系良好,精密度、稳定性和重复性 RSD均小于2.0%,加样回收率在98.3%~102%之间。测得人参叶和人参须根中的总皂苷含量最高,分别为48.9、23.6 mg/g ;人参

  7. [Colonization characteristics of endophytic bacteria NJ13 in Panax ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Li, Tong; Li, Xin-Lian; Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the colonization characteristics in host of endophytic biocontrol bacteria NJ13 isolated from Panax ginseng, this study obtained the marked strain NJ13-R which was double antibiotic resistant to rifampicin and streptomycin through enhancing the method of inducing antibiotic. The colonization characteristics in ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria spot of ginseng in the field were studied. The results showed that the strain could colonize in root, stem and leaf of ginseng and the colonization amount was positive correlated with inoculation concentration. Meanwhile, the strain could infect and then transfer in different tissues of ginseng The colonization amount of strain in roots and leaves of ginseng increased first and then decreased. However, the tendency of colonization amount of strain in stems was ascend at first and then descend slowly, and was more than that in roots and leaves along with time, which had a preference to specific tissue of its host. In field experiment, the endophytic bacteria NJ13 was proved to be effective in controlling Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng. The biocontrol efficiency of fermentation broth at the concentration of 0.76 x 10(8) cfu x mL(-1) reached 75.62%, which was close to the controlling level (73.06%) of 0.67 mg x L(-1) 50% cyprodinil WG. PMID:25282882

  8. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the natural killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.

  9. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the natural killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc

  10. Evaluation of different grades of ginseng using Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines which have many kinds of pharmaceutical values. The discrimination of grades of ginseng includes the cultivation types and the growth years herein. To evaluate the different grades of ginseng, the fibrous roots and rhizome roots of ginseng were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy in this paper. The fibrous root and rhizome root of ginseng have different content of starch, calcium oxalate and other components. For the fibrous roots of ginseng, mountain cultivation ginseng (MCG), garden cultivation ginseng (GCG) and transplanted cultivation ginseng (TCG) have clear difference in the infrared spectra and second derivative spectra in the range of 1800-400 cm -1, and clearer difference was observed in the range of 1045-1160 and 1410-1730 cm -1 in 2D synchronous correlation spectra. Three kinds of ginseng can be clustered very well by using SIMCA analysis on the basis of PCA as well. For the rhizome roots, the content of calcium oxalate and starch change with growth years in the IR spectra, and some useful procedure can be obtained by the analysis of 2D IR synchronous spectra in the range of 1050-1415 cm -1. Also, ginsengs cultivated in different growth years were clustered perfectly by using SIMCA analysis. The results suggested that different grades of ginseng can be well recognized using the mid-infrared spectroscopy assisted by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy, which provide the macro-fingerprint characteristics of ginseng in different parts and supplied a rapid, effective approach for the evaluation of the quality of ginseng.

  11. Content Determination of Ginseng Saponins of Wild American Ginseng Powder in Different Crushing Degree by HPLC Fingerprint%HPLC指纹图谱法测定不同粉碎度野山花旗参粉末中人参皂苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓丹如; 钱丽萍; 章宁; 林绥; 阙慧卿; 林善财

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)指纹图谱法,测定野山花旗参100目、200目、1000目粉三种粉末中人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量,通过指纹图谱相似度比较,考察粉碎对野山花旗参中人参皂苷的影响。方法:采用梯度洗脱、HPLC测定三种粒径粉末的HPLC指纹图谱,计算主要药效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的含量,并进行比较,通过“中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统”评价三个样品的相似度。结果:野山花旗参100目、200目、1000目粉的主要有效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量均大于3.96%,三种粉末的指纹图谱重叠率高,共有峰的相对保留时间吻合,与生成的对照指纹图谱相似度分别为0.946,0.979,0.970。结论:野山花旗参100目、200目与1000目粉的HPLC指纹图谱相似度大于0.946,化学成分的种类没有变化,主要有效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量基本相等,野山花旗参超微粉碎成1000目粉,化学成分保持不变。%Objective:To establish a HPLC fingerprint method for the determination of the total content of Re,Rb1 and Rg1 in ginseng saponins of the wild American ginseng powder(100,200 and 1 000 mesh powder). To investigate the crushing effect on ginseng saponins of wild American ginseng by comparing the similarity of HPLC fingerprints.Methods:Using HPLC and gradient elution,the fingerprints of three kinds of particle size of powders were determined,and the contents of the main effective components of Re,Rb1,Rg1 in ginseng saponin were calculated and compared. Through the Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM,the similarity of the three samples was evaluated. Results:As the main active ingredients of wild American ginseng,the contents of Re,Rb1,Rg1 of ginseng saponin were all greater than 3.96% in the powder of 100,200 and 1 000 mesh,the fingerprint overlap rate of three kinds of powders was high

  12. Ginseng pharmacology: a new paradigm based on gintonin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol eNah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is used as a traditional medicine. Despite the long history of the use of ginseng, there is no specific scientific or clinical rationale for ginseng pharmacology besides its application as a general tonic. The ambiguous description of ginseng pharmacology might be due to the absence of a predominant active ingredient that represents ginseng pharmacology. Recent studies show that ginseng abundantly contains lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs, which are phospholipid-derived growth factor with diverse biological functions including those claimed to be exhibited by ginseng. LPAs in ginseng form a complex with ginseng proteins, which can bind and deliver LPA to its cognate receptors with a high affinity. As a first messenger, gintonin produces second messenger Ca2+ via G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Ca2+ is an intracellular mediator of gintonin and initiates a cascade of amplifications for further intercellular communications by activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases, receptors, gliotransmitter and neurotransmitter release. Ginsenosides, which have been regarded as primary ingredients of ginseng, cannot elicit intracellular [Ca2+]i transients, since they lack specific cell surface receptor. However, ginsenosides exhibit non-specific ion channel and receptor regulations. This is the key characteristic that distinguishes gintonin from ginsenosides. Although the current discourse on ginseng pharmacology is focused on ginsenosides, gintonin can definitely provide a mode of action for ginseng pharmacology that ginsenosides cannot. This review article introduces a novel concept of ginseng ligand-LPA receptor interaction and proposes to establish a paradigm that shifts the focus from ginsenosides to gintonin as a major ingredient representing ginseng pharmacology.

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ginseng saponin by ultraviolet derivatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsenoides Rb1, b2, c, d, e and g1 quantitatively reacted with benzoyl chloride in pyridine to afford the respective derivatives having strong UV absorption. The UV-derivatized saponins were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the saponin-contents of the various Ginseng varieties were determined. It is possible to distinguish white Ginseng from the root hairs of Ginseng by the pattern analysis of HPLC. (orig.)

  14. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jang Ho, Lee; Ki Rok, Kwon; Bae Chun, Cha

    2008-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG), and red wild ginseng(RWG) through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC). Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process ...

  15. The pragmatic roots of American Quaternary geology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1996-07-01

    hypotheses, the latter having been suggested by experience with nature itself rather than by our theories of nature. These distinctions and methods were described in G.K. Gilbert's papers on "The Inculcation of Scientific Method by Example" (1886) and "the Origin of Hypotheses" (1896). Portions were elaborated in T.C. Chamberlin's "Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses" (1890) and his "method of the Earth Sciences" (1904); in W.M. Davis's "Value of Outrageous Geological Hypotheses" (1926); and in D. Johnson's "Role of Analysis in Scientific Investigation" (1933). American Quaternary geology and geomorphology have their philosophical roots in the pragmatic tradition, enunciated most clearly by C.S. Peirce, now recognized as the greatest American philosopher and considered by Sir Karl Popper to be one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Quaternary geology and geomorphology afford numerous examples of Peirce's "method" of science, which might be termed "the critical philosophy of common sense". The most obvious influence of pragmatism in geology, however, has largely been conveyed by the tradition of its scientific community. The elements of this tradition include a reverence for field work, a humility before the "facts" of nature, a continuing effort "to discriminate the phenomena observed from the observer's inference in regard to them", a propensity to pose hypotheses, and a willingness to abandon them when their consequences are contradicted by reality.

  16. Ginseng Metabolites on Cancer Chemoprevention: An Angiogenesis Link?

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Zhi Wang; Yi Cai; Samantha Anderson; Chun-Su Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been introduced for the treatment of cancer. Based on the fact that many anticancer agents have been developed from botanical sources, there is a significant untapped resource to be found in natural products. American ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in the U.S., which possesses antioxidant properties. After oral ingestion, natural ginseng saponins are biotransformed to their metabolites by the ent...

  17. First Report of Sclerotinia White Rot Caused by Sclerotinia nivalis on Panax ginseng in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hye Sun Cho; Jeong-Sup Shin; Jae-Hyun Kim; Tae-Kyun Hong; Dae-Hui Cho; Je Yong Kang

    2013-01-01

    Sclerotinia white rot disease was observed on 5 and 6-year-old ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots in Hongchun,Cheorwon, and Yanggu, Gangwon Province, Korea from 2006 to 2010. Symptoms included a brownishwatery soft rot of the roots, and black sclerotia were often found on the rotten roots. The causal agent of thedisease was identified as Sclerotinia nivalis based on cultural characteristics and sequence analyses of theinternal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and β-tubulin gene with 100% sequence...

  18. Chemoprevention of mammary, cervix and nervous system carcinogenesis in animals using cultured Panax ginseng drugs and preliminary clinical trials in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium.

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Bespalov; Alexandrov, V A; Limarenko, A Y; Voytenkov, B O; Okulov, V B; Kabulov, M K; Peresunko, A. P.; Slepyan, L I; Davydov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic effects and mechanisms of the biotechnological drugs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Russia, bioginseng, panaxel and panaxel- 5, were studied. Bioginseng was produced from a tissue culture of ginseng root cultured on standard medium, whereas panaxel and panaxel-5 were produced from ginseng tissue root cultures using standard mediums enriched with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and 1-hydroxygermatran-monohydrate respectively. All three ginseng drugs inhibite...

  19. The Occupation of Alcatraz Island: Roots of American Indian Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to place in historical perspective the 19-month American Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island, which began in November 1969. Discusses societywide and specifically Native American events leading to occupation; occupation itself and responses by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Nixon Administration; and other Indian activist actions during…

  20. Effect of choline on carbon assimilation and phosphorus uptake by ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed that the choline sprayed at green fruit stage of 4 years old ginseng, photosynthetic rate increased by 14.22%, transfer rate of 14C-assimilates increased by 21.82%, a mount of 14C-assimilates transported in total ginsensidi of root increased by 10.66%. Choline treatment also promoted phosphorus absorption in ginseng, the ratio of 32P absorption increased by 17.81%, and the 32P accumulated in root increased by 31.2%. The yield of ginseng root was increased by 28.78%

  1. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Byong-kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins re...

  2. Progress in anti-cancer research of American ginseng:with an example of colorectal cancer%西洋参抗癌研究进展——以结直肠癌为研究范例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻春皓; 王冲之; 袁钧苏

    2013-01-01

    癌症是由细胞生长调控机制失控而引起的多种疾病群.目前使用的化疗药物许多来源于植物,因此从中草药及食源植物中筛选新的抗肿瘤药物是一个有效途径,包括先导化合物的发现及相应化疗衍生物的开发.本文主要以人参属药材抗结直肠癌为例,对西洋参抗癌研究进展加以综述.西洋参除具有潜在抗癌作用外,在癌症治疗中常被用作为辅助药物来缓解因化疗药物引起的毒副作用.研究表明,高温炮制西洋参及其人参皂苷的肠道菌群代谢产物可显著增加抗癌活性,揭示化学物质与构效关系.源于中草药成分及临床研究数据将有助于开发新的抗癌药物.%Cancer is a group of various diseases,all of which involve unregulated cell growth.Many currently used chemotherapeutic drugs are derived from botanicals.Thus,searching botanical sources for novel oncology medications,including identifying the lead compounds and their derivatives for chemoprevention,is an essential step in advancing cancer therapeutics.This article mainly focuses on the data from our previous American ginseng anti-colon cancer studies.In addition to the potential role of American ginseng on cancer,the herb as an adjuvant for cancer treatment is presented,including describing the attenuation of adverse events induced by chemotherapeutic agents and increasing of quality of cancer patient life.Since heat-treated American ginseng and ginsenoside gut microbiome metabolites showed significant increases in cancer chemopreventive effects,active constituents of the steamed herb and their gut metabolites should be clearly identified,and the structure-activity relationship should be further explored.Data obtained from herbal medicine studies and clinical trials will help develop useful anticancer agents.

  3. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  4. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  5. Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal compo-nents of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang-tae CHOI

    2008-01-01

    Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer is mainly used to maintain the homeostasis of the body, and the pharmacological efficacy of Korean ginseng identified by modern science includes improved brain function, pain-relieving effects, pre-ventive effects against tumors as well as anti-tumor activity, enhanced immune system function, anti-diabetic effects, enhanced liver function, adjusted blood pressure, anti-fatigue and anti-stress effects, improved climacteric disorder and sexual functions, as well as anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Further clini-cal studies of these pharmacological efficacies will continue to be carried out. Korean ginseng is found to have such main properties as ginsenoside, ployacety-lene, acid polysaccharide, anti-oxidative aromatic compound, and insulin-like acid peptides. The number of ginsenoside types contained in Korean ginseng (38 ginsenosides) is substantially more than that of ginsenoside types contained in American ginseng (19 ginsenosides). Furthermore, Korean ginseng has been identified to contain more main non-saponin compounds, phenol compounds, acid polysaccharides and polyethylene compounds than American ginseng and Sanchi ginseng.

  6. Rooting Memory, Rooting Place: Regionalism in the Twenty-First-Century American South

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Lewis Simpson first used the term ‘postsouthern’ to define the state of the American South in an era of postmodern capitalism. The recent swathe of transnational and transcultural theory has much bearing on this notion, as any questioning of the nation and its borders must have concomitant effects on those regions within it. The U.S. South is one such region that has long endured questioning of its contours, whether geographical, cultural, or ideological. Simpson’s ‘postsouth’ has gained much...

  7. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandasi, Maxleene; Vermaak, Ilze; Chen, Weiyang; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The name "ginseng" is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng) and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spectroscopy-based techniques are here proposed as fast, non-destructive methods for the distinction of four ginseng species and the identification of raw materials in commercial ginseng products. Certified ginseng reference material and commercial products were analysed using hyperspectral imaging (HSI), mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and (orthogonal) partial least squares discriminant analysis models (OPLS-DA) were developed using multivariate analysis software. UHPLC-MS was used to analyse methanol extracts of the reference raw materials and commercial products. The holistic analysis of ginseng raw materials revealed distinct chemical differences using HSI, MIR and NIR. For all methods, Eleutherococcus senticosus displayed the greatest variation from the three Panax species that displayed closer chemical similarity. Good discrimination models with high R²X and Q² cum vales were developed. These models predicted that the majority of products contained either /P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius. Vibrational spectroscopy and HSI techniques in tandem with multivariate data analysis tools provide useful alternative methods in the authentication of ginseng raw materials and commercial products in a fast, easy, cost-effective and non-destructive manner. PMID:27077839

  8. Determination of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Ginseng and Other Botanical Roots by Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Oles, Carolyn; D’Ovidio, Kathleen; Rader, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds and are common contaminants of many important food crops, such as grains, nuts, and spices. Some mycotoxins are found in fruits, vegetables, and botanical roots. These contaminants have a broad range of toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. The public health concerns related to both acute and chronic effects of mycotoxins in animals have prompted...

  9. Sterols isolated from seeds of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Ah Kim; Jeong Hyun Son; Seok Bean Song; Seo Young Yang; Young Ho Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Many studies have been conducted on the biologically active constituents of whole parts of P. ginseng (i.e., roots, leaves, flower buds, and fruits). However, the seeds of P. ginseng have not been intensively investigated. A new sterol glucoside,3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5,22,24-stigmastatrienol ( 1 ), and a known sterol, 5,22-stigmastadienol ( 2 ),were isolated from seeds of P...

  10. Ginseng Metabolites on Cancer Chemoprevention: An Angiogenesis Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been introduced for the treatment of cancer. Based on the fact that many anticancer agents have been developed from botanical sources, there is a significant untapped resource to be found in natural products. American ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in the U.S., which possesses antioxidant properties. After oral ingestion, natural ginseng saponins are biotransformed to their metabolites by the enteric microbiome before being absorbed. The major metabolites, ginsenoside Rg3 and compound K, showed significant potent anticancer activity compared to that of their parent ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rd. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ginseng metabolites on cancer chemoprevention, especially apoptosis and angiogenic inhibition, are discussed. Ginseng gut microbiome metabolites showed significant anti-angiogenic effects on pulmonary, gastric and ovarian cancers. This review suggests that in addition to the chemopreventive effects of ginseng compounds, as angiogenic inhibitors, ginsenoside metabolites could be used in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents in cancer management.

  11. Effects of Red Ginseng Extract on Zearalenone Induced Spermatogenesis Impairment in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Eun-Sang; Ryu, Si-Yun; Jung, Ju-Young; Park, Bae-Keun; Son, Hwa-Young

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a phenolic resorcylic acid lactone compound produced by several species of Fusarium. ZEA has toxic effects in the testes of domestic and laboratory animals. Korean red ginseng (KRG), the steamed root of Panax ginseng Meyer, has multiple pharmacological effects such as vasorelaxation, anti-thrombosis, anti-hypertension, etc. In this study, we investigated the effects of KRG extract on testicular toxicity induced by ZEA. Rats were treated with 300 mg/kg oral doses of KRG fo...

  12. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenicity of Cylindrocarpon destructans Isolates Obtained from Korean Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jeong Young; Seo, Mun Won; Kim, Sun Ick; Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Lim, Hyoun Sub; Kim, Hong Gi

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of Cylindrocarpon destructans isolates obtained from Korean ginseng (i.e., Panax ginseng) roots by performing virulence tests and nuclear ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mt SSU) rDNA sequence analysis. The phylogenetic relationship analysis performed using ITS DNA sequences and isolates from other hosts helped confirm that all the Korean C. destructans isolates belonged to Nectria/Neonectria radicicola complex...

  13. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxleene Sandasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The name “ginseng” is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng, P. quinquefolius (American ginseng, P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng, each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spectroscopy-based techniques are here proposed as fast, non-destructive methods for the distinction of four ginseng species and the identification of raw materials in commercial ginseng products. Certified ginseng reference material and commercial products were analysed using hyperspectral imaging (HSI, mid-infrared (MIR and near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA and (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis models (OPLS-DA were developed using multivariate analysis software. UHPLC-MS was used to analyse methanol extracts of the reference raw materials and commercial products. The holistic analysis of ginseng raw materials revealed distinct chemical differences using HSI, MIR and NIR. For all methods, Eleutherococcus senticosus displayed the greatest variation from the three Panax species that displayed closer chemical similarity. Good discrimination models with high R2X and Q2 cum vales were developed. These models predicted that the majority of products contained either /P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius. Vibrational spectroscopy and HSI techniques in tandem with multivariate data analysis tools provide useful alternative methods in the authentication of ginseng raw materials and commercial products in a fast, easy, cost-effective and non-destructive manner.

  14. First Report of Sclerotinia Rot Caused by Sclerotinia nivalis on Panax ginseng in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hye Sun Cho; Jeong-Sup Shin; Jae-Hyun Kim; Tae-Kyun Hong; Dae-Hui Cho; Je Yong Kang

    2013-01-01

    Sclerotinia rot disease was observed on 5 and 6-year-old ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots in Hongchun, Cheorwon, and Yanggu, Gangwon Province, Korea from 2006 to 2010. Symptoms included a brownish watery soft rot of the roots, and black sclerotia were often found on the rotten roots. The causal agent of the disease was identified as Sclerotinia nivalis based on cultural characteristics and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and β-tubulin gene with 100% sequence s...

  15. Identification of a Panax ginseng fruit fingerprint by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H F; Xu, F F; Guo, Y T; Mi, H

    2016-01-01

    Over many years, parts of Panax ginseng (root and rhizome) have been identified and applied for medical purposes as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, research has indicated that ginseng fruit also contains similar compounds and is as rich as the other parts of the ginseng. This discovery may dramatically improve the efficient of outputs derived from ginseng products. Here, a new technique combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to identify the fingerprint of P. ginseng fruit. Using HPLC, compounds that are important for medical purposes were extracted and purified. Combined with ESI-MS, the characteristic peaks (nine common peaks) of those compounds were identified, and the accuracy was confirmed by analysis using the Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004A edition). Overall, 15 batches of ginseng fruit had a similarity of more than 0.80, 13 batches of samples had a similarity between 0.97 and 0.99, and two batches had a similarity less than 0.90. The test solution and mobile phase selection was discussed. The HPLC-ESI-MS method can produce repeatable and reliable results and can be applied in the quality control of P. ginseng fruit. PMID:26985953

  16. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of malonyl-ginsenosides in the authentication of ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Leon, Christine J; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2003-01-01

    Different negative ion electrospray (ES) source conditions are required to concentrate the ion current in [M-H](-) for malonylated and non-malonylated ginsenosides. However, both can be ionised optimally in a single liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis by employing switchable voltages in the post-source ion optics of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Coupled with automatic MS/MS scanning and post-acquisition neutral loss data analysis, this method provides a means of profiling the malonylated and acetylated ginsenosides in ginseng extracts. Analyses revealed numerous malonylated ginsenosides that could be partially characterised by serial MS/MS experiments. The ratio of mRb(1) to other isomeric forms present and to mRb(2) and mRc appears to show consistent differences among Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng) and P. notoginseng (Sanchi ginseng). The ratio of malonylated to non-malonylated ginsenosides is reduced in the red form of Asian ginseng compared with the white form and there is a concomitant increase in the levels of the corresponding acetylated ginsenosides. The ability to analyse malonylated ginsenosides is an important contribution to the range of chemical characteristics that can be used to authenticate the different species of ginseng and will assist in quality control and standardisation. PMID:12539190

  17. The Common History and Popular Uses of Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Thomas L.; Sandler, Maureen L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the historical uses of popular plant roots such as mandrake, ginseng, chicory, belladonna, and blood root. Besides the text, information is organized into a table presenting use, application, and constituents. (MA)

  18. Transfer and distribution of the assimilative products in Panax ginseng at different growing stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of assimilative products, the residue rate of 14C, and the contents of available components in four years old ginseng were determined by 14C trace technique during the different growing stage. The results showed that at seminal flower stage, about 60% of assimilative products were used for nutritive purpose so as to supply the carbon and energy sources to the upper ground organs. The assimilatve products produced after the green fruit stage are the main source of the dry matter and the available components in the root. The application of complex fertilizers to Panax ginseng increased the accumulation of the dry matter and available components in the root, and the dry weight of the root and the total saponins of Panax ginseng were raised by 16% and 4%

  19. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So W; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H; Min, Cheol W; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B; Jo, Ick H; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H; Kim, Sun T

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects. PMID:27458475

  20. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So W.; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H.; Min, Cheol W.; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B.; Jo, Ick H.; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K.; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H.; Kim, Sun T.

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects. PMID:27458475

  1. Antiallergic activity of ginseng and its ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Eun-Kyung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we measured the antiallergic activities of ginsenosides isolated from the root of Panax ginseng ( Araliaceae), and of their metabolites, as produced by human intestinal bacteria. Compound K, which was identified as a main metabolite, had the most potent inhibitory activity on beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells and on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory activity of compound K was more potent than that of disodium cromoglycate, one of the commercial anti-allergic drugs. This compound demonstrated a membrane stabilizing action on differential scanning calorimetry. However, compound K did not inhibit the activation of hyaluronidase and did not scavenge active oxygen. These results suggest that the antiallergic action of compound K originates from its cell membrane stabilizing activity and that the ginsenosides of ginseng are prodrugs with extensive antiallergic properties. Abbreviations. compound K:20- O-beta- D-glucopyranosyl-20( S)-protopanaxadiol DNP:dinitrophenol DSCG:disodium cromoglycate DPPC:dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine DPPH:1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl HSA:human serum albumin IC 50 :50% inhibitory concentration EC 50 :50% effective concentration XOD:xanthine oxidase ICR:Institute of Cancer Research PBS:phosphate buffered saline PCA:passive cutaneous anaphylaxis RAW264.7:mouse monocyte leukemiaRBL-2H3: rat basophil leukemia SD:Sprague-Dawley PMID:12865969

  2. 7 CFR 1437.308 - Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.308 Ginseng. (a) Ginseng is a value loss crop and is compensable only as... propagation stock in a commercial ginseng operation or rootlet for commercial sale that are grown in...

  3. 西洋参对低舒张压的老年高血压血清相关炎性反应因子的影响%Effect of American Ginseng on the Serum E-selectin and Soluble ICAM-1 Levels in Elderly Hypertensive Patients with Low Diastolic Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳永扬

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of American ginseng on the serum E-selectin and soluble ICAM-1 levels in elderly hy-pertensive patients with low diastolic blood pressure.Methods:In the study,100 elderly hypertensive patients after regular anti-hypertensive therapy with low diastolic blood pressure,who were older than 65 years old,were randomized into two groups.The 50 patients in American ginseng group received combination therapy of American ginseng and anti-hypertensive drugs;the 50 patients in single drug group received only anti-hypertensive drugs.The sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels in the patients’blood were meas-ured before and after the treatment.Results:The systolic blood pressures in the two groups were reduced after treatment.The A-merican ginseng group showed a greater reduction than the single drug group (P <0.05).The diastolic blood pressures were sig-nificantly increased,and pulse pressures were significantly reduced after the treatment in the American ginseng group,which was superior to the single drug group (P <0.01).There was no significant difference in the sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels between the American ginseng group and the single drug group before the treatment.The sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels were effectively reduced in the two groups after the treatment,but the American ginseng group showed a greater reduction in the sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels than the single drug group (P <0.01).Conclusion:The combination therapy of American ginseng and anti-hyper-tensive drug can effectively treat elderly hypertensive patients with low diastolic blood pressure.It can protect and repair vascular endothelial cells through regulation of adhesion molecules expression and inhibition of inflammatory reaction.%目的:观察西洋参联合降压药物治疗对低舒张压的老年高血压患者血清 E-选择素及可溶性细胞间黏附分子水平的影响,并探讨西洋参治疗该疾病的机制。方法:选取100名65岁以上的经正规

  4. The Intervention of Chemical Constituents of Active Site from American Ginseng in Insulin Resistance Rats Ⅲ%西洋参干预胰岛素抵抗大鼠活性部位的化学成分研究Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冀; 马育轩; 葛鹏玲; 杨炳友; 尚广巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents of active site that American ginseng treats rat insulin resistance.Methods: They were extracted by ethanol and adsorbed by macroreticular resins , then eluted with ethanol and isolated by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC preparation chromatography.Their structures were determined by physical and chemical properties as well as spectrographical identification.Result and conclusion:Two compounds were isolated from the active site that American ginseng treats rat insulin resistance.Their structures were identified as β -Sitosterol ( Ⅰ ) , daucosterol ( Ⅱ ).%目的:研究西洋参干预胰岛素抵抗大鼠活性部位的化学成分.方法:以乙醇提取,用大孔树脂吸附,乙醇洗脱得其总皂苷,再用硅胶柱色谱及HPLC等分离技术与方法进行分离和纯化,并通过理化常数及光谱数据确定其结构.结果与结论:分得2个化合物,鉴定后分别为β-谷苗醇(Ⅰ);胡萝卜苷(Ⅱ).

  5. Panax ginseng extract rich in ginsenoside protopanaxatriol offers combinatorial effects in nitric oxide production via multiple signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Hee Yoon; Hong, So Young; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2013-01-01

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been shown to induce nitric oxide (NO) release resulting in a hypotensive effect. However, the main active component contributing to vascular endothelium relaxation remains uncertain. In this study, we hypothesized that multiple components of ginseng extract might have combinatory effects providing greater health benefits than a single ginsenosides. To test this hypothesis, we compared the NO-releasing and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activating pote...

  6. Environ: E00406 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00406 Panax quinquefolius root American ginseng Crude drug; Medicinal herb Saponin...amily) E00406 Panax quinquefolius root Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) E00406 American ginseng ...

  7. Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Quality Assessment of Red Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Li-xing; WANG Gang-li; LIN Rui-chao

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) was developed as a rapid analysis method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the quality of red ginseng. Discriminant analysis(DA) based on principal component analysis and Mahalanobis distance was used to distinguish red ginseng from counterfeits non-destructively. The result shows that the proposed method could distinguish red ginseng from counterfeits correctly and no tnisclassified sample was found in both training and test sets. The partial least squares(PLS) algorithm was used to predict the sum of ginseno-sides Re and Rgj and the content of ginsenoside Rbi. Two calibration models were developed to correlate NIR spectra with the reference values determined by HPLC method. The correlation coefficient(R), the root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) were as follows: R=0.9827, RMSEC=0.0163%, RMSEP=0.0250% for the sum of ginsenosides Re and Rg1; R=0.9869, RMSEC=0.0156%, RMSEP=0.0256% for content of ginsenoside Rb1. The overall results demonstrate that NIRS coupled with chemome-trics could be successfully applied as a rapid, precise and cost-effective method not only to identify the red ginseng from counterfeits but also to determine simultaneously some chemical compositions in red ginseng.

  8. Epidemiological study on cancer prevention by ginseng: are all kinds of cancers preventable by ginseng?

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, T K; Choi, S. Y.(Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonju, Republic of Korea); Yun, H Y

    2001-01-01

    In the light of experimental results, two case-control studies and one cohort study in a population of ginseng cultivation area were conducted to confirm whether ginseng has any anticarcinogenic effect on human cancers. All participants were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire to obtain the information on demographics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and ginseng intake. In 905 pairs case-control study, 62% had a history of ginseng intake compared to 75% of the controls, a st...

  9. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Young, Jang; Hee Soo, Park; Ki Rok, Kwon; Tae Jin, Rhim

    2008-01-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2’...

  10. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi Ong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  11. Ginseng extract and ginsenoside Rb1 attenuate carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chao, Jane C-J

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides, the major bioactive compounds in ginseng root, have been found to have antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effects of ginsenosides on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatitis and liver fibrosis in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, CCl4, CCl4 + 0.5 g/kg Panax ginseng extract and CCl4 + 0.05 g/kg ginsenoside Rb1 groups. The treated groups were orally given ...

  12. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.

  13. Highly regarded medicine——Korean ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Korean ginseng,a medicinal herb,natu- rally exists in only three regions:“Korea”(33. 7-43.1),“Manchuria”(43-47),and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng,because ginseng has strin- gent requirements for the plant's growth,and Korea has the ideal temperature zone,plenty of rain in the summer,proper coldness in the winter,etc.

  14. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated wi...

  15. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  16. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  17. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89±0.04, 0.86±0.06, 0.73±0.01 and 0.09±0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81±0.07, 0.42±0.08, 0.15±0.02, 0.03±0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28±0.01, 0.18±0.03, 0.08±0.02, 0.006±0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added

  18. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Junju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Seong [College of Medicine, Woosuck Univ., Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89{+-}0.04, 0.86{+-}0.06, 0.73{+-}0.01 and 0.09{+-}0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81{+-}0.07, 0.42{+-}0.08, 0.15{+-}0.02, 0.03{+-}0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28{+-}0.01, 0.18{+-}0.03, 0.08{+-}0.02, 0.006{+-}0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added.

  19. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from fresh ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was purified from fresh ginseng roots using acetone precipitation, carboxymethyl (CM)-Sepharose chromatography, and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography. Two isoenzymes (PPO 1 and PPO 2) were separated using an ion-exchange column with CM-Sepharose. PPO 1 was purified up to 13.2-fold with a 22.6% yield. PPO 2 bound to CM-Sepharose, eluted with NaCl, and was purified up to 22.5-fold with a 17.4% yield. PPO 2 was further chromatographed on phenyl-Sepharose. The molecular wei...

  20. American Ginseng Teaand Resist in Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The fatigue is a main factor to endanger the human health in the 21st century. In the current society, because the rhythm of life is accelerated and overworked for a long time or beared greater psychological pressure for a long time, if not rest reasonable for

  1. Effect of Korean red ginseng extract on liver damage induced by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Su-Jeong; Cho, Jae Youl; Jeong, Yeon Ho; Choi, Yong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) is prepared by the process of steaming the roots of Panax ginseng. In this study, the feeding effects of KRG-water extract (KRGE) on ethanol-induced liver damage were elucidated by measuring serum biomarkers in rats. Serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) activity and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats, whereas the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glu...

  2. Red ginseng extract blocks histamine-dependent itch by inhibition of H1R/TRPV1 pathway in sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Wook-Joo; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Shim, Won-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Korean Red Ginseng—a steamed root of Panax ginseng Meyer—has long been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. Its antipruritic effect was recently found, but no molecular mechanisms were revealed. Thus, the current study focused on determining the underlying molecular mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) against histamine-induced itch at the peripheral sensory neuronal level. Methods: To examine the antipruritic effect of RGE, we performed in vivo scratching b...

  3. Physical and Biological Modification of Polycaprolactone Electrospun Nanofiber by Panax Ginseng Extract for Bone Tissue Engineering Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoumshariati, Seyedramin; Yavari, Seyedeh Kimia; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Medicinal plants as a therapeutic agent with osteogenic properties can enhance fracture-healing process. In this study, the osteo-inductive potential of Asian Panax Ginseng root extract within electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) based nanofibers has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that all nanofibers were highly porous and beadles with average diameter ranging from 250 to 650 nm. The incorporation of ginseng extract improved the physical characteristics (i.e., hydrophilicity) of PCL nanofibers, as well as the mechanical properties. Although ginseng extract increased the degradation rate of pure PCL nanofibers, the porous structure and morphology of fibers did not change significantly after 42 days. It was found that nanofibrous scaffolds containing ginseng extract had higher proliferation (up to ~1.5 fold) compared to the pristine PCL. The qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated the addition of ginseng extract into PCL nanofibers induced significant expression of osteogenic genes (Osteocalcin, Runx-2 and Col-1) in MSCs in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, higher calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and higher mineralization of MSCs were observed compared to the pristine PCL fibers. Our results indicated the promising potential of ginseng extract as an additive to enhance osteo-inductivity, mechanical and physical properties of PCL nanofibers for bone tissue engineering application. PMID:26429789

  4. Black Ginseng Extract Counteracts Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Cho, Hyung Taek; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    Black ginseng, a new type of processed ginseng that has a unique ginsenoside profile, has been shown to display potent pharmacological activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Although red ginseng is considered beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, the relationship between black ginseng and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of black ginseng extract (BGE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice, in com...

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Diversities Shed Light on Domestication of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xu-Tong; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a medically important herb within Panax and has crucial cultural values in East Asia. As the symbol of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese ginseng has been used as a herbal remedy to restore stamina and capacity in East Asia for thousands of years. To address the evolutionary origin and domestication history of cultivated ginseng, we employed multiple molecular approaches to investigate the genetic structures of cultivated and wild ginseng across their distribution ranges in northeastern Asia. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that the four cultivated ginseng landraces, COMMON, BIANTIAO, SHIZHU, and GAOLI (also known as Korean ginseng), were not domesticated independently and Fusong Town is likely one of the primary domestication centers. In addition, our results from population genetic and epigenetic analyses demonstrated that cultivated ginseng maintained high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity, but showed distinct cytosine methylation patterns compared with wild ginseng. The patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation revealed by this study have shed light on the domestication history of cultivated ginseng, which may serve as a framework for future genetic improvements. PMID:26278367

  6. Trade-Offs between Drought Survival and Rooting Strategy of Two South American Mediterranean Tree Species: Implications for Dryland Forests Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Ovalle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in water-acquisition strategies of tree root systems can determine the capacity to survive under severe drought. We evaluate the effects of field water shortage on early survival, growth and root morphological variables of two South American Mediterranean tree species with different rooting strategies during two growing seasons. One year-old Quillaja saponaria (deep-rooted and Cryptocarya alba (shallow-rooted seedlings were established under two watering treatments (2 L·week−1·plant−1 and no water in a complete randomized design. Watering improved the final survival of both species, but the increase was only significantly higher for the shallow-rooted species. The survival rates of deep- and shallow-rooted species was 100% and 71% with watering treatment, and 96% and 10% for the unwatered treatment, respectively. Root morphological variables of deep-rooted species such as surface area, volume, and diameter were higher under unwatered treatment. On the other hand, shallow-rooted species had a higher total root dry mass, length, surface area with watering treatments. Our findings suggest that deep-rooted species are highly recommended for reforestation in dry conditions, even under low soil water availability. Water supplements during the summer season can attenuate the differences between deep- and shallow-rooted species in their ability to survive drought during the early stage.

  7. Genome-wide joint SNP and CNV analysis of aortic root diameter in African Americans: the HyperGEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devereux Richard B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic root diameter is a clinically relevant trait due to its known relationship with the pathogenesis of aortic regurgitation and risk for aortic dissection. African Americans are an understudied population despite a particularly high burden of cardiovascular diseases. We report a genome-wide association study on aortic root diameter among African Americans enrolled in the HyperGEN study. We invoked a two-stage, mixed model procedure to jointly identify SNP allele and copy number variation effects. Results Results suggest novel genetic contributors along a large region between the CRCP and KCTD7 genes on chromosome 7 (p = 4.26 × 10-7; and the SIRPA and PDYN genes on chromosome 20 (p = 3.28 × 10-8. Conclusions The regions we discovered are candidates for future studies on cardiovascular outcomes, particularly in African Americans. The methods we employed can also provide an outline for genetic researchers interested in jointly testing SNP and CNV effects and/or applying mixed model procedures on a genome-wide scale.

  8. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  9. The Rise of Capitalism and the Roots of Anti-American Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This contribution examines the role of capitalism in anti-American terrorism. Using data for 149 countries between 1970 and 2007, this contribution, contrary to expectations from capitalist peace theory, does not find that Anti-American terrorism increases with external economic liberalization or decreases with higher levels of economic openness. However, consistent with economic norms theory, higher levels of market-capitalism are associated with less anti-American terrorism, whereas the pro...

  10. Profiling and Identification of Oleanolic Acid Type Saponins in Different Parts of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey .and Panax quinquefolium L%人参、西洋参不同部位中齐墩果酸型皂苷含量的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 郑培和; 许世泉; 刘敏; 王英平

    2015-01-01

    To observe the distribution of Oleanolic Acid Type Saponins in ginseng and American ginseng ,we analyzed the species of oleanolic acid type saponins and the amount of ginsenoside Ro in roots ,stems and leaves of both of them with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry .Column:Agilent TC-C18 (4.6mm × 250mm ,5μm);The mobile phase consisted of two eluents:Acetonitrile and wa-ter with 2.5mmol/L Ammonium acetate(w/v) and 0.05‰ Ammonia(v/v);Gradient elution;The flow rate was 1mL/min;203nm as detection wavelength .Six compounds of oleanolic acid type saponins were identified .They were ginsenoside Ro(1) ,chikusetsusaponin Iva(2) ,zingibro-side R1 (3) ,Stipulenaoside R2 (4) ,Arrnatoslde(5) and Elatoside K(6) .The compound 1 ,2 and 3 were all found in root ,stem and leaf of gin-seng .About american ginseng ,compound 1 ,3 and 4 were in stem ,compound 1 and 4 were in leaf .And above all six compounds were in root . Root is a main storage part of ginsenoside Ro .The contents of ginsenoside Ro in American ginseng root(0.576% ) were more than in ginseng root(0.214% ) .The amounts of ginsenosides Ro in different parts from both ginsengs were root> stem> leaf .(conclusion )The Species of oleanolic acid type saponins are different in various parts of Panax ginseng and American ginseng .But the distribution of ginsenoside Ro are similar in both ginsengs .The roots are the main part for accumulation of oleanolic acid type saponins .%通过对比分析人参和西洋参根、茎、叶中齐墩果酸型皂苷种类及人参皂苷Ro含量的差异,观察齐墩果酸型皂苷的分布特征。采用高效液相色谱质谱联用技术对齐墩果酸型皂苷进行鉴定及 Ro含量测定。色谱柱:Agilent TC -C18(4.6mm ×250mm ,5μm );流动相:乙腈、2.5mmol/L乙酸铵(w/v )及0.05‰氨水(v/v )水溶液;梯度洗脱;流速:1mL/min;检测波长:203nm。共鉴定了6种齐墩果酸型

  11. Teleology and News: The Religious Roots of American Journalism, 1630-1730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    The nature and function of news in the public life of seventeenth-century New England and the legacy this conception of news left for the development of American newspaper journalism in the eighteenth century are explored in this paper. The paper argues that the origin of American news--its subject matter, style, and method of reporting--is deeply…

  12. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  13. Nihilism and the Roots of Crisis in American Democracy: A Diagnosis of Cornel West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jeliński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cornel West’s diagnosis of the crisis of the American democracy is the subject matter of this article. Analyzing the condition of the American democracy of the end of XX and the beginning of XXI centuries, C. West focused on the individual, existential character of the crisis. The diagnosed state had according to him much affect not only on political issues, but first and foremost on the spread of nihilism among American citizens. Nihilism – is understood in the C. West as senselessness of life and low self-esteem is the subject matter of this article.

  14. The rise of market-capitalism and the roots of anti-American terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This contribution examines the role of market-capitalism in anti-American terrorism. It differentiates between level- and rate-of-change-effects associated with market-capitalist development and their respective relationship with anti-U.S. violence. While this contribution argues that higher levels of capitalist development consistent with the capitalist-peace literature coincide with less anti-American terrorism, it also suggests that the process of marketization has inflammatory effects on ...

  15. Protection by Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer against the genotoxicity of doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Denise G. Pereira; Lusânia M.G. Antunes; Ulrich Graf; Spanó, Mário A.

    2008-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most widely prescribed herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, chronic inflammation, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Since the use of alternative medicines in combination with conventional therapy may increase the risk of unwanted interactions, we investigated the possible genotoxicity of a water-soluble form of the dry root of P. ginseng (2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/mL) and its ability to protect against the genotoxicity of doxorubicin (...

  16. Korean red ginseng,a well-known medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy and applications of ginseng are also described in many other journals of Oriental medicine,which rate ginseng as a master medicine that plays a major role in prescriptions. Dr.I.I.Brekhmann.a Russian scientist

  17. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC50 for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  18. Neurocognitive and gluco-regulatory effects of Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Reay, Jonathon

    2007-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has long been used in the Far East to aid in the recovery and prevention of illness. Ginseng, an over-the-counter herbal product in the UK, is amongst these herbal CAMs currently available to the general public. Ginseng is renowned for its rejuvenating properties and its purported ability to aid cognitive function and well-being. Despite the huge global market for ginseng there is little in the way of human research, utilising standardised ginseng ...

  19. Protection by Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer against the genotoxicity of doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is one of the most widely prescribed herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, chronic inflammation, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Since the use of alternative medicines in combination with conventional therapy may increase the risk of unwanted interactions, we investigated the possible genotoxicity of a water-soluble form of the dry root of P. ginseng (2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/mL and its ability to protect against the genotoxicity of doxorubicin (DOX; 0.125 mg/mL by using the Drosophila melanogaster wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART with standard and high-bioactivation crosses of flies. Panax ginseng was not genotoxic at the concentrations tested, whereas DOX-induced genotoxicity in marker-heterozygous flies resulted mainly from mitotic recombination. At low concentrations, P. ginseng had antirecombinogenic activity that was independent of the concentration of extract used. Recombination events may promote cancer, but little is known about the ability of P. ginseng to inhibit such recombination or modulate DNA repair mechanisms.

  20. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoguang, C; Hongyan, L; Xiaohong, L; Zhaodi, F; Yan, L; Lihua, T; Rui, H

    1998-02-01

    Red ginseng extract A and B are the active components of Panax ginseng. Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine. Among Chinese herbs, red ginseng has been considered as one of the tonics. Many studies indicated that red ginseng could enhance immune function of the human body. The effects of red ginseng extracts on transplantable tumors, proliferation of lymphocyte, two-stage model and rat liver lipid peroxidation were studied. In a two-stage model, red ginseng extracts had a significant cancer chemoprevention. At 50-400 mg/kg, they could inhibit DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice, decrease the incidence of papilloma, prolong the latent period of tumor occurrence and reduce tumor number per mouse in a dose-dependent manner. Red ginseng extract B could effectively inhibit the Fe2+/cysteine-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsome, suggesting that red ginseng extract B has a stronger antioxidative effect than that of extract A. The results indicated that red ginseng extracts (50 approximately 400 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable mouse sarcoma S180 and melanoma B16. Red ginseng extracts A (0.5 mg/ml) and B (0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml) might effectively promote the transformation of T lymphocyte, but there was no influence on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A. This suggests that red ginseng extracts have potent tumor therapeutic activity and improve the cell immune system. PMID:9533434

  1. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Park, Jong Kwan; Youn, Nae Young; Lee, Hyung-Lae

    2009-01-01

    Korean ginseng and mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) are important traditional herbal plants whose ginsenosides are generally accepted as serving to improve sexual functions, such as penile erection. We investigated the effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng extract (TMGE) on male patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 143 patients experiencing ED. Over the course of 8 weeks, one group took 1 000 mg of TMGE twice a day...

  2. Sterols isolated from seeds of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ah Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Many studies have been conducted on the biologically active constituents of whole parts of P. ginseng (i.e., roots, leaves, flower buds, and fruits. However, the seeds of P. ginseng have not been intensively investigated. A new sterol glucoside,3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5,22,24-stigmastatrienol ( 1 , and a known sterol, 5,22-stigmastadienol ( 2 ,were isolated from seeds of P. ginsengand were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced nuclear factor (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS transcription in transfected HepG2 cells. The present work deals with the isolation, identification, and antiinflammatory activities of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC R-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS.The antiinflammatory activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results: Two sterols have been isolated from the seeds of P. ginseng. Compound 1 is a previously unreported glucosidyl sterol. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited NFκB-luciferase activity, with IC 50 values of 8.1 and 4.8΅M, respectively. They also inhibited iNOS-luciferase activity in TNFα-induced HepG2 cells, with IC 50 values of 2.2 and 2.9΅M, respectively. Conclusion: The two isolatedsterols have inhibitory effects on inflammation-related factors in HepG2 cells, as determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Thus, seeds of P. ginseng are worthy of consideration for the development and research of antiinflammatory agents.

  3. Korean red ginseng,a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Korean ginseng is a medicinal herb, naturally exists in only three regions:“Korea”(33.7-43.1),“Manchuria”(43-47),and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng,because ginseng has strin- gent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer,proper cold- ness in the winter,etc.The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B.C.Books written in this era documented ginseng ...

  4. The mensuration of delayed luminescence on ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fenghua; Bai, Hua; Tang, Guoqing

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the delayed luminescence of ginseng produced from two different areas was determined with the self built bioluminescence detecting system. And the attenuation curve of bioluminescence of the experimental samples were studied, before and after the samples extracted by 58% alcohol. We primarily gave out the parameters describing emitting characteristic. Using the method of optic induced bioluminescence, we also determined the weak luminescence emitting from the ginseng tuber, and find the intensity and decay time having obvious difference from skin and core, with these data we can distinguish the producing area and feature of the ginseng. In the experiment, the light-induce luminescence of the sample was menstruated, which has been infused by water and 58% alcohol; the difference between two kinds of samples which were infused and not infused has been delivered. In order to investigate the effect of excitation-light spectrum component to delayed luminescence of ginseng, a light filter witch allow a wavelength scope of 225nm~420nm pass through was installed between the light source and sample, keeping other work condition unchanged, the bioluminescence was also determined. For investigating the effect of extracting to emitting, the absorption spectrum of above samples ware studied, and the time-sequence of absorption spectrum was obtained. Based on the data obtained from our experiment, we analyzed the radiation mechanism of ginseng slice and tuber.

  5. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine- ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The 'Yin and Yang' theory and the fundamentals of the 'five elements' applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng's bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson's disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng mainly due to its

  6. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single post-irradiation injection of the thermostable fraction of a ginseng extract enhanced the recoveries of the numbers of both blood-forming stem cells (10 days CFUs) and megakaryocytes in bone marrow of irradiated mice. It also protected hemorrhaging tendency of X-irradiated mice determined by a quantitative measurement of occult blood appearance in daily feces. The present study and our previous findings suggest that ginseng protected the irradiated animals from bone marrow death by stimulating thrombopoietic hematogenesis (CFUs, megakaryocytes and thrombocytes) and finally preventing hemorrhage. (author)

  7. Preparative isolation and purification of ginsenosides Rf, Re, Rd and Rb1 from the roots of Panax ginseng with a salt/containing solvent system and flow step-gradient by high performance counter-current chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaocheng; Ignatova, Svetlana; Luo, Guoan; Liang, Qionglin; Jun, Frank Wu; Wang, Yiming; Sutherland, Ian

    2010-03-26

    Ginseng is a popular herb worldwide and has had varied uses in traditional Asian medicine for thousands of years. There are several different species of the herb, but all share the same constituents. Ginsenosides, the most extensively studied chemical components of ginseng, are generally considered to be one of the most important active ingredients of the plant. In this study, we have developed fast and efficient methodology for isolation of four known ginsenosides Rf, Rd, Re and Rb1 from Ginseng by high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). The crude sample for HPCCC was purified firstly from a ginseng extraction using macroporous resin. The enriched saponin fraction (480 mg) was separated by using methylene chloride-methanol-5 mM aqueous ammonium acetate-isopropanol (6:2:4:3, v/v,) as the two-phase solvent system and yielded 10.7 mg of Rf, 11.0 mg of Rd, 13.4 mg of Re and 13.9 mg of Rb1. The purity of these ginsenosides was 99.2%, 88.3%, 93.7% and 91.8%, respectively assessed by HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and their structures were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and compared with standards. Ammonium acetate was used to shorten the separation time and eliminate emulsification together with a flow step-gradient. The salt can be removed by re-dissolving the sample using acetone. PMID:20171644

  8. Linking biological activity with herbal constituents by systems biology-based approaches: Effects of Panax ginseng in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, C.; Wei, H.; Kong, H.; Bouwman, J.; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, V.; Heijden, R. van der; Reijmers, T.H.; Bao, X.; Verheij, E.R.; Hankemeier, T.; Xu, G.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of animal experiments and clinical trials have investigated the effects of ginseng roots on diabetes, the relationship between their therapeutic effects on diabetes and the quality and the growth age of this herb have not yet been reported. This study systematically investigated th

  9. Simultaneous analysis method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng by reversed-phase HPLC-PAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sa-Im; Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2012-02-23

    The paper describes the development of a simultaneous determination method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection method. This method could be applied directly without any pretreatment steps and enabled the performance of highly sensitive analysis within 1h. The detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N=10) limits for the ginsenosides ranged 0.02-0.10 ng and 0.1-0.3 ng, respectively. The linear regression coefficients ranged 0.9975-0.9998. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <9.91%. The mean recoveries ranged 98.08-103.06%. The total amount of ginsenosides in the hairy root of red ginseng was higher than that in the main root. PMID:22119615

  10. Korean red ginseng, a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Korean ginseng is a tonic, naturally exists in only three regions: Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Manchuria"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc. The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B. C.Books written in this era documented ginseng as emergent tonic for long-life. Ginseng was first mentioned as a tonic as early as 48-33 B. C. in Interpretation of Creatures written by You Shi of ancient China.

  11. Effects of ginseng on TNF-α, leptin and plasma lipid levels of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    ALTIN, Mehmet; Keskin, Ercan; ULUISIK, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of ginseng root powder on plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, and TNF-α levels of adult rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In this study, 48 healthy adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: a control group (K), a cholesterol group (C), and a cholesterol+ginseng group (CG). The K group was fed a standard rat diet, whereas the C and CG groups were fed the same standard diet containing 5% cholester...

  12. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  13. The Effect of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Extract on Preadipocyte Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Byoung-Woo Kim; Ki-Rok Kwon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultivated wild ginseng extract on primary cultured preadipocyte and adipocytes. Methods : Diminish preadipocyte proliferation does primary role to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures with using Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ cultivated wild ginseng extract. Result : At all concentrations, cultivated wild ginseng extract wasn't show the suppress prolifera...

  14. Korean red ginseng,a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Korean ginseng is a tonic, naturally exists in only three regions: Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Manchuria"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc.

  15. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. Methods To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated m...

  16. The Effect of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Extract on Preadipocyte Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Woo Kim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultivated wild ginseng extract on primary cultured preadipocyte and adipocytes. Methods : Diminish preadipocyte proliferation does primary role to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures with using Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ cultivated wild ginseng extract. Result : At all concentrations, cultivated wild ginseng extract wasn't show the suppress proliferation of preadipocytes significantly and failed to show effects on decomposition of adipocytes except high dosage. Conclusion : Based on these findings, cultivated wild ginseng is not a suitable choice for the treatment of localized obesity.

  17. Korean red ginseng, a best gift for you

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Korean ginseng is a medicinal herb, naturally exists in only three regions: "Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Man-churia"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc. The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B. C. Books written in this era documented gi...

  18. Ninjin'yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Ayano; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is a formula of Japanese traditional kampo medicine composed of 12 crude drugs, and is designed to improve the decline in constitution after recovery from disease, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, perspiration during sleep, cold limbs, slight fever, chills, persistent cough, malaise, mental disequilibrium, insomnia, and constipation. Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. However, it often causes acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies including cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest preventive effects on neurodegeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. By activity-guided fractionation, we found that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed preventive activity and, among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside F2 exhibited significant preventive effects on L-OHP-induced decreases in neurite-like outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. These results suggest that NYT and ginseng are promising agents for preventing L-OHP-induced neuropathies and present ginsenoside F2 as one of the active ingredients in ginseng. PMID:26014046

  19. Use of multitoxin immunoaffinity columns for determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginseng and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, Mary W; Weaver, Carol M; Oles, Carolyn J; Rump, Lydia V; White, Kevin D; Betz, Joseph M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2007-01-01

    Conditions were optimized for the simultaneous, alkaline, aqueous methanol extraction of aflatoxins (AFL), i.e., B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), and G2 (AFG2), and ochratoxin A (OTA) with subsequent purification, isolation, and determination of the toxins in ginseng and ginger. Powdered roots were extracted with methanol-0.5% NaHCO3 solution (7 + 3). After shaking and centrifugation, the supernatant was diluted with 100 mM phosphate buffer containing 1% Tween 20 and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The AFL were separated and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with fluorescence detection after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. OTA was separated and determined by RPLC with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of AFL added at 2-16 ng/g and OTA added at 1-8 ng/g to ginseng were 72-80 and 86-95%, respectively. Recoveries of AFL and OTA added to ginger were similar to those for ginseng. A total of 39 commercially available ginger products from 6 manufacturers were analyzed. Twenty-six samples were found to be contaminated with AFL at 1-31 ng/g and 29 samples, with OTA at 1-10 ng/g. Ten samples contained no AFL or OTA. Ten ginseng finished products were also analyzed; 3 contained AFL at 0.1 ng/g and 4 contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.4 to 1.8 ng/g. LC/tandem mass spectrometry with multiple-reaction monitoring of 3 collisionally induced product ions from the protonated molecular ions of OTA, AFB1, and AFG1 was used to confirm the identities of the toxins in extracts of the finished products. PMID:17760342

  20. Enzymatic transformation of ginsenosides in Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) extract prepared by Spezyme and Optidex

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Yooheon; Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined the effects of various enzymes on chemical conversions of ginsenosides in ginseng extract prepared by amylases. Methods Rapidase, Econase CE, Viscozyme, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 were used for secondary enzymatic hydrolysis after amylase treatment of ginseng extract, and ginsenoside contents, skin permeability, and chemical compositions including total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, and polyphenols were determined on the hydrolyzed ginseng extract. Res...

  1. The Ginseng Growing District, Taxation and Trade in Ancient Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeong-Pil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The very first record of ginseng in the Korean peninsula dates back to early 6th century A.D., with its concentration in Chinese sources. Regardless of the fact that the Korean ginseng was introduced to China before the birth of Christ, there is no writing about it for 500 years. This is because the Chinese substituted Korean ginseng for the Chinese one, which was cultivated around the Shangdang Area. The ginseng, however, is greatly influenced by natural environment and its native area being Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. It is believed that ginseng range from the northern mountains of Pyongando and Hamkyongdo provinces to the southern Taebaek and Sobaek mountains in Korea. Especially the area of Madasan(Baekdusan? mountain was well-known for ginseng-growing district. The ginseng taxation of the Three Kingdoms period seems to have gone through certain changes along the development stages of the ancient state. The first taxation stage is estimated to be in the form of a tribute. Afterwards, as the governing power of central government was gradually strengthened in the subjugated places, there was a major replacement from tributary form to actual goods levy. The actual areas of such tributary collection is unknown, but the [Sejongshilok Chiriji](geographical records of Sejong chronicles of the early Choson era indicates 113 prefectures and counties as those which submit ginseng to the central government. These administrations provide permissible clues to the historic background of ginseng-taxed regions of the Three Kingdoms. The ginseng trade also is estimated to have flourished in ancient Korea through the Han commanderies of China. However, the writings of Korean ginseng trade is non-existent until 6th century A .D., Such phenomenon can be attributed to few reasons. First, the Chinese took little interest in Korean ginseng as they believed they had their own native ginseng in China. Second, same ignorance resulted from its inflowing but

  2. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection by post-irradiation injection of a thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract in mice, rats and guinea pigs was studied. The thermostable fraction lost ''by-effects'' of decrease in body weight and splenic hyperplasia which were caused in injected mice by the original ginseng extract. The fraction protected mice (male) irradiated with 720 R of X-rays and rats (male) irradiated with 825 R with the dose about 6 mg per 100 g of body weight. The fraction also protected guinea pigs, both female and male, irradiated with 325 R with the dose about 80 mg per 300 g of body weight. The thermostable fraction stimulated recovery of thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, but not leukocyte counts, in 550-R irradiated mice. Recovery of all the three blood cell counts was stimulated by the fraction in rats irradiated with 630 R and guinea pigs irradiated with 200 R. Comparison of stimulated recovery by the thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract among the three blood cell counts showed that restoring action was the most marked on thrombocyte counts, commonly in the three species of the animals. (author)

  3. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 600C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not. (author)

  4. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  5. Unexplained alveolar hemorrhage associated with Ginkgo and ginseng use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Paul V

    2015-04-01

    The author presents a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a woman consuming Ginkgo biloba extract and ginseng. The patient had no illnesses or exposures that would predispose to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and an extensive evaluation revealed no etiology. The patient has had no further bleeding since discontinuing Ginkgo biloba extract and ginseng 1 year ago. PMID:25887018

  6. Red ginseng abrogates oxidative stress via mitochondria protection mediated by LKB1-AMPK pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Jang, Eun Jeong; Kang, Seung Ho; Cho, Il Je; Park, Sun-Dong; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Young Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used as a botanical medicine throughout the history of Asian traditional Oriental medicine. Formulated red ginseng (one form of Korean ginseng) has been shown to have antioxidant and chemopreventive effects. Methods This study investigated the cytoprotective effects and mechanism of action of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) against severe ROS production and mitochondrial impairment in a cytotoxic cell model induced by AA + iron. R...

  7. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang;

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments....... aeruginosa, but significantly prevented P. aeruginosa from forming biofilm. Exposure to 0.5% ginseng aqueous extract for 24 h destroyed most 7-day-old mature biofilms formed by both mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Ginseng treatment enhanced swimming and twitching motility, but reduced swarming of...... P. aeruginosa at concentrations as low as 0.25%. Oral administration of ginseng extracts in mice promoted phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by airway phagocytes, but did not affect phagocytosis of a PAO1-filM mutant. Our study suggests that ginseng treatment may help to eradicate the biofilm...

  8. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological qualities were evaluated for the commercial red ginseng. Molds, which might cause microbial spoilage of stored ginseng, were isolated and identified for determining radiosensitivity and growth characteristics on ginseng-extract agar media. Red ginseng inoculated with isolated molds was incubated under the ideal condition following irradiation at different doses to pre-establish the effective dose-range for decontamination by confirming mold growth on the surface of the sample. At this point of time, moisture content was determined for the corresponding sample. By comparing the monolayer moisture content of red ginseng and its actual moisture level causing microbial spoilage during storage, it was intended to establish a basal condition for the continued project regarding irradiation effects on the quality of high-moisture products and their storage stability. (Author)

  9. Enhanced thermogenesis in rats by Panax ginseng, multivitamins and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ratan; Grover, S. K.; Divekar, H. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Shyam, Radhey; Srivastava, K. K.

    1996-12-01

    Substances which enhance endurance for physical and mental work and increase non-specific resistance to stress during a prolonged stay in physiologically adverse habitats are called ‘adaptogens’. Panax ginseng is well known for its anti-stress and adaptogenic properties. In the present study, adaptogenic activity by the intake of a herbo-vitamin-mineral preparation (HVMP) containing P. ginseng and multivitamin-mineral preparation (MVMP) was evaluated using the cold-hypoxia-restrained (C-H-R) animal model. The aim was to determine whether the cold tolerance and recovery from acute hypothermia mediated by P. ginseng was modified by simultaneous intake of additional vitamins and minerals. Results suggest that the adaptogenic effect of HVMP was more or less the sum total of its two components P. ginseng and MVMP. In HVMP, P. ginseng was found to be effective for developing resistance to cooling and MVMP helped in stimulating faster recovery from acute hypothermia.

  10. 人参不同部位中人参皂苷成分的分析%Composition Analysis of Ginsenoside from Different Fractions of Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫松

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the content of ginsenoside in ginseng extract by UV/HPLC. Through the approximate translation comparison of two different testing results with UV and HPLC in current market, and several typical HPLC peaks ratio analysis on contents of different ginsenoside extracted from the root, stem and leaves of ginseng, in order to establish identification method of ginsenoside from different sources. The results showed that the ratio for Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd in ginseng root extract was approximately 1:2.20:0.94:0.97. And the ratio for Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd in ginseng leave extract was approximately 1:(0.05~0.07):(0.10~0.16):(0.32~0.37). Compared with the mixture of ginseng root and ginseng leave extract, the theoretical value of Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd should between those two ratios. It was concluded that this method was simple, stable and reliable, which can be used as the identification method of ginsenoside from ginseng root, stem and leaves.%目的:建立UV/HPLC法测定人参不同部位中人参皂苷含量。方法:通过对市场上通行的UV法和HPLC法测得含量进行近似折算比较,以及对根部提取物与茎叶提取物中各人参皂苷成分HPLC出峰比例的分析,建立鉴别不同来源人参皂苷的方法。结果:人参根部提取物中,Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd皂苷比例近似为1:2.20:0.94:0.97;人参茎叶中,该比例近似为1:(0.05~0.07):(0.10~0.16):(0.32~0.37);对比掺混后的人参根部和人参茎叶提取物,Re:Rb1:Rc:Rd理论值在上述两比例之间。结论:该方法简易、稳定、可靠,可作为人参根部和茎叶提取物中人参皂苷的鉴别方法。

  11. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Red Ginseng Extracts or Red Ginseng Hydrolyzates-added Asiago Cheese during Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Min, Ji-Young; Ganesan, Palanivel; Bae, In-Hyu; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate physicochemical properties of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH)- or red ginseng extract (RGE)-added Asiago cheeses (AC) during ripening at 14°C for 4 months. The moisture content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of both RGH- and RGE- added AC (p

  12. On-line stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the separation and identification of triterpenoid saponins from ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyuan; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Hu, Chunxiu; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    A method based on stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (2D LC-ESI MS) was established and applied to analyze triterpenoid saponins from the main root of ginseng. Due to the special structure of triterpenoid saponins (they contain polar sugar side chains and nonpolar aglycones), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were used for the two dimensions, respectively. A trap column was used to connect the two dimensions. The dilution effect, which is one of the main shortcomings of traditional comprehensive 2D LC methods, was largely avoided. The peak capacity of this system was 747 and the orthogonality was 56.6 %. Compared with one-dimensional HILIC or RP LC MS analysis, 257 and 185 % more mass spectral peaks (ions with intensities that were higher than 1,000) were obtained from the ginseng main root extracts, and 94 triterpenoid saponins were identified based on MS(n) information and summarized aglycone structures. Given its good linearity and repeatability, the established method was successfully applied to classify ginsengs of different ages (i.e., years of growth), and 19 triterpenoid saponins were found through statistical analysis to vary in concentration depending on the age of the ginseng. PMID:25410638

  13. Simultaneous quantification of 19 ginsenosides in black ginseng developed from Panax ginseng by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Shen; Gu, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhe-Ming; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, Zhen; Lee, Mi-Ra; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2009-08-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed to identify and quantify 19 ginsenosides (Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rc, Rb(2), Rd, F(4), Rg(6), Rk(3), Rh(4), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rg(3), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rs(3), Rk(1), Rg(5), Rs(4), and Rs(5)) in black ginseng (BG, Korean white ginseng that was subjected to nine cycles of steam treatment). Ultrasonication is employed for sample preparation, and the analysis is achieved on a Discovery C(18) column using gradient elution of CH(3)CN-H(2)O-CH(3)COOH without buffer in 40min. The method was validated by linearity (r(2)> or =0.9994), precision (92.0-107.5%), intra- and inter-day accuracy (R.S.D.<3.21%), and limit of detection (LOD< or =93ng). The quantification method was applied to analyze the composition of ginsenosides in Korean white, red, and black ginsengs. During the preparatory process of BG, ginsenosides transform into constituents of low polarity by hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration at C-20, and hydrolysis also occurs at C-3 or C-6. The validated HPLC method is expected to provide the basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products. PMID:19394786

  14. Localization of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with different age by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hangrui; Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Jianjun; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-07-15

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. (P. ginseng) is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines, with ginsenosides as its main bioactive components. Because different ginsenosides have varied pharmacological effects, extraction and separation of ginsenosides are usually required for the investigation of pharmacological effects of different ginsenosides. However, the contents of ginsenosides vary with the ages and tissues of P. ginseng root. In this research, an efficient method to explore the distribution of ginsenosides and differentiate P. ginseng roots with different ages was developed based on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI). After a simple sample preparation, there were 18 peaks corresponding to 31 ginsenosides with distinct localization in the mass range of m/z 700-1400 identified by MALDI-TOF-MSI and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. All the three types of ginsenosides were successfully detected and visualized in images, which could be correlated with anatomical features. The P. ginseng at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 could be differentiated finely through the principal component analysis of data collected from the cork based on the ion images but not data from the whole tissue. The experimental result implies that the established method for the direct analysis of metabolites in plant tissues has high potential for the rapid identification of metabolites and analysis of their localizations in medicinal herbs. Furthermore, this technique also provides valuable information for the component-specific extraction and pharmacological research of herbs. PMID:26520809

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of a formula developed from American ginseng and Chinese jujube extracts in mice%题目:复方西洋参和红枣制剂对小鼠免疫功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo-ping YU; Dong-dong XU; Lai-feng LU; Xiao-dong ZHENG‡; Wei CHEN‡

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评价复方西洋参和红枣制剂对于小鼠非特异性免疫和特异性免疫的影响,为开发新产品奠定基础。创新点:本文首次以西洋参提取物和红枣提取物为原料制成复方制剂,并通过动物实验发现该制剂具有增强免疫功能,为开发功能性食品提供新思路。方法:将西洋参与红枣提取物按一定比例制备复方制剂,以1.3、2.6和5.2 g/kg为低、中和高剂量给健康ICR小鼠连续灌胃此复方制剂4周,对照组灌胃同等剂量的无菌水,最后通过测定免疫相关指标对该复方制剂的免疫调节功能进行综合评价。结论:此款复方制剂可以显著提高小鼠的胸腺和脾脏指数(表1),同时低剂量组小鼠的血清溶血素水平显著高于对照组,高剂量组小鼠的脾淋巴细胞增值能力约是对照组的2.4倍,自然杀伤细胞的活性也得到显著增强,中剂量组小鼠的NK细胞活性与对照组相比提高了78.6%(图2)。另外,此复方制剂能有效提高小鼠组织(肝脏、脾脏和胸腺)和血清中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性,同时降低丙二醛( MDA )的含量(图3~6)。综上所述,此复方西洋参和红枣制剂可有效提高健康 ICR 小鼠的非特异性和特异性免疫功能,而其抗氧化功能有可能是其免疫调节活性的作用机制之一。%Background: American ginseng (Panax quinquefoliusL.) and Chinese jujube (Zizyphus jujubaMil.) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to enhance immune function. Objective: The present study aimed to develop one Chinese prescription, Shenzao Cha (SZC), consisting of American ginseng and Chinese jujube, and systematically investigate its immunomodulation in healthy ICR mice. Methods: Normal ICR mice received intragastric administration of SZC (1.3, 2.6, and 5.2 g raw material/kg body weight) once daily

  16. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byeon, Meong Uh; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-10-01

    The fourth year research program on Korean ginseng was carried out in order to improve in the microbiological quality and physical properties of red ginseng and its processing by application of irradiation technology. The quality of red ginseng and their products were strictly controlled by government invested Korean Tobacco Ginseng Co., but there is a need of alternative technology for decontaminating and disinfestating in view of supplying stable raw material and securing the hygienic production because the use of food fumigants and preservatives has been restricted due to their harmful effects on human and environment. It is desirable that the limited moisture content of red ginseng product should be increased, considering the economic and physical properties of its products, by application of irradiation technology for sterilization of prepackaged red ginseng products. Red ginseng products were irradiated at dose of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy respectively, following moisture content of sample were increased up to 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% by keeping at humidity controlled desiccator. Each sample stored at ambient temperature (20 deg C, 70% RH) and accelerated storage condition (40 deg C, 90% RH) were used for the evaluation of microbiological quality, TBA value, color difference measurement, hydrogen donating activity, HPLC pattern and content of saponins, change of fatty acids and characteristics of moisture absorption.

  17. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth year research program on Korean ginseng was carried out in order to improve in the microbiological quality and physical properties of red ginseng and its processing by application of irradiation technology. The quality of red ginseng and their products were strictly controlled by government invested Korean Tobacco Ginseng Co., but there is a need of alternative technology for decontaminating and disinfestating in view of supplying stable raw material and securing the hygienic production because the use of food fumigants and preservatives has been restricted due to their harmful effects on human and environment. It is desirable that the limited moisture content of red ginseng product should be increased, considering the economic and physical properties of its products, by application of irradiation technology for sterilization of prepackaged red ginseng products. Red ginseng products were irradiated at dose of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy respectively, following moisture content of sample were increased up to 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% by keeping at humidity controlled desiccator. Each sample stored at ambient temperature (20 deg C, 70% RH) and accelerated storage condition (40 deg C, 90% RH) were used for the evaluation of microbiological quality, TBA value, color difference measurement, hydrogen donating activity, HPLC pattern and content of saponins, change of fatty acids and characteristics of moisture absorption

  18. 栽参土壤提取物活性组分筛选及其对人参幼苗生理效应研究%Study on Screening of Active Constituents from Extracts on Soil Cultivated Ginseng and Their Effects on Physiology of Ginseng Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵财; 郭靖; 许世泉; 王志清; 王英平

    2012-01-01

    Two methods were applied in the study that used different chemical reagents (Ethyl acetate, Water-saturated N-butanol) to extract aquatic extracts from cultivated ginseng soil and directly used different chemical reagents (Ethyl acetate, N-butanol, Methanol, Distilled water) to extract cultivated ginseng soil. Activity of each constituent was determined with ginseng seeds. Root vigor and MDA content of ginseng seedling was determined after treated with higher activity constituents. The results showed that each constituent of extracts from cultivated ginseng soil had effects on radicles growth of ginseng seeds in various degree, and inhibited effects were strengthened with concentration increasing. Both ethyl acetate phase of aquatic extracts and ethyl acetate extracts from cultivated ginseng soil manifested stronger inhibited effects, and both constituents had significant effects on rool vigor and MDA content of ginseng seedling. The content of MDA increased 23.8% and 37.5%, respectively, which was dramatically different from that of control(P<0.01). The root vigor decreased 17.2% and 27.1%, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of control (P<0.01). Thus, it is an effective approach that we extract cultivated ginseng soil with ethyl acetate to gain a part of ginseng allelochemicals, which could promote root cell membrane lipid peroxidation and increase membrane permeability, and reduce root activity of ginseng seedling and influence its growth and development.%研究了栽参土壤水提取液用不同化学试剂(乙酸乙酯、水饱和正丁醇)萃取和直接采用不同化学试剂(乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、甲醇和蒸馏水)提取,对所得各个组分以人参种子为试材进行生物活性测定,经筛选所得活性较强组分再以人参幼苗为试材进行其根系活力和丙二醛含量测定.结果表明:栽参土壤提取液不同组分均对人参种子胚根生长有不同程度的影响,抑制作

  19. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos; Luiz A. Lima Júnior

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008) linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011). The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear cha...

  20. Spatio-Temporal Expression Pattern of Six Novel Candidate Genes in Ginsenoside Biosynthesis from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong LUO; Shui-Ping LIU; Xiang-Hui CHEN; Ying RUAN; Jian-Qing LUO; Bin WEN; Chun-Lin LIU; Wei-Xin HU

    2005-01-01

    To explore the mode of the spatio-temporal expression of six newly discovered ginsenoside biosynthesis candidate gene transcripts, both Northern blotting and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to elucidate the mRNA expression levels of the transcripts in various tissues and organs of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer during different growth development stages. The six gene transcripts were all differentially expressed in cultured callus, root, stem, leaf, and seed.The mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in four-year-old roots than in one-year-old roots, and results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays were in accordance with those of Northern blotting analyses.The results strongly suggest that all six genes were differentially expressed at root-specific developmental stages. In particular, when a quiescent early stage culture suspension of P. ginseng cells was exposed to the ginsenoside biosynthesis-promoting elicitor Aspergillus niger polysaccharide, the GBR6 gene transcript response showed time-dependent increments and was parallel with ginsenoside productivity (P < 0.01).Overexpression of the GBR6 gene is likely to play a critically important role in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.The results of the present study provided a background for the further elucidation of the structure and physiological function of these six candidate genes.

  1. Writing, Religious Faith, and Rooted Cosmopolitan Dialogue: Portraits of Two American Evangelical Men in a Public School English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwik, Mary M.; McKenzie, Cori

    2015-01-01

    Some literacy scholars have embraced rooted cosmopolitanism as a framework for educating in today's globalized and pluralistic world, where communicating across difference is an important individual and societal good. But how is the "cosmopolitan turn" in writing complicated by considering the religiosity of writing teachers and student…

  2. Ethosomes and Transfersomes for Topical Delivery of Ginsenoside Rhl from Red Ginseng: Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sun-Hang; Yun, Je-Jung; Yu, Young-Beob; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    Red ginseng (the steamed root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer), which contains ginsenosides as its main constituents, is frequently used to treat tumor, inflammation, diabetes, stress and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Asian countries. Ginsenoside Rhl, a bacterial metabolite of ginsenoside Rgl, is a protopanaxatriol type of ginsenosides. Liposomes do not deeply penetrate the skin and remain confined to the stratum corneum.Thus, new vesicular colloidal carriers such as ethosomes and transfersomes have been developed as an enhanced type of liposomes, recently. The aim of this study was to improve the topical delivery of ginsenoside Rhl isolated from red ginseng employing new vesicular system of ethosomes and transfersomes compared to conventional liposome. Characterization of ginsenoside Rhl-loaded vesicles were prepared and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. In addition, skin permeation profile was obtained using frantz diffusion cells and rat dorsal skin treated with ethosome and transfersome compared with conventional iposome. The size of vesicles range from 108.5 to 322.9 nm, and negatively charged from -20.95 to -31.37 mV. The % EE of ginsenoside Rh1 was obtained between 45.0 to 65.0%. Transfersomes provided a significantly higher skin permeation of ginsenoside Rhl compared to ethosome and conventional liposome. Therefore, based on the current study, ginsenoside Rhl-loaded transfersomes can act as a topical therapeutic effects potential. PMID:26369134

  3. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine— Ginseng (II): Collected Chemical Entities, Modern Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications Emanated from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The ‘Yin and Yang’ theory and the fundamentals of the ‘five elements’ applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers unde...

  4. Isolation of Organochlorine Pesticide from Ginseng with Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芬; 王幼君; 全灿; 田松江

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of removal of the organochlorine pesticides residues of hexachlorocyclohexane(BHC) from radix ginseng with supercritical CO2 was explored. Some factors, such as extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and kinds of co-solvents were investigated. The experimental results indicate that it is possible to reduce BHC residues in radix ginseng to the level of 0.1 × 10-6 with supercritical CO2 in the presence of suitable amount of co-solvent, such as water.

  5. Processed Vietnamese ginseng: Preliminary results in chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Seo Young; Kim, Tae Ryong; Kim, Jae Young; Kwon, Sung Won; NGUYEN, NGOC KHOI; Park, Jeong Hill; Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the steaming process on chemical constituents, free radical scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effect of Vietnamese ginseng. Methods Samples of powdered Vietnamese ginseng were steamed at 120°C for various times and their extracts were subjected to chemical and biological studies. Results Upon steaming, contents of polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1, were rapidly decreased, whereas less polar ginsenos...

  6. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Seok Lee; Hye Suk Hwang; Eun-Ju Ko; Yu-Na Lee; Young-Man Kwon; Min-Chul Kim; Sang-Moo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A...

  7. New Achievements in Ginseng Research and Its Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚世峰; 张均田

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades,scientists in Asian and Western countries have been paying great attention to ginseng research.Today,more than 200 ginsenosides and non-saponin constituents have been isolated and identified.Ginsenosides show biological activities only after being deglycosylated by intestinal bacteria.Aglycone protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol show the highest bioactivities.According to literature,the noticeable action of ginseng is that of delaying aging and especially increasing the nootropic effec...

  8. New Branches from Old Roots: Experts Respond to Questions about African American English Development and Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Frances A.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Green, Lisa J.; Roeper, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a question-and-answer format to respond to questions about working with children who speak African American English (AAE) in clinical and educational contexts. The respondents urge speech-language pathologists to appreciate AAE as students' first language, to view all language for its communicative potential, and to remain aware…

  9. Black Ginseng Extract Counteracts Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Kim

    Full Text Available Black ginseng, a new type of processed ginseng that has a unique ginsenoside profile, has been shown to display potent pharmacological activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Although red ginseng is considered beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, the relationship between black ginseng and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of black ginseng extract (BGE in streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice, in comparison with red ginseng extract (RGE. HPLC analyses showed that BGE has a different ginsenoside composition to RGE; BGE contains Rg5 and compound k as the major ginsenosides. BGE at 200 mg/kg reduced hyperglycemia, increased the insulin/glucose ratio and improved islet architecture and β-cell function in STZ-treated mice. The inhibition of β-cell apoptosis by BGE was associated with suppression of the cytokine-induced nuclear factor-κB-mediated signaling pathway in the pancreas. Moreover, these anti-diabetic effects of BGE were more potent than those of RGE. Collectively, our data indicate that BGE, in part by suppressing cytokine-induced apoptotic signaling, protects β-cells from oxidative injury and counteracts diabetes in mice.

  10. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the feasibility for the sterilization of Korean red and white ginseng powder by irradiation, red and white ginseng powder (120 mesh) was irradiated by 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad with 60Co irradiator (dose rate: 4000 rad/h). Extraction rate of crude saponins by buthanol and by 50% ethanol were slightly increased according to the irradiation dose (buthanol ex. 1.7%, 50% ethanol ex. 2.6%) at 1.0 Mrad irradiation. There are no remarkable changes in HPLC patterns of crude saponins by radiation. It was found that irradiation up to 1 Mrad on Korean ginseng products have no significant effect on proximate component, reducing sugar and amino nitrogen of ginseng powder and on the color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. Irradiation up to 1 Mrad could be utilized for the sterilization of Korean ginseng powder without changes of physicochemical properties. (Author)

  11. Black Ginseng Extract Counteracts Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Cho, Hyung Taek; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    Black ginseng, a new type of processed ginseng that has a unique ginsenoside profile, has been shown to display potent pharmacological activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Although red ginseng is considered beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, the relationship between black ginseng and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of black ginseng extract (BGE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice, in comparison with red ginseng extract (RGE). HPLC analyses showed that BGE has a different ginsenoside composition to RGE; BGE contains Rg5 and compound k as the major ginsenosides. BGE at 200 mg/kg reduced hyperglycemia, increased the insulin/glucose ratio and improved islet architecture and β-cell function in STZ-treated mice. The inhibition of β-cell apoptosis by BGE was associated with suppression of the cytokine-induced nuclear factor-κB-mediated signaling pathway in the pancreas. Moreover, these anti-diabetic effects of BGE were more potent than those of RGE. Collectively, our data indicate that BGE, in part by suppressing cytokine-induced apoptotic signaling, protects β-cells from oxidative injury and counteracts diabetes in mice. PMID:26751692

  12. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  13. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author)

  14. Polygalacturonase inhibiting protein: isolation, developmental regulation and pathogen related expression in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Subramanium, Sathiyamoorty; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2010-10-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are the major defense proteins which play an important role in resistance to infection of pathogens. A putative novel gene encoding PGIP was isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which shows 70.3 and 68.4% homology with chick pea and Arabidopsis PGIPs. The RACE PCR was preformed to isolate the full-length PGIP cDNA from Panax ginseng. Sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA of PgPGIP is of 1,275 bp in length and that it's containing ORF encodes for a polypeptide of 366 amino acids. Domain analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of PgPGIP have a typical PGIP topology. The transcription level of PgPGIP was up-regulated in ginseng in response to wounding and infection with phytopathogenic fungi i.e., Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythium ultimum, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cylindrocarpon destructans, which causes drastic damage in ginseng plants. The constitutive PgPGIP expression of 4 years old plant, showed elevated transcript level, especially roots, showed maximum then buds, stems and leaves, indicating that the gene is developmentally regulated. The crude PGIP extracts derived from the fungal infected plants directly reduces the aggressive potential of PGs from diverse group of fungi. Like other PGIPs, PgPGIP also possess board spectrum of inhibitory activity. Thus, the presence of PgPGIP gene and their active role in defense mechanism was proved. The structural model of PgPGIP was predicted based on the alignment generated by EBI-Align, the program "MOODELLER" and the predicted structure showed 10 β-strands and 10 α-helixes region. PMID:19946753

  15. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  16. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation. 1. Effect of gamma irradiation by physicochemical properties of Ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S. (Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Cho, H.O. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1982-06-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility for the sterilization of Korean red and white ginseng powder by irradiation, red and white ginseng powder (120 mesh) was irradiated by 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad with /sup 60/Co irradiator (dose rate: 4000 rad/h). Extraction rate of crude saponins by buthanol and by 50% ethanol were slightly increased according to the irradiation dose (buthanol ex. 1.7%, 50% ethanol ex. 2.6%) at 1.0 Mrad irradiation. There are no remarkable changes in HPLC patterns of crude saponins by radiation. It was found that irradiation up to 1 Mrad on Korean ginseng products have no significant effect on proximate component, reducing sugar and amino nitrogen of ginseng powder and on the color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. Irradiation up to 1 Mrad could be utilized for the sterilization of Korean ginseng powder without changes of physicochemical properties.

  17. Quality and antioxidant activity of ginseng seed processed by fermentation strains

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Sung-Soo; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermentation technology is widely used to alter the effective components of ginseng. This study was carried out to analyze the characteristics and antioxidant activity of ginseng seeds fermented by Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus strains. Methods For ginseng seed fermentation, 1% of each strain was inoculated on sterilized ginseng seeds and then incubated at 30°C for 24 h in an incubator. Results The total sugar content, acidic polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds, incl...

  18. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, JunSang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, KwangHo; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in...

  19. Discrimination of white ginseng origins using multivariate statistical analysis of data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Moon, Ji Young; Ryu, Hyung Won; Noh, Bong-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    Background White ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is commonly distributed as a health food in food markets. However, there is no practical method for distinguishing Korean white ginseng (KWG) from Chinese white ginseng (CWG), except for relying on the traceability system in the market. Methods Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to discriminate between KWG...

  20. Radio Protective Effects of Ginseng Extract in Gamma-Rays Induced Chromosomal Damages of Human Lymphocyte

    OpenAIRE

    M. Syaifudin; Jie- Young Song; Yun- Sil Lee; Chang- Mo Kang

    2008-01-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng and subsequently referred as ginseng, posses various biological properties as an anticancer and antioxidant agent. Ginseng also approved effective against radiation effects through its immunomodulating actions in whole body irradiated mouse. But its protective effects on radiation induced DNA damage are not thoroughly investigated, mainly in human. This experiment aimed to assess the effects of ginseng at 2 working doses in suppressing rad...

  1. Korean Ginseng-Induced Occupational Asthma and Determination of IgE Binding Components

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung-Mook; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Jeon, Sung-Gyu; Park, Chang-Han; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Kim, Duck-In; Kim, Sun-Sin; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young

    2008-01-01

    A number of case reports on occupational asthma caused by herbal medicines have been issued, for example, on Sanyak, Chunkung, Banha, and Brazilian ginseng. Recently, cases of occupational asthma induced by Sanyak and Korean ginseng have been reported, but the pathogenic mechanisms involved are unknown. This study was carried out to evaluate the immunologic mechanism underlying Korean ginseng-induced occupational asthma. A patient engaged in Korean ginseng wholesale was referred for recurrent...

  2. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65℃ was the highest, at 1...

  3. Chasing ancestors: searching for the roots of American Sign Language in the Kentish Weald, 1620-1851

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzel, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Late twentieth-century discourses regarding deaf people and sign language provide the theoretical background for investigating early modern families with hereditary deafness within the Kentish Weald. The first of its kind, this thesis described the methods used to ascertain the presence of sufficient numbers of networked deaf people to maintain natural sign language. A source-driven work, it began with two data sources - a list generated by previous American genealogical research of the f...

  4. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection from bone marrow death by a single injection of partially purified ginseng extract after whole-body X-irradiation was confirmed in JCL-ICR mice. The extract was efficacious both by intraperitoneal and intravenous injection. The extract protected mice when it was injected from 2 days before irradiation to 2.5 hr after that. Recovery of splenic weight and splenic DNA was stimulated by the extract, but that of thymic weight was not. Stimulated recovery by the extract was also observed in thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, while the extract did not markedly affect recovery of leukocyte counts. The extract also increased 30-day survival ratio of splenectomized mice. In splenectomized mice recovery of only thrombocyte counts was stimulated by the extract. Recovery of thrombocyte counts after exposure is assumed one of the most important factors for restoration of bone marrow death. (author)

  5. Determination of 10 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng of different harvest times based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengqin; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2013-01-01

    A combinative method of HPLC fingerprinting and quantitative determination was successfully applied to monitor dynamic accumulation of ginsenosides in five-year-old Panax ginseng roots from different harvest times. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 1 mmol · L(-1) KH2PO4 buffer solution at 203 nm. The result indicated that the contents of total ginsenosides showed significant variations, and a decrease tendency appeared in the growth period of the fifth year. PMID:22871218

  6. Ginsenosides from different parts in Dunhua ginseng%敦化人参各部位皂苷组分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常建涛; 富瑶瑶; 吴迪; 鱼红闪; 金凤燮

    2011-01-01

    采用薄层层析、高效液相色谱检测等方法,对敦化产四年白参参头、主根和须根部位皂苷的组成和含量进行测定.研究结果表明,白参各部位中皂苷组成区别不大,参头、主根和须根部位中均含有原人参二醇型皂苷Rb1、Rc、Rb2、Rd和原人参三醇型皂苷Rg1、Re、Rf,其中人参参头部位皂苷含量最高,须根部分次之,主根部分最低.总皂苷质量分数分别为参头0.781%,须根0.308%,主根0.068%.经高效液相色谱检测未发现敦化人参中含有C-K、Rh2、Rg3等人参稀有皂苷.%The components of Dunhua ginseng was studied and organic solvent extraction, TLC, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC methods were used to detect ginsenoside in Dunhua ginseng.Ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd was obtained from the rhizome, roots and fiber of Dunhua ginseng, the highest content was rhizome, the second was the fiber, the least was the roots.The contents of total ginsenoside were 0. 781% in roots, 0. 308% in fiber, and 0.068% in rhizome.The minor ginsenoside C-K, Rh2, Rg3 were not detected in Dunhua ginseng.

  7. Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax Ginseng Meyer) on bisphenol A exposure and gynecologic complaints: single blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mihi; Lee, Ho-Sun; Hwang, Min-Woo; Jin, Mirim

    2014-01-01

    Background Korean red ginseng (KRG) is a processed ginseng from raw ginseng to enhance safety, preservation and efficacy, known having beneficial effects on women’s health due to its estrogen like function. While estrogen supplementation showed some modulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) has been focused as a potential endocrine disrupting chemical. In this study, we examined the efficacy and safety outcomes of KRG against BPA, focusing on female quality of life (QOL)...

  8. Simultaneous quantification of 14 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean red ginseng) by HPLC-ELSD and its application to quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Na; Ha, Young Wan; Shin, Heungsop; Son, Sung Ho; Wu, Song Ji; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2007-09-21

    A new method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 14 major ginsenosides, which are the marker compounds of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean red ginseng). Various types of ginseng samples were extracted, and the amounts of the 14 ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd, Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, and Rh2) were determined by reverse-phase HPLC-ELSD using digoxin as an internal standard. The mobile phase consisted of a programmed gradient of aqueous acetonitrile. Calibration curves for each ginsenoside were determined for the quantification. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. This quantification method was applied to several finished ginseng products including white ginseng, red ginseng powder, and red ginseng concentrate. The amounts of the 14 ginsenosides in the various ginseng samples could be analyzed simultaneously. This validated HPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products. PMID:17560064

  9. Studies on safety and efficiency of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the biological quality improvement and preservation of white ginseng which has problems in a hygienic quality and storage stability. The current phosphine treatment showed no influence on microorganisms contaminated even though it was very useful for disinfestation of the sample, while 5 kGy irradiation effectively controlled the biological quality of the stored sample, with minimal effects on the quality parameters of white ginseng. Thus, it is concluded that gamma irradiation at a range of 5 kGy can be an alternative method of chemical fumigants provided air-tight packaging excluding recontamination is used for the stored product. (Author)

  10. 放线菌制剂对人参生长及根域土壤微生物区系的影响%Effects of actinomycetes agent on ginseng growth and rhizosphere soil microflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿雁; 薛泉宏; 申光辉; 王东胜

    2013-01-01

    Taking the ginseng in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as test object,this paper studied the effects of applying Streptomyces pactum (Act12) on ginseng growth and on the soil microflora in root zone and root surface.After treated with Act12,the yield and quality of ginseng' s medicinal part improved,the induced enzyme activities in leaves and the root activity increased,and the numbers and proportions of soil bacteria and actinomycetes increased significantly while those of soil fungi decreased.Compared with the control,the soil microflora in treatment Act12 changed.The numbers of the dominant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens,Pseudomonas koreensis,and Microbacterium oxydans were much higher in root zone soil and root surface soil,and the pathogen Plectosphaerella cucumerina decreased in root zone soil and disappeared in root surface soil.These results suggested that the addition of Act12 could improve the soil microflora,enhance the resistance and root activity of ginseng plant,and increase the ginseng yield and its quality.%以小兴安岭地区人参为研究对象,探索放线菌制剂对人参的促生效应及对人参根区、根表土壤微生物区系的影响.结果表明:经放线菌制剂Streptomyces pactum(Act12)处理后,人参药用部分产量增加,品质改善;叶片诱导酶活性提高,根系活力增强;土壤中细菌、放线菌的数量和比例显著增加,真菌的数量和比例减少.与对照相比,土壤微生物区系结构改变:优势菌荧光假单胞菌、韩国假单胞菌和氧化微杆菌在根区、根表土壤中的数量大幅提高;病原真菌烟色织孢霉在根区土壤中减少,在根表土壤中消失.表明施用放线菌制剂Act12能够改善土壤微生物区系,提高人参植株的抗性和根系活力,增加产量并改善品质.

  11. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 1. Responses of x-irradiated mice to ginseng extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A.; Yonezawa, M.; Katoh, N. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Radiation protection from bone marrow death by a single injection of partially purified ginseng extract after whole-body X-irradiation was confirmed in JCL-ICR mice. The extract was efficacious both by intraperitoneal and intravenous injection. The extract protected mice when it was injected from 2 days before irradiation to 2.5 hr after that. Recovery of splenic weight and splenic DNA was stimulated by the extract, but that of thymic weight was not. Stimulated recovery by the extract was also observed in thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, while the extract did not markedly affect recovery of leukocyte counts. The extract also increased 30-day survival ratio of splenectomized mice. In splenectomized mice recovery of only thrombocyte counts was stimulated by the extract. Recovery of thrombocyte counts after exposure is assumed one of the most important factors for restoration of bone marrow death.

  12. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Hwan Kim; Seung Hyun Jeon; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek; Jong Kwan Park; Nae Young Youn; Hyung-Lae Lee

    2009-01-01

    Korean ginseng and mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) are important traditional herbal plants whose ginsenosides are generally accepted as serving to improve sexual functions, such as penile erection. We investigated the effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng extract (TMGE) on male patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 143 patients experiencing ED. Over the course of 8 weeks, one group took 1 000 mg of TMGE twice a day, and the other group took 1 000 mg of placebo twice a day. The effects of the TMGE and the placebo were analyzed using the Korean version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. A total of 86 patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. The scores on the five domains of the IIEF after medication were significantly higher than the baseline scores in the group treated with TMGE (P0.05). Erectile function and overall satisfaction scores after medication were significantly higher in the TMGE group than in the placebo group (P<0.05). Erectile function of patients in the TMGE-treated group significantly improved, suggesting that TMGE could be utilized for improving erectile function in male patients.

  13. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B1 and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2, Rg3 and Rg5, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg3 and Rg5 showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh2 had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5 and Rh2

  14. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alo...

  15. Korean Red Ginseng Powder in the Treatment of Melasma: An Uncontrolled Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Margaret; Mun, Je-Ho; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to the sun, ultraviolet radiation, and oxidative stress are the chief etiologic factors responsible for melasma. The ingredients of Korean red ginseng powder, which include ginsenoside and phenolic compounds, have antioxidative effects and reduce ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Korean red ginseng powder in patients with melasma. In 25 female patients, 3 g of Korean red ginseng powder was orally administered for a...

  16. The Effect of Red Ginseng Extract on Inflammatory Cytokines after Chemotherapy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Min; Hah, Jeong Ok; Kim, Hee Sun

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng has been used as an herbal medicine, widely used in Asian countries, for long time. Recently, beneficial effects for immune functions of Korean red ginseng (KRG) have been reported in adults. This study was performed to investigate the effects of ginseng on immune functions in children after cessation of chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation for advanced cancer. Thirty patients, who were diagnosed and treated for leukemia and solid cancer at the department of pediatrics and adoles...

  17. Organelle movement in melanophores: Effects of Panax ginseng, ginsenosides and quercetin

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Therese

    2009-01-01

    Panax ginseng is a traditional herb that has been used for over 2000 years to promote health and longevity. Active components of ginseng include ginsenosides, polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, peptides, vitamins, phenols and enzymes, of which the ginsenosides are considered to be the major bioactive constituents. Although widely used, the exact mechanisms of ginseng and its compounds remain unclear. In this thesis we use melanophores from Xenopus laevis to investigate the effects o...

  18. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides from Red Ginseng Extract Using Candida allociferrii JNO301 Isolated from Meju

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sulhee; Lee, Yong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Jang, Jae Kweon; Park, Young-Seo

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng), a Korean traditional medicinal plant, contains a variety of ginsenosides as major functional components. It is necessary to remove sugar moieties from the major ginsenosides, which have a lower absorption rate into the intestine, to obtain the aglycone form. To screen for microorganisms showing bioconversion activity for ginsenosides from red ginseng, 50 yeast strains were isolated from Korean traditional meju (a starter culture made with soybean and wheat flour f...

  19. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capaci...

  20. Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed usin...

  1. Antioxidant activity of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest with different growing years

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Hong-Yan; Qu, Yang; Zhang, Jian-kui; Kang, Ting-guo; Dou, De-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng cultivated and grown naturally under mountainous forest is formally called “Lin-Xia-Shan-Shen” (LXSS) and grown in manual condition is called garden ginseng (GG) according to Chinese pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). Usually the growing condition of LXSS is similar to wild ginseng and mostly used in Chinese folks in ancient times. The antioxidant properties of LXSS with different growing years were evaluated by their inhibitions of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) formation...

  2. The Efficacy of Ginseng-Related Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Qi-Feng; Xu, Zhe-Rong; Xu, Ke-ying; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of ginseng in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current meta-analysis evaluated the ginseng-induced improvement in glucose control and insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Randomized clinical trials comparing ginseng supplementation versus control, in patients with T2DM or impaired glucose tolerance, were hand-searched from Medline, Cochrane, and Google Scholar d...

  3. 3种人参中的皂苷的组成%Ginsenoside contents in three different ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春莹; 宋建国; 李鹏飞; 鱼红闪; 金凤燮

    2011-01-01

    研究了市销人参、西洋参和三七参根部中总皂苷的含量及组成.采用正丁醇萃取法提取总皂苷发现:总皂苷在人参主根、须根中的质量分数分别为4.0%、6.1%;在西洋参主根、须根中的质量分数分别为4.1%、6.3%;在三七参主根、须根中的质量分数分别为8.2%、1.7%.人参、西洋参须根中总皂苷的质量分数均高于主根,是其1.5倍;而三七参主根中总皂苷的质量分数高于须根,是其3倍.TLC和HPLC检测结果表明,人参中各种皂苷的质量分数差别不大,主根、须根的ω(PPD)/ω(PPT)分别为37:58、66:33,人参中含有特征皂苷Rf,其质量分数为5%~8%,人参中还含有微量R1.西洋参中Re、Rb1含量较高,占总皂苷的40%~50%,主根、须根的ω(PPD)/ω(PPT)分别为50:43、58:39,西洋参中不含有R1和Rf皂苷.三七参中Rg1、Rb1的质量分数较高,占总皂苷的70%,其主根、须根总皂苷组成相似,三七参中含有特征皂苷R1,其质量分数为9%~11%.%The component of ginsenosides in different ginseng was investigated. The content of total ginsenosides extracted by butanol from root and fiber was 4.0% and 6.1% in ginseng, 4. 1% and 6.3 % in gen-seng and 8.2 % and 1.7 % in notoginseng. The ginsenoside in fiber is higher than that in root for ginseng and gen-seng, but ginsenoside in root is higher than that in fiber for notoginseng. When detected by TLC and HPLC, the value of w(PPD)/w(PPT) were 48: 52 and 70: 30 in the root and fiber respectively and the content of Rf was 5%-8%. Ginseng also contained R1. The higher content of gen-seng is Re and Rb1 which is about 40%-50% in total ginsenoside. The value of w(PPD)/w(PPT) is 57: 43 and 61: 39 in the root and fiber respectively. R1 and Rf can not detected in gen-seng. The higher content of notoginseng is Rg1 and Rb1 with 70% in the total ginsenoside. The composition of total ginsenoside in the root is similar to that in fiber of notoginseng. The

  4. Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Seung Ok; Park, Hae Ran; Sohn, Eun Suk; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyung Don; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Kee Hong; Na, Sae Won; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Young Ock

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng is a famous traditional medicine in Korea for its beneficial effect on obesity, cardiac and liver associated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolite in Panax ginseng (P. ginseng, Aralicaceae) berries depending on the ripen stages and evaluate its potential inhibition on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells. Methods Different ripening stage samples of P. ginseng berry were analyzed through global metabolite profiling by NMR spectroscopy....

  5. A 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate the geographical authenticity of herbal medicine and its application in building a model effectively assessing the mixing proportion of intentional admixtures: A case study of Panax ginseng: Metabolomics for the authenticity of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Geun; Min, Jung-Eun; Yoon, Sang Jun; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Lim, Johan; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-05-30

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng has long been the subject of adulteration, especially regarding its origins. Here, 60 ginseng samples from Korea and China initially displayed similar genetic makeup when investigated by DNA-based technique with 23 chloroplast intergenic space regions. Hence, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with orthogonal projections on the latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied and successfully distinguished between samples from two countries using seven primary metabolites as discrimination markers. Furthermore, to recreate adulteration in reality, 21 mixed samples of numerous Korea/China ratios were tested with the newly built OPLS-DA model. The results showed satisfactory separation according to the proportion of mixing. Finally, a procedure for assessing mixing proportion of intentionally blended samples that achieved good predictability (adjusted R(2)=0.8343) was constructed, thus verifying its promising application to quality control of herbal foods by pointing out the possible mixing ratio of falsified samples. PMID:26942336

  6. 人参和其他中草药的遗传学鉴定%Genetic authentication of ginseng and other traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C C HON; Y C CHOW; F Y ZENG; F C C LEUNG

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the chemical and genetic methods used in authentication of ginseng, especially the recent advances in microsatellite genotyping and its application to the authentication of other traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The standardization and modernization of TCM hinge on the authentication of their botanical identities. Analysis of well-characterized marker compounds is now the most popular method for identifying the herbal materials and quality control of TCM, eg, ginsenoside profiling for authentication of Panax species. However, in many herbal species the chemical composition of the plant changes with the external environment and processing conditions, which lowers the reliability of these authentication methods. In the light of the advances in molecular biotechnology in the past few decades, genetic tools are now considered to provide more standardized and reliable methods for authentication of herbal materials at the DNA level. These genetic tools include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), DNA fingerprinting using multi-loci probes, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and microsatellite marker technology. The practicality of these methods varies in terms of their sensitivity, reliability, reproducibility, and running cost. Using ginseng as an example, we reviewed the advantages and limitations of these molecular techniques in TCM authentication. We have developed a set of microsatellite markers from American ginseng that are able to differentiate Panax ginseng and Panax quinquetolius with the resolution down to farm level, ie, confirmation of its botanical identity and origin. Compared with other molecular techniques, microsatellite marker technology is more robust, accurate, reproducible, reliable, and sensitive. This is essential for large-scale TCM authentication centers.

  7. Alteration of Panax ginseng saponin composition by overexpression and RNA interference of the protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase gene (CYP716A53v2)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong-Bum; Chun, Ju-Hyeon; Ban, Yong-Wook; Han, Jung Yeon; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-01-01

    Background The roots of Panax ginseng contain noble tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins derived from dammarenediol-II. Dammarene-type ginsenosides are classified into the protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) groups based on their triterpene aglycone structures. Two cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are critical for the production of PPD and PPT aglycones, respectively. CYP716A53v2 is a protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase that catalyzes PPT production from PPD in P. g...

  8. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population. PMID:27420983

  9. IN VITRO CULTURE OF PETIOLE LONGITUDINAL THIN CELL LAYER EXPLANTS OF VIETNAMESE GINSENG ( PANAX VIETNAMENSIS HA ET GRUSHV. AND PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF SAPONIN CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Tan Nhut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a procedure that allows for the easy and rapid induction of somaticembryos, calli, shoots and adventitious roots of Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. fromlongitudinalthin cell layers (lTCLs. In order to investigate the morphogenesis of this medicinal plant, the effect ofseparately–supplemented plant growth regulators and combinatorial effect of co–supplemented auxins and cytokininsin dark or under 16-hour photoperiod was examined. After eight weeks of culture, the lTCL explants excised frompetiole of three-month-old in vitro plants and cultured on a semi solid basal Murashige and Skoog (MS mediasupplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-Dand 0.1 mg/l thidiazuron(TDZ in dark, 2.0 mg/lα-napththaleneacetic acid (NAA in dark and 1.0 mg/l 2,4-Dunder lightgave the highest rate of callogenesis (100%,embryogenesis (53.3% and adventitious root formation (100% with a mean of 16.7 roots, and shoot formation(26.7%, respectively. The metabolite of petiole lTCL-derived calli qualitative and quantitative analyses wereperformed by using high-performance liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The simple procedure,together with similar saponin profiles between the resulted in vitrotissues and plants grown in nature, suggest itspotential use in generating Vietnamese ginseng in large amount for medicinal purpose.

  10. Comparison of the pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chieh-fu CHEN; Wen-fei CHIOU; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Medical application of Panax ginseng was first found in "Shen-Nong Herbal Classic" around 200 AD Panax quinquefolium was first introduced in "Essential of Materia Medica" in 1694 in China. The most important bioactive compo-nents contained in P ginseng and P quinquefolium are ginseng saponins (GS). The contents of ginsenoside Rb1, Re, and Rd in P quinquefolium are higher than they are in P ginseng. In P ginseng, the contents of Rg1,Rb2, and Rc are higher than they are in P quinquefolium. P ginseng had a higher ratio of Rg1: Rb1, and which was lower in P quinquefolium. After steaming for several hours, the total GS will decrease. However, some ginsenosides (Rg2, 20R-Rg2, Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2) increase, while others (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1) decrease. However, variation, especially in P quinquefolium, is high. P ginseng and P quinquefolium are general tonics and adaptogens. Rg1 and Rb1 enhance central nervous system (CNS) activities, but the effect of the latter is weaker. Thus, for the higher contents of Rg1, P ginseng is a stimulant, whereas the Rb1 contents of P quinquefolium are mainly calming to the CNS. Re, Rg1, panaxan A and B from P ginseng are good for diabetes. Re and Rg1 enhance angiogenesis, whereas Rb1, Rg3 and Rh2 inhibit it. Rh2, an antitumor agent, can be obtained from Rb1 by steaming. The content of Re in P quinquefolium are higher than in P ginseng by 3-4 times. The vasorelax, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and angiogenic effects of Re are reported. Thus, for the CNS "hot," wound healing and hypoglycemic effects, P ginseng is better than P quinquefolium. For antican-cer effects, P quinquefolium is better.

  11. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  12. Actoprotective effect of ginseng: improving mental and physical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Oliynyk, Sergiy; Oh, Seikwan

    2013-01-01

    Actoprotectors are preparations that increase the mental performance and enhance body stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Actoprotectors are regarded as a subclass of adaptogens that hold a significant capacity to increase physical performance. The focus of this article is studying adaptogen herbs of genus Panax (P. ginseng in particular) and their capabilities as actoprotectors. Some animal experiments and human studies about actoprotective properties of g...

  13. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE. PMID:25658580

  14. Effect of polyamines on growth and saponin production of Ginseng

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Kiel, 2003. s. 91. [Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research /51./. 31.08.2003-04.09.2003, Kiel] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : .I.Panax ginseng./I. C. A. Meyer Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  15. Roots Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barnabas

    1998-01-01

    Offers historical information about square roots. Presents three different methods--Hero's method, visual method, and remainder method--which can be used to teach the finding of square roots and one method for determining cube roots. (ASK)

  16. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds. PMID:26270079

  17. Changes in ginsenoside composition of ginseng berry extracts after a microwave and vinegar process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin-Jung; Kim, Ju-Duck; Ko, Sung-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    MGB-20 findings show that the ginseng berry extracts that had been processed with microwave and vinegar for 20 min peaked in the level of ginsenoside Rg2 (2.28%) and Rh1 (1.28%). MGB-1 peaked in the level of ginsenoside Rg3 (1.13%) in the ginseng berry extract processed with microwave and vinegar for 1 min.

  18. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-Young; Park, Kang-Gyun; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Current studies of Panax ginseng (or Korean ginseng) have demonstrated that it has various biological effects, including angiogenesis, immunostimulation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we hypothesised that P. ginseng may also play an important role in wound healing. However, few studies have been conducted on the wound-healing effects of P. ginseng. Thus, the purpose of this in vitro pilot study was to determine the effects of P. ginseng on the activities of fibroblasts, which are key wound-healing cells. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were treated with one of six concentrations of P. ginseng: 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml and 1 and 10 µg/ml. Cell proliferation was determined 3 days post-treatment using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and collagen synthesis was evaluated by the collagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide method. Cell proliferation levels and collagen synthesis were compared among the groups. The 10 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml P. ginseng treatments significantly increased cell proliferation, and the 1 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml concentrations significantly increased collagen synthesis. The maximum effects for both parameters were observed at 10 ng/ml. P. ginseng stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis at an optimal concentration of 10 ng/ml. PMID:26507878

  19. In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems.

  20. Panax ginseng natural populations: their past, current state and perspec-tives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri N ZHURAVLEV; Olga G KOREN; Galina D REUNOVA; Tamara I MUZAROK; Tatiyana Yu GORPENCHENKO; Irina L KATS; Yuliya A KHROLENKO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:The mating system of Panax ginseng, genetics and ontogenetic structure of its natural populations of Primorye (Russia) were investigated. Methods: Genetic diversity was assessed using allozyme and the fluorescently based au-tomated amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Results: Total genetic diversity at species level is low with allozyme assay (0.023), and high with AFLP (0.255) and SSR (0.259) meth-ods. It is observed within populations according to allozyme (>99%), AFLP (>85%), and SSR (>73%) assays. The indices of genetic variability distribution point out the re-colonization of the Sikhote-Alin by ginseng plants from southern refuges during the warming period in the early Holocene. The capability of gin-seng plants to cross- and self-pollinate was shown and the assumption that Panax ginseng is a facultative apomictic plant was confirmed. The reproductive system of ginseng possesses high plasticity and stability of the fertilization process that help the species to survive in stress conditions. Disturbances caused by external or internal factors can be reduced due to the morphogenetic potential of ginseng ovule or apomictic embryo development. Analysis of life stages structure of gin-seng populations demonstrates that all of them are not full-constituents because some life stages are absent or occur rarely. Conclusion: In all 3 populations, virgin and young generative individuals are predominant. This means that popu-lations studied are viable and the reintroduction of natural ginseng population is possible yet.

  1. Effects of Temperature variations on the Super Fine Powderization of Korean Cultivated Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ho Kim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to find optimal conditions for producing red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng using the Turbo Mill. Methods : Characteristics of powdered cultivated wild ginseng based on various temperature settings of the Turbo Mill were observed, and changes in the content was measured by HPLC for various ginsenosides. Results : 1. The diameter of cultivated wild ginseng powder ground by the Turbo Mill was around 10㎛. 2. As the temperature rose, presusre, Specific Mechanical Energy(SME, and density decreased, whileas Water Solubility Index(WSI increased. 3. As the temperature rose, super fine powder showed tendency to turn into dark brown. 4. Measuring content changes by HPLC, there was no detection of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenosideRg1, Rb1, and Rh2 concentrations decreased with increase in temperature. Conclusions : Super fine powder of cultivated wild ginseng produced by the Turbo Mill promotes easy absorption of effective ingredients by breaking the cell walls. Using this mechanism to produce red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng, it yielded less than satisfactory results under the current experiment setup. Furtherresearches are needed to verify more suitable condition for the production of red ginseng.

  2. Steaming-induced chemical transformations and holistic quality assessment of red ginseng derived from Panax ginseng by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS(n)-based multicomponent quantification fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-yuan; Luo, Dan; Cheng, Yi-jun; Ma, Jin-fang; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2012-08-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the steaming-induced chemical transformation of red ginseng manufactured from fresh ginseng by means of simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analyses with a combinative high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS(n)) technique. Thirty-six ginsenosides were identified in red ginseng and white ginseng by comparing the mass spectrum and/or matching the empirical molecular formula with that of known published compounds, and 11 of them were determined to be newly generated during the red ginseng preparatory process. The mechanisms involved were further deduced to be hydrolysis, dehydration, isomerization, and decarboxylation at C-20, and hydrolysis also occurs at C-3 or C-6 of the original ginsenosides through the mimic process of steaming and heating in laboratory. The multicomponent quantification fingerprint of ginseng was also established by HPLC-UV method, and the contents of 12 ginsenosides in red and white ginsengs from different sources were determined simultaneously. The ratio of the total content of determined malonyl ginsenosides to the corresponding neutral ginsenosides (T(m-PPD)/T(PPD)) in white ginseng ranged from 0.46 to 0.62 and from 0 to 0.19 in red ginseng. The validated method is expected to provide an effective approach to standardize the processing procedures of ginseng products and regulate the usage of ginseng in Traditional Chinese Medical prescription. PMID:22839102

  3. Identification of Target Genes Involved in the Antiproliferative Effect of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Il Jang; Yeon-Weol Lee; Chong-Kwan Cho; Hwa-Seung Yoo; Jun-Hyeog Jang

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30  μ g/mL), which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Ag...

  4. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation: pt. 2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of Ginseng powder during the storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S. (Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Cho, H.O. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1982-06-01

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder after /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. ray irradiation during the storage for 4 months at 25degC was investigated. The storage periods and the treatment of irradiation at various doses on ginseng powders had no significant effects on the proximate composition and color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. No changes in the contents of saponin and its HPLC patterns were found during the storage. However, a little increase was found in the yield of 50% ethanol extract and Hunter's color value of powder. But generally it was found to be stable in the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder by irradiation of the intensity during the storage.

  5. Ginseng for health care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Korean literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiae Choi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This systematic review was performed to summarise randomised clinical trials (RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of ginseng in the Korean literature. METHOD: The study involved systematic searches conducted in eight Korean Medical databases. The methodological quality of all of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We included all RCTs on any type of ginseng compared to placebo, active treatment or no treatment in healthy individuals or patients regardless of conditions. RESULTS: In total, 1415 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 30 randomised clinical trials were included. Nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng on exercise capacity, cognitive performance, somatic symptoms, quality of life, and sleeping in healthy persons. Six RCTs tested ginseng compared with placebo for erectile dysfunction, while another four studies evaluated the effects of ginseng against no treatment for gastric and colon cancer. Two RCTs compared the effect of red ginseng on diabetes mellitus with no treatment or placebo, and the other nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng compared with placebo or no treatment on various conditions. The methodological caveats of the included trials make their contribution to the current clinical evidence of ginseng somewhat limited. However, the 20 newly added trials (66.7% of the 30 trials may provide useful information for future trials. Ginseng appears to be generally safe, and no serious adverse effects have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of ginseng have been tested in a wide range of conditions in Korea. Although the quality of RCTs published in the Korean literature was generally poor, this review is useful for researchers to access studies that were originally published in languages that they would otherwise be unable to read and due to the paucity of evidence on this subject.

  6. Oral administration of ginseng ameliorates cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. METHODS: Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measurements of serum insulin level, β cell area, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis. Using an in vitro model, we further examined the effect of ginseng on a cyclosporine-treated insulin-secreting cell line. Oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in serum, tissue sections, and culture media. RESULTS: Four weeks of cyclosporine treatment increased blood glucose levels and decreased insulin levels, but cotreatment with ginseng ameliorated the cyclosporine-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic β cell area was also greater with ginseng cotreatment compared with cyclosporine monotherapy. The production of proinflammatory molecules, such as induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokines, and the level of apoptotic cell death also decreased in pancreatic β cell with ginseng treatment. Consistent with the in vivo results, the in vitro study showed that the addition of ginseng protected against cyclosporine-induced cytotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. These in vivo and in vitro changes were accompanied by decreases in the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in pancreatic β cell in tissue section, serum, and culture media during cotreatment of ginseng with cyclosporine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ginseng has a protective effect against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic β cell injury via reducing oxidative stress.

  7. Ginseng Extracts Restore High-Glucose Induced Vascular Dysfunctions by Altering Triglyceride Metabolism and Downregulation of Atherosclerosis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hoi-huen Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The king of herbs, Panax ginseng, has been used widely as a therapeutic agent vis-à-vis its active pharmacological and physiological effects. Based on Chinese pharmacopeia Ben Cao Gang Mu and various pieces of literature, Panax ginseng was believed to exert active vascular protective effects through its antiobesity and anti-inflammation properties. We investigated the vascular protective effects of ginseng by administrating ginseng extracts to rats after the induction of diabetes. We found that Panax ginseng can restore diabetes-induced impaired vasorelaxation and can reduce serum triglyceride but not cholesterol level in the diabetic rats. The ginseng extracts also suppressed the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered the expression of lipid-related genes. The results provide evidence that Panax ginseng improves vascular dysfunction induced by diabetes and the protective effects may possibly be due to the downregulation of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered lipid metabolism, which help to restore normal endothelium functions.

  8. [White ginseng commercialization and sales expansion activities of Gaesung merchants in the 1910s and 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2011-06-30

    Ginseng has always been the typical export item in Korean history. Until the 18th century, exporting ginseng was wild ginseng from the mountains. Since the 19th century, exporting ginseng became red ginseng, which was red due to steaming and drying process. Red ginseng was produced by Gaesung merchants, so that these merchants were able to gain the control of the output. Gaesung merchants of the 19th century exported red ginseng to China and made huge economic success. However, when the Korean Empire and Japanese colonial government established red ginseng monopoly, it essentially blocked Gaesung traders from manufacturing and exporting any further of its prized commodity. Then, the traders turned to sun-dried white ginseng as a substitute to red ginseng. As a result, white ginseng production dramatically increased after 1914, which in turn made Gaesung merchants newly aware of the commercial value of white ginseng, which was previously ignored. The traders made good use of the traditional medicine herb market, which opened annually, to promote the expansion of white ginseng sales. Moreover, the merchants also adopted modern marketing techniques, as they founded companies to handle solely white ginseng sales, refreshed packaging to raise commodity values, and made an effort in advertising and mail order sales. Due to such endeavors, demand for white ginseng grew exponentially both in domestic and foreign markets, which generated steady growth of white ginseng prices despite the rapid increase of its supply. This phenomenon naturally brought about the rich economic accomplishments of Gaesung merchants. Through the white ginseng sales activities of Gaesung merchants in post-1910s era, two facts can be newly uncovered. First, the mass consumption of white ginseng today in Korean society took a full-scale step after the 1910s. Second, it was a widely-held view that during the Japanese rule, majority of Korean traditional merchants were economically ruined, while a

  9. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed δ2H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for δ13C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for δ15N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave δ2H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , δ13C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and δ15N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in δ2H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  10. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  11. Radio Protective Effects of Ginseng Extract in Gamma-Rays Induced Chromosomal Damages of Human Lymphocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng and subsequently referred as ginseng, posses various biological properties as an anticancer and antioxidant agent. Ginseng also approved effective against radiation effects through its immunomodulating actions in whole body irradiated mouse. But its protective effects on radiation induced DNA damage are not thoroughly investigated, mainly in human. This experiment aimed to assess the effects of ginseng at 2 working doses in suppressing radiation effects of human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL i.e. chromosome aberration and micronuclei yields. The treatment times were 24 hours before, subsequently (0 hour or 3 hours after and irradiation with gamma rays at doses of 0.5 - 2.0 Gy (dose rate of 3.16 Gy/min. Treated and untreated blood cultivation and metaphase spreading technique was done according to standard procedures. Results showed that without ginseng treatments, radiation significantly increased dicentrics and micronuclei frequencies. Different with the results in mouse study, however, our results indicated that none of the experimental concentrations of ginseng crude water extract tested had an effect on baseline chromosomal aberration and micronuclei (MN yields in PBL. A protective effect was only seen in chromosome aberration yields of sample irradiated with 2.0 Gy and treated with ginseng 3 h post irradiation rather than 24 h pre-irradiation in one volunteer. Opposite results that ginseng suspected to be a weak radiosensitizer was found in some cases. This may be due to discrepancies exist in route of treatment and its fundamental mechanisms of protective action between both studies. Even though in general it was not effective, the possible mechanism involved in radioprotective influence of ginseng is discussed.

  12. Radio Protective Effects of Ginseng Extract in Gamma-rays Induced Chromosomal Damages of Human Lymphocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng and subsequently referred as ginseng, posses various biological properties as an anticancer and antioxidant agent. Ginseng also approved effective against radiation effects through its immunomodulating actions in whole body irradiated mouse. But its protective effects on radiation induced DNA damage are not thoroughly investigated, mainly in human. This experiment aimed to assess the effects of ginseng at 2 working doses in suppressing radiation effects of human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) i.e. chromosome aberration and micronuclei yields. The treatment times were 24 hours before, subsequently (0 hour) or 3 hours after and irradiation with gamma rays at doses of 0.5 - 2.0 Gy (dose rate of 3.16 Gy/min). Treated and untreated blood cultivation and metaphase spreading technique was done according to standard procedures. Results showed that without ginseng treatments, radiation significantly increased dicentrics and micronuclei frequencies. Different with the results in mouse study, however, our results indicated that none of the experimental concentrations of ginseng crude water extract tested had an effect on baseline chromosomal aberration and micronuclei (MN) yields in PBL. A protective effect was only seen in chromosome aberration yields of sample irradiated with 2.0 Gy and treated with ginseng 3 h post irradiation rather than 24 h pre-irradiation in one volunteer. Opposite results that ginseng suspected to be a weak radiosensitizer was found in some cases. This may be due to discrepancies exist in route of treatment and its fundamental mechanisms of protective action between both studies. Even though in general it was not effective, the possible mechanism involved in radioprotective influence of ginseng is discussed. (author)

  13. Management of Radiation Injuries by Panax ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Preeti; Jahan, Swafiya; Kim, Tae Hawn; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living beings against the deleterious effects of radiation. In the present study, the radioprotective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Panax ginseng extract (PGR-HAE) was studied on radiation-induced deleterious alterations in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of such extract (25 mg/kg b wt/day/animal) for 5 consecutive days, half an h. before whole-body exposure to 6 Gy gamma radiation, enhanced the 30 days survival a...

  14. Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi Takeda; Ko Okumura

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then te...

  15. Anti-cancer Activities of Ginseng Extract Fermented with Phellinus linteus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Kwon, Ho-Kyun; Jung, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Baik; Kim, Kyu-Joong; Kim, Jong-Lae

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the anti-cancer effects of ginseng fermented with Phellinus linteus (GFPL) extract were examined through in vitro and in vivo assays. GFPL was produced by co-cultivating ginseng and Phellinus linteus together. Ginsenoside Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2 are important mediators of anti-angiogenesis and their levels in GFPL were enriched 24, 19 and 16 times, respectively, more than that of ginseng itself through the fermentation. GFPL exhibited distinct anti-cancer effects, including gro...

  16. Oral Administration of Ginseng Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Pancreatic Injury in an Experimental Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sun Woo; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Jin, Long; Piao, Shang Guo; Heo, Seong Beom; Zheng, Yu Fen; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. Methods Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage) for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measuremen...

  17. Red Ginseng Extract Reduced Metastasis of Colon Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Eun Young; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of red ginseng extract on metastasis of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Wound healing migration, cell motility, invasion, and activity, protein expression, and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined in SW480 human colon cancer cells. SW480 cells were cultured with or without 100 μg/L PMA in the absence or presence of various concentrations (100, 200, or 300 μg/mL) of red ginseng extract. Red ginseng extract treatment cause...

  18. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...

  19. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  20. Square Root +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  1. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  2. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector

  3. Effects of Korean White Ginseng (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Vascular and Glycemic Health in Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multiple-crossover, Acute Dose Escalation Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shishtar, Esra'; Jovanovski, Elena; Jenkins, Alexandra; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (steam treated Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), among most prized traditional herbal remedies, has been clinically shown to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Whether this holds true for the dried non-steamed variety, known as Korean white ginseng (KWG) is unclear. This study therefore, investigated the efficacy and safety of escalating doses of KWG on vascular and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Using an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, doubl...

  4. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  5. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V;

    1997-01-01

    The predominant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which results in a chronic lung infection associated with progressive pulmonary insufficiency. In a rat model of chronic P. aeruginosa pneumonia mimicking that in patients with CF, we studied whether the...... inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... against P. aeruginosa sonicate and a shift from an acute type to a chronic type of lung inflammation compared to those in the control and cortisone-treated groups were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng treatment of an experimental P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats promotes a cellular response...

  6. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  7. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation: pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder after 60Co-γ ray irradiation during the storage for 4 months at 25degC was investigated. The storage periods and the treatment of irradiation at various doses on ginseng powders had no significant effects on the proximate composition and color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. No changes in the contents of saponin and its HPLC patterns were found during the storage. However, a litter increase was found in the yield of 50% ethanol extract and Hunter's color value of powder. But generally it was found to be stable in the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder by irradiation of the intensity during the storage. (Author)

  8. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder

  9. The retention behavior of ginsenosides in HPLC and its application to quality assessment of Radix Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Luo, Guo-An; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2009-05-01

    This study systematically investigated the retention behavior of seven neutral ginsenosides Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, and an acidic ginsenoside R(0), the major pharmacologically active components of Radix Ginseng with RP-HPLC. The effects of solvent, pH value, ionic strength of the mobile phase, and column temperature were investigated using an octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica gel column. Based on the ginsenosides' retention characteristics, the concentration of acetonitrile and the gradient of the mobile phase needed to maintain the baseline separation of the major neutral ginsenosides in Radix Ginseng were theoretically predicted. Furthermore, the ionic strength of mobile-phase necessary to achieve good resolution of the neutral ginsenosides and acidic ginsenosides was carefully investigated. According to the results of the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in eight batches of ginseng samples from different sources, the developed HPLC technique may be a valuable tool for the quality assessment of Radix Ginseng. PMID:19471880

  10. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 106 to 103 CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  11. Improvement of oral availability of ginseng fruit saponins by a proliposome delivery system containing sodium deoxycholate

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Fei; He, Yanxi; Sun, Yating; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinmei; Zhang, Yongkai; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lirong; Xie, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng fruit saponins (GFS) extracted from the ginseng fruit are the bioactive triterpenoid saponin components. The aim of the present study was to develop a drug delivery system called proliposome using sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) as a bile salt to improve the oral bioavailability of GFS in rats. The liposomes of GFS were prepared by a conventional ethanol injection and formed the solid proliposomes (P-GFS) using spray drying method on mannitol carriers. The formulation of P-GFS was optimize...

  12. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng extract on cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sook Jahr; Lee, Jong Rok; Jo, Mi Jeong; Park, Sang Mi; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Sang Chan

    2013-01-01

    Korean red ginseng is known to regulate the immune system and help the body struggle infection and disease. Cadmium is widely distributed in the environment due to its use in industry. Exposure to cadmium is problematic causing organ dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In experiments, animals were orally administrated with RGE (25, 50 mg/kg) for 7 d and then intravenously in...

  13. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yiju Hou; Xiaodong Liu; Zhonghai Yuan; Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells...

  14. Subacute Oral Toxicity Study of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Jin; Lim, Kwang-Hyun; Noh, Jeong-Ho; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Soon; Han, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Ho; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is a well-known traditional medicine used in Asian countries for several thousand years, and it is currently applied to medicine, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements due to its many healing and energygiving properties. It is well demonstrated that ginsenosides, the main ingredient of ginseng, produce a variety of pharmacological and therapeutic effects on central nerve system (CNS) disorders, cardiovascular disease, endocrine secretions, aging, and immune function. Korean red ginse...

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 downregulation and potential cartilage protective action of the Korean Red Ginseng preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Shehzad, Omer; Ko, Sung Kwon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to prepare and find the optimum active preparation or fraction from Korea Red Ginseng inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression, because MMP-13 is a pivotal enzyme to degrade the collagen matrix of the joint cartilage. Methods From total red ginseng ethanol extract, n-BuOH fraction (total ginsenoside-enriched fraction), ginsenoside diol-type-enriched fraction (GDF), and ginsenoside triol-type-enriched fraction (GTF) were prepared, and...

  16. Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Seok Lee; Yu-Na Lee; Young-Tae Lee; Hye Suk Hwang; Ki-Hye Kim; Eun-Ju Ko; Min-Chul Kim; Sang-Moo Kang

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. RGE partially protected human epithelial (HEp2) cells from RSV-induced cell death and viral replication. In addition, RGE significantly inhibited the production of RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) in murin...

  17. Protective effect of ginseng against gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Heba Hosny

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effects of ginseng on gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for 7 consecutive days. The second group was administered ginseng extract (100 mg/kg, by gavage) for 7 consecutive days. Animals in the third group were administered vehicle by tube for 7 consecutive days, then exposed to sin...

  18. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Methodology/Principal findings Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N =...

  19. Mechanism of angiogenic effects of saponin from ginseng Radix rubra in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Morisaki, N.; Watanabe, S.; Tezuka, M.; Zenibayashi, M.; Shiina, R.; Koyama, N; Kanzaki, T.; Saito, Y

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of saponin from Ginseng Radix rubra on angiogenesis (tube formation) and its key steps (protease secretion, proliferation and migration) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined to elucidate the mechanism of the tissue repairing effects of Ginseng Radix rubra. The effect on a wound healing model was also studied. 2. Tube formation was measured by an in vitro system. The activity and immunoreactivity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) as a protease...

  20. Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Oh, Hyun-A; Choi, Hyuck Jai; Park, Jeong Hill; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Nam Jae

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin red...

  1. HPLC method for determination of eleutherosides e and b in dry extract of Siberian Ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    BOBOK MAXIM NIKOLAEVICH; PAVLOVA LUDMILA ANATOLIEVNA; SMIRNOV VALERIY VALERIEVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a modern method for quantitative determination of eleutherosides B and E in dry extract of Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. Et Maxim.)). The dry extract of Siberian Ginseng contains eleutherosides B (syringin) and E (syringaresinol-4’,4’-O-bis-β-D-glucoside) as the most pharmacologically active compounds. In connection with the above, it is important to develop and validate a method for determining eleutherosides B and E. Quantification of eleutheroside...

  2. Improvement of erectile function by Korean red ginseng(Panax ginseng) in a male rat model of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Dae Kim; Young-Joo Kim; Jung-Sik Huh; Sae-Woong Kim; Dong-Wan Sohn

    2013-01-01

    The seriousness of metabolic syndrome is not due to the disease itself but its promotion of other diseases,such as erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.We investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG,Panax ginseng) extract on erectile function in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.We divided the rats into three groups:control,metabolic syndrome+normal saline (N/S) and metabolic syndrome+ KRG.To determine the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in all groups,body weight and various biochemical parameters (e.g.,blood glucose,insulin,cholesterol) were measured,and the intra-abdominal glucose tolerance test was performed.To investigate penile erection,the peak intracavernosal pressure (ICP),mean arterial pressure (MAP) and Masson's trichrome stain were evaluated.Erectile function was also investigated by measuring the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)levels of the corpus cavernosum.We found that the various biochemical parameters and body weight were similar in the metabolic syndrome+KRG group and the control group,although the values were slightly higher.The peak ICP/MAP ratio of the metabolic syndrome+ N/S group was markedly decreased compared to the other groups.The cGMP level of the corpus cavemosum in the metabolic syndrome+N/S group was significantly lower than that of the other groups.As demonstrated in this model of metabolic syndrome with erectile dysfunction,KRG may improve erectile function.

  3. Therapeutic Effects of Fermented Red Ginseng in Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Ji, Geun-Eog; Park, Myeong-Soo; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kwon, Jae-Woo; Kim, Tae-Whan; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Allergic rhinitis is clinically defined as a disorder of the nose induced by IgE mediated inflammation after allergen exposure of the nasal mucosa. Many reports have stated that Panax ginseng and fermented red ginseng have anti-inflammatory effects, especially against Th2-type inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fermented red ginseng in allergic rhinitis. Methods In this 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 59 patients with persiste...

  4. Antiviral Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Ginsenosides on Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus as Surrogates for Human Norovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min Hwa; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Jung, Ji-Youn; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Choi, Changsun

    2011-01-01

    Korean red ginseng has been studied various biological activities such as immune, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anticancer activities but antiviral mechanism needs further studies. In this study, we aimed to examine the antiviral effects of Korea red ginseng extract and ginsenosides on norovirus surrogate, including murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). We evaluated the pre-, co-, and post-treatment effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG), ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1. To measure...

  5. A 4-Week, Repeated, Intravenous Dose, Toxicity Test of Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kwangho Lee; Junsang Yu; Seungho Sun; Kirok Kwon; Chungsan Lim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) is a pharmacopuncture made by distilling extract from mountain cultivated ginseng or mountain wild ginseng. This pharmacopuncture is injected intravenously, which is a quick, lossless way of strongly tonifying Qi function. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a 4-week, repeated, intravenous injection, toxicity test of MGP in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty male and female 6-week-old SD rats were used as subjects. We divi...

  6. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh pressure (UHP treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS. Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  7. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples. PMID:27338333

  8. Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT C57BL/6 (B6 and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ. We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

  9. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  10. Overview on the analytical tools for quality control of natural product-based supplements: a case study of ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Chan, Sui Yung; Weng Chan, Yew; Sing Lim, Chu

    2005-12-01

    The quality of pharmaceutical products like ginseng is important for ensuring consumer safety and efficacy. Many ginseng products sold today are in various formulations such as powder, capsules, tablets, soft-gels, liquid extracts, and tea. This renders ginseng less identifiable by smell, taste, or physical appearance. Furthermore, as ginseng is expensive, adulteration with other cheaper products occurs. Hence quality assurance of ginseng is needed. This paper reviews the major techniques for ascertaining the level of ginsenosides, the primary active ingredients for ginseng, and covers high-performance liquid, gas, and thin-layer chromatographies, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, enzyme immunoassays, and other molecular methods. Supporting techniques such as ultraviolet, fluorescence, diode array and evaporative light scattering detections, and mass spectrometry will also be touched upon. This review also discusses the principles and applications of biosensors-in particular fiber optic-based sensors-and their feasibility in ginseng analysis based on preliminary studies. Despite their potential, there is currently no or limited commercial exploitation of fiber optic-based sensors to perform ginseng quality analysis. The opportunity for biosensors to be used for the rapid quality surveillance of ginseng is appealing, but several key issues still need to be addressed before they find widespread applications in the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:16438663

  11. Protective effects of Ginseng mixture on myocardial fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Lai; Zhang; Yue-Hong; Li; Hong-Xia; Zhou; Yu-Xin; Zhang; Yong-Sheng; Wang; Zhi-Yong; Zhang; Ling-Li; Meng; Xiao-Ming; Shang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the protective effects of ginseng mixture on myocardial fibrosis(MF)in rats.Methods:A total of 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group without modeling operation,and another 4 groups using subcutaneous injections of isopropyl adrenaline for 10 d to set up the MF model:model group with saline lavage treatment after modeling,captopril group with captopril lavage,ginseng mixture group A and group B with low and high dose mixture treatment respectively.After treatment for 14 d,abdominal aorta and myocardial tissue were extracted to observe the pathological morphological changes and heart weight index in each group.Results:The left ventricular weight and heart heavy index of captopril group and group B were significantly lower than that of model group and group A(P<0.05);Model group and group A showed a higher hydroxyproline(Hyp)content in myocardial tissue than the control group and lower catalase(CAT)activity than Gontrol group(P<0.05);captopril group and group B showed a lower Hyp content and higher CAT activity compared with group A and model group(P<0.05),a significantly lower level of serum glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX)and CAT and a higher level of serum creatine kinase,lactate dehydrogenase and H2O2 in model group and group A were observed compared with the control group(P<0.05).A higher level of GSH-PX and CAT and a lower level of creatine kinase,lactate dehydrogenase and H2O2 in captopril group and group B were observed compared with group A and model group(P<0.05);and histopathological examination showed that in captopril group and group B,secretion of collagen fiber was significantly inhibited and myocardial injury was significantly lighter than that of model group.Conclusions:Ginseng mixture plays a protective effect on myocardium by inhibiting antioxidant process of MF.

  12. Effect of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Berry EtOAc Fraction on Cognitive Impairment in C57BL/6 Mice under High-Fat Diet Inducement

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hyeon Park; Seon Kyeong Park; Tae Wan Seung; Dong Eun Jin; Tianjiao Guo; Ho Jin Heo

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity leads to type 2 diabetes. Recently, there has been growing apprehension about diabetes-associated cognitive impairment (DACM). The effect of ginseng (Panax ginseng) berry ethyl acetate fraction (GBEF) on mice with high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment was investigated to confirm its physiological function. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks and then a high-fat diet with GBEF (20 and 50 mg/kg of body weight) for 4 weeks. After three in vivo beh...

  13. Protective Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on the Infections by H1N1 and H3N2 Influenza Viruses in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Dae-Goon; Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Min-Kyung; Song, Jae-Min; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Cho, Young-Keol; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years and is known to have multiple biological and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether Korean red ginseng extract would have preventive and antiviral effects on influenza virus infection. Oral administration to mice of red ginseng extract prior to infection significantly increased survival after infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. Daily oral treatment of vaccinated mice with red ginseng extract provided enh...

  14. Bioactivity-guided identification and cell signaling technology to delineate the immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng on human promonocytic U937 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Jian-hui; Li James CB; Chik Stanley CC; Yang Cindy LH; Lee Davy CW; Chan Godfrey CF; Lau Allan SY

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ginseng is believed to have beneficial effects against human diseases, and its active components, ginsenosides, may play critical roles in its diverse physiological actions. However, the mechanisms underlying ginseng's effects remain to be investigated. We hypothesize some biological effects of ginseng are due to its anti-inflammatory effects. Methods Human promonocytic U937 cells were used to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of ginseng following TNF-α treatment. A...

  15. 石柱参与林下山参及传统园参成分差异的比较研究%Comparison Study on Chemical Composition of Chinese Shizhu Panax, Ginseng Under Forest and Traditional Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可强; 薛振东; 魏汉莲; 宋宇宁; 关昕

    2013-01-01

    Objective;To compare the composition differences of Chinese Shizhu panax, ginseng under forest and traditional ginseng. Methods; The ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rgl and ginsenoside Rbl were tested by HPLC;the total saponins of panax ginseng were tested by Visible - UV Spectrophotometry. Results: The content of the total saponins of panax ginseng of Chinese Shizhu panax and ginseng under forest is nearly the same. The content of the total saponins of panax ginseng in Chinese Shizhu panax is higher than that in Fu song ginseng and Jian bian tiao ginseng. The ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rgl and ginsenoside Rbl content of Chinese Shizhu panax was higher than that in ginseng under forest, Fu song ginseng and Jian bian tiao ginseng. Conclusion ; Chinese Shizhu panax contains higher ginsenoside, providing the theoretical basis for the evaluation of the inner quality.%目的:比较石柱参与林下山参及传统园参成分差异.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定人参皂苷Re、Rg1、Rb1;采用可见紫外分光光度法测定人参总皂苷的含量.结果:石柱参与林下山参人参总皂苷的含量相当,但高于抚松普通参和集安边条参的含量;石柱参中人参皂苷Re、Rg1、Rb1的含量均高于林下山参和抚松普通参和集安边条参.结论:石柱参人参皂苷的含量较高,可为其内在质量评价提供理论依据.

  16. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  17. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. (Agriculture Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  18. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  19. Mania and Psychosis Associated with St. John's Wort and Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kaustubh G; Faubion, Matthew D

    2005-09-01

    The use of complimentary/alternative medicine has become popular as evidenced by grocery store aisles and "infomercials" devoted to herbal products. These products are often misconstrued as safe because of their natural origin. With an increase in the consumption of these products, physicians need to be aware of their potential adverse effects. There are several popular over-the-counter herbal products that can affect one's behavior, especially resulting in acute mania and/or psychosis. This article provides an overview of existing literature regarding the increased use of herbal agents, reviews several case reports describing a potential association between herbal products (St. John's Wort and ginseng) and the development of mania and psychosis, and discusses the limitations in determining the frequency of serious adverse effects due to herbal products. PMID:21120109

  20. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    H.-J. Kim; K.-H. Yoon; M.-J. Kang; H.-W. Yim; K.-S. Lee; Vuksan, V.; M.-K. Sung

    2012-01-01

    We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood bi...

  1. Chemoprevention of lung squamous cell carcinoma by ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Li, Kezhen; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2013-06-01

    Ginseng has been used as a medicinal herb to maintain physical vitality for thousands of years, and it has also been shown to be a nonorgan-specific cancer preventive agent by several epidemiologic studies. However, the chemopreventive effects of Korea white ginseng (KWG) in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been tested. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of KWG in a mouse lung SCC model. N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU) was used to induce lung tumors in female Swiss mice, and KWG was given orally. KWG significantly reduced the percentage of lung SCCs from 26.5% in the control group to 9.1% in the KWG group and in the meantime, increased the percentage of normal bronchial and hyperplasia. KWG was also found to greatly reduce squamous cell lung tumor area from an average of 9.4% in control group to 1.5% in the KWG group. Treatment with KWG decreased Ki-67 staining, suggesting that the lung tumor inhibitory effects of KWG were partly through inhibition of proliferation. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry identified 10 ginsenosides from KWG extracts, Rb1 and Rd being the most abundant as detected in mouse blood and lung tissue. The tumor inhibitory effects of KWG are mediated by inhibition of activator protein (AP-1), as showed by in vitro study conducted on AP-1/NF-κB-dependent mouse non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. Western blotting of lung tissues also indicated that NTCU upregulated AP-1 through phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-kinase, which was downregulated by KWG in concurrence with its chemoprevention function. These results suggest that KWG could be a potential chemopreventive agent for lung SCC. PMID:23550152

  2. Production of saponins from Panax ginseng suspension and adventitious root cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2005), s. 463-465. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 843.10; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : suspension cultures * bioreactor * ginsenosides Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  3. Saponin production in root cultures of .I.Panax ginseng./I. C. A. Meyer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, Supl. 1 (2002), s. 333. ISSN 1576-0952. [Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research /50./. 08.09.2002-12.09.2002, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : saponin Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  4. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  5. MALDI imaging for the localization of saponins in root tissues and rapid differentiation of three Panax herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujuan; Bai, Hangrui; Cai, Zongwei; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-07-01

    The roots of Panax genus with ginseng saponins as bioactive ingredients have been widely used as herbal medicines and food additives. Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax notoginseng are three major commercial species in Panax genus, with similar morphological appearance but different pharmacological functions. Various methods have been developed and applied for the differentiation of these species. In this work, MALDI-TOF-MS imaging (MSI) was employed for the localization of saponins in root tissues and for the rapid differentiation of the three Panax species for the first time. After a simple sample preparation, MALDI-TOF-MSI analysis of root tissue allowed the detection of 51 saponins. Localization of saponins in the tissue was mapped in ion images, which were obviously related to botanical structure. The localization modes varied with Panax species, providing valuable information for the discrimination of ginseng species. Principal component analysis (PCA) of data collected from areas with abundant saponins based on ion images was applied for the differentiation. Nine characteristic saponin peaks were identified from the PCA analysis. The MALDI-TOF-MSI together with area-specific data analysis provided high potential for the rapid differentiation of Panax herbs. PMID:26990111

  6. Effect of "Ginseng" administration on the structural and ultrastructural changes produced by restraint stress in theultrastructural changes produced by restraint stress in the

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A.R. Salem

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the antistress effects of "Ginseng" in cases of chronic restraint stress by studying the structural and ultrastructural changes of the liver cells. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used. They were divided equally into 3 groups: control, stress and stress/Ginseng groups. Restraint stress was applied to both stress and stress/Ginseng groups 4 hours every other day for 4 weeks.15 mg Ginseng/kg/ was given to stress /Ginseng group every other day for 4weeks. Examinati...

  7. Modulating effect of ginseng saponins on heterologously expressed HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk-seong KIM; Sook-jin SON; Hyo-shin KIM; Yong-duk KIM; Kyu-seung LEE; Byeong-hwa JEON; Kwang-jin KIM; Jin-kyu PARK; Jin-bong PARK

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of ginseng saponins on the heterologously expressed human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) that encodes the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ channel. Methods: A two-electrode voltage clamp tech nique was used. HERG currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes injected with HERG cRNA. Results: Crude saponins of Korean red ginseng (GS) induced a minimal increase of the maximal HERG conductance without changes in the voltage-dependent HERG current activation and inactivation curves. GS, however,decelerated HERG current deactivation in a concentration-dependent manner,which was more noticeable with panaxitriol (PT) than panaxidiol (PD). Consistently,ginseng saponins increased the HERG deactivation time constants with the order of potency of Rg1 (a major component of PT)>Rf 1>Rb1 (a major component of PD).Re had little effect on HERG deactivation. During a cardiac action Potential, GS increased the outward HERG current. Conclusion: Ginseng saponins enhance HERG currents, which could be in part a possible mechanism of the shortening cardiac action potential of ginseng saponins.

  8. The ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-kui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest, called "Lin-Xia-Shan-Shen" (LXSS in China′s Pharmacopoeia. In recent years, it has been quickly propelled to plant at a large scale. Objective: To study the profiles of ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of LXSS. Materials and Methods: The contents of ginsenosides and carbohydrates, such as soluble sugar, polysaccharide, pectin, and starch in LXSS, were determined. All the above components were profiled, and the correlations between them were analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the contents of total ginsenoside, protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, Rg 1 , Re, Rb 1 , Rc, Rb 2 , Rd, starch, and pectin were negatively correlated with the growing years within 17 years. Among them, the content of starch was positively correlated with that of pectin. The total ginsenosides was positively correlated with starch and pectin, which cannot be found in garden ginseng, maybe resulting of fertilizer and other manual intervention in process of cultivation of garden ginseng. Discussion and Conclusions: The accumulation of ginsenosides and carbohydrate, especially starch and pectin, was different in garden ginseng and LXSS. This research may provide the scientific basis for germplasm evaluation, the cultivation and utilization of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest.

  9. Effects of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties of extruded red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Gil, Sun Kuk; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2012-09-01

    The effects of variable moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the physicochemical properties of red ginseng powder extrudates were investigated. The raw red ginseng powders were processed in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. Primary extrusion variables were feed moisture content (20 and 30%), screw speed (200 and 250 rpm) and barrel temperature (115 and 130°C). Extruded red ginseng showed higher crude saponin contents (6.72~7.18%) than raw red ginseng (5.50%). Tested extrusion conditions did not significantly affect the crude saponin content of extrudates. Increased feed moisture content resulted in increased bulk density, specific length, water absorption index (WAI), breaking strength, elastic modulus and crude protein content and decreased water solubility index (WSI) and expansion (p<0.05). Increased barrel temperature resulted in increased total sugar content, but decreased reducing sugar content in the extrudate (p<0.05). Furthermore, increased barrel temperature resulted in increased amino acid content and specific length and decreased expansion and bulk density of extrudates only at a higher feed moisture content. The physicochemical properties of extrudates were mainly dependent on the feed moisture content and barrel temperature, whereas the screw speed showed a lesser effect. These results will be used to help define optimized process conditions for controlling and predicting qualities and characteristics of extruded red ginseng. PMID:24471085

  10. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hwa Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cation channel of sperm (CatSper protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.

  11. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost......-an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium), a middle layer-composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory...

  12. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Kong, K F; Wu, H;

    2010-01-01

    ginseng are mutually exclusive as it is a complex mixture, as shown with the HPLC analysis of the hot water extract. Though ginseng is a promising natural synergetic remedy, it is important to isolate and evaluate the ginseng compounds associated with the anti-QS activity....... immune systems and cystic fibrosis. The QS systems of P. aeruginosa use N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules. Previously we have demonstrated that Panax ginseng treatment allowed the animals with P. aeruginosa pneumonia to effectively clear the bacterial infection. We postulated that...... the ability to impact the outcome of infections is partly due to ginseng having direct effect on the production of P. aeruginosa virulence factors. The study explores the effect of ginseng on alginate, protease and AHL production. The effect of ginseng extracts on growth and expression of QS...

  13. The History of Adulterants in Ginseng and the Survey of Ginseng Quality in Current Traditional Chinese Medicinal Material Market%人参混伪品发展历史及当前药材市场人参品质调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 陈娜; 韩雪; 陆志成; 王佳雯; 赓迪; 王春梅; 林瑞超

    2016-01-01

    人参混伪品现象从古至今一直存在,古代存在以相似植物假冒人参和浸泡后再销售的情况。为了了解当前人参药材市场现状,对河北省安国市、安徽省亳州市、江西省樟树市3大药材市场进行了市场调研。结果发现,人参伪品已经很少发现,但随着人参价格增长,以次充好问题凸显,主要表现在生晒参和保鲜参经乙醇浸提后加工再售、熏硫防腐、加工红参掺糖、销售病害人参等问题。针对这些问题本文提出增强人参供应能力,建立人参品质评价体系等解决思路,为国家有关部门加强对人参市场监管及质量控制提供参考。%The phenomenon of adulterants in ginseng has been existed since ancient times .that the similar vegetation substituted for ginsengor the soaked ginseng was sold as fresh ginseng .To have a good understanding of current situation of ginseng market ,this paper investigated three traditional Chinese medicinal material market :Anguo market in Hebei province ,Bozhou market in Anhui province and Zhangshu market in Jiangxi province .The investigation of three traditional Chinese medicinal material markets showed that adulterants in ginseng were rarely found , but the problem that shoddy and fake ginseng substituted for the high -quality ones was serious ,especially when the price of ginseng was in-creasing .The dried raw ginseng or fresh ginseng was sold after being soaked in ethanol .Some ginseng was treated with sulfur for anticorrosion . Most of the red ginseng was treated with sugar .We also found the ginseng with disease was sold .To solve these problems ,this paper put forward some suggestions ,for example ,enhancing the ability to supply and setting up quality evaluation system of ginseng .The research might provide ideas for the government to strengthen market supervision and quality control .

  14. Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Singh, Priyanka; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Lee, Hyun A; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated DCY106(T), was isolated from soil collected from the rhizosphere of ginseng (Panax ginseng), in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY106(T) is Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellate, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and strictly aerobic. The strain grows optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. Phylogenetically, strain DCY106(T) is closely related to Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans KCTC 22507(T) (98.41 %), followed by Flavobacterium cutihirudini LMG 26922(T) (97.67 %), Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens LMG 28694(T) (97.59 %), Flexibacter auranticus LMG 3987(T) (97.38 %), Flavobacterium defluvi KCTC 12612(T) (97.21 %) and Flavobacterium chilense LMG 26360(T) (97.05 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Flavobacterium species were below 97 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY106(T) is 34.2 mol% and the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY106(T) and F. cutihirudini LMG 26922(T), F. auranticus LMG 3987(T), F. defluvi KCTC 12612(T) and F. chilense LMG 26360(T) were below 40.0 %. The menaquinone of the type MK-6 was found to be the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unidentified aminolipids (APL1, APL6) and one unidentified lipid L2. C15:0, iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2OH/C16:1 ω7c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in DCY106(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY106(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY106(T) (= JCM 31468(T)= KCTC 42747(T)). PMID:27357576

  15. Absorption of nitrogen by ginseng and effect of nitrogen on 14C-assimilate distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using 15N and 14C tracer technique, the utilization, recovery and loss rate of N fertilizer in ginseng ware studied. With different applying levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 gN/m214CO2 assimilating ability, NR activity, N compound, sugar and ginseng saponin were determined. The results showed that the N fertilizer utilization rate was 9.85% in the first year, the accumulative utilization rate for two years was 19.06%. Recovery rate of the fertilizer-N was 81.5% in the first year and 69.78% in second year. Loss rate of the fertilizer-N was 30.22%. With the treatment of 10 gN/m2, 14CO2 assimilation ability and NR activity was the highest. With the treatment of 40 gN/m2, total soluble sugar, sucrose and ginseng saponin content decreased and starch content increased

  16. Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

  17. Effects of ginseng extract on various haematological parameters during aerobic exercise in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effects of the Ginseng extract on various biochemical and haematological parameters in male Wistar rats subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol were studied for 12 weeks. The results showed increases in the haematological parameters, these increases being greatest for the animals treated with the extract during the third month of the study. The exercise also led to increases in these parameters, while the combination of both exercise and extract produced smaller increases. This study shows a clear physiological response due to the ginseng extract administration that reproduces many of the effects obtained after long-term exercise. The combination of exercise and treatments seems to support the theory that there is no clear synergic effect when the advantages associated with the ingestion of ginseng are compared with the performance of exercise. PMID:10232085

  18. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiju Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells, we investigated the possible synergistic anti-cancer effects between ginseng extract Rg3 and cytarabine on acute myeloid leukemia cells. Results of this study demonstrate that Rg3 can enhance the anti-proliferation effect of cytarabine on hl60 cells and may decrease the dosage of cytarabine needed for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.

  19. Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian ginseng) impairs acquisition and expression of ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference and conditioned place aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Liliana; Longoni, Rosanna; Rosas, Michela; Collu, Maria; Peana, Alessandra T; Espa, Elena; Kasture, Sanjay; Cotti, Elisabetta; Acquas, Elio

    2015-11-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian Ginseng) has recently been shown to impair ethanol self-administration. In order to gain further insights on the ability of the Withania somnifera standardised root extract (WSE) to affect the motivational properties of ethanol, this study investigated whether WSE may also affect ethanol (2 g/kg)-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). To this end male CD-1 mice were conditioned under two distinct schedules: in backward conditioning experiments ethanol was administered before mice were placed in the conditioning apparatus (CPP) while, in forward conditioning experiments, ethanol was administered immediately after removing mice from the apparatus (CPA). Following these schedules, mice developed significant CPP and CPA, respectively. Administration of WSE significantly impaired both the acquisition (50 and 100 mg/kg) and the expression (50 mg/kg) of CPP and CPA without affecting spatial memory (50 mg/kg), as determined by a two-trial memory recognition task. Overall, the study highlights the ability of WSE to interfere with both positive and negative motivational properties of ethanol and suggests that the effects of WSE may target both ethanol's motivational properties and underpinning associative learning mechanisms. In conclusion, these results cast new light on Withania somnifera as an agent potentially useful to counteract distinct aspects of ethanol effects. PMID:26349555

  20. Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi Ra; Kim, Byung Chan; Kim, Ran; Oh, Hyun In; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Choi, Kang Ju; Sung, Chang Keun

    2013-01-01

    Black ginseng is produced by a repeated steaming process. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of black ginseng ethanol extract (BG-EE) in high fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Two groups were fed either a normal control (NC) diet or a HF diet (45% kcal fat). The other three groups were given a HF diet supplemented with 1% BG-EE, 3% BG-EE, and 5% BG-EE for 12 wk. The anti-obesity effects of the BG-EE supplement on body weight, the development of fat mass, and lipid mechani...

  1. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Eunhui Seo; Sunmi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Byung-Chul Oh; Hee-Sook Jun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic isl...

  2. GINSENG, GREEN TEA OR FIBRATE: valid options for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Souza de MIRANDA-HENRIQUES; Margareth de Fátima Formiga de Melo DINIZ; Maria Salete Trigueiro de ARAÚJO

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis and bezafibrate were compared for their lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as potential agents to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: G1 (feed with standard diet); G2 (feed with high-fat diet with 58% of energy from fat); G3 (high-fat diet + standardized Panax ginseng extract at 100 mg/kg/day); G4 (high-fa...

  3. Physiological and Biochemical Studies on The Possible Protective Role of Ginseng in Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of Ginseng prior to radiation exposure at both doses 2 or 6 Gy of gamma rays minimize the hazardous effect of radiation by decreasing the level of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, MDA and lipids of RBCS membrane. Also, Ginseng treatment before exposure to single separate doses 2 and 6 Gy of γ- rays increasing the levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, albumin, globulin, RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin content and erythropoietin. Morphological studies of bone marrow revealed that administration of Ginseng before exposure to 2 or 6 Gy of γ- radiation improve the cellularity comparing to the irradiated one. While administration of Ginseng after exposure to 6 Gy of γ-rays had no effect and showed severe hypo cellularity and loss cell wall. The radioprotective effect of Ginseng administration before exposure to irradiation was more effective than that of Ginseng administered after exposure to irradiation. Ginseng was obviously investigated as an effective agent on hematopoiesis

  4. Development of EST Intron-Targeting SNP Markers for Panax ginseng and Their Application to Cultivar Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Guisheng; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the Orient. The low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for cultivar authentication and marker-assisted selection in cultivated ginseng. To exploit DNA polymorphism within ginseng cultivars, ginseng expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against the potential intron polymorphism (PIP) database to predict the positions of introns. Intron-flanking primers were then designed in conserved exon regions and used to amplify across the more variable introns. Sequencing results showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as indels, were detected in four EST-derived introns, and SNP markers specific to "Gopoong" and "K-1" were first reported in this study. Based on cultivar-specific SNP sites, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and proved to be effective for the authentication of ginseng cultivars. Additionally, the combination of a simple NaOH-Tris DNA isolation method and real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled the high throughput selection of cultivars from ginseng fields. The established real-time allele-specific PCR assay should be applied to molecular authentication and marker assisted selection of P. ginseng cultivars, and the EST intron-targeting strategy will provide a potential approach for marker development in species without whole genomic DNA sequence information. PMID:27271615

  5. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  6. Root canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endodontic therapy ... the root of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... You may have some pain or soreness after the procedure. An over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve ...

  7. Establishment of Withania somnifera Hairy Root Cultures for the Production of Withanolide A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte N.Murthy; Camelia Dijkstra; Paul Anthony; Daniel A.White; ,Mike R.Davey; J.Brian Power; Eun J.Hahn; Kee Y.Paek

    2008-01-01

    Withanla sominifera (Indian ginseng) was transformed by Agrobacterlum rhizogenes.Explants from seedling roots,stems,hypocotyls,cotyledonary nodal segments,cotyledons and young leaves were inoculated with A.rhizogenes strain R1601.Hairy (transformed) roots were induced from cotyledons and leaf explants.The transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using nptll and roIB specific primers and,subsequently,by Southern analysis for the presence of nptll and roIB genes in the genomes of transformed roots.Four clones of hairy roots were established;these differed in their morphology.The doubling time of faster growing cultures was 8-14 d with a fivefold increase in biomass after 28 d compared with cultured,non-transformed seedling roots.MS-based liquid medium was superior for the growth of transformed roots compared with other culture media evaluated (SH,LS and N6),with MS-based medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose being optimal for biomass production.Cultured hairy roots synthesized withanolide A,a steroidal lactone of medicinal and therapeutic value.The concentration of withanolide A in transformed roots (157.4 μg/g dry weight) was 2.7-fold more than in non-transformed cultured roots (57.9 μg/g dry weight).

  8. Lack of Radioprotective Potential of Ginseng in Suppressing Micronuclei Frequency in Human Blood Lymphocyte under Gamma Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti Lusiyanti; Zubaidah Alatas; Mukh Syaifudin

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng appears to be a promising radioprotector for therapeutic or preventive protocols capable of attenuating the deleterious effects of radiation on human normal tissue. This research addresses results on the study of radioprotective potential of ginseng on radiation induced micronuclei in lymphocyte cells in vitro. The peripheral blood samples were exposed to gamma rays at doses of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 Gy and then added with 0, 100, and 1000 ug/mL of ginseng extract. These treated samples we...

  9. Comparative Study of Korean White, Red, and Black Ginseng Extract on Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity and Cholinergic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi Ra; Yun, Beom Sik; In, Oh Hyun; Sung, Chang Keun

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated cholineresterase inhibitory activity of Korean white ginseng extract (WGE), red ginseng extract (RGE), and black ginseng extract (BGE) and the cholinergic effect on scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesic mice. WGE, RGE, and BGE inhibited acetylcholineserase (AChE), as well as butyrylcholineserase (BuChE) in a concentration-dependent manner. BGE presented strong inhibition of AChE with an IC50 value of 1.72 mg/mL, followed by WGE (5.89 mg/mL), RGE (6.30 mg/mL), respectively. T...

  10. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra S. Braz; Liana Clébia S. Morais; Ana Patríca Paula; Margareth de F.F.M. Diniz; Reinaldo N. Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d) with amitriptyline (25 mg/d) and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline), 13 in Group II (placebo), and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng). Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) revealed a reduction in pain in the P. g...

  11. [Development of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with reference herb approach to rapidly screen commercial sulfur-fumigated ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Shen, Hong; Liu, Huan-Huan; Li, Song-Lin

    2014-08-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) combined with reference herb method was developed to rapidly screen commercial sulfur-fumigated ginseng. Sufur-fumigated ginseng reference herb was prepared using genuine ginseng by conventional procedure. Then the reference sulfur-fumigated ginseng sample was analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS to identify characteristic marker components. 25-hydroxyl-Re sulfate with higher abundance was se- lected as marker compound from 8 characteristic components identified in sulfur-fumigated ginseng reference herb. The fragmentation of 25-hydroxyl-Re sulfate was extensively investigated, fragment ion m/z 879.44 with higher intensity was chosen as the characteristic ion of sulfur-fumigated ginseng. The response of ion m/z 879. 44 was improved by optimizing the MS conditions so that this ion could be used as the characteristic marker ion for screening purpose in ion extracting screening mode. The established approach was successfully applied to inspect 21 commercial ginseng samples collected from different cities in China It was found that the chemical profiles of 9 samples were similar to that of sulfur-fumigated ginseng reference herb, and the characteristic ion m/z 879. 44 of 25-hydroxyl-Re sulfate was also detected in these samples, suggesting that there were nearly 43% ginseng samples analyzed being sulfur-fumigated. This findng agreed well with the results of sulfur dioxide residues of these 21 commercial ginseng samples determined with the method documented in Chinese Pharmacopeia Compared with the method documented in Chinese Pharmacopeia, the proposed approach is more rapid and specific for screening sulfur-fumigated ginseng. SFDA of China should strengthen the enforcement to prohibit ginseng being sulfur-fumigated, so that ginseng and it preparations could be effectively and safely benefit to the health of human beings. PMID:25507535

  12. A Quantified Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Extract Influences Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Rou Yeo; Chen Yang; Ting-Yan Wong; Popovich, David G.

    2011-01-01

    A Panax ginseng extract (PGE) with a quantified amount of ginsenosides was utilized to investigate its potential to inhibit proliferation, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Seven fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography and their respective molecular weights were further confirmed via LC-ESI-MS analysis from four different extraction methods. Extraction using methanol under reflux produced significantly higher ...

  13. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 3. Radioprotective effect of thermostable fraction of ginseng extract on mice, rats and guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A.; Katoh, N.; Yonezawa, M. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1982-06-01

    Radiation protection by post-irradiation injection of a thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract in mice, rats and guinea pigs was studied. The thermostable fraction lost ''by-effects'' of decrease in body weight and splenic hyperplasia which were caused in injected mice by the original ginseng extract. The fraction protected mice (male) irradiated with 720 R of X-rays and rats (male) irradiated with 825 R with the dose about 6 mg per 100 g of body weight. The fraction also protected guinea pigs, both female and male, irradiated with 325 R with the dose about 80 mg per 300 g of body weight. The thermostable fraction stimulated recovery of thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, but not leukocyte counts, in 550-R irradiated mice. Recovery of all the three blood cell counts was stimulated by the fraction in rats irradiated with 630 R and guinea pigs irradiated with 200 R. Comparison of stimulated recovery by the thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract among the three blood cell counts showed that restoring action was the most marked on thrombocyte counts, commonly in the three species of the animals.

  14. 76 FR 53875 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... accommodate changing market values. AMS believed that by allowing any specified value would undermine the....S. based on market values. Changing which has a graded value of 90 or No. 7, consists of ginseng... value of 75 to incident to proper grading and on market values. The values would 98. handling in each...

  15. Study on nondestructive discrimination of genuine and counterfeit wild ginsengs using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Fan, Y.; Peng, Z.; Ding, H.; Gao, H.

    2012-07-01

    A new approach for the nondestructive discrimination between genuine wild ginsengs and the counterfeit ones by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed. Both discriminant analysis and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) were applied to the model establishment for discrimination. Optimal modeling wavelengths were determined based on the anomalous spectral information of counterfeit samples. Through principal component analysis (PCA) of various wild ginseng samples, genuine and counterfeit, the cumulative percentages of variance of the principal components were obtained, serving as a reference for principal component (PC) factor determination. Discriminant analysis achieved an identification ratio of 88.46%. With sample' truth values as its outputs, a three-layer BP-ANN model was built, which yielded a higher discrimination accuracy of 100%. The overall results sufficiently demonstrate that NIRS combined with BP-ANN classification algorithm performs better on ginseng discrimination than discriminant analysis, and can be used as a rapid and nondestructive method for the detection of counterfeit wild ginsengs in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-mediated pathways, using a PPARα-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPARα ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPARα-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPARα reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPARα-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPARα

  17. Cohnella saccharovorans sp. nov., isolated from ginseng soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Seok, Ji-Hye; Jang, Ho-Jin; Cha, Ju-Hee; Cha, Chang-Jun

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain, CJ22T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field located in Anseong, Korea. Cells of strain CJ22T were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, motile, oxidase- and catalase-positive and rod-shaped. The isolate grew optimally at pH 7 and 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain CJ22T belonged to the genus Cohnella, displaying highest sequence similarity of 97.3 % with Cohnella panacarvi Gsoil 349T. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CJ22T and its closest relative was 35.5 % (reciprocal value, 23.8 %). The phenotypic features of strain CJ22T also distinguished it from related species of the genus Cohnella. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain CJ22T were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. Based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain CJ22T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella saccharovorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CJ22T ( = KACC 17501T = JCM 19227T). PMID:26813106

  18. Inhibition of TNF-α-mediated NF-κB Transcriptional Activity in HepG2 Cells by Dammarane-type Saponins from Panax ginseng Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok Bean; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Kim, Young Ho

    2012-04-01

    Panax ginseng (PG) is a globally utilized medicinal herb. The medicinal effects of PG are primarily attributable to ginsenosides located in the root and leaf. The leaves of PG are known to be rich in various bioactive ginsenosides, and the therapeutic effects of ginseng extract and ginsenosides have been associated with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. We examined the effect of PG leaf extract and the isolated ginsenosides, on nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcriptional activity and target gene expression by applying a luciferase assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Air-dried PG leaf extract inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB transcription activity and NF-κB-dependent cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression more efficiently than the steamed extract. Of the 10 ginsenosides isolated from PG leaves, Rd and Km most significantly inhibited activity in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 12.05±0.82 and 8.84±0.99 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the ginsenosides Rd and Km inhibited the TNF-α-induced expression levels of the COX-2 and iNOS gene in HepG2 cells. Air-dried leaf extracts and their chemical components, ginsenoside Rd and Km, are involved in the suppression of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent iNOS and COX-2 gene expression. Consequently, air-dried leaf extract from PG, and the purified ginsenosides, have therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory. PMID:23717114

  19. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  20. Radioprotective potency of ginseng on some haematopoietic and physiological parameters in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, investigations focus on co administration of natural products with radiation treatment. The present study was assessed to investigate the potency of ginseng as a radioprotective agent on haematopoietic cell recovery, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) level in addition to physiological bio markers. Panax ginseng was intraperitoneally injected (100 mg/ kg) to female rats 24 h before gamma irradiation of 7 Gy which is liable to disturb the haematopoietic system and the organs involved as the bone marrow and spleen. Animals were investigated after 5 and 9 days from irradiation, ginseng or dual treatments. Irradiation caused significant wt loss of the body and spleen, decrease in bone marrow (B.M.) viable cells, significant depression in leukocytes with its differential counts, significant drop in erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrite values besides elevation in MCV. Gamma-irradiation treatment resulted in significant increase in serum MDA and glucose as well as significant reduction in blood GSH. Significant elevations in transaminases (ALT and AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were recorded after gamma irradiation. Preservation of body wt, B.M. viable cells, spleen wt and haematopoietic cell recovery was evident upon ginseng pre-administration. It ameliorated the depression in GSH content and the elevation in MDA level. ALT, AST and ALP were depressed approaching the control level after 9 days from dual treatments and blood sugar level was maintained. The study points out the promising positive role played by ginseng as a nontoxic natural product to reduce the time necessary for reconstituting haematopoietic cells and protecting vital physiological processes after irradiation

  1. Validation of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR has become a popular method for gene expression studies. Its results require data normalization by housekeeping genes. No single gene is proved to be stably expressed under all experimental conditions. Therefore, systematic evaluation of reference genes is necessary. With the aim to identify optimum reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of Panax ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, we investigated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes, including elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-β, elongation factor 1-gamma (EF1-γ, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3G (IF3G, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3B (IF3B, actin (ACT, actin11 (ACT11, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and cyclophilin ABH-like protein (CYC, using four widely used computational programs: geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method. The results were then integrated using the web-based tool RefFinder. As a result, EF1-γ, IF3G and EF1-β were the three most stable genes in different tissues of P. ginseng, while IF3G, ACT11 and GAPDH were the top three-ranked genes in seedlings treated with heat. Using three better reference genes alone or in combination as internal control, we examined the expression profiles of MAR, a multiple function-associated mRNA-like non-coding RNA (mlncRNA in P. ginseng. Taken together, we recommended EF1-γ/IF3G and IF3G/ACT11 as the suitable pair of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, respectively. The results serve as a foundation for future studies on P. ginseng functional genomics.

  2. Effect of Panax ginseng saponins and Eleutherococcus senticosus on survival of cultured mammalian cells after ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Hur, E.; Fulder, S.

    Panax ginseng saponin and Eleutherococcus senticosus extract were applied to cells in culture in order to assess the effect of these substances on resistance to gamma-irradiation. Eleutherococcus was slightly radio protective. However, ginseng saponin at a dose of 10 microgram/ml was significantly radioprotective (Do . 2.25 Gy) compared to control (Do . 1.80 Gy) when it was present prior to gamma-irradiation. It enhanced radiation response if it was also present for 4-6 hours after gamma-irradiation (Do . 1.10 Gy). Ginseng-treated cells made 30% less RNA and 14% more protein during a 1 hour pulse of labeled intermediates. The cells were morphologically altered. It is concluded that ginseng saponin can increase radiation resistance. The effect is indirect, due to alterations in cell physiology rather than DNA repair processes.

  3. Rapid method for simultaneous determination of flavonoid, saponins and polyacetylenes in folium ginseng and radix ginseng by pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z M; Lu, J; Gao, Q P; Li, S P

    2009-05-01

    A rapid pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of one flavonoid (panasenoside), nine saponins (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd) and two polyacetylenes (panaxydol and panaxynol) in folium ginseng and radix ginseng was developed. A Prevail C(18) rocket column (33 mm x 7 mm, 3.0 microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. Flavonoid was quantified at 355 nm, and saponins and polyacetylenes were determined at 203 nm. The chromatographic peaks of 12 investigated compounds in samples were unambiguously identified by compared their UV spectra and/or MS data with the related reference compounds. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999) within the test ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 12 analytes were less than 1.17% and 2.17%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of radix ginseng and folium ginseng, respectively. The result showed that PLE combined with rocket column HPLC analysis could provide a rapid method for analysis of compounds in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which is helpful to comprehensive evaluation of quality of radix ginseng and folium ginseng. PMID:19272605

  4. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    YOUSOFZADEH, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  5. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-01-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneousl...

  6. A Case of Korean Ginseng-Induced Anaphylaxis Confirmed by Open Oral Challenge and Basophil Activation Test

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Young; Jin, Hyun Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Jung, Soon Kwang; Jang, Jeng-Yun; Park, Hae-Sim

    2011-01-01

    Two case reports discussing Korean ginseng-induced allergic reactions have been published; both were inhalation-induced respiratory allergies in occupational settings. In this report we discuss the first case of anaphylaxis that developed after an oral intake of ginseng, confirmed by an open oral challenge, a skin prick test (SPT), and a basophil activation test (BAT). A 44-year-old man experienced rhinorrhea and nasal stiffness, followed by respiratory difficulty with wheeze and abdominal pa...

  7. Effects of Ginseng Treatment on Neutrophil Chemiluminescence and Immunoglobulin G Subclasses in a Rat Model of Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhijun; Kharazmi, Arsalan; Wu,Hong; Faber, Viggo; Moser, Claus; Krogh Johansen, Helle; Rygaard, Jørgen; Høiby, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is almost impossible to eradicate with antibiotic treatment. In the present study, the effects of treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng on blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemiluminescence and serum specific antibody responses were studied in a rat model of chronic P. aeruginosa pneumonia mimicking CF. An aqueous extract of ginseng was administered by subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 25 mg...

  8. Effect of Korean red ginseng on cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Jo, Jun-Young; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Kyung-Sub; Yeo, Inkwon; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet (CHHF) is one of the most common complaints among Asians, especially in women. Korean red ginseng (KRG), which is a steamed form of Panax ginseng, has vasodilating action in the peripheral vessels and increases blood flow under cold stress. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of KRG on cold hypersensitivity. Methods/Design This trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 CHHF patients. The trial will be ...

  9. Korean Red Ginseng Suppresses Metastasis of Human Hepatoma SK-Hep1 Cells by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 and Urokinase Plasminogen Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Guan-Jhong Huang; Yuan-Shiun Chang; Yu-Ling Ho; Wei Chao; Kun-Cheng Li

    2012-01-01

    Korean red ginseng and ginsenosides have been claimed to possess wide spectrum of medicinal effects, of which anticancer effect is one. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antimetastatic effect of Korean red ginseng on human hepatoma as well as possible mechanisms. The inhibitory effect of the water extract of Korean red ginseng (WKRG) on the invasion and motility of SK-Hep1 cells was evaluated by the Boyden chamber assay in vitro. Without causing cytotoxicity, WKRG exerted a ...

  10. Ginseng and Its Active Components Ginsenosides Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells by Regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeho Oh; Hyunghee Lee; Dongmin Park; Jiwon Ahn; Soon Shik Shin; Michung Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The growth and development of adipose tissue are believed to require adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. As our previous study revealed that ginseng reduces adipose tissue mass in part by decreasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in obese mice, we hypothesized that adipogenesis can be inhibited by ginseng and its active components ginsenosides (GSs). Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with Korean red ginseng extract (GE) inhibited lipid accumulation and the e...

  11. Red Ginseng Extract Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Regulation of STAT3 Pathway, Th17/Treg Balance, and Osteoclastogenesis in Mice and Human

    OpenAIRE

    JooYeon Jhun; Jennifer Lee; Jae-Kyeong Byun; Eun-Kyung Kim; Jung-Won Woo; Jae-Ho Lee; Seung-Ki Kwok; Ji-Hyeon Ju; Kyung-Su Park; Ho-Youn Kim; Sung Hwan Park; Mi-La Cho

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of R...

  12. Protective Effect of Wild Ginseng Extract against y-BHP-induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells Using DNA Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Seok Kim; Hee-Soo Park; Ki-Rok Kwon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : This study was carried out to examine protective effect of wild ginseng extract on HepG2 human hepatoma cell line against tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage. Methods : To evaluate protective effect of wild ginseng extract against t-BHP induced cytotoxicity, LDH level and activity of glutathione peroxidase and reductase were measured. Gene expression was also measured using DNA microarray. Results : Wild ginseng extract showed a significant protective ...

  13. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. Methods The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17...

  14. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the γ-irradiated Liver of Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by 60Co γ-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before 60Co γ--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of 60Co γ--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  15. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Maskey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca2+ concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca2+ levels in the hippocampus.

  16. Lack of Radioprotective Potential of Ginseng in Suppressing Micronuclei Frequency in Human Blood Lymphocyte under Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Lusiyanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng appears to be a promising radioprotector for therapeutic or preventive protocols capable of attenuating the deleterious effects of radiation on human normal tissue. This research addresses results on the study of radioprotective potential of ginseng on radiation induced micronuclei in lymphocyte cells in vitro. The peripheral blood samples were exposed to gamma rays at doses of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 Gy and then added with 0, 100, and 1000 ug/mL of ginseng extract. These treated samples were cultured for micronuclei (MN examination using standard procedure. The evaluation of incubation with ginseng extract for 24 h before irradiation was also done. Our results showed that there was no radioprotective effect of ginseng addition to the frequency of MN in lymphocyte cells. Pre-incubation with ginseng extract before irradiation also did not effectively suppress the MN frequency. This research lacks to prove the ginseng’s radioprotective potential that maybe related to its immunomodulating capabilities and its capabilities in scavenging free radicals induced by radiation or in attenuating the deleterious effects of radiation and its important role in increasing levels of several cytokines.

  17. Possible Role of ?-Irradiated Ginseng in the Modulation of Some Biochemical Disorders Produced by Aluminum in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity in human and animals has been a matter of concern. Ginseng is liable to be contaminated by micro-organisms during the pre- and post-harvest hand lings. Thus, ginseng decontamination by gamma- rays is needed to warrant the microbiological quality. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the protective effect of gamma-irradiated ginseng against Al-induced toxicity in rat model. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of 8 rats: A control group, the ?- irradiated ginseng extract (IGE) group; daily received the IGE (400 mg kg-1 body wt) for 6 weeks, the Al group received orally a daily dose (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt) of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) for 6 weeks and the irradiated ginseng extract+ AlCl3 (IGE-Al) group, received IGE+ AlCl3 for 6 weeks. Al administration significantly decreased some haematological parameters, sex hormones. Antioxidant enzymes activity in liver and testes showed a decrease. The results also showed a significant increase in some hepatic marker enzymes associated with an elevation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO). When experimental animals received IGE+ ALCL3, all these parameters were restored to approximately the control levels. These results demonstrated that administration of gamma-irradiated ginseng could be effective in the protection against the toxicity of AlCl3

  18. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Braz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d with amitriptyline (25 mg/d and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline, 13 in Group II (placebo, and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng. Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS revealed a reduction in pain in the P. ginseng group (p < .0001, an improvement in fatigue (p < .0001 and an improvement in sleep (p < .001, with respect to baseline characteristics, but there were no differences between the three groups. With respect to anxiety, improvements occurred in the P. ginseng group compared to baseline (p < .0001; however, amitriptyline treatment resulted in significantly greater improvements (p < .05. P. ginseng reduced the number of tender points and improved patients' quality of life (using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire - FIQ; however, there were no differences between groups. The beneficial effects experienced by patients for all parameters suggest a need for further studies to be performed on the tolerability and efficacy of this phytotherapic as a complementary therapy for fibromyalgia.

  19. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract. PMID:26677717

  20. The Long-Term Consumption of Ginseng Extract Reduces the Susceptibility of Intermediate-Aged Hearts to Acute Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Pei; Dong, Gengting; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background A large number of experimental studies using young adult subjects have shown that ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) protects against ischemia heart disease. However, ginseng has not been explored for its anti-I/R effect and mechanism of action in the aged myocardium. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the long-term consumption of ginseng extract on myocardial I/R in an in vivo rat model and explore the potential underlying mechanism. Methods and Results Youn...

  1. Chryseobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from ginseng soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Dan, Wang Dan; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-02-01

    A novel strain, DCY107(T), was isolated from soil collected from a ginseng field in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY107(T) is Gram-negative, yellow pigmented, non-motile, non-flagellate, rod-shaped and aerobic. The strain was found to grow optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 6.5-7. Phylogenetically, strain DCY107(T) is closely related to Chryseobacterium polytrichastri DSM 26899(T) (98.49 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chryseobacterium yeoncheonense JCM 18516(T) (97.78 %), Chryseobacterium aahli LMG 27338(T) (97.74 %), Chryseobacterium limigenitum LMG28734(T) (97.74 %), Chryseobacterium ginsenosidimutans JCM 16719(T) (97.47 %) and Chryseobacterium gregarium LMG 24052(T) (97.31 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain DCY107(T) and reference strains were found to be clearly below 70 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY107(T) was determined to be 34.2 mol%. The predominant quinone was identified menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified lipids: aminolipids AL1, AL2 and lipid L2. C16:00, iso-C15:00, iso-C15:02OH, iso-C17:03OH and summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1 ω9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl) were identified as the major fatty acids present in strain DCY107(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY107(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognised species belonging to the genus Chryseobacterium. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium panacis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain designated as DCY107(T) (=CCTCC AB 2015195(T) = KCTC 42750(T)). PMID:26573006

  2. Ginsenoside Analysis on the Wild Ginseng and the Ginseng Cultivated in Forest by HPLC/MS%利用HPLC/MS对野山参和林下参皂苷的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海; 张亚玉; 王英平; 郑培和

    2011-01-01

    The ginsenoside was analyzed by High performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry detector (HPLC/MS) for evaluated ginsenoside composition characteristics and content diversity in wild gineng and the ginseng cultivated in forests. Results showed that the ginsenoside Re, Rg,, Ro, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd were detected in different source ginseng, notoginsenoside R1, R2, R3 and propylene acyl ginseng saponins Rb1 Rc were detected in wild ginseng in the same time, by contrast, propylene acyl ginseng saponins Rb,, Rc and Rd were detected exclusively in wild ginseng under forest and no notoginsenoside R1 and R3. The ginsenoside contents of Rg,, Ro, Rf, Rg2, Rb,, Rc, Rb2 and Rd were similar except Re in wild ginseng and the ginseng cultivated in forests ginsenoside Re content in the ginseng cultivated in forests was higher than that of the wild ginseng and the difference was significant in the P<0.01 level, the average value was 5.042mg/g.%为了明确野山参和林下参中人参皂苷的组成特征及差异所在,利用高效液相色谱-质谱联用仪对野山参和林下参中皂苷进行分析测定.结果表明:野山参和林下参中均含有常见的9种人参皂苷(Re、Rg1、Ro、Rf、Rg2、Rb1、Rc、Rb2、Rd),野山参中还检测到三七皂苷R1、R2和R3以及丙二酰基人参皂苷Rb1和Rc,林下参仅检测到了丙二酰基人参皂苷Rb1、Rc和Rd,没有检测到三七皂苷R1和R3;林下参中Re含量显著高于野山参,平均含量为5.042g/mg,二者达到极显著差异(P<0.01),野山参和林下参中其它8种人参皂苷含量差别不大.

  3. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbai R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragavendran Abbai,1,* Ramya Mathiyalagan,1,* Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Chao Wang,2 Priyanka Singh,2 Sungeun Ahn,2 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,2 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Ginseng Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology, 2Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs. First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E, total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line at 10 µg·mL-1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844, and Escherichia coli (BL21 treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1

  4. Postprandial glucose-lowering effects of fermented red ginseng in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-hyun; Kim, Sun-Young; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Ha, Ki-Chan; Na, Won-Taek; Cha, Youn-Soo; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sun; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Red ginseng is prepared by steaming raw ginseng, a process believed to increase the pharmacological efficacy. Further bioconversion of red ginseng through fermentation is known to increase its intestinal absorption and bioactivity, and bioconversion diminishes the toxicity of red ginseng’s metabolite. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily supplementation with fermented red ginseng (FRG) on glycemic status in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 di...

  5. Zbiorowiska mikroorganizmów w glebie spod leśnej uprawy żeń-szenia amerykańskiego

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Pastucha; Barbara Kołodziej

    2012-01-01

    The investigations were carried out in 2003-2004 on American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) plantation localised in the mixed forest in Trzciniec (Lubelski province). The object of the study was the soil from ginseng culture protected by the biological and chemical method. In the experiment there was also control plot - without any protection during plants vegetation. There were also analysed the infected roots of ginseng plants. Microbiological analyses showed that soil from control plots ...

  6. Protein chemotaxonomy. XIII. Amino acid sequence of ferredoxin from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Yoshiki

    2006-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl protein and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. This ferredoxin has a unique amino acid sequence, which includes an insertion of Tyr at the 3rd position from the amino-terminus and a deletion of two amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus. This ferredoxin had 18 differences in its amino acid sequence compared to that of Petroselinum sativum (Umbelliferae). In contrast, 23-33 differences were observed compared to other dicotyledonous plants. This suggests that Panax ginseng is related taxonomically to umbelliferous plants. PMID:16880642

  7. Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibition Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 Isolated from Panax ginseng Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Young; Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Min, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Sup; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-12-28

    Ginsenoside Rb2 (Gin-Rb2) was purified from the fruit extract of Panax ginseng. Its chemical structure was measured by spectroscopic analysis, including HR-FAB-MS, (1)H-NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Gin-Rb2 decreased potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells, with 23.4% at 80 μM without cytotoxicity. Gin-Rb2 also decreased tyrosinase and MITF protein expression in melan-a cells. Furthermore, Gin-Rb2 presented inhibition of the body pigmentation in the zebrafish in vivo system and reduced melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. These results show that Gin-Rb2 isolated from P. ginseng may be an effective skin-whitening agent via the in vitro and in vivo systems. PMID:26437949

  8. The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Young Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1, vina-ginsenoside R4 (2 and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3, were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS, 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 µM. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds.

  9. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Culture-dependent method (Biolog was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare.

  10. Screening and optimization of pectin lyase and polygalacturonase activity from ginseng pathogen Cylindrocarpon Destructans

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Sathiyaraj; Sathiyaraj Srinivasan; Ho-Bin Kim; Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam; Ok Ran Lee; Yeon-Ju Kim; Deok Chun Yang

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrocarpon destructans isolated from ginseng field was found to produce pectinolytic enzymes. A Taguchi's orthogonal array experimental design was applied to optimize the preliminary production of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PL) using submerged culture condition. This method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for the production of enzymes. The process variables were pH, pectin concentration, incubation time and temperature. Optimization of process parameters r...

  11. Screening and optimization of pectin lyase and polygalacturonase activity from ginseng pathogen Cylindrocarpon Destructans

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Ho-Bin; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Lee, Ok Ran; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrocarpon destructans isolated from ginseng field was found to produce pectinolytic enzymes. A Taguchi’s orthogonal array experimental design was applied to optimize the preliminary production of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PL) using submerged culture condition. This method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for the production of enzymes. The process variables were pH, pectin concentration, incubation time and temperature. Optimization of process parameters r...

  12. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Hwa Park; Do Rim Kim; Ha Young Kim; Seong Kyu Park; Mun Seog Chang

    2014-01-01

    The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluoro...

  13. Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, T K; Lee, Y S; Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S. I.; Yun, H Y

    2001-01-01

    The failure to improve the five-year survival rate of cancer patients, from one in three in the 1960s to one in two in the 1970s, stimulated awareness of the importance of primary prevention of cancer. Korean investigators carried out extensive long-term anticarcinogenicity experiments with 2000 newborn mice to investigate whether Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer inhibited carcinogenesis induced by several chemical carcinogens in 1978. There was a 22% decrease (p

  14. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A.; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A β-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The productio...

  15. Effect of Ginseng on Calretinin Expression in Mouse Hippocampus Following Exposure to 835 MHz Radiofrequency

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bijay; MASKEY, DHIRAJ; Kim, Myeung-Ju; Yang, Jae-Won; Kim, Hyung-Gun

    2011-01-01

    Exponential rise in the use of mobile communication devices has generated health concerns due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure due to its close proximity to the head. Calcium binding proteins like calretinin regulate the levels of calcium (Ca2+) which plays an important role in biological systems. Ginseng is known for maintaining equilibrium in the human body and may play a beneficial radioprotectant role against electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. In the present study, we evaluated the radi...

  16. Effect of ginseng and ginsenosides on melanogenesis and their mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwangmi

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal changes in skin color induce significant cosmetic problems and affect quality of life. There are two groups of abnormal change in skin color; hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Hyperpigmentation, darkening skin color by excessive pigmentation, is a major concern for Asian people with yellow–brown skin. A variety of hypopigmenting agents have been used, but treating the hyperpigmented condition is still challenging and the results are often discouraging. Panax ginseng has been us...

  17. Ginseng, a Potentially Therapeutic Drug in γ-Irradiated Whole Blood Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginseng is commonly used as herbal medicines with wide range of beneficial effects. It is also approved as effective agent against radiation hazards, through its immunomodulating role in irradiated experimental animals. This experiment aimed to assess cytogenetic and biochemical changes of ginseng at a working dose (100µg/ ml) in suppressing radiation effects of human peripheral blood. The treatment times were 6, 48 and 72h after γ-irradiation at dose of 4 Gy (the last two treatment periods were done through blood culture). Triple blood cultures for each blood sample were set up. Cytogenetic investigations were evaluated using chromosome aberration (CA) analysis and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). The levels of malondialdhyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in blood plasma and in 48 and 72h blood cultures. In addition, immune function response was assessed by estimation of the levels of (Immunoglobulin G) IgG and IgM for the same treatment periods. Ionizing irradiation induced significant decrease of SOD activity. While, CA (dicentric, ring, breaks and polyploidy), micronucleus (MN), MDA level and NO concentration were significantly increased. For IgG and IgM, there is temporary over-production of them after 6h of irradiation, and then their levels decreased in the periods 48 and 72h within the cultures. Ginseng post-irradiation treatment exhibits increase in the level of IgG and IgM production, and improvement in NO concentration. In addition, there is reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), CA and MN frequencies. Results concluded that ginseng has antimutagenic effect and benefit against oxidative stress involved by irradiation

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Theta Glutathione S-transferase Gene from Panax ginseng Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Plants have versatile detoxification systems to encounter the phytotoxicity of the wide range of natural and synthetic compounds present in the environment. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is an enzyme that detoxifies natural and exogenous toxic compounds by conjugation with glutathione (GSH). Recently, several roles of GST giving stress tolerance in plants have demonstrated, but little is known about the role of ginseng GSTs. Therefore, this work aimed to provide further information on the G...

  19. Biological control of Colletotrichum panacicola on Panax ginseng by Bacillus subtilis HK-CSM-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hojin; Park, Hoon; Suh, Dong-Sang; Jung, Gun Ho; Park, Kyungseok; Lee, Byung Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological control of plant pathogens using benign or beneficial microorganisms as antagonistic agents is currently considered to be an important component of integrated pest management in agricultural crops. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent against Colletotrichum panacicola. Methods The potential of B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent for ginseng anthracnose was assessed. C. panacicola was i...

  20. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract Involves Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 5

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), an inhibitor of Gα(q) and Gα(i) activation, has been reported to have antiatherosclerosis. Previous studies showed antiatherosclerotic effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE) via multiple signaling pathways. However, potential protective effect of KRGE through RGS5 expression has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic effect of KRGE in vivo and in vitro and its role on RGS5 mRNA expression. Elevated levels of tot...

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) to discover genes involved in saponin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Hwan-Su; Lee, Hyoshin; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-01-01

    Background Eleutherococcus senticosus, Siberian ginseng, is a highly valued woody medicinal plant belonging to the family Araliaceae. E. senticosus produces a rich variety of saponins such as oleanane-type, noroleanane-type, 29-hydroxyoleanan-type, and lupane-type saponins. Genomic or transcriptomic approaches have not been used to investigate the saponin biosynthetic pathway in this plant. Result In this study, de novo sequencing was performed to select candidate genes involved in the saponi...

  2. Ginseng Total Saponin Improves Podocyte Hyperpermeability Induced by High Glucose and Advanced Glycosylation Endproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Tae-Sun; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Early diabetic nephropathy is characterized by glomerular hyperpermeability as a result of impaired glomerular filtration structure caused by hyperglycemia, glycated proteins or irreversible advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE). To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte ZO (zonula occludens)-1 protein and podocyte permeability induced by diabetic conditions, we cultured mouse podocytes under: 1) normal glucose (5 mM, = control); 2) high...

  3. Polyethylene glycol and abscisic acid improve maturation and regeneration of Panax ginseng somatic embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Konrádová, H.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2004), s. 725-730. ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10; GA MŠk ME 671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : ABA * Panax ginseng * somatic embryogenesis Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2004

  4. Improvement of hygienic quality of white ginseng powders by {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han-Ok; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Youk, Hong-Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho

    1994-12-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of white ginseng powders, the comparative effects of ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation and {gamma}-irradiation (5-10 kGy) on the sterilization, physiochemical properties and organoleptic quality were investigated. EO fumigation and {gamma}-irradiation (5-10 kGy) completely eliminated the microorganisms contaminating in white ginseng powder. There was no growth of microorganisms after 7 months storage at 30degC and different relative humidities. In the physiochemical properties, ginseng saponins were considerably resistant to {gamma}-irradiation (less than 10 kGy) and commercial EO fumigation, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar and acidity were significantly changed by EO fumigation. EO residues were 570 ppm in the samples taken immediately after deaeration and 170 ppm in the stored samples of 8 days at 30degC, respectively. Ethylene chlorohydrin and ethylene glycol residues as the secondary products of EO were 9,595 ppm immediately after deaeration and 221 ppm in the stored samples of 3 months at 30degC. (author).

  5. Improvement of hygienic quality of white ginseng powders by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of white ginseng powders, the comparative effects of ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation and γ-irradiation (5-10 kGy) on the sterilization, physiochemical properties and organoleptic quality were investigated. EO fumigation and γ-irradiation (5-10 kGy) completely eliminated the microorganisms contaminating in white ginseng powder. There was no growth of microorganisms after 7 months storage at 30degC and different relative humidities. In the physiochemical properties, ginseng saponins were considerably resistant to γ-irradiation (less than 10 kGy) and commercial EO fumigation, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar and acidity were significantly changed by EO fumigation. EO residues were 570 ppm in the samples taken immediately after deaeration and 170 ppm in the stored samples of 8 days at 30degC, respectively. Ethylene chlorohydrin and ethylene glycol residues as the secondary products of EO were 9,595 ppm immediately after deaeration and 221 ppm in the stored samples of 3 months at 30degC. (author)

  6. Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. RGE partially protected human epithelial (HEp2 cells from RSV-induced cell death and viral replication. In addition, RGE significantly inhibited the production of RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α in murine dendritic and macrophage-like cells. More importantly, RGE intranasal pre-treatment prevented loss of mouse body weight after RSV infection. RGE treatment improved lung viral clearance and enhanced the production of interferon (IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon RSV infection of mice. Analysis of cellular phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed that RGE treatment increased the populations of CD8+ T cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells upon RSV infection of mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung.

  7. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2. Some properties of the radioprotective substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, M.; Katoh, N.; Takeda, A. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60/sup 0/C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not.

  8. Intravenous Single-dose Toxicity of Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP is an extract distilled from either mountain cultivated ginseng or mountain wild ginseng. This is the first intravenous injection of pharmacopuncture in Korea. The word intravenous does not discriminate between arteries, veins, and capillaries in Oriental Medicine, but only the vein is used for MGP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intravenous injection toxicity of MGP through a single-dose test in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: Male and female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intravenously with MGP (high dosage of 20 mL/kg or low dosage of 10 mL/kg. Normal saline was injected into the rats in the control group by using the same method. After the rats has treated, we conducted clinical observations, body-weight measurements and histological observations. Results: In this study, no mortalities were observed in any of the experimental groups. Also, no significant changes by the intravenous injection of MGP were observed in the body weights, or the histological observations in any of the experimental groups compared to the control group. The lethal dose for intravenous injection of MGP was found to be over 20 mL/kg in SD rats. Conclusion: Considering that the dosage of MGP generally used each time in clinical practice is about 0.3 mL/kg, we concluded with confidence that MGP is safe pharmacopuncture.

  9. A molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of dimethomorph from ginseng samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuanwei; Liang, Shuang; Meng, Xinxin; Zhang, Min; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Dan; Li, Yueru

    2015-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized and evaluated to selectively extract dimethomorph from ginseng samples. Dimethomorph molecularly imprinted polymers with template to monomer molar ratios were contrived and developed via precipitation polymerization employing methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as cross-linker and butanone:N-heptane (7:3, v:v)as porogen. The LOD (limit of detection) of this method was 0.002 mg kg(-1), and the LOQ (limit of quantification) was 0.005 mg kg(-1). The different spiked level of ginseng was 0.1 mg kg(-1), 1.0 mg kg(-1), 5.0 mg kg(-1), and the average recovery of dimethomrph was 89.2-91.6%. Under the optimized condition, good linearity was obtained from 0.01 to 5 mg kg(-1) (r(2) ≥ 0.9997) with the relative standard deviations of less than 3.20%. This proposed MISPE-GC procedure eliminated the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis and could be applied to direct determination of dimethomrph in ginseng samples. PMID:25795323

  10. Ginseng berry extract supplementation improves age-related decline of insulin signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunhui; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang Jun; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007). Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (p = 0.047), and protein kinase B (AKT) (p = 0.037), were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) (p = 0.036) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) (p = 0.032), which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice. PMID:25912041

  11. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  12. Four new ginsenosides from red ginseng with inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi-Le; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-08-15

    During a search for novel melanogenesis inhibitors originating from nature sources, four new ginsenosides, including three dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rf-1a (1), 20Z-ginsenoside-Rs4 (2), 23-O-methylginsenoside-Rg11 (3), and one oleanane-type saponin, ginsenoside-Ro-6'-O-butyl ester (4) were isolated from red ginseng (the steamed ginseng) to evaluate their protective effects against melanogenesis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, and were more potent than the positive control arbutin, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. The results indicated that just the two carbon-20(22) double-bond-type ginsenosides showed strong inhibiting activity on melanogenesis through reducing tyrosinase activity. Thus, ginsenosides with such similar chemical structure in red ginseng may be potential natural products as tyrosinase inhibitors against malignant melanoma. PMID:26087936

  13. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose and leptin hormone decreased, but insulin increased by administration of RGE. it increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT antioxidant enzymes in kidneys tissues. Conclusion: Red ginseng extract produces antiobesity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in obese diabetic rats. The study suggests that red ginseng plant may be beneficial for the treatment of patients who suffer from obesity associated with diabetes. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 165-172

  14. GINSENG, GREEN TEA OR FIBRATE: valid options for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza de MIRANDA-HENRIQUES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis and bezafibrate were compared for their lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as potential agents to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: G1 (feed with standard diet; G2 (feed with high-fat diet with 58% of energy from fat; G3 (high-fat diet + standardized Panax ginseng extract at 100 mg/kg/day; G4 (high-fat diet + standardized Camellia sinensis extract at 100 mg/kg/day; and G5 (high-fat diet + bezafibrate at 100 mg/kg/day, given by gavage. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks later and blood was collected for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase determinations. The score system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was used to analyse the liver samples. Results and conclusions High-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in animal body weight, biochemical changes and enzymatic elevations. Steatosis, inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning scores were significant high in this group. The biochemical and histological variables were statistically similar in the bezafibrate group and control group. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract prevented obesity and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (steatosis and inflammation compared to high-fat diet. Camellia sinensis showed a less effective biochemical response, with small reduction in steatosis and inflammation but lower ballooning scores.

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Epimedium and Ginseng Contained Combinations Using HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYuan-chun; LUOMai; SarahWittenberg; CliveBarwell; ZHOUYu-xin; WEILu-xue

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To develop a rapid,effective method for the detemination of flavonoids and ginsenosides in one injection and evaluate the flavonoids and ginsenosides content to control the ratio of Epimedium and Ginseng herbs in botanical combinations.Methods: The quality evaluation was determinatted using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatog raphy(HPLC),referred by the major flovonoids from Epimedium,epimedin A,epimedin B,epimedin C,and icariin as the standards,and the major ginsenosides Rg1,Re,Rf,Rb1,Rb2,and Rd as the standards,included Epimedium brevicornum Maxim.,E.sagittatum(Sieb.et Zucc)Maxim.,E.koreanum NaKai,P.ginseng C.A.Meyer,P.quinquefolium L.,P.notoginseng and some products containing the above herbs.Results:The main flavonoids and ginsenosides could be clearly resolved in the single analysis.Conclusion.The results can be effectively used in evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively the ration of Epimdium and Ginseng contained products.

  16. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  17. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  18. Effect of Ginseng (Panax ginseng Berry EtOAc Fraction on Cognitive Impairment in C57BL/6 Mice under High-Fat Diet Inducement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyeon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet-induced obesity leads to type 2 diabetes. Recently, there has been growing apprehension about diabetes-associated cognitive impairment (DACM. The effect of ginseng (Panax ginseng berry ethyl acetate fraction (GBEF on mice with high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment was investigated to confirm its physiological function. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks and then a high-fat diet with GBEF (20 and 50 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. After three in vivo behavioral tests (Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests, blood samples were collected from the postcaval vein for biochemical analysis, and whole brains were prepared for an ex vivo test. A method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS was used to determine major ginsenosides. GBEF decreased the fasting blood glucose levels of high-fat diet-induced diabetes mellitus (DM mice and improved hyperglycemia. Cognitive behavior tests were examined after setting up the DM mice. The in vivo experiments showed that mice treated with GBEF exhibited more improved cognitive behavior than DM mice. In addition, GBEF effectively inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of DM mice brain tissues. Q-TOF UPLC/MS analyses of GBEF showed that ginsenoside Re was the major ginsenoside.

  19. Effect of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Berry EtOAc Fraction on Cognitive Impairment in C57BL/6 Mice under High-Fat Diet Inducement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Hyeon; Park, Seon Kyeong; Seung, Tae Wan; Jin, Dong Eun; Guo, Tianjiao; Heo, Ho Jin

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity leads to type 2 diabetes. Recently, there has been growing apprehension about diabetes-associated cognitive impairment (DACM). The effect of ginseng (Panax ginseng) berry ethyl acetate fraction (GBEF) on mice with high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment was investigated to confirm its physiological function. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks and then a high-fat diet with GBEF (20 and 50 mg/kg of body weight) for 4 weeks. After three in vivo behavioral tests (Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests), blood samples were collected from the postcaval vein for biochemical analysis, and whole brains were prepared for an ex vivo test. A method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) was used to determine major ginsenosides. GBEF decreased the fasting blood glucose levels of high-fat diet-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) mice and improved hyperglycemia. Cognitive behavior tests were examined after setting up the DM mice. The in vivo experiments showed that mice treated with GBEF exhibited more improved cognitive behavior than DM mice. In addition, GBEF effectively inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of DM mice brain tissues. Q-TOF UPLC/MS analyses of GBEF showed that ginsenoside Re was the major ginsenoside. PMID:26161118

  20. De novo sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of Panax ginseng in the leaf-expansion period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Wang, Siming; Liu, Meichen; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Shiyang; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Panax ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, is used worldwide for its variety of health benefits and its treatment efficacy. However, it is difficult to cultivate due to its vulnerability to environmental stresses. The present study provided the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of transcriptome analysis of ginseng at the leaf‑expansion stage. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, >40,000,000 high‑quality paired‑end reads were obtained and assembled into 100,533 unique sequences. When the sequences were searched against the publicly available National Center for Biotechnology Information protein database using The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, 61,599 sequences exhibited similarity to known proteins. Functional annotation and classification, including use of the Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, revealed that the activated genes in ginseng were predominantly ribonuclease‑like storage genes, environmental stress genes, pathogenesis-related genes and other antioxidant genes. A number of candidate genes in environmental stress‑associated pathways were also identified. These novel data provide useful information on the growth and development stages of ginseng, and serve as an important public information platform for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional genomics of ginseng. PMID:27278773

  1. Quality Standard of Ginseng Rhizome%参芦的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林世和; 易艳东; 余南才

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立参芦的质量标准.方法:根据2005年版方法,鉴别参芦的性状、显微特征,检查其水分、总灰分、酸不溶灰分;采用薄层色谱(TLC)法进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rb1的含量.结果:性状、显微特征明显;TLC斑点清晰、分离度好;人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rb1的进样量分别在1.01~10.10(r=0.9997)、0.69~6.90(r=0.9994)、1.01~10.10(r=0.9998)μg范围内与各自峰面积积分值呈良好线性关系,平均回收率分别为99.91%、99.55%、99.65%,RSD分别为1.54%、1.67%、2.50%(n=9).结论:所建标准可用于参芦饮片的质量控制.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the quality standard for Ginseng Rhizome. METHODS: According to Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 edition), the property and microscopic characteristics of Ginseng Rhizome, moisture, total ashes content, acid-insoluble ashes content were identified by TLC. The contents of ginsenoside Rb1, Re and Rg1 in Ginseng Rhizome were determined by HPLC. RESULTS: The property and microscopic characteristics of Ginseng Rhizome were significant. The spot of TLC were clear and well-separated. The linear range of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1 and Re were 1.01-10.10 (r=0.999 7) , 0.69-6.90 (r=0.999 4) ,1.01-10.10(r=0.999 8). The average recoveries were 99.91%,99.55% ,99.65%, and RSD of them were 1.54%,1.67%,2.50%(n=9). CONCLUSION: The method is suitable for quality control of Ginseng Rhizome decoction pieces.

  2. Bioactivity-guided identification and cell signaling technology to delineate the immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng on human promonocytic U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jian-hui

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginseng is believed to have beneficial effects against human diseases, and its active components, ginsenosides, may play critical roles in its diverse physiological actions. However, the mechanisms underlying ginseng's effects remain to be investigated. We hypothesize some biological effects of ginseng are due to its anti-inflammatory effects. Methods Human promonocytic U937 cells were used to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of ginseng following TNF-α treatment. A global gene expression profile was obtained by using genechip analysis, and specific cytokine expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. HPLC was used to define the composition of ginsenosides in 70% ethanol-water extracts of ginseng. Activation of signalling kinases was examined by Western blot analysis. Results Seventy percent ethanol-water extracts of ginseng significantly inhibited the transcription and secretion of CXCL-10 following TNF-α stimulation. Nine ginsenosides including Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3 and Rh1 were identified in our extract by HPLC. Seven out of nine ginsenosides could significantly inhibit TNF-α-induced CXCL-10 expression in U937 cells and give comparable inhibition of CXCL-10 transcription to those with the extract. However, the CXCL-10 suppressive effect of individual ginsenosides was less than that of the crude extract or the mixture of ginsenosides. The CXCL-10 suppression can be correlated with the inactivation of ERK1/2 pathways by ginseng. Conclusion We showed ginseng suppressed part of the TNF-α-inducible cytokines and signalling proteins in promonocytic cells, suggesting that it exerts its anti-inflammatory property targeting at different levels of TNF-α activity. The anti-inflammatory role of ginseng may be due to the combined effects of ginsenosides, contributing in part to the diverse actions of ginseng in humans.

  3. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2004-11-01

    Extracts from the plant guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements. To date, little research in humans has examined the potential psychoactive effects of these extracts. Extracts of Panax ginseng, which are often sold in combination with guarana, contain similar potentially active components, and have been shown to modulate cognitive performance. In this double-blind, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study, the cognitive and mood effects of separate single doses of: 75 mg of a dried ethanolic extract of guarana (approx 12% caffeine), 200 mg of Panax ginseng (G115), and their combination (75 mg/200 mg), were assessed in 28 healthy young (18-24) participants. On each day of the study (separated by a 7-day washout), cognitive performance and subjective mood were assessed pre-dose and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h post-dose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised assessment battery, Serial subtraction tasks and Bond-Lader mood scales. In comparison to placebo, all three treatments resulted in improved task performance throughout the day. In the case of guarana, improvements were seen across 'attention' tasks (but with some evidence of reduced accuracy), and on a sentence verification task. While also increasing the speed of attention task performance, both ginseng and the ginseng/guarana combination also enhanced the speed of memory task performance, with little evidence of modulated accuracy. Guarana and the combination, and to a lesser extent ginseng, also led to significant improvements in serial subtraction task performance. These results provide the first demonstration in humans of the psychoactive effects of guarana, and confirmation of the psychoactive properties of ginseng. Given the low caffeine content (9 mg) of this dose of guarana extract, the effects are unlikely to be attributable to its caffeine content. PMID:15582012

  4. Equal Knowledge Is the Strong Root of Democratic Egalitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Levitt, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    This article considers how to bridge the achievement gap by showing that reading methodology influenced American educational philosophy, primary-grade curricula, and American schools. It considers the impact of the romantic movement on progressive education and notes that the current academic achievement gap has two roots. The first can be traced,…

  5. Effects of fermented ginseng on memory impairment and β-amyloid reduction in Alzheimer’s disease experimental models

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joonki; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Deuk-Sik; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Chung, Sungkwon; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) on memory impairment and β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction in models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro and in vivo. FG extract was prepared by steaming and fermenting ginseng. In vitro assessment measured soluble Aβ42 levels in HeLa cells, which stably express the Swedish mutant form of amyloid precursor protein. After 8 h incubation with the FG extract, the level of soluble Aβ42 was reduced. For behavioral assessments, the passive avoidance ...

  6. New Method for Simultaneous Quantification of 12 Ginsenosides in Red Ginseng Powder and Extract: In-house Method Validation

    OpenAIRE

    In, Gyo; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Bae, Bong-Seok; Han, Sung-Tai; Noh, Kil-Bong; Kim, Cheon-Suk

    2012-01-01

    For quality control of components in Korean red ginseng powder and extract, a new method for simultaneous quantification of 12 ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rg2[S], Rg2[R], Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, Rg3[S], and Rg3[R]) was studied. Compared to the official method for quantification of marker substances (ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1), the proposed methods were guaranteed by in-house method validation. Several criteria such as linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy were evaluated. For red ginseng...

  7. Increase in Insulin Secretion Induced by Panax ginseng Berry Extracts Contributes to the Amelioration of Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocininduced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Yong-Kyoung; Park, Sang-Un; Choi, Jae-Eul; Cha, Ji-Young; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. More recently, it has received attention for its anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in humans and in animal models of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we tested the hypoglycemic effects of ginseng berry extract in beta-cell-deficient mice and investigated the mechanisms involved. Red (ripe) and green (unripe) berry extracts were prepared and administered orally (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) to streptozotocin-induced...

  8. Antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The present study investigated the antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in 90 subjects (21 men and 69 women with idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed trial. A bespoke 20% ethanol extract of P. ginseng (1 g or 2 g day(-1 or a placebo was administered to each group for 4 weeks, and then fatigue severity was monitored using a self-rating numeric scale (NRS and a visual analogue scale (VAS as a primary endpoint. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, total glutathione (GSH contents and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd activity were determined. After 4-week, P. ginseng administration decreased the total NRS score, but they were not statistically significant compared with placebo (P>0.05. Mental NRS score was significantly improved by P. ginseng administrations as 20.4 ± 5.0 to 15.1 ± 6.5 [95% CI 2.3 ~ 8.2] for 1 g and 20.7 ± 6.3 to 13.8 ± 6.2 [95% CI -0.1 ~ 4.2] for 2 g compared with placebo 20.9 ± 4.5 to 18.8 ± 2.9 [95% CI 4.1 ~ 9.9, P<0.01]. Only 2 g P. ginseng significantly reduced the VAS score from 7.3 ± 1.3 to 4.4 ± 1.8 [95% CI 0.7∼1.8] compared with the placebo 7.1 ± 1.0 to 5.8 ± 1.3 [95% CI 2.2 ~ 3.7, P<0.01]. ROS and MDA levels were lowered by P. ginseng compared to placebo. P. ginseng 1 g increased GSH concentration and GSH-Rd activity. Our results provide the first evidence of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng in patients with ICF, and we submit that these changes in antioxidant properties contribute in part to its mechanism. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS KCT0000048.

  9. Metabolic Activities of Ginseng and Its Constituents, Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, by Human Intestinal Microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong-Ryul; Hong, Sung-Woon; Kim, Yuri; Jang, Se-Eun; Kim, Nam-Jae; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in expressing pharmacological effects of ginseng by intestinal microflora between Koreans, metabolic activities of ginseng, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 by 100 fecal specimens were measured. The β-glucosidase activity for p-nitrophenyl- β-D-glucopyranoside was 0 to 0.42 μmol/min/mg and its average activity (mean±SD) was 0.10±0.07 μmol/min/mg. The metabolic activities of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 were 0.01 to 0.42 and 0.01 to 0.38 pmol/min/mg, respectively. Their average a...

  10. A placebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing Influenza-like illness in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ha Ki-Chan; Kim Min-Gul; Oh Mi-Ra; Choi Eun-Kyung; Back Hyang-Im; Kim Sun-Young; Park Eun-Ok; Kwon Dae-Young; Yang Hye-Jeong; Kim Min-Jeong; Kang Hee-Joo; Lee Ju-Hyung; Choi Kyung-Min; Chae Soo-Wan; Lee Chang-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts Background Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI) remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG) in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. Methods/Design We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subject...

  11. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  12. Induction of Hairy Roots of Panax ginseng and Studies on Suitable Culture Condition of Ginseng Hairy Roots%人参发根的诱导及其适宜培养条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵寿经; 李昌禹; 钱延春; 骆晓佩; 张昕; 王雪松; 康波愈

    2004-01-01

    利用发根农杆菌A4菌株在人参根外植体上直接诱导产生发根.在1/2MS固体培养基上建立起发根离体培养系,经连续多代的培养,发根仍保持旺盛生长状态.PCR扩增结果表明,发根农杆菌Ri质粒的rolC基因已在人参发根基因组中整合并得到表达.液体培养基中发根生长速度约为固体培养的2倍.经对发根中人参皂苷含量及比生长速率的测定,筛选出高产发根系R9923.利用HPLC法测定了R9923发根系中单体皂苷Rg1、Re、Rf、Rb1、Rc、Rb2和Rd的含量,人参总皂苷含量达15.2mg/g.确定1/2MS培养液(30g/L蔗糖)、摇床转速110r/min、每2周更换一次培养液、继代培养时间4周,为人参发根生长适宜条件.探讨了培养容积、发根初始接种量以及分级放大培养工艺对发根大规模生产过程中生物产量和皂苷含量的影响.

  13. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  14. Determination of twelve ginsenosides in Panax ginseng by HPLC%HPLC同时测定人参药材中12种人参皂苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥秀英; 郑一敏; 傅善权; 赵颖; 李杰; 王琳琳

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC测定人参药材中12种人参皂苷含量的方法.方法:采用lunna NH2色谱柱(4.6 mm×150mm,5 μm);流动相为乙腈-水梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长203 nm,柱温为室温.结果:12种人参皂苷Rh2,Rh1,Rg2,Rg3,Rg1,Rf,Re,Rd,Rc,Rb2,Rb3,Rb1在60min内达基线分离,线性关系良好(Γ≥0.999 5).加样回收率分别为98.1%,95.3%,96.1%,95.6%,97.3%,98.6%,98.0%,96.4%,96.1%,97.6%,96.8%,96.9%(RSD≤3%).结论:该方法简便,快速,可作为人参药材质量控制指标.%Objective: To determine the contents of twelve ginsenosides in the root of Panax ginseng by HPLC. Method: The analysis is carried out at room temperature on a Luna NH2 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm,5 μm) eluted with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phases in a gradient elution. The flow-rate was 1.0 mL. min- 1, the detection wavelength was 203 nm. Result: Twelve ginsenosides(Rh2, Rh1, Rg2, Rg3, Rg1, Rf, Re, Rd, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rb1) were separated at baseline within 60 min with good linearity (r≥0.999 5). The recovery rates were 98.1%, 95.3% , 96.1%, 95.6%, 97.3% , 98.6% , 98.0%, 96.4%, 96.1% , 97.6%,96.8%, 96.9% ( RSD ≤ 3.0% ). Conclusion: The method was simple,fast and could control the quality of P. ginseng effectively.

  15. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Min Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Hye Yoom; Yoon, Jung Joo; Ahn, You Mee; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Cha, Jeong Dan; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27322312

  16. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chul Kho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG on a high-fructose (HF diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4 in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.

  17. Changes of Ginsenoside Content by Mushroom Mycelial Fermentation in Red Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-01-01

    To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 μg/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 μg/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 2...

  18. 13-week subchronic toxicity study of a novel ginsenoside composition from ginseng leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Won-Ho; Ri, Yu; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Sang-Joon

    2014-01-01

    UG0712 is a new ginsenoside extract processed from ginseng leaves. A subchronic toxicity study of UG0712 was conducted in male and female SD rats. Rats were treated with UG0712 at doses of 100, 400 and 1,600 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks, and observed followed by 4-week recovery period at a highest dose. No-treatment-related effects were observed regarding the mortality, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis and histopathology. Although the changes in clinical sign, body weight, organ weight, hematolog...

  19. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jung Park; Hyun Soo Shim; Jeom Yong Kim; Joo Young Kim; Sun Kyu Park; Insop Shim

    2015-01-01

    Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced CRF, t...

  20. Protective effects of red ginseng extract against vaginal herpes simplex virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Ara; Roh, Yoon Seok; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Park, Surim; Kim, Jong Won; Lim, Kyu Hee; Kwon, Jungkee; Eo, Seong Kug; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract has various immune modulatory activities both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of orally administered KRG extract on immunity against herpes simplex virus (HSV). Balb/c mice were administered with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral doses of KRG extract for 10 d and then vaginally infected with HSV. We found that KRG extract rendered recipients more resistant against HSV vaginal inf...

  1. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbai, Ragavendran; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs) and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs). First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E), total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line) and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) at 10 µg⋅mL−1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844), and Escherichia coli (BL21) treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay demonstrated that both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs possess strong antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report unraveling the potential of Eleutherococcus senticosus for silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis along with its biological applications, which in turn would promote widespread usage of the endemic Siberian ginseng. PMID:27468232

  2. Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each. The first group (I served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days before day 0 of gestation and extended to 13th day of pregnancy. Then 6 females of each group were sacrificed, feotuses sample from each female were taken and subjected to cytogenetic analysis. The rest females of each group (4 females were continuously treated and sacrificed at day 17 of getation, foetuses were examined morphologically and for different features such as implanation sites, living feotuses, resorbed foetuses and foetus body weight. Chromosome analysis of the present study (Table 1 revealed that there were numerical aberrations (peridiploidy. There was a difference only between group II and III in respect to hypodiploid (2n-, meanwhile, hyperdiploid (2n+ were more frequent in group IV and VI than that in control group (group I. For the total numerical aberrations, there were significant differences between groups II, VI compared to the control group. All groups had little frequencies of structural aberrations especially for chromatid gaps, breaks and fragments. There were a significant differences between group IV and VI compared with the control group for the deletions. Chromosome breaks were more frequent in the groups III and IV compared to the control group, whereas groups V, VI had more frequencies of centromeric attenuations than the control group. There were no differences between control group and the rest of all groups investigated for implantation sites, living foetuses and resorbed foetuses (Table 2, whereas for gross malformation, 5

  3. [Determination of saponosides from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Comparison of official methods and HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, D; Abbe, P; Cappelaere, N; Rames, N

    1989-01-01

    Official methods for determination of ginsenosides of the French and Helvetic Pharmacopoeias have been compared with HPLC method. Sample preparation schemes used are those of monographs with conventional solvent extraction and solid phase extraction with a polar and a non-polar sorbents, respectively kieselguhr and C 18 octadecyl. Liquid-solid sample clean-up with C 18 cartridge is the most effective procedure. Prior HPLC method, an hydrolysis step of malonylginsenosides is necessary. Very selective extraction resulting in highly purified solution authorizes reliable and rapid colorimetric determination from ginseng saponosides. PMID:2634933

  4. Saponin production from in vitro cell and root cultures of .I.Panax ginseng./I. C. A. Meyer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Nepovím, Aleš; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Orlando: University of Florida, 2002. s. P-1191. [IAPTC&B Congress Plant Biotechnology /10./. 23.06.2002-28.06.2002, Orlando] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : plant biotechnology Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Extraction and identification of ginseng root exudates%人参根系分泌物的提取及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 彭洪利; 雷锋杰; 张连学

    2014-01-01

    [目的]鉴定人参根系分泌物中的化学物质,为研究人参化感作用的发生及其连作障碍提供科学依据.[方法]采用灭菌复合基质复配无土栽培人参,对人参根系分泌物进行原位收集,依次用蒸馏水和乙醇提取人参根系分泌物,合并后用有机溶剂萃取,获得水层及有机相石油醚层和乙酸乙酯层,用HPLC和GC-MS检测水层和2层有机相的物质组成.[结果]人参根系分泌物石油醚层中含有1,3-二氧戊环,4-甲基,4-乙基-2-十五烷、乙基柠檬酸、棕榈酸乙酯和二十五烷等20种化合物,其中,烷烃类物质占46.56%,有机酸酯类物质占22.75%,酚酸类物质占13.78%,烷烃衍生物占3.59%,吡喃类物质占5.39%.乙酸乙酯层中含有丁基柠檬酸、邻苯甲二酸二丁酯和单(2-乙基己基)邻苯二甲酸酯等9种化合物,其中,烷烃类物质占22.77%,有机酸酯类物质占63.71%,酚酸类物质占13.52%.人参根系分泌物水层中含有微量人参皂苷.[结论]采用无土栽培基质可避免人参栽培中微生物的干扰,能很好地培养收集人参根系分泌物,人参根系分泌物中含有人参皂苷及烷烃类物质、有机酸酯类物质和酚酸类物质.

  6. Antioxidant effect of parsley and panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenosides Rg3 against alteration induced in reproductivefunctions in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aziza M. Hassan1 and Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab2

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the antigcidant effects of parsley oil and panax ginseng have been evaluated against the clastogenecity of ZEN. One hundred and eight mature male mice were distributed into nine treatment groups, including the control group and the groups treated with parsley oil (0.6 ml/kg b.w), panax ginseng extract (40 mg/kg b.w) or parsley oil plus panax ginseng extract with or without ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w). Animals within different treatment groups were divided into two subgroups (A an...

  7. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Yeoul Kim; Chang-Won Lee; Seong-Kyu Park; Yoon, Jang W.; Radhakrishnan Vinodhkumar; Hyoung-Cheol Lee

    2008-01-01

    Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG) was investigated and compared to t...

  8. 近红外在线检测技术在人参提取物生产中的应用%Application of Near-infrared Spectroscopy On-line Detection to Production Process of Ginseng Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 王英平; 刘宏群; 许世泉; 闫梅霞; 赵景辉

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aims to use near-infrared spectroscopy to generate the spectrum of Chinese ginseng samples. The total ginseno-sides contents and near-infrared spectroscopy figure were determined in raw materials of ginseng and SS8 extract solutions. Raw materials of ginseng came from 93 different places, and born in different years. Using partial least squares (PLS), the methematical models were developed to correlate near infrared spectra and total ginsenosides contents. Method of cross-validation was adopted to evaluate these models, the results showed: Trie correlation coefficients of model were all above 0.95, the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEC V) values were 0.0716 and 0.032 7, ratio of deviation to performances (RPD) of model finally developed were 2.83 and 3.97 respectively. The model achieved the best prediction performance, and there is no significant difference between predictive contents and chemical reference values. The result indicates that NIR spectroscopy could be used in practice to fast determine the total ginsenoside contents of powder and extract solutions.%采用比色法和近红外漫反射、液体透射在线检测技术,分别测定93个不同产地、不同年生人参原材料固体样品和558个人参提取液样品的总皂苷含量和近红外光谱,结合偏最小二乘回归法,建立样品总皂苷含量与近红外光谱之间的数学模型.采用内部交叉检验对模型进行评价.评价结果显示:内部交叉检验的决定系数R2> 0.95,交义检验均方差(RMSECV)值分别为0.071 6和0.032 7,相对分析误差(RPD)分别为2.83和3.97.模型评价数据均有较好的表现,原材料、提取液检验样品近红外测定结果与化学参考值之间无显著性差异,近红外检测技术可以应用于人参原材料固体样品和人参提取液样品中总皂苷含量的快速测定.

  9. Korean red ginseng saponin fraction modulates radiation effects on LPS-induced NO production in RAW267.4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean Red Ginsengs are popular both as food and as a source of natural compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. Some Ginseng derived compounds such as saponin have been shown to be anti-inflammatory; this study explores the radio-protective properties of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGSF). We sought to identify the molecular mechanism of action of RGSF by determining their effects on Irradiation (IR) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in murine macrophage cells. In activated RAW264.7 cells, RGSF strongly down regulated irradiated and LPS-mediated inflammatory responses, including Nitric Oxide production, Interleukin-1beta release, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. RGSF was found to exert its radio-protective effects by inhibiting a signaling cascade that activates nuclear kappa B, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. In particular, RGSF strongly inhibited the radiation-induced hemeoxyganase-1 (HO-1) expression, implying that HO-1 may be a potential pharmacological target of saponin. Taken together, our data suggest that RGSF, a functional compound in Ginseng, can be developed an effective radioprotective agent. (author)

  10. Comprehensive Survey of Genetic Diversity in Chloroplast Genomes and 45S nrDNAs within Panax ginseng Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Junki; Lee, Hyun Oh; Joh, Ho Jun; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report complete sequences of chloroplast (cp) genome and 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA (45S nrDNA) for 11 Panax ginseng cultivars. We have obtained complete sequences of cp and 45S nrDNA, the representative barcoding target sequences for cytoplasm and nuclear genome, respectively, based on low coverage NGS sequence of each cultivar. The cp genomes sizes ranged from 156,241 to 156,425 bp and the major size variation was derived from differences in copy number of tandem repeats in the ycf1 gene and in the intergenic regions of rps16-trnUUG and rpl32-trnUAG. The complete 45S nrDNA unit sequences were 11,091 bp, representing a consensus single transcriptional unit with an intergenic spacer region. Comparative analysis of these sequences as well as those previously reported for three Chinese accessions identified very rare but unique polymorphism in the cp genome within P. ginseng cultivars. There were 12 intra-species polymorphisms (six SNPs and six InDels) among 14 cultivars. We also identified five SNPs from 45S nrDNA of 11 Korean ginseng cultivars. From the 17 unique informative polymorphic sites, we developed six reliable markers for analysis of ginseng diversity and cultivar authentication. PMID:26061692

  11. Effects of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are saponins derived from sterols. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for biochemical and genetic studies in animals. Although cholesterol is an essential requirement for the growth and development of C. ...

  12. The effect of red ginseng extract on superoxide dismutase activity in the kidney of gamma-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was prepared to observe the change of enzyme activities in kidney treated with red ginseng extract in the gamma ray irradiated mice. Determine the activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase in the kidney a period of 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 4 day, 5 day after a saline injection or injection of red ginseng extract or gamma ray irradiated group into four classify. The activity SOD and catalase showed a tendency to increase and recovery at the early state but pay no regard. Where ase, the activity of peroxide restored and increased pay regard. A physiological saline injection group after gamma ray irradiation showed a tendency to diminish after remarkable increase of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase than control group. Injection group of red ginseng extract after gamma ray irradiation observed rapid recovery on activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase than a saline injection group. Experimental result suggested that injection of red ginseng extract after irradiation have the recovery effect on the changed of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase against radiation injury

  13. The effect of red ginseng extract on superoxide dismutase activity in the kidney of gamma-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Soon [Kunsan Vocational College, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    This study was prepared to observe the change of enzyme activities in kidney treated with red ginseng extract in the gamma ray irradiated mice. Determine the activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase in the kidney a period of 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 4 day, 5 day after a saline injection or injection of red ginseng extract or gamma ray irradiated group into four classify. The activity SOD and catalase showed a tendency to increase and recovery at the early state but pay no regard. Where ase, the activity of peroxide restored and increased pay regard. A physiological saline injection group after gamma ray irradiation showed a tendency to diminish after remarkable increase of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase than control group. Injection group of red ginseng extract after gamma ray irradiation observed rapid recovery on activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase than a saline injection group. Experimental result suggested that injection of red ginseng extract after irradiation have the recovery effect on the changed of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase against radiation injury.

  14. A MADS box gene homologous to AG is expressed in seedlings as well as in flowers of ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H S; Lee, M H; Yoo, O J; Liu, J R

    1998-08-01

    To study the flower development of ginseng, a MADS box cDNA (GAG2) was isolated and characterized. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of GAG2 with the sequences of other MADS box proteins showed higher amino acid identities with AG (71%) from Arabidopsis thaliana, which is specifically expressed in stamens and carpels of flowers than with AGL genes (30 to 60%), suggesting that GAG2 is a ginseng homologue of AG. However northern blot analysis showed that GAG2 was expressed in seedlings. As the ginseng plant grew, the expression of GAG2 was confined to flowers. In situ hybridization experiments showed that GAG2 transcripts accumulated in the three inner whorls of flowers and in the cells surrounding the developing embryo sac. Temporal and spatial differences between GAG2 expression and AG imply that GAG2 alone is not sufficient to determine the identities of sexual organs of ginseng flowers and has additional or unique functions which differ from those of AG. PMID:9787457

  15. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  16. Using Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William Wynne

    1976-01-01

    This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

  17. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Miao, Jiacheng; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Linfeng; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In the application of electronic noses (E-noses), probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM) was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt's method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes). Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt's method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine) was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples. PMID:27420074

  18. Optimizing SSR-PCR system of Panax ginseng by orthogonal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tian-tian; MU Li-qiang; WANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    An orthogonal design was used to optimize SSR-PCR amplification system using Panax ginseng genomic DNA as template. Four levels of five factors (DNA template, Taq DNA polymerase, Mg2+, primer, and dNTP) and annealing temperature have been tested separately in this system. The results demonstrated the reaction efficiency was affected by these factors. Based on the results, a stable, productive and reproducible PCR system and cycling program for amplifying a ginseng SSR locus were obtained: 20 μL system containing 1.0 U Taq DNA polymerase, 2.0 mmol·L-1 Mg2+, 0.2 mmol· L-1 dNTPs, 0.3 μmol· L-1 SSR primer, 60 ng·μL-1 DNA template, performed with a program of 94℃ for 5 min, 94℃ for 30 s, annealing at 56.3℃ for 30 s, 72℃ for 1 min, 37 cycles, finishing at 72℃ for 7 min, and storing at 4℃.

  19. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Miao, Jiacheng; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Linfeng; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In the application of electronic noses (E-noses), probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM) was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt’s method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes). Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt’s method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine) was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples. PMID:27420074

  20. [Screening and identification of indoleacetic acid producing endophytic bacterium in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Chen, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guan-jun; Li, Tong; Chen, Jing-xiu; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria which was producing indoleacetic acid was screened from Panax ginseng by using the Salkowski method. The active strain was also tested for its ability of nitrogen fixation by using the Ashby agar plates, the PKV plates and quantitative analysis of Mo-Sb-Ascrobiology acid colorimetry was used to measure its ability of phosphate solubilization, for its ability of potassium solubilization the silicate medium and flame spectrophotometry was used, for its ability of producing siderophores the method detecting CAS was used, for its ability of producing ACC deaminase the Alpha ketone butyric acid method was applied. And the effect on promoting growth of seed by active strain was tested. The results showed that the indoleacetic acid producing strain of JJ5-2 was obtained from 118 endophytes, which the content of indoleacetic acid was 10.2 mg x L(-1). The JJ5-2 strain also had characteristics of phosphate and potassium solubilization, nitrogen fixation, producing siderophores traits, and the promoting germination of ginseng seeds. The JJ5-2 strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis by analyzing morphology, physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:26080547