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Sample records for american fox pseudalopex

  1. Nutritional ecology and digestive response to dietary shift in the large South American fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus Ecología nutricional y respuesta digestiva a cambios en la dieta en el zorro sudamericano grande, Pseudalopex culpaeus

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    SERGIO I. SILVA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the role of dietary shifts (from rodents to fruits and to mixed diets on the nutritional ecology of the culpeo fox Pseudalopex culpaeus, a native canid of South America. We studied the effects of food quality on digestive processes, nutrition, and mass balance, and the implications of diet quality for fox survival. We observed at the end of the nutritional trials that body mass differed significantly between the three diet groups (fruits, rats and mixed diets, while percentage of body mass change differed significantly only in the fruit diet treatment. Foxes fed with fruits consumed more food to meet their dietary and metabolic needs. Across diets, dry-matter as well as energy digestibility increased significantly with diet quality. Also, mean retention time was negatively and significantly correlated with dry-matter intake. We put forth that mixed diet may yield higher assimilation efficiencies and hence higher nutrient intakes than those predicted from the ingestion and assimilation of pure diets (i.e,. only rats, only fruits. We hypothesize that during periods of low availability of mammalian prey, a mixed diet should yield a positive energy/mass balance for the fox. We conclude that temporal and spatial variation in nutrient, energy, and water contents of prey available in a given habitat could have an important effect on fox nutrition, energy use, and mass balance. Finally, we postulate that P. culpaeus could not survive on fruits only past seven daysSometimos a prueba el papel del cambio de dieta (desde roedores a frutos y dieta mixta sobre la ecología nutricional del zorro culpeo Pseudalopex culpaeus, especie nativa de Sudamérica. Estudiamos el efecto de la calidad del alimento sobre los procesos digestivos, nutrición, balance de masas y las implicancias de la calidad de la dieta sobre la sobrevivencia de los zorros. La masa corporal al final de los ensayos nutricionales difirió significativamente entre los tres grupos de

  2. Comparison of the Lumbosacral Plexus Nerves Formation in Pampas Fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and Crab-Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous) in Relationship to Plexus Model in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzão, Caio José; Zimpel, Aline Veiga; Novakoski, Eduardo; da Silva, Aline Alves; Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) were dissected in two species of South American wild canids (pampas fox-Pseudalopex gymnocercus, and crab-eating fox-Cerdocyon thous). The nerves origin and distribution in the pelvic limb were examined and compared with the LSP model of the dog described in the literature. The LSP was formed by whole ventral branches of L5 at L7 and S1, and a contribution of a one branch from S2, divided in three trunks. The trunk formed by union from L5-6 and S1 was divided into the cranial (cutaneus femoris lateralis nerve) medial (femoralis nerve) and lateral branches (obturatorius nerve). At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadicus plexus, was formed by contributions from L6-7 and S1-2. This root gives rise to the nerve branches which was disseminated to the pelvic limb (nerves gluteus cranial and gluteus caudal, cutaneus femoris caudalis and ischiadicus). The ischiadicus nerve was divided into fibularis communis and tibialis nerves. The tibialis nerve emits the cutaneus surae caudalis. The fibularis communis emits the cutaneus surae lateralis, fibularis superficialis and fibularis profundus. The pudendus nerve arises from S2 with contributions of one branch L7-S1 and one ramus of the cutaneus femoris lateralis. Still, one branch of S2 joins with S3 to form the rectales caudales nerve. These data provides an important anatomical knowledge of a two canid species of South American fauna, besides providing the effective surgical and clinical care of these animals. PMID:26692361

  3. Coprologic survey of endoparasites from Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes in Chiloé, Chile Muestreo coprológico de endoparásitos del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes en Chiloé, Chile

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    JE Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 189 faecal samples of the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837], from different areas within Chiloé Island in southern Chile were examined for parasites eggs and oocysts using the sugar flotation technique. The results showed that 21.2% of the samples were positive to either one of nine helminthes and one protozoan. The parasites with the highest prevalence were an ascarid nematode and a Spirometra species of cestode. Other identified endoparasites include Capillaria sp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Filaroides osleri, ancylostomatid nematodes, Trichuris sp., Taenia sp., and Isospora sp. Parasite loads were higher during the winter and in areas having more domestic dogs. All these species and genera are reported for the fist time in the Darwin's fox.Un total de 189 heces del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837] en peligro crítico de extinción, de diferentes localidades de la isla de Chiloé en el sur de Chile, se examinaron en busca de huevos de parásitos y oocitos usando la técnica de flotación en azúcar. Los resultados mostraron que el 21,2% de las muestras fue positivo a nueve helmintos y/o a un protozoo. Los parásitos con la mayor prevalencia fueron nematodos del orden Ascaridida y un cestodo Spirometra. Otros endoparásitos identificados incluyeron Capillaria sp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Filaroides osleri, nematodos ancylostomatidos, Trichuris sp., Taenia sp., e Isospora sp. Las cargas parasitarias fueron mayores durante el invierno y en áreas con más perros domésticos. Todas estas especies y géneros son reportados por primera vez en el zorro de Darwin.

  4. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV)

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    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner; Felipe Geraldes Pappen; Jerônimo Lopes Ruas; Gilberto D'Ávila Vargas; Geferson Fischer; Telmo Vidor

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous) from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13) of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5) of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8) of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males...

  5. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV, Canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV

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    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5 of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8 of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males. Eleven canids (84.6% presented antibodies against CPV, 80% (4/5 were from P. gymnocercus and 87.5% (7/8 were from C. thous. There was no difference in positivity rate against CPV between gender and age. Antibodies against CCoV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples, with 60% (3/5 of positivity in P. gymnocercus and 25% (2/8 in C. thous. The frequency of antibodies against CCoV was higher among the adults and males. The study showed that these canids were exposed to CDV, CPV and CCoV.Foi investigada a ocorrência de exposição em 13 canídeos não domésticos de vida livre (cinco graxains-do-campo - Pseudalopex gymnocercus e oito graxains-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous da região sul do Brasil ao vírus da cinomose canina (CDV, parvovírus canino (CPV e coronavírus canino (CCoV. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras. Haviam anticorpos anti-CDV em 60% (3/5 dos P. gymnocercus e em 25% (2/8 dos C. thous. A freqüência foi maior entre machos e adultos. Para CPV, 11 canídeos (84,6% apresentaram anticorpos, 80% (4/5 eram da espécie P. gymnocercus e 87,5% (7/8 eram C. thous. Não houve diferença de positividade para o CPV entre sexos e idades. Anticorpos contra o CCoV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras, sendo 60% (3/5 de positividade entre os P. gymnocercus e 25% (2/8 entre os C. thous. A freqüência de anticorpos para CCoV foi maior entre os machos e adultos. O estudo revelou que estes canídeos foram expostos ao CDV, CPV

  6. Isolation of rabies virus from the parotid salivary glands of foxes (Pseudalopex vetulus from Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil Isolamento de vírus rábico de glândulas salivares parótidas de raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rabies virus in the parotid salivary glands, 12 road-killed rabies-positive hoary foxes (Pseudoalopex vetulus were tested by using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT. All 12 parotid salivary glands were positive for both tests, although in some cases several passages were required. The findings of this study support the importance of the hoary fox as rabies reservoir in the semi-arid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil.Para determinar a presença de vírus rábico em glândulas salivares parótidas, 12 raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus atropeladas em rodovias e positivas para raiva foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência direta (IFD e teste de inoculação em camundongos (IC. Todas as 12 glândulas salivares parótidas foram positivas em ambos os testes, embora, em alguns casos, várias passagens terem sido necessárias. Os achados do presente trabalho reforçam a importância das raposas como reservatórios de raiva no semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil.

  7. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  8. Effects of livestock on the feeding ecology of endemic culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi in central Argentina Efectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica del zorro culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi (Carnivora: Canidae endémico del centro de Argentina

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    MÓNICA V. PIA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock can affect the feeding ecology of carnivores either directly, by becoming potential prey, or indirectly, by modifying selection of other prey. Selection of other prey is modified through the negative effects of livestock on food and cover, which reduces density and increases vulnerability of wild prey. Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi is an endemic subspecies of culpeo fox of central Argentina that is persecuted due to predation on livestock. We studied the direct and indirect effects of livestock on P. c. smithersi's feeding ecology by evaluating its diet, prey availability, and prey selection in two areas with different livestock abundance-a national park and an adjacent sheep and cattle ranch in the Achala grassland plateau. We studied diets from feces and used conversion coefficients to estimate prey numbers and biomass consumed. Culpeos preyed primarily on native rodents (cavies and cricetines according to both prey numbers and biomass. The differences in culpeo diet, prey availability, and prey selection between sites were strongly associated with effects of livestock. Culpeos consumed more livestock carrion and birds at the ranch, and tucos (Ctenomys sp. only at the park. Livestock density was high at the ranch and low at the park, cricetine and tuco densities were significantly higher at the park, and European hare (Lepus europaeus densities were similar between sites. According to prey numbers consumed culpeos did not appear to be selective, but according to biomass they consumed cricetines more and hares less than expected at both sites and sheep more than expected at the park. Livestock may reduce densities and increase vulnerabilities of cricetines and fossorial tucos in Achala by soil trampling that destroys burrows, competition for forage, and reduction of grass coverEl ganado puede afectar la ecología trófica de los carnívoros en forma directa, siendo una presa potencial, e indirecta, modificando la selección de otras

  9. Helmintos do cachorro do campo, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 e do cachorro do mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 no sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Helminths of Pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 and of Crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Jerônimo L. Ruas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta canídeos selvagens foram capturados por "live trap" nos municípios de Pedro Osório e Pelotas, sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e transportados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Após serem necropsiados, segmentos do intestino, respiratório, urinário e fígado foram separados e examinados. Os crânios dos animais foram usados para identificação taxonômica. Dos 40 animais capturados, 22 (55% foram Pseudalopex gymnocercus e 18 (45% Cerdocyon thous. Os nematóides mais prevalentes foram: Ancylostoma caninum (45,4 em P. gymnocercus e 22,2% em C. thous, Molineus felineus (9,9 em P. gymnocercus e 5,6% em C. thous, Strongyloides sp. (22,7 em P. gymnocercus e 16,7% em C. thous, Trichuris sp. (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 11,1% em C. thous, e Capillaria hepatica (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 5,5 % em C. thous. Os trematódeos observados foram: Alaria alata (50,0% em C. thous e 36,4 em P. gymnocercus, e Asthemia heterolecithodes em 5,6% dos C. thous. Cestóides foram identificados como Spirometra sp. (61,1% em C. thous e 54,5 em P. gymnocercus, Diphyllobothriidae (81,8 em P. gymnocercus e 77,8% em C. thous, e Acantocephala do gênero Centrorhynchus foi observado somente em 5,6% dos C. thous. Estes resultados indicaram a helmintofauna de canídeos selvagens nas áreas estudadas.Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55% were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55% Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous, Molineus felineus (9.9 in P

  10. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

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    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. PMID:23307384

  11. Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis in North American farmed silver fox (Vulpes vulpes).

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    Clark, Jo-Anna B J; Hudson, Robert C; Marshall, H Dawn

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis is a progressive growth of gingival tissues in foxes resulting in dental encapsulation. It is an autosomal recessive condition displaying a gender-biased penetrance, with an association with superior fur quality. This disease has been primarily described in European farmed foxes. Here we document its emergence in Canada.

  12. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp. and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

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    Natalie S Goddard

    Full Text Available Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis, in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP, which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP. Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female

  13. Nefrectomia videolaparoscópica em Graxaim-do-campo (Pseudalopex gymnocercus com displasia renal

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    João P.S. Feranti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Graxains-do-campo habitam o centro-leste da América do Sul, desde o sudeste do Brasil e leste da Bolívia. A displasia renal compreende um espectro de anomalias e é frequentemente relatada em cães de diversas raças, sendo a maioria dos relatos achados de necropsia. A maior parte das doenças renais congênitas nos cães apresenta caráter progressivo, portanto o tratamento é limitado e direcionado a fim de retardar a progressão da doença renal estabelecida. No presente relato é descrita a realização de nefrectomia laparoscópica em graxaim-do-campo (Pseudalopex gymnocercus com displasia renal. Suspeitou-se de doença no rim direito por meio de ultrassonografia e urografia excretora. Para o procedimento cirúrgico foram utilizados três portais (10, 10, 5mm, endoscópio rígido de 10mm/0(0 e clipes para hemostasia dos vasos renais. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada neste canídeo selvagem foi semelhante à usada em cão doméstico, devido à escassez de relatos em cirurgias em graxaim e a inexistência de descrições de nefrectomia videolaparoscópica em graxaim-do-campo. O animal foi acompanhado por um período de 30 dias pós-cirurgia sem a ocorrência de complicações. O presente relato demonstra que a técnica proposta foi adequada para a realização de nefrectomia videolaparoscópica em Graxaim-do-campo.

  14. New insights into FoxE1 functions: identification of direct FoxE1 targets in thyroid cells.

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    Lara P Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FoxE1 is a thyroid-specific forkhead transcription factor essential for thyroid gland development, as well as for the maintenance of the thyroid differentiated state in adults. FoxE1 recognizes and binds to a short DNA sequence present in thyroglobulin (Tg and thyroperoxidase (Tpo promoters, but FoxE1 binding to regulatory regions other than Tg and Tpo promoters remains almost unexplored. Improving knowledge of the regulatory functions of FoxE1 is necessary to clarify its role in endocrine syndromes and cancer susceptibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In order to further investigate downstream FoxE1 targets, we performed a genome-wide expression screening after knocking-down FoxE1 and obtained new insights into FoxE1 transcriptional networks in thyroid follicular cells. After validation, we confirmed Adamts9, Cdh1, Duox2 and S100a4 as upregulated genes and Casp4, Creld2, Dusp5, Etv5, Hsp5a, Nr4a2 and Tm4sf1 as downregulated genes when FoxE1 was silenced. In promoter regions of putative FoxE1-regulated genes and also in the promoters of the classical thyroid genes Nis, Pax8 and Titf1, we performed an in silico search of the FoxE1 binding motif that was in close proximity to the NF1/CTF binding sequence, as previously described for other forkhead factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we detected specific in vivo FoxE1 binding to novel regulatory regions in two relevant thyroid genes, Nis and Duox2. Moreover, we demonstrated simultaneous binding of FoxE1 and NF1/CTF to the Nis upstream enhancer region, as well as a clear functional activation of the Nis promoter by both transcription factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In search for potential downstream mediators of FoxE1 function in thyroid cells, we identified two novel direct FoxE1 target genes. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence regarding the implication of Nis and Duox2 in executing the transcriptional program triggered by FoxE1. Furthermore, this study points

  15. Altitude of the top of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin. The...

  16. Altitude of the top of the combined Lower Hell Creek and Fox Hills aquifers in the Powder River structural basin

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the combined Lower Hell Creek and Fox Hills aquifers in the...

  17. Best practice fox management in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, G.; McLeod, L.

    2011-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) impact on populations of many prey species in Australia, and so are the targets of widespread management programs. In this study we monitored fox management programs already operating across 4.5 million hectares of regional New South Wales (NSW) to compare the impact of varying fox baiting effort on the survival of lambs as a major prey species. The spatial coverage and frequency of fox baiting were both correlated with lamb survival. Lamb survival was higher in area...

  18. The Fox and the Crow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正A Fox once saw a Crow fly off with apiece of cheese in its beak and settle on abranch of a tree".That's for me,as I am aFox,"said Master Reynard,and he walkedup to the foot of the tree".Good-day,Mis-tress Crow,"he cried".How well you arelooking to-day:how glossy your feathers;how bright your eye.I feel sure your voicemust surpass that of other birds,just asyour figure does;let me hear but one song from you that I may greet you as theQueen of Birds."

  19. Fox reimbedding and Bing submanifolds

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    Nakamura, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Let M be an orientable closed connected 3-manifold. We introduce the notion of amalgamated Heegaard genus of M with respect to a closed separating 2-manifold F, and use it to show that the following two statements are equivalent: (i) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that the exterior of the image of Y is a union of handlebodies; and (ii) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that every knot in M can be isotoped to lie within the image of Y . Our result can be regarded as a common generalization of the reimbedding theorem by Fox [Fox48] and the characterization of 3-sphere by Bing [Bin58], as well as more recent results of Hass and Thompson [HT89] and Kobayashi and Nishi [KN94].

  20. Business plan - Black Fox Media

    OpenAIRE

    Titov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    BlackFoxMedia is the company, which will specialize in the installation and operation of large advertising screens, which would not overload the space with their size, so that it all looks natural and attractive. We would like to make the contribution by improving the quality and effectiveness of the entire advertising market, broadcasting qualitative advertisement on high-quality advertising screens in places where the people would have time to see it. Mainly we want to get to the spaces nex...

  1. Trichinella infections in arctic foxes from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Henriksen, S. A.; Berg, T. B.;

    1995-01-01

    differences were demonstrated either between age groups or between foxes with high and low total parasite burdens. Predilection sites were comparable with those recorded earlier in experimentally infected caged foxes and in other carnivorous species. Hypotheses on predilection sites of Trichinella muscle...

  2. The Fox and the Crocodile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芬

    2008-01-01

    Time: a sunny day Place: a river in the forest Characters: Fox, Crocodile(鳄鱼) , Rabbit A, Rabbit B, Little Deer, Mother Deer Scene ⅠStoryteller: There are many animals in the forest. There is a river in the forest, too.When the animals are thirsty(口渴的) , they often drink water in the river. But there is a bad big crocodile living in the river too. All the small animals hate him but they are also afraid of him.

  3. Why are there more and more guns in America? Blame Fox News

    OpenAIRE

    Cassino, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Dan Cassion 80x108Why do Americans buy guns? For many, it’s because they are worried that new gun control measures may stop them from buying guns in the future. Dan Cassino examines the role of the news media – specifically Fox and network news, in driving Americans’ fears about gun control. He finds that while mass shootings do lead to an increase in gun sales – as measured by the number of background checks – coverage of gun control measures by Fox leads to far more. He writes that in the w...

  4. The Sclerotinia sclerotiorum FoxE2 Gene Is Required for Apothecial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Liu, Yanzhi; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Xianghui; Pan, Hongyu

    2016-05-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a widely dispersed plant pathogenic fungus causing many diseases such as white mold, Sclerotinia stem rot, stalk rot, and Sclerotinia head rot on many varieties of broadleaf crops worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the Forkhead-box transcription factors (FOX TFs) play key regulatory roles in the sexual reproduction of some fungi. Ss-FoxE2 is one of four FOX TF family member genes in S. sclerotiorum. Based on ortholog function in other fungi it is hypothesized to function in S. sclerotiorum sexual reproduction. In this study, the role of Ss-FoxE2 in S. sclerotiorum was identified with a gene knock-out strategy. Following transformation and screening, strains having undergone homologous recombination in which the hygromycin resistance gene replaced the gene Ss-FoxE2 from the genomic DNA were identified. No difference in hyphae growth, number, and weight of sclerotia and no obvious change in virulence was observed among the wild type Ss-FoxE2 knock-out mutant and genetically complemented mutant; however, following induction of sclerotia for sexual development, apothecia were not formed in Ss-FoxE2 knock-out mutant. The Ss-FoxE2 gene expressed significantly higher in the apothecial stages than in other developmental stages. These results indicate that Ss-FoxE2 appears to be necessary for the regulation of sexual reproduction, but may not affect the pathogenicity and vegetative development of S. sclerotiorum significantly. PMID:26756829

  5. E-Interview: Norma Fox Mazer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Norma Fox Mazer, a writer of children's books. Describes how she creates a story. Discusses how writing a story, whether a short story or a novel, is an intricate balance of character, event, and voice. (SG)

  6. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Refuge Tour Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report by members of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Team, the South Zone Biologist, and the Regional Forester that summarizes a tour of Chincoteague...

  7. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the Recovery Plan is to restore the Delmarva fox squirrel to secure status throughout its former range, which is described in this plan....

  8. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the Recovery Plan is to restore the Delmarva fox squirrel to secure status throughout its former range. The plan includes the following...

  9. Observations on the Bryant Fox Squirrel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This published report outlines the history and current status of the Bryant Fox Squirrel in the year 1944. Topics covered in the report include Characteristics,...

  10. Fox-Wolfram Moments in Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernaciak, Catherine; Butter, Anja; Plehn, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Geometric correlations between jets as part of hard processes or in addition to hard processes are key ingredients to many LHC analyses. Fox--Wolfram moments systematically describe these correlations in terms of spherical harmonics. These moments, either computed from the tagging jets or from all jets in each event, can significantly improve Higgs searches in weak boson fusion. Applications of Fox--Wolfram moments in LHC analyses obviously surpass jets as analysis objects as well as Higgs searches in terms of analyses.

  11. “The Woman Warrior versus The Chinaman Pacific: Must a Chinese American Critic Choose between Feminism and Heroism?” Conflicts in Feminism. Ed. Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller. New York: Routledge, 1990. 234-251

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, KK

    1991-01-01

    The chapter examines the tension between white feminism and ethnic feminism as well as between men and women in Asian American literary circles. Specifically it addresses Frank Chin’s attack on Maxine Hong Kingston over her depiction of Chinese sexism in The Woman Warrior and my own position as a literary critic torn between cultural nationalism and feminism. Using the opening of Kingston’s “China Men” as my point of departure, I urge Asian American men who feel “emasculated” by white culture...

  12. [Dog and fox faecal contamination of farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, M; Basso, W; Deplazes, P

    2015-08-01

    The contamination with faeces from dogs and foxes was documented on 14 different grassland areas in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, over one year. A total of 402 dog and 58 fox faecal samples were collected from the grasslands, further 236 faecal samples were retrieved from Robidog® units (disposal units for dog waste bags) in the immediate vicinity. The degree of fecal contamination per 100 m2 and year was 0.07-0.75 for dog samples and 0-0.06 for fox samples. Dog faeces from Robidog® units and grasslands contained stages of the following parasites, respectively (sedimentation/flotation method): Toxocara sp. (2.5%; 1.2%), Taenia crassiceps (with molecular confirmation; 0.8%; 0.2%), Capillaria sp. (0.4%; 0.7%), Trichuris sp. (0.8%; 1%), Isospora sp. (2.1%; 2%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%; 0.5%). In fox faeces parasite stages were more frequently detected: 19% Toxocara sp., 8.6% Taenia crassiceps, 6.9% Echinococcus multilocularis, 60.3% Capillaria sp., 29.3% Trichuris sp. In two fecal samples from foxes, Taenia saginata eggs or Toxoplasmagondii oocysts were confirmed by molecular analyses, these findings may be explained as an intestinal passage after coprophagy of human or cat feces, respectively. Therefore, foxes can also indirectly play a role in parasite transmission to livestock. PMID:26753365

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed by PCR in farmed red foxes, arctic foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids.

  14. FoxOs function synergistically to promote glucose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Rebecca A; Kaestner, Klaus H; Accili, Domenico

    2010-11-12

    Hepatic glucose production (HGP) plays a vital role in maintaining the supply of glucose to the body, and transcription factor FoxO1 is known to confer hormone responsiveness onto HGP. Mice with a liver-specific FoxO1 deletion (L-FoxO1) show reduced HGP and reduced expression of glucose production genes. To determine the contribution of additional transcription factors to HGP, we created double and triple liver-specific knock-outs lacking FoxO1, FoxO3, and FoxO4 or the related protein FoxA2. We show that, when compared with single knock-out of FoxO1, triple ablation of FoxO genes causes more pronounced fasting hypoglycemia, increased glucose tolerance, and enhanced insulin sensitivity, with decreased plasma insulin levels. In contrast, combined ablation of FoxO1 and FoxA2 phenocopied the single knock-out of FoxO1. These data indicate that FoxOs work in concert to regulate multiple aspects of hepatic glucose metabolism. PMID:20880840

  15. Fox management plan, Aleutian Islands Unit, AMNWR: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The presence or absence of arctic fox on islands in the Aleutian Islands Units is described as a decision tool for fox eradication. An effective chemical...

  16. Biological control of Aleutian Island arctic fox: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Empirical and literature data on the resource utilization patterns of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are evaluated to assess the potential...

  17. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel Five Year Review Summary and Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This review constitutes an evaluation of information on the Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel that has become available since 1993, when the Delmarva Fox Squirrel...

  18. FoxO3a and disease progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; Seonghun; Nho; Polla; Hergert

    2014-01-01

    The Forkhead box O(FoxO) family has recently been highlighted as an important transcriptional regulator of crucial proteins associated with the many diverse functions of cells. So far, FoxO1, FoxO3 a, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins have been identified in humans. Although each FoxO family member has its own role, unlike the other FoxO families, FoxO3 a has been extensively studied because of its rather unique and pivotal regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, stress management and longevity. FoxO3 a alteration is closely linked to the progression of several types of cancers, fibrosis and other types of diseases. In this review, we will examine the function of FoxO3 a in disease progression and also explore FoxO3a’s regulatory mechanisms. We will also discuss FoxO3 a as a potential target for the treatment of several types of disease.

  19. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  20. Using the dog genome to find single nucleotide polymorphisms in red foxes and other distantly related members of the Canidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Louie, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are the ideal marker for characterizing genomic variation but can be difficult to find in nonmodel species. We explored the usefulness of the dog genome for finding SNPs in distantly related nonmodel canids and evaluated so-ascertained SNPs. Using 40 primer pairs designed from randomly selected bacterial artificial chromosome clones from the dog genome, we successfully sequenced 80-88% of loci in a coyote (Canis latrans), grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes), which compared favourably to a 60% success rate for each species using 10 primer pairs conserved across mammals. Loci were minimally heterogeneous with respect to SNP density, which was similar, overall, in a discovery panel of nine red foxes to that previously reported for a panel of eight wolves (Canis lupus). Additionally, individual heterozygosity was similar across the three canids in this study. However, the proportion of SNP sites shared with the dog decreased with phylogenetic divergence, with no SNPs shared between red foxes and dogs. Density of interspecific SNPs increased approximately linearly with divergence time between species. Using red foxes from three populations, we estimated F(ST) based on each of 42 SNPs and 14 microsatellites and simulated null distributions conditioned on each marker type. Relative to SNPs, microsatellites systematically underestimated F(ST) and produced biased null distributions, indicating that SNPs are superior markers for these functions. By reconstituting the frequency spectrum of SNPs discovered in nine red foxes, we discovered an estimated 77-89% of all SNPs (within the region screened) present in North American red foxes. In sum, these findings indicate that information from the dog genome enables easy ascertainment of random and gene-linked SNPs throughout the Canidae and illustrate the value of SNPs in ecological and evolutionary genetics.

  1. Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Novel Partnerships De-Risking Successes PD Therapeutics Conference Sponsored Prizes Data Science Challenge Robert A. Pritzker Prize Bachmann-Strauss Prize DONATE TO ADVANCE RESEARCH FUNDRAISE WITH TEAM FOX PARTICIPATE IN YOUR AREA LATEST FROM THE BLOG MORE NEWS MJFF LIVE October 28, 2016 Ask ...

  2. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S.; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Karawita, Anjana C.; Breed, Andrew C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  3. Rabies risk in raccoon dogs and foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, A; Kauhala, K; Holmala, K; Smith, G C

    2008-01-01

    Raccoon dogs are seen as a new host for fox rabies in Europe. Disease spread in a community of species can change the epidemiology of the disease and calls for new disease control strategies. This study assesses the risk of a rabies outbreak, introduced to a community of foxes and raccoon dogs in Southern Finland, as an example of the reintroduction of rabies into rabies-free areas. Epidemiology is simulated with a two-species model, based on approaches for rabies in foxes and parameterised from recently published data on raccoon dog and fox ecology in Northeast Europe. The risk of the establishment of rabies was investigated. The effectiveness of vaccination control was estimated. Results show that rabies may not spread in a single species, when population densities are low, as in Finland. However, persistent epidemics are very likely in the species' community. The threshold density for a system of combined species decreases non-linearly, compared to the thresholds of each of the species. A behavioural factor that influences rabies epidemiology is raccoon dog hibernation, which may alter with climate change. Thus, the new host, the raccoon dog, has to be considered in defining new emergency control strategies for rabies free states in Europe. PMID:18634482

  4. FoxO1 in embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdous, Anwarul; Hill, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of the maternal-fetal circulation during embryonic development is a fundamental process required for effective exchange of nutrients, waste products and signaling factors critical to all subsequent stages of fetal growth and development. Recent work has uncovered a previously unrecognized role of the transcription factor FoxO1 in the orchestration of molecular events underlying establishment of maternal-fetal circulatory interaction. These new data contribute to a larger body of...

  5. The FoxO Family in Cardiac Function and Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Patterson, Cam

    2010-01-01

    The Forkhead family of transcription factors mediates many aspects of physiology, including stress response, metabolism, commitment to apoptosis, and development. The Forkhead box subfamily O (FoxO) proteins have garnered particular interest due to their involvement in the modulation of cardiovascular biology. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of FoxO regulation and outcomes of FoxO signaling under normal and pathological cardiovascular contexts. PMID:20148668

  6. Assessment of fox control in areas of wildlife rabies

    OpenAIRE

    Bögel, K.; Moegle, H.; Steck, F.; Krocza, W.; Andral, L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for the analysis of the interaction between rabies control measures and the annual turnover of a fox population. The basic conditions are deduced from data on the turnover of a steady fox population, which have been found to be representative for large parts of central Europe. These conditions, together with field data on the critical density for rabies transmission and the recovery of reduced fox populations, provide a model for the prediction and evaluation ...

  7. FOXE3 plays a significant role in autosomal recessive microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Linda M; Tyler, Rebecca C; Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya; Stoler, Joan M; Melancon, Serge B; Semina, Elena V

    2010-03-01

    FOXE3 forkhead transcription factor is essential to lens development in vertebrates. The eyes of Foxe3/foxe3-deficient mice and zebrafish fail to develop normally. In humans, autosomal dominant and recessive mutations in FOXE3 have been associated with variable phenotypes including anterior segment anomalies, cataract, and microphthalmia. We undertook sequencing of FOXE3 in 116 probands with a spectrum of ocular defects ranging from anterior segment dysgenesis and cataract to anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Recessive mutations in FOXE3 were found in four of 26 probands affected with bilateral microphthalmia (15% of all bilateral microphthalmia and 100% of consanguineous families with this phenotype). FOXE3-positive microphthalmia was accompanied by aphakia and/or corneal defects; no other associated systemic anomalies were observed in FOXE3-positive families. The previously reported c.720C > A (p.C240X) nonsense mutation was identified in two additional families in our sample and therefore appears to be recurrent, now reported in three independent microphthalmia families of varied ethnic backgrounds. Several missense variants were identified at varying frequencies in patient and control groups with some apparently being race-specific, which underscores the importance of utilizing race/ethnicity-matched control populations in evaluating the relevance of genetic screening results. In conclusion, FOXE3 mutations represent an important cause of nonsyndromic autosomal recessive bilateral microphthalmia.

  8. On Sorting Strings under Visual FoxPro%Visual FoxPro环境字符排序探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊爱法

    2011-01-01

    从Visual FoxPro的排序设置开始,就字符型数据精确比较和非精确比较中的疑难问题进行剖析,详细阐述了Visual FoxPro环境下字符数据的排序方法.%Through the description of the sorting methods of Visual FoxPro, this article analyses the problems existing in the precise and imprecise comparison of strings data. Finally the author suggests some ways to sort strings data under Visual FoxPro.

  9. Missense polymorphisms in the MC1R gene of the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Salamon, S; Gorna, A; Switonski, M

    2013-04-01

    Coat colour variation is determined by many genes, one of which is the melanocortin receptor type 1 (MC1R) gene. In this study, we examined the whole coding sequence of this gene in four species belonging to the Canidae family (dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog). Although the comparative analysis of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed a high conservation, which varied between 97.9 and 99.1%, we altogether identified 22 SNPs (10 in dogs, six in farmed red foxes, two in wild red foxes, three in arctic foxes and one in Chinese raccoon dog). Among them, seven appeared to be novel: one silent in the dog, three missense and one silent in the red fox, one in the 3'-flanking region in the arctic fox and one silent in the Chinese raccoon dog. In dogs and red foxes, the SNPs segregated as 10 and four haplotypes, respectively. Taking into consideration the published reports and results of this study, the highest number of missense polymorphisms was until now found in the dog (9) and red fox (7).

  10. Forkhead transcription factor foxe1 regulates chondrogenesis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Chisako; Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2009-12-15

    Forkhead transcription factor (Fox) e1 is a causative gene for Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, which is characterized by hypothyroidism and cleft palate. Applying degenerate polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the conserved forkhead domain, we identified zebrafish foxe1 (foxe1). Foxe1 is expressed in the thyroid, pharynx, and pharyngeal skeleton during development; strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in the brain, eye, and heart in adult zebrafish. A loss of function of foxe1 by morpholino antisense oligo (MO) exhibited abnormal craniofacial development, shortening of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyals, and suppressed chondrycytic proliferation. However, at 27 hr post fertilization, the foxe1 MO-injected embryos showed normal dlx2, hoxa2, and hoxb2 expression, suggesting that the initial steps of pharyngeal skeletal development, including neural crest migration and specification of the pharyngeal arch occurred normally. In contrast, at 2 dpf, a severe reduction in the expression of sox9a, colIIaI, and runx2b, which play roles in chondrocytic proliferation and differentiation, was observed. Interestingly, fgfr2 was strongly upregulated in the branchial arches of the foxe1 MO-injected embryos. Unlike Foxe1-null mice, normal thyroid development in terms of morphology and thyroid-specific marker expression was observed in foxe1 MO-injected zebrafish embryos. Taken together, our results indicate that Foxe1 plays an important role in chondrogenesis during development of the pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish, probably through regulation of fgfr2 expression. Furthermore, the roles reported for FOXE1 in mammalian thyroid development may have been acquired during evolution.

  11. Leishmania tropica infection in golden jackals and red foxes, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Kedem-Vaanunu, Noa; King, Roni; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Edery, Nir; Jaffe, Charles L; Baneth, Gad

    2010-12-01

    During a survey of wild canids, internal transcribed spacer 1 real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis identified Leishmania tropica in samples from jackals and foxes. Infection was most prevalent in ear and spleen samples. Jackals and foxes may play a role in the spread of zoonotic L. tropica. PMID:21122235

  12. 76 FR 13312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Regulation; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI. in the Federal Register (75 FR 76322). The rulemaking concerned the..., 2010, at 75 FR 76322, is withdrawn on March 11, 2011. ADDRESSES: The docket for this withdrawn... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh,...

  13. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  14. Effects of supplemental feeding on survivorship, reproduction, and dispersal in San Joaquin kit foxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Previous field studies at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California indicated that a decline in tie population size of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox might be linked to declining prey abundance. To evaluate whether kit fox populations we limited by food resources; survival probabilities, sources of mortality, reproductive success, and dispersal rates were compared between foxes with access to supplemental food and foxes without access to supplemental food (controls). Of foxes born in 1988, the probabilities of supplementary fed foxes surviving to age one and age two were higher than corresponding probabilities of control foxes. Survival probabilities of fed foxes from the 1988 cohort also were higher than the average survival probabilities of foxes born in the previous eight years. Most foxes that died during their first year of life died in June, July, or August. Monthly probabilities of survival were higher for fed pups than control pups curing the months of July and August of 1988. Survival probabilities of fed foxes originally r captured as adults and fed foxes born in 1989 were not significantly different than survival probabilities of corresponding control groups. Most foxes for which a cause of death could be determined were lolled by predators. Average dispersal distances were not significantly different between fed and control groups but the two longest dispersal distances were made by control foxes. These results indicate that food availability affects survival, reproduction, and dispersal by kit foxes and provides evidence that kit fox populations may at times be limited by food abundance.

  15. Examination of D. immitis presence in foxes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariosis is a parasitic disease that usually affects dogs, but it can occur in other carnivore species. Since the disease appears endemically in dogs in some parts of Serbia, the aim of our investigation was to determine whether dirofilariosis exists in wild animals. The study included a total of 150 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, 30 hunted foxes per region of South Banat, Raska, Rasina, Morava and Zlatibor were examined. After the corpses of foxes were autopsied, the heart and blood vessels were examined macroscopically for the evidence of adult forms of D. immitis. The presence of the agent was found in four foxes from the territory of three municipalities of South Banat: Kovin, Alibunar and Opovo, representing 13.33% of the total number of examined foxes in this region. None of the 120 autopsied foxes from four districts of central Serbia was found to have dirofilaria. The results obtained in investigation lead to conclusion that dirofilariosis exists as a parasitic disease in red foxes in South Banat.

  16. Genetic Variation Within and Among Populations of Delmarva Fox Squirrels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to provide important information about genetic variation in populations of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel in the context of a more...

  17. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  18. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Census Report 1977 Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Area time counts of the endangered Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrels and concurrently of Eastern Grey Squirrels were conducted in 1977 on several mornings during the...

  19. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan Second Revision 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recovery plan is the second revision of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan and is based upon information obtained from previous planning efforts...

  20. Investigations of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of doing n census study of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel is to provide some basis for determining the annual and periodic fluctuation in the...

  1. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Status and Recovery Plan Update 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This update has been developed to supplement the recommendations in the 1993 recovery plan for the endangered Delmarva Fox Squirrel. The conservation strategy...

  2. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  3. Rabies in the arctic fox population, Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, Torill; Bohlin, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Tryland, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Arctic foxes, 620 that were trapped and 22 found dead on Svalbard, Norway (1996-2004), as well as 10 foxes trapped in Nenets, North-West Russia (1999), were tested for rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by standard direct fluorescent antibody test. Rabies antigen was found in two foxes from Svalbard and in three from Russia. Blood samples from 515 of the fox carcasses were screened for rabies antibodies with negative result. Our results, together with a previous screening (1980-1989, n=817) indicate that the prevalence of rabies in Svalbard has remained low or that the virus has not been enzootic in the arctic fox population since the first reported outbreak in 1980. Brain tissues from four arctic foxes (one from Svalbard, three from Russia) in which rabies virus antigen was detected were further analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Sequences were compared to corresponding sequences from rabies virus isolates from other arctic regions. The Svalbard isolate and two of the Russian isolates were identical (310 nucleotides), whereas the third Russian isolate differed in six nucleotide positions. However, when translated into amino acid sequences, none of these substitutions produced changes in the amino acid sequence. These findings suggest that the spread of rabies virus to Svalbard was likely due to migration of arctic foxes over sea ice from Russia to Svalbard. Furthermore, when compared to other Arctic rabies virus isolates, a high degree of homology was found, suggesting a high contact rate between arctic fox populations from different arctic regions. The high degree of homology also indicates that other, and more variable, regions of the genome than this part of the nucleoprotein gene should be used to distinguish Arctic rabies virus isolates for epidemiologic purposes.

  4. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Hernández-Camacho; Raúl Francisco Pineda-López; María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo; Germinal Jorge Cantó-Alarcón; Robert Wallace Jones; Marco Antonio Moreno-Pérez; Juan Joel Mosqueda-Gualito; Salvador Zamora-Ledesma; Brenda Camacho-Macías

    2016-01-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the ...

  5. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raúl Francisco; de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, María; Cantó-Alarcón, Germinal Jorge; Jones, Robert Wallace; Moreno-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Mosqueda-Gualito, Juan Joel; Zamora-Ledesma, Salvador; Camacho-Macías, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC) were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico) Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013-2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species), mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission. PMID:27408801

  6. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. PMID:25934252

  7. Accelerated FoxP2 evolution in echolocating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.

  8. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks.

  9. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  10. Correction to Fox, Meyer, and Vogt (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Reports an error in "Attitudes about the VA health-care setting, mental illness, and mental health treatment and their relationship with VA mental health service use among female and male OEF/OIF veterans" by Annie B. Fox, Eric C. Meyer and Dawne Vogt (Psychological Services, 2015[Feb], Vol 12[1], 49-58). The institutional affiliation in the byline for Annie B. Fox and Dawne Vogt did not include the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-45062-001.) In the present study, the authors explored gender differences in attitudinal barriers to and facilitators of care for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and examined the relationship of those factors with VA mental health service use among female and male veterans with probable mental health conditions. Data were collected as part of a national cross-sectional survey of OEF/OIF veterans; the current sample was limited to participants with a probable diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse (N = 278). Although negligible gender differences were observed in attitudes about VA care and perceived fit in the VA setting, men reported slightly more negative beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment than women. In addition, logistic regressions revealed different associations with VA mental health service use for women and men. For women only, positive perceptions of VA care were associated with increased likelihood of seeking mental health treatment. For men only, perceived similarity to other VA care users and negative beliefs about mental health treatment were associated with increased likelihood of service use, whereas negative beliefs about mental illness were associated with lower likelihood of service use. For both women and men, perceived entitlement to VA care was associated with increased likelihood

  11. Mykyta the Fox and networks of language

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yu

    2007-01-01

    The results of quantitative analysis of word distribution in two fables in Ukrainian by Ivan Franko: "Mykyta the Fox" and "Abu-Kasym's slippers" are reported. Our study consists of two parts: the analysis of frequency-rank distributions and the application of complex networks theory. The analysis of frequency-rank distributions shows that the text sizes are enough to observe statistical properties. The power-law character of these distributions (Zipf's law) holds in the region of rank variable r=20 - 3000 with an exponent $\\alpha\\simeq 1$. This substantiates the choice of the above texts to analyse typical properties of the language complex network on their basis. Besides, an applicability of the Simon model to describe non-asymptotic properties of word distributions is evaluated. In describing language as a complex network, usually the words are associated with nodes, whereas one may give different meanings to the network links. This results in different network representations. In the second part of the pap...

  12. Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brazeal, Jennifer L; Lewis, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Invasive mammalian carnivores contribute disproportionately to declines in global biodiversity. In California, nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have significantly impacted endangered ground-nesting birds and native canids. These foxes derive primarily from captive-reared animals associated with the fur-farming industry. Over the past five decades, the cumulative area occupied by nonnative red fox increased to cover much of central and southern California. We used a landscape-genetic approach involving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes removed in predator control programs to investigate source populations, contemporary connectivity, and metapopulation dynamics. Both markers indicated high population structuring consistent with origins from multiple introductions and low subsequent gene flow. Landscape-genetic modeling indicated that population connectivity was especially low among coastal sampling sites surrounded by mountainous wildlands but somewhat higher through topographically flat, urban and agricultural landscapes. The genetic composition of populations tended to be stable for multiple generations, indicating a degree of demographic resilience to predator removal programs. However, in two sites where intensive predator control reduced fox abundance, we observed increases in immigration, suggesting potential for recolonization to counter eradication attempts. These findings, along with continued genetic monitoring, can help guide localized management of foxes by identifying points of introductions and routes of spread and evaluating the relative importance of reproduction and immigration in maintaining populations. More generally, the study illustrates the utility of a landscape-genetic approach for understanding invasion dynamics and metapopulation structure of one of the world's most destructive invasive mammals, the red fox. PMID:27547312

  13. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis.

  14. Expression of Fox genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAldea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forkhead box (Fox genes code for transcription factors that play important roles in different biological processes. They are found in a wide variety of organisms and appeared in unicellular eukaryotes. In metazoans, the gene family includes many members that can be subdivided into 24 classes. Cephalochordates are key organisms to understand the functional evolution of gene families in the chordate lineage due to their phylogenetic position as an early divergent chordate, their simple anatomy and genome structure. In the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae, 32 Fox genes were identified, with at least one member for each of the classes that were present in the ancestor of bilaterians. In this work we describe the expression pattern of 13 of these genes during the embryonic development of the Mediterranean amphioxus, Branchiostoma lanceolatum. We found that FoxK and FoxM genes present an ubiquitous expression while all the others show specific expression patterns restricted to diverse embryonic territories. Many of these expression patterns are conserved with vertebrates, suggesting that the main functions of Fox genes in chordates were present in their common ancestor.

  15. Survival and Abundance of Delmarva Fox Squirrels at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva fox squirrel (DFS; Sciurus niger cinereus) is a subspecies of the Eastern fox squirrel. The DFS once ranged from southeastern Pennsylvania (Poole,...

  16. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncin...

  17. Spatial spreading of Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) across nation borders in Western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, Muriel; Giessen, Joke van der; Brochier, Bernard; Losson, Bernard; Jordaens, Kurt; Verhagen, Ron; Lezenne Coulander, Cor de; Teunis, Peter F M

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes was studied in Belgium and a neighbouring region in The Netherlands. A total number of 1202 foxes were analysed (1018 in Belgium and 184 in The Netherlands) of which 179 were infected with E. multilocularis (164 in Belgium a

  18. FoxO3A promotes metabolic adaptation to hypoxia by antagonizing Myc function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Steen; Binderup, Tina; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif;

    2011-01-01

    cell survival in hypoxia. FoxO3A is recruited to the promoters of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes where it directly antagonizes c-Myc function via a mechanism that does not require binding to the consensus FoxO recognition element. Furthermore, we show that FoxO3A is activated in human hypoxic...

  19. Steroid Receptors Reprogram FoxA1 Occupancy through Dynamic Chromatin Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinstead, Erin E; Miranda, Tina B; Paakinaho, Ville;

    2016-01-01

    between ER, GR, and FoxA1 requires further investigation. Here we show that ER and GR both have the ability to alter the genomic distribution of the FoxA1 pioneer factor. Single-molecule tracking experiments in live cells reveal a highly dynamic interaction of FoxA1 with chromatin in vivo. Furthermore...

  20. Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: Internest distances in relation to breeding arctic fox densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharitonov, S.P.; Ebbinge, B.S.; Fouw, de J.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per

  1. OntoFox: web-based support for ontology reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtot Mélanie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontology development is a rapidly growing area of research, especially in the life sciences domain. To promote collaboration and interoperability between different projects, the OBO Foundry principles require that these ontologies be open and non-redundant, avoiding duplication of terms through the re-use of existing resources. As current options to do so present various difficulties, a new approach, MIREOT, allows specifying import of single terms. Initial implementations allow for controlled import of selected annotations and certain classes of related terms. Findings OntoFox http://ontofox.hegroup.org/ is a web-based system that allows users to input terms, fetch selected properties, annotations, and certain classes of related terms from the source ontologies and save the results using the RDF/XML serialization of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. Compared to an initial implementation of MIREOT, OntoFox allows additional and more easily configurable options for selecting and rewriting annotation properties, and for inclusion of all or a computed subset of terms between low and top level terms. Additional methods for including related classes include a SPARQL-based ontology term retrieval algorithm that extracts terms related to a given set of signature terms and an option to extract the hierarchy rooted at a specified ontology term. OntoFox's output can be directly imported into a developer's ontology. OntoFox currently supports term retrieval from a selection of 15 ontologies accessible via SPARQL endpoints and allows users to extend this by specifying additional endpoints. An OntoFox application in the development of the Vaccine Ontology (VO is demonstrated. Conclusions OntoFox provides a timely publicly available service, providing different options for users to collect terms from external ontologies, making them available for reuse by import into client OWL ontologies.

  2. Modelling the spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleydell, D R J; Raoul, F; Tourneux, F; Danson, F M; Graham, A J; Craig, P S; Giraudoux, P

    2004-08-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare but fatal disease in humans and is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. The densities of fox and grassland rodent populations and the interactions between them influence E. multilocularis transmission rates in Europe. Successful rabies control has caused fox populations and E. multilocularis prevalence rates to increase in many European countries. The potential increase of the infection pressure on the human population motivates the monitoring of the infection status of foxes over space and time. Detection of E. multilocularis antigen levels in fox faecal samples collected in the field might provide a pragmatic methodology for epidemiological surveillance of the infection status in wildlife hosts across large areas, as well as providing an indication of the spatial distribution of infected faeces contaminating the environment. In this paper, a spatial analysis of antigen levels detected in faeces collected in the Franche-Comté region of eastern France is presented. In Franche-Comté, rodent outbreaks have been observed to originate in areas rich in grassland. Spatial trends in fox infection levels were modelled here as a function of the composition ratio of grassland in the landscape derived from the CORINE land-cover map. Kriging models incorporating the grassland trend term were compared to a variety of models in which five alternative trend expressions were used: the alternative trend expressions included linear and quadratic polynomials on the x and y coordinates with and without a grassland term, and a constant mean model. Leave-one-out cross-validation indicated that the estimation errors of kriging with a trend models were significantly lower when the trend expression contained the grassland index term only. The relationship between observed and predicted antigen levels was strongest when the estimated range of autocorrelation was within the home range size of a single fox. The over-dispersion of E

  3. Echinococcus multilocularis found in 2 foxes in Southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    The news about these findings were released this morning [10 Jul 2013]. However, later today we detected another positive fox, from the same area, which is not mentioned in the press release (The press release, in Danish, can be found at http://www.vet.dtu.dk/Nyheder/Nyhed?id=%7bDC4E4263- 505A-4554......-BD23-BB1C85C34327%7d). Since September 2011 we have surveyed _E. multilocularis_ in wild carnivores. A total of 856 carnivores have been studied so far: 692 foxes, 150 raccoon dogs, 11 badgers, 3 raccoons, and one wolf. Of these, 7 foxes were positive, all of them originating from the same area...... of 1527, 596, and 33 adult _E. multilocularis_. Up until now previous worm burdens have not exceeded 27 worms. All animals were analyzed by the sedimentation and counting technique (Eckert et al. 2001), and worms from all positive foxes have been submitted to Jenny Knapp [Laboratory of Chrono...

  4. The Doctor Fox Research (1973) Rerevisited: "Educational Seduction" Ruled Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Eyal; Babad, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In their study about the Dr. Fox lecture, Naftulin, Ware, and Donnelly (1973) claimed that an expressive speaker who delivered an attractive lecture devoid of any content could seduce students into believing that they had learned something significant. Over the decades, the study has been (and still is) cited hundreds of times and used by…

  5. Genomic analysis of gum disease and hypertrichosis in foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J-A B J; Whalen, D; Marshall, H D

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1940s, a proliferative gingival disease called hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis (HHG) has been described in the farmed silver fox, Vulpes vulpes (Dyrendahl and Henricson 1960). HHG displays an autosomal recessive transmission and has a pleiotropic relationship with superior fur quality in terms of length and thickness of guard hairs. An analogous human disease, hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), is characterized by a predominantly autosomal dominant transmission and a complex etiology, occurring either as an isolated condition or as a part of a syndrome. Similar to HHG, the symptom most commonly associated with syndromic HGF is hypertrichosis. Here we explore potential mechanisms involved in HHG by comparison to known genetic information about hypertrichosis co-occurring with HGF, using an Affymetrix canine genome microarray platform, quantitative PCR, and candidate gene sequencing. We conclude that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in HHG, however despite involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 gene in congenital hypertrichosis with gingival fibromatosis in humans, this gene did not contain any fixed mutations in exons or exon-intron boundaries in HHG-affected foxes, suggesting that it is not causative of HHG in the farmed silver fox population. Differential up-regulation of MAP2K6 gene in HHG-affected foxes does implicate this gene in the HHG phenotype. PMID:27323055

  6. 75 FR 76322 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Fox River, Oshkosh,...

  7. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus. PMID:27314650

  8. Functional Contextualism in Context: A Reply to Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, William

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents Fox (2005) argument on functional contextualism and his assessment of the current conceptual frameworks in the field of instructional design and technology. The often unquestioning espousal of constructivism in the field of instructional design and technology has caused problems for a number of reasons. Fox…

  9. Flying-Fox Roost Disturbance and Hendra Virus Spillover Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Daniel; Field, Hume; McMichael, Lee; Jordan, David; Kung, Nina; Mayer, David; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Bats of the genus Pteropus (flying-foxes) are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV) which periodically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in Australia. The increased urban presence of flying-foxes often provokes negative community sentiments because of reduced social amenity and concerns of HeV exposure risk, and has resulted in calls for the dispersal of urban flying-fox roosts. However, it has been hypothesised that disturbance of urban roosts may result in a stress-mediated increase in HeV infection in flying-foxes, and an increased spillover risk. We sought to examine the impact of roost modification and dispersal on HeV infection dynamics and cortisol concentration dynamics in flying-foxes. The data were analysed in generalised linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). The difference in mean HeV prevalence in samples collected before (4.9%), during (4.7%) and after (3.4%) roost disturbance was small and non-significant (P = 0.440). Similarly, the difference in mean urine specific gravity-corrected urinary cortisol concentrations was small and non-significant (before = 22.71 ng/mL, during = 27.17, after = 18.39) (P= 0.550). We did find an underlying association between cortisol concentration and season, and cortisol concentration and region, suggesting that other (plausibly biological or environmental) variables play a role in cortisol concentration dynamics. The effect of roost disturbance on cortisol concentration approached statistical significance for region, suggesting that the relationship is not fixed, and plausibly reflecting the nature and timing of disturbance. We also found a small positive statistical association between HeV excretion status and urinary cortisol concentration. Finally, we found that the level of flying-fox distress associated with roost disturbance reflected the nature and timing of the activity, highlighting the need for a ‘best practice’ approach to dispersal or roost modification activities. The

  10. Flying-fox roost disturbance and Hendra virus spillover risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Bats of the genus Pteropus (flying-foxes are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which periodically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in Australia. The increased urban presence of flying-foxes often provokes negative community sentiments because of reduced social amenity and concerns of HeV exposure risk, and has resulted in calls for the dispersal of urban flying-fox roosts. However, it has been hypothesised that disturbance of urban roosts may result in a stress-mediated increase in HeV infection in flying-foxes, and an increased spillover risk. We sought to examine the impact of roost modification and dispersal on HeV infection dynamics and cortisol concentration dynamics in flying-foxes. The data were analysed in generalised linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The difference in mean HeV prevalence in samples collected before (4.9%, during (4.7% and after (3.4% roost disturbance was small and non-significant (P = 0.440. Similarly, the difference in mean urine specific gravity-corrected urinary cortisol concentrations was small and non-significant (before = 22.71 ng/mL, during = 27.17, after = 18.39 (P= 0.550. We did find an underlying association between cortisol concentration and season, and cortisol concentration and region, suggesting that other (plausibly biological or environmental variables play a role in cortisol concentration dynamics. The effect of roost disturbance on cortisol concentration approached statistical significance for region, suggesting that the relationship is not fixed, and plausibly reflecting the nature and timing of disturbance. We also found a small positive statistical association between HeV excretion status and urinary cortisol concentration. Finally, we found that the level of flying-fox distress associated with roost disturbance reflected the nature and timing of the activity, highlighting the need for a 'best practice' approach to dispersal or roost modification activities

  11. FoxO4 is the main forkhead transcriptional factor localized in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhen-qi; WANG Tian; PAN Ling-mei; HUANG Rui-hua; SHI Fang-xiong

    2007-01-01

    Forkhead box (Fox) proteins play critical roles in the regulation of differentiation, proliferation, immunity and aging of cells. Most studies on Fox proteins are limited to cultured cells and rodent. The aim of the current study is to detect by immunohistrochemistry whether FoxO1, FoxO3a and FoxO4 proteins are localized in the stomach and intestine of the pig. The results showed that FoxO4 exists in the mucosa in all parts of the stomach and intestine; FoxO3a exists mainly in the lamina propria and muscularis of some parts. However, FoxO1 is not detectable in all parts of the stomach and intestine. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that there exists a distinct expression pattern of Fox proteins, and that FoxO4 is a primary forkhead transcriptional factor localized in the gastrointestinal tracts of the pig.

  12. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) at an Outdoor Piggery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A.; Dundas, Shannon J.; Lau, Yvonne Y. W.; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Predation of piglets by red foxes is a significant risk for outdoor/free-range pork producers, but is often difficult to quantify. Using remote sensing cameras, we recorded substantial evidence of red foxes taking piglets from around farrowing huts, and found that piglets were most likely to be recorded as “missing” over their first week. These data suggest that fox predation contributed to the marked production differences between this outdoor farm and a similar-sized intensive farm under the same management, and warrant greater control of this introduced, invasive predator. Abstract Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or) capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets). We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”), it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows), and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most

  13. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  14. Tallulah Bankhead, Bette Davis, and Marc Blitzstein: Lillian Hellman’s The Little Foxes as Play, Film, and Opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Francis Dick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While other American plays such as Elmer Rice’s Street Scene, Tennessee Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire, and Eugene O’Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra have made the journey from stage to film and finally to opera, the film and operatic versions were faithful recreations of the original without the addition of new characters, including those from other works by the same playwright.  Lillian Hellman’s best play, The Little Foxes (1939, is unusual in two respects: in the 1941 film version, a character is added who did not appear in the original in order to provide a love interest for the protagonist’s daughter, thereby resulting in a different ending;  in the 1949 operatic version, a character from a later play by Hellman, Another Part of the Forest, is introduced to show how a young woman with romantic ideals evolved into the Lady Macbeth of American drama. Thus each version of The Little Foxes deepens our understanding of the original without altering the play’s dramatic impact.

  15. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A Hofman

    Full Text Available Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis, endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus. Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP, while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less. Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  16. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions. PMID:24011650

  17. Research progress on SIRT1-FoxO-autophagy pathway%SIRT1-FoxO-自噬通路研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊; 黄秀兰

    2014-01-01

    FoxO as an important transcription factors,can be deacetylated by SIRT1 (a sort of deacetylases),SIRT1-FoxO-au-tophagy pathway is likely to play a vital role in some diseases,e. g.diabetes,aging,obesity,cancer,cardiovascular diseases and muscle atrophy,etcetera.This paper aims to analy transcription-al regulation mechanism of FoxO,and reviews the progress of SIRT1-FoxO-autophagy pathway.%FoxO是一类重要自噬调控因子,其活性主要受SIRT1的去乙酰化调节。SIRT1-FoxO-自噬通路可能为糖尿病、衰老、肥胖、肿瘤、心血管疾病、肌肉萎缩等多种疾病提供新的防治策略。该文旨在分析 FoxO 的转录调节机制,综述SIRT1-FoxO-自噬通路的研究进展。

  18. Theoretically predicted Fox-7 based new high energy density molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Susanta

    2016-08-01

    Computational investigation of CHNO based high energy density molecules (HEDM) are designed with FOX-7 (1, 1-dinitro 2, 2-diamino ethylene) skeleton. We report structures, stability and detonation properties of these new molecules. A systematic analysis is presented for the crystal density, activation energy for nitro to nitrite isomerisation and the C-NO2 bond dissociation energy of these molecules. The Atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations have been performed to interpret the intra-molecular weak H-bonding interactions and the stability of C-NO2 bonds. The structure optimization, frequency and bond dissociation energy calculations have been performed at B3LYP level of theory by using G03 quantum chemistry package. Some of the designed molecules are found to be more promising HEDM than FOX-7 molecule, and are proposed to be candidate for synthetic purpose.

  19. Clinical Effects of Topical Tacrolimus on Fox-Fordyce Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan; Işıl Bulur; Zeliha Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Fox-Fordyce Disease (FFD) is a rare, chronic, pruritic, inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands. It is characterized by dome-shaped, firm, discrete, skin-colored, and monomorphic perifollicular papules. The most common sites of involvement are axillae and anogenital and periareolar regions which are rich in apocrine sweat glands. Treatment is difficult. Topical, intralesional steroids, topical tretinoin, adapalene, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, oral contraceptives, isotretinoin, phototherap...

  20. Foraging ecology and spatial behavior of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in a wet grassland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisner, Katrine; Sunde, Peter; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann;

    2014-01-01

    for conservation status of declining populations of grassland breeding waders. However, few studies have focussed on the foraging ecology and behaviour of the red fox in these landscapes. Faecal analyses revealed that fox diet consisted of birds (43 % of prey remains / 32 % of biomass), rodents (39 % / 21......We investigated diet composition, habitat selection and spatial behaviour of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to the availability of wader nests in a coastal polder area in southwest Denmark. The predatory role of the red fox in wet grassland ecosystems has profound implications...... %), sheep (mainly as carrion, 14 % / 41 %) and lagomorphs (4 % / 7 %). Charadriiformes (including waders) comprised 3–12 % of prey remains throughout the year. Telemetry data and spotlight counts indicated that foxes did not select areas with high densities of breeding waders, suggesting that foxes did...

  1. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  2. Spontaneous rickets in the wild arctic fox Alopex lagopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.A.; Conlogue, G.J.

    1981-10-01

    Normal and rachitic, skeletally immature arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) were subjected to physical examination, roentgenographic studies, and in some cases histologic studies. The involved animals had active rickets coupled with antecedent normal diaphyseal bone formation. Evaluation of all the long bones showed highly variable manifestations of the disease, which undoubtedly reflect different rates of physeal endochondral transformation and metaphyseal remodeling. Histologic examination showed distinct patterns of widening of the physes and variable osteodystrophy in the trabecular and cortical bone of the metaphyses and epiphyseal ossification centers. These aforementioned factors certainly would necessitate different regional calcium needs and, therefore, different regional responses to an overall calcium deficiency. The physes involved in the most rapid growth rates in this period showed the most widening of the growth plate, and the most dystrophic changes in the metaphysis. Skeletal injuries, including metaphyseal fractures and slow-down of longitudinal growth (particularly in the ulna) were also evident. Because of apparent dietary differences in the affected and normal fox kits, this juvenile-onset disease was presumed due to calcium-deficient intake following weaning. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of spontaneously occurring rickets in a wild animal in its natural habitat. There are several possible mechanisms for the variable widening of the physis and the loss of bone mineralization in these fox kits: calcium-deficient diet, binding of calcium in the bowel by high phosphorus intake, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin A toxicity.

  3. Vocalization toward conspecifics in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tame or aggressive behavior toward humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S.; Volodin, Ilya A.; Elena V Volodina; Kharlamova, Anastasia V.; Lyudmila N Trut

    2010-01-01

    We examined the production of different vocalizations in three strains of silver fox (Unselected, Aggressive, and Tame) attending three kinds of behavior (aggressive, affiliative, and neutral) in response to their same-strain conspecifics. This is a follow up to previous experiments which demonstrated that in the presence of humans tame foxes produced cackles and pants but never coughed or snorted, whilst Aggressive foxes produced coughs and snorts but never cackled or panted. Thus, cackle/pa...

  4. The Fox/Forkhead transcription factor family of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzenwanker, Jens H; Gerhart, John; Freeman, Robert M.; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fox gene family is a large family of transcription factors that arose early in organismal evolution dating back to at least the common ancestor of metazoans and fungi. They are key components of many gene regulatory networks essential for embryonic development. Although much is known about the role of Fox genes during vertebrate development, comprehensive comparative studies outside vertebrates are sparse. We have characterized the Fox transcription factor gene family from the...

  5. Conserved role of Drosophila melanogaster FoxP in motor coordination and courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Kristy J; Wassmer, Taryn L; Deitcher, David L

    2014-07-15

    FoxP2 is a highly conserved vertebrate transcription factor known for its importance in human speech and language production. Disruption of FoxP2 in several vertebrate models indicates a conserved functional role for this gene in both sound production and motor coordination. Although FoxP2 is known to be strongly expressed in brain regions important for motor coordination, little is known about FoxP2's role in the nervous system. The recent discovery of the well-conserved Drosophila melanogaster homolog, FoxP, provides an opportunity to study the role of this crucial gene in an invertebrate model. We hypothesized that, like FoxP2, Drosophila FoxP is important for behaviors requiring fine motor coordination. We used targeted RNA interference to reduce expression of FoxP and assayed the effects on a variety of adult behaviors. Male flies with reduced FoxP expression exhibit decreased levels of courtship behavior, altered pulse-song structure, and sex-specific motor impairments in walking and flight. Acute disruption of synaptic activity in FoxP expressing neurons using a temperature-sensitive shibire allele dramatically impaired motor coordination. Utilizing a GFP reporter to visualize FoxP in the fly brain reveals expression in relatively few neurons in distributed clusters within the larval and adult CNS, including distinct labeling of the adult protocerebral bridge - a section of the insect central complex known to be important for motor coordination and thought to be homologous to areas of the vertebrate basal ganglia. Our results establish the necessity of this gene in motor coordination in an invertebrate model and suggest a functional homology with vertebrate FoxP2. PMID:24747661

  6. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  7. Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    I., Ziadinov; P., Deplazes; A., Mathis; B., Mutunova; K., Abdykerimov; R., Nurgaziev; P.R, Torgerson

    2010-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indi...

  8. The safety and efficacy of immunizing foxes (Vulpes vulpes) using bait containing attenuated rabies virus vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, J. G.; Lawson, K. F.

    1980-01-01

    Foxes given ERA rabies vaccine baits were challenged at one, six, 12 and 24 months later and showed a resistance to challenge in 80%, 78%, 60% and 44% of individuals respectively. All animals showing seroconversion following vaccination, resisted challenge at 24 months, suggesting that successful vaccination by the oral route could confer a relatively long term duration of immunity. The trials showed that fox pups did not immunize as easily as adult foxes using ERA rabies vaccine baits. Back-...

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Francoise; Yu, Jr Kai; Liberles, David A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2003-01-01

    The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genes have been classified into 17 groups named FoxA to FoxQ. Here, we extend this analysis to invertebrates, using available sequences from D. melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis (Ci) and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae (Bf), from which we also cloned several Fox genes. Phylogenetic analyses lend support to the previous overall subclassification of vertebrate genes, but suggest that four subclasses (FoxJ, L, N and Q) could be further subdivided to reflect their relationships to invertebrate genes. We were unable to identify orthologs of Fox subclasses E, H, I, J, M and Q1 in D. melanogaster, A. gambiae or C. elegans, suggesting either considerable loss in ecdysozoans or the evolution of these subclasses in the deuterostome lineage. Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes.

  10. A Multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between dog and red fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, M; Reichert, W; Mattern, R

    2011-11-01

    Foxes are frequently the cause of car accidents in Baden-Württemberg (BW, Germany). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is in close relation to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the silver fox which is a coat colour variant of the red fox. As insurance claims that involve accidents with animals require authentication, we analyzed frequency distribution and allele sizes in two canine microsatellite loci in 26 dogs (different breeds) and 19 red foxes of the region of BW, Germany. Moreover, sequencing analysis was performed. Red foxes exhibited only 1 allele at each microsatellite locus, whereas in dog 7 alleles at the CPH4 locus and 6 alleles at the CPH12 locus were detected. Sequences of PCR products from the two species revealed several differences between dogs and foxes. We established a sequenced allelic ladder and give population data from dogs and red foxes from the region of BW, Germany. Using microsatellite polymorphisms is efficient in differentiating between dogs and foxes in forensic casework.

  11. CL-20/FOX-7共晶的理论研究%Theoretical research on CL-20/FOX-7 cocrystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗念; 张树海; 苟瑞君; 高宏飞; 杨文升; 杨勇

    2016-01-01

    采用分子动力学(MD)模拟和DFT-B3LYP/6-311+ +G**理论研究了2,4,6,8-六硝基-2,4,6,8,10,12-六氮杂异伍兹烷(CL-20)与1,1-二氨基-2,2-二硝基乙烯(FOX-7)的共晶结构.其中,共晶的不同摩尔配比用MD模拟实现,CL-20和FOX-7结构借助B3LYP/6-311++G**最优化,并计算了单体的表面静电势.在此基础上,结合总配位能量(ISPE)预测共晶的相互结合位点.结果表明,只有当化学计量比为1∶1时才可以生成CL-20/FOX-7的共晶,与MD方法的结论一致.CL-20/FOX-7共晶的结合位点的顺序依次是:F5-C9(19.82kJ/mol)>F5-C3(15.07kJ/mol)>F5-C4(14.84kJ/mol)>F5-C1(14.67kJ/mol).

  12. FoxO1的功能研究进展%Advances on the Function of FoxO1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小玲; 黄志清; 毛湘冰; 吴秀群

    2011-01-01

    FoxO proteins were unified nomenclature in 2000. Among them,FoxOl is one of the main member of the subfamily. This paper points out the structure and distribution of FoxOl, and highligts its biological function on biological metabolism, oxidative stress,differentiation of skeletal muscle cells and transformation of muscle fiber types in animals,and animal reproduction.%FoxO蛋白家族是2000年才公布统一命名的蛋白质家族,其中FoxO1是FoxO亚家族中的主要成员之一.作者在综述FoxO1的结构及其分布的基础上,重点探讨了其与生物代谢、氧化应激、动物肌细胞分化和肌纤维类型转化、动物繁殖等方面的生物学功能.

  13. Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-04-15

    Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit down-regulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt.

  14. Bioinformatic Analysis of FoxA1 Protein%FoxA1蛋白的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小峰; 葛保健

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor FoxAl is a 'pioneer' factor that binds to chromatinized DNA and regulates cell signaling and cell cycle. High expression of FoxAl has been reported in various tumors, and it maybe a potential therapeutic target of the cancer. This study aimed to obtain more information about FoxAl. The structures and functions, protein interaction network, multiple sequence alignment were analyzed with software tools and database. We obtained more biological information about FoxAl protein by bioinformatic analysis, which is very useful for further research.%转录因子FoxA1通过与染色体结合释放出DNA结合位点对信号转导和细胞增殖进行调控.研究发现多种肿瘤组织中FoxA1表达上调,参与肿瘤生长调控,揭示FoxA1有可能成为新的肿瘤治疗靶点.该研究采用生物信息学方法,在获得FoxA1基因和蛋白序列的基础上,对其结构、性质以及与其有相互作用的蛋白进行初步的生物信息学分析,以期为进一步研究FoxA1的生物学特性奠定基础.

  15. The presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Rombout Y; Limper L; Veen,A van der; Moolenbeek C; Franchimont H; Homan W; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in the Netherlands from 1996 to 1998. Firstly, 272 foxes were tested that were shot close to the border with Germany and Belgium, areas that were considered to be of high risk. This study resulted in the esta

  16. Unraveling the identity of FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells in GPA-patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulahad, W.H.; Stegeman, Coen A.; Huitema, M.G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Rutgers, Abraham; Heeringa, Peter; Kallenberg, Cees G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Human FoxP3+ Th-cells are heterogeneous in function and include not only suppressive cells (TRegs) but also nonsuppressive cells that abundantly secrete proinflammatory cytokines. We have previously shown that FoxP3+ Th-cells were increased in GPA-patients during remission as com

  17. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRed foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red fox

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Virus in Polar Foxes in Greeenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    Classical rabies virus continues to circulate in polar foxes in Greenland. Within the last 5 years more than 30 animals, mainly polar foxes have been tested positive for rabies. In this study, brain samples from this period were assessed for the presence of rabies viral RNA using molecular...

  19. Predictors of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes Helminth Parasite Diversity in the Provinces of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel, J.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the viscera of 321 red foxes collected over the last 30 years in 34 of the 47 provinces of peninsular Spain, and identified their helminth parasites. We measured parasite diversity in each sampled province using four diversity indices: Species richness, Margalef's species richness index, Shannon's species diversity index, and inverse Simpson's index. In order to find geographical, environmental, and/or human-related predictors of fox parasite diversity, we recorded 45 variables related to topography, climate, lithology, habitat heterogeneity, land use, spatial situation, human activity, sampling effort, and fox presence probability (obtained after environmental modelling of fox distribution. We then performed a stepwise linear regression of each diversity index on these variables, to find a minimal subset of statistically significant variables that account for the variation in each diversity index. We found that most parasite diversity indices increase with the mean distance to urban centres, or in other words, foxes in more rural provinces have a more diverse helminth fauna. Sampling effort and fox presence probability (probably related to fox density also appeared as conditioning variables for some indices, as well as soil permeability (related with water availability. We then extrapolated the models to predict these fox parasite diversity indices in non-sampled provinces and have a view of their geographical trends.

  20. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Brás, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, H.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  1. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Bras, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, J.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  2. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY... the Main Street Bridge at Mile 1.21 over the Fox River, at Green Bay, WI. This deviation will... of Green Bay, WI. This temporary deviation allows the bridge to open once an hour on the hour...

  3. Comparison of clinicopathological parameters with FoxM1 expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Kocarslan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that FoxM1 have a progressive oncogenic role in ccRRC. Our results suggested that higher expression of FoxM1 in tumor tissues predicts a locally aggressive behavior and poor outcome of patients with ccRCC, but not in patient with non-ccRCC.

  4. Loss of Interdependent Binding by the FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 Forkhead Transcription Factors Culminates in Perturbation of Active Chromatin Marks and Binding of Transcriptional Regulators at Insulin-sensitive Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalley, Akua; Schill, Daniel; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Johnson, Nicole; Cirillo, Lisa Ann

    2016-04-15

    FoxO1 binds to insulin response elements located in the promoters of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), activating their expression. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO1 promotes cytoplasmic translocation, inhibiting FoxO1-mediated transactivation. We have previously demonstrated that FoxO1 opens and remodels chromatin assembled from the IGFBP1 promoter via a highly conserved winged helix motif. This finding, which established FoxO1 as a "pioneer" factor, suggested a model whereby FoxO1 chromatin remodeling at regulatory targets facilitates binding and recruitment of additional regulatory factors. However, the impact of FoxO1 phosphorylation on its ability to bind chromatin and the effect of FoxO1 loss on recruitment of neighboring transcription factors at its regulatory targets in liver chromatin is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that an amino acid substitution that mimics insulin-mediated phosphorylation of a serine in the winged helix DNA binding motif curtails FoxO1 nucleosome binding. We also demonstrate that shRNA-mediated loss of FoxO1 binding to the IGFBP1 and G6Pase promoters in HepG2 cells significantly reduces binding of RNA polymerase II and the pioneer factors FoxA1/A2. Knockdown of FoxA1 similarly reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and FoxO1. Reduction in acetylation of histone H3 Lys-27 accompanies loss of FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 binding. Interdependent binding of FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 possibly entails cooperative binding because FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 facilitate one another's binding to IGFPB1 promoter DNA. These results illustrate how transcription factors can nucleate transcriptional events in chromatin in response to signaling events and suggest a model for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism through interdependent FoxO/FoxA binding.

  5. [Study on the inactivated vaccine of Gardnerella vaginalis of fox. VI. Experimental development of the inactivated vaccine of Gardnerella vaginalis of fox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Yan, X; Yan, X; Luan, F; Wang, C

    1997-06-01

    The aluminum hydroxide gel, propolis and oil adjuvant inactivated vaccines were developed by silecting good immunity, representing principal epidemic serotype I GVF44 of Gardnerella vaginalis of fox in civil. The results showed that the aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine in safety was better than propolis and oil adjuvant vaccines, the most optimal inactivated concentration of formalin is 0.1%. Efficient immunity doses are 4 billon bacteria/1 ml. There were on any bad influences to occur for fox after the aluminum hydroxide gel of three times immunity doses were injected. The inoculated foxes could resist challenge of a hundred ID50 virulent strains after the vaccine was injected to foxes for 21 d. Immunity period of the vaccine is 6 months storage period is 10 months at 4-10 degrees C. The field experiments confirmed that the vaccine possessed accuracy, stability and reliability.

  6. Dual integral equations with Fox's H-function kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Kalia

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual integral equations involving Bessel function kernels were first considered by Weber in 1873. The problem comprised of finding potential of an electrified disc which belongs to a general category of mixed boundary value problems. Titchmarsh gave the formal solution using Wiener-Hopf procedure. We use this direct method as improvised by Busbridge to solve a class of dual integral equations which can be reduced to other known kernels by particularizing the parameters in the Fox's H-function.

  7. Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates mitotic entry and prevents spindle defects in cerebellar granule neuron precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schueller, Ulrich; Zhao, Qing; Godinho, Susana A.; Heine, Vivi M.; Medema, Rene H.; Pellman, David; Rowitch, David H.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 has been reported to regulate, variously, proliferation and/or spindle formation during the G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle. Here we define specific functions of FoxM1 during brain development by the investigation of FoxM1 loss-of-function mutations in the

  8. Some Learning from Visual FoxPro Affairs Model Teaching%Visual FoxPro事件模型的教学体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹大有

    2004-01-01

    是计算机专业的一门重要基础课程,在教学中大多都是以Visual FoxPro为环境进行讲解.Visual FoxPro是windows环境下的可视化编程工具,它编程的核心是事件、方法和属性.

  9. Soaring and non-soaring bats of the family pteropodidae (flying foxes, Pteropus spp.): wing morphology and flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe-Norberg, U M; Brooke, A P; Trewhella, W J

    2000-02-01

    On oceanic islands, some large diurnal megachiropteran bat species (flying foxes; Pteropus spp.) frequently use thermal or slope soaring during foraging flights to save energy. We compared the flight morphology and gliding/soaring performance of soaring versus non-soaring Pteropus species, one pair on American Samoa and one pair on the Comoro Islands, and two other soaring/flap-gliding species and one non-soaring species. We predicted that the soaring species should have a lower body mass, longer wings and, hence, lower wing loadings than those species that use mainly flapping flight. This would give a lower sinking speed during gliding, a higher glide ratio, and enable the bats to make tighter turns with lower sinking speeds than in the non-soaring species. We theoretically calculated the gliding and circling performances of both the soaring and non-soaring species. Our results show that there are tendencies towards longer wings and lower wing loadings in relation to body size in the gliding/soaring flying foxes than in the non-soaring ones. In the species-pair comparison of the soaring and non-soaring species on American Samoa and the Comoro Islands, the soarers on both islands turn out to have lower wing loadings than their non-soaring partners in spite of opposite size differences among the pairs. These characteristics are in accordance with our hypothesis on morphological adaptations. Most differences are, however, only significant at a level of Pperformance. The glider/soarers turn out to have lower minimum sinking speeds, lower best glide speeds and smaller turning radii than the non-soarers. When the wing measurements and soaring performance are normalized to a body mass of 0.5 kg for all species, the minimum sinking speed becomes significantly lower (Pbank angles and turning radii. This points towards adaptations for better gliding/soaring performance in the soaring and gliding species. PMID:10637193

  10. Involvement of the transcription factor FoxM1 in contact inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, Dagmar; Al-Butmeh, Firas; Linz, Berenike [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Obere Zahlbacherstr. 67, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Dietrich, Cornelia, E-mail: cdietric@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Toxicology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Obere Zahlbacherstr. 67, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcription factor FoxM1 is downregulated upon contact inhibition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in FoxM1 levels occurs very likely due to inhibition of ERK activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in FoxM1 is not sufficient, but required for contact inhibition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a new model of contact inhibition involving pRB/E2F and FoxM1. -- Abstract: Contact inhibition is a crucial mechanism regulating proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Although it is generally accepted that contact inhibition plays a pivotal role in maintaining tissue homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms of contact inhibition are still not fully understood. FoxM1 is known as a proliferation-associated transcription factor and is upregulated in many cancer types. Vice versa, anti-proliferative signals, such as TGF-{beta} and differentiation signals decrease FoxM1 expression. Here we investigated the role of FoxM1 in contact inhibition in fibroblasts. We show that protein expression of FoxM1 is severely and rapidly downregulated upon contact inhibition, probably by inhibition of ERK activity, which then leads to decreased expression of cyclin A and polo-like kinase 1. Vice versa, ectopic expression of FoxM1 prevents the decrease in cyclin A and polo-like kinase 1 and causes a two-fold increase in saturation density indicating loss of contact inhibition. Hence, we show that downregulation of FoxM1 is required for contact inhibition by regulating expression of cyclin A and polo-like kinase 1.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of silver fox (Caniformia: Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Li; Zhong, Wei; Bao, Kun; Liu, Han-Lu; Ya-Han, Yang; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Silver fox is color variant of Vulpes vulpes. At present, there are few studies on phylogeny of Canidae and Caniformia. In this article, we determined and described the complete mitogenome of silver fox for the first time, which is 16,723 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, one origin of replication on the light-strand (OL) and a putative control region (CR). The overall base composition is 31.4% A, 27.9% T, 26.0% C, 14.7% G, respectively, with a AT bias (59.3%). Ten protein-coding genes use the initiation codon ATG while ND2, ND3 and ND5 use ATA. Most of them have TAA as the stop codon, except ND2 uses TAG, Cytb uses AGA, and COX3, ND3, ND4 use an incomplete stop codon TA. The information is expected to provide useful molecular data for further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Canidae and Caniformia. PMID:25714151

  12. American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2013. Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau News. CB13-FF.26

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The first American Indian Day was celebrated in May 1916 in New York. Red Fox James, a Blackfeet Indian, rode horseback from state to state, getting endorsements from 24 state governments, to have a day to honor American Indians. In 1990, President George H.W. Bush signed a joint congressional resolution designating November 1990 as "National…

  13. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  14. Drosophila FoxP mutants are deficient in operant self-learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mendoza

    Full Text Available Intact function of the Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2 gene is necessary for normal development of speech and language. This important role has recently been extended, first to other forms of vocal learning in animals and then also to other forms of motor learning. The homology in structure and in function among the FoxP gene members raises the possibility that the ancestral FoxP gene may have evolved as a crucial component of the neural circuitry mediating motor learning. Here we report that genetic manipulations of the single Drosophila orthologue, dFoxP, disrupt operant self-learning, a form of motor learning sharing several conceptually analogous features with language acquisition. Structural alterations of the dFoxP locus uncovered the role of dFoxP in operant self-learning and habit formation, as well as the dispensability of dFoxP for operant world-learning, in which no motor learning occurs. These manipulations also led to subtle alterations in the brain anatomy, including a reduced volume of the optic glomeruli. RNAi-mediated interference with dFoxP expression levels copied the behavioral phenotype of the mutant flies, even in the absence of mRNA degradation. Our results provide evidence that motor learning and language acquisition share a common ancestral trait still present in extant invertebrates, manifest in operant self-learning. This 'deep' homology probably traces back to before the split between vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  15. Sand Floor for Farmed Blue Foxes: Effects on Claws, Adrenal Cortex Function, Growth and Fur Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ahola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus are traditionally housed on mesh floors where they are unable to perform certain species-specific behaviours, such as digging, which may compromise the animals' welfare. This study describes how a possibility to use in-cage sand floor affects welfare-related variables like growth of the claws, adrenal cortex function, and fur properties in juvenile blue foxes. The foxes (N=32 were housed in male-female sibling pairs in an outdoor fur animal shed in cage systems consisting of two traditional fox cages. For the eight male-female sibling pairs of the Control group, there was a mesh floor in both cages of each cage system, whereas for the eight pairs of the Sand group there was a mesh floor in one cage and a 30–40 cm deep earth floor in the other cage. The results show that sand floor is beneficial for the wearing of the claws of foxes. Furthermore, an early experience of sand floor may have positive effects on the foxes' fur development. The results, however, also suggest that there might appear welfare problems observed as disturbed claw growth and increased adrenal cortex activation if foxes that are once provided with clean and unfrozen sand floor are not allowed to enjoy this floor all the time.

  16. XBP-1u suppresses autophagy by promoting the degradation of Fox01 in cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhao; Xue Li; Mu-Yan Cai; Ke Ma; Jing Yang; Jingyi Zhou; Wan Fu

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is activated to maintain cellular energy homeostasis in response to nutrient starvation.However,autophagy is not persistently activated,which is poorly understood at a mechanistic level.Here,we report that turnover of FoxO1 is involved in the dynamic autophagic process caused by glutamine starvation.X-box-binding protein-1u (XBP-1u) has a critical role in FoxO1 degradation by recruiting FoxO1 to the 20S proteasome.In addition,the phosphorylation of XBP-1u by extracellular regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) on Ser61 and Ser176 was found to be critical for the increased interaction between XBP-1u and FoxO1 upon glutamine starvation.Furthermore,knockdown of XBP-1u caused the sustained level of FoxO1 and the persistent activation of autophagy,leading to a significant decrease in cell viability.Finally,the inverse correlation between XBP-1u and FoxO1 expression agrees well with the expression profiles observed in many human cancer tissues.Thus,our findings link the dynamic process of autophagy to XBP-1u-induced FoxO1 degradation.

  17. Recrudescent infection supports Hendra virus persistence in Australian flying-fox populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    Full Text Available Zoonoses from wildlife threaten global public health. Hendra virus is one of several zoonotic viral diseases that have recently emerged from Pteropus species fruit-bats (flying-foxes. Most hypotheses regarding persistence of Hendra virus within flying-fox populations emphasize horizontal transmission within local populations (colonies via urine and other secretions, and transmission among colonies via migration. As an alternative hypothesis, we explore the role of recrudescence in persistence of Hendra virus in flying-fox populations via computer simulation using a model that integrates published information on the ecology of flying-foxes, and the ecology and epidemiology of Hendra virus. Simulated infection patterns agree with infection patterns observed in the field and suggest that Hendra virus could be maintained in an isolated flying-fox population indefinitely via periodic recrudescence in a manner indistinguishable from maintenance via periodic immigration of infected individuals. Further, post-recrudescence pulses of infectious flying-foxes provide a plausible basis for the observed seasonal clustering of equine cases. Correct understanding of the infection dynamics of Hendra virus in flying-foxes is fundamental to effectively managing risk of infection in horses and humans. Given the lack of clear empirical evidence on how the virus is maintained within populations, the role of recrudescence merits increased attention.

  18. Exploration of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecule expression in cervical cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chong Yuan; QiongYang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecules in cervical cancer tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected to detect the expression of FoxM1, proliferation-related genes (CDK6 and CDK8) and angiogenesis-related genes (VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC); Hela cells were cultured and transfected with FoxM1 siRNA, and then expression of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC were detected.Results:mRNA contents of FoxM1, CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue; mRNA content of FoxM1 was positively correlated with mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC; mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC of FoxM1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of negative control-siRNA group.Conclusion:FoxM1 expression abnormally increases in cervical cancer tissue, and its downstream target genes include CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC.

  19. Zebrafish foxP2 zinc finger nuclease mutant has normal axon pathfinding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Xing

    Full Text Available foxP2, a forkhead-domain transcription factor, is critical for speech and language development in humans, but its role in the establishment of CNS connectivity is unclear. While in vitro studies have identified axon guidance molecules as targets of foxP2 regulation, and cell culture assays suggest a role for foxP2 in neurite outgrowth, in vivo studies have been lacking regarding a role for foxP2 in axon pathfinding. We used a modified zinc finger nuclease methodology to generate mutations in the zebrafish foxP2 gene. Using PCR-based high resolution melt curve analysis (HRMA of G0 founder animals, we screened and identified three mutants carrying nonsense mutations in the 2(nd coding exon: a 17 base-pair (bp deletion, an 8bp deletion, and a 4bp insertion. Sequence analysis of cDNA confirmed that these were frameshift mutations with predicted early protein truncations. Homozygous mutant fish were viable and fertile, with unchanged body morphology, and no apparent differences in CNS apoptosis, proliferation, or patterning at embryonic stages. There was a reduction in expression of the known foxP2 target gene cntnap2 that was rescued by injection of wild-type foxP2 transcript. When we examined axon pathfinding using a pan-axonal marker or transgenic lines, including a foxP2-neuron-specific enhancer, we did not observe any axon guidance errors. Our findings suggest that foxP2 is not necessary for axon pathfinding during development.

  20. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Damien, B.C.; Losch, S.; Mossong, J; Muller, Claude; Osterhaus, Albert; Martina, Byron

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled between May and November 1997. About 9 to 13% of the Luxembourg red fox population is positive for antibodies against CDV. Thus a sizeable proportion of red foxes has been exposed to CDV in the wild....

  1. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg.

    OpenAIRE

    Damien, B.C.; Martina, Byron; Losch, S.; Osterhaus, Albert; Muller, Claude

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled between May and November 1997. About 9 to 13% of the Luxembourg red fox population is positive for antibodies against CDV. Thus a sizeable proportion of red foxes has been exposed to CDV in the wild....

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...... life cycles were represented equally in all parts of the country. The diversity of the surrounding fauna, and thereby the food items available for the foxes, seems to determine the spectrum of helminth species. Helminths requiring rodents as intermediate hosts were absent on the west coast, even...

  3. Clinical Effects of Topical Tacrolimus on Fox-Fordyce Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fox-Fordyce Disease (FFD is a rare, chronic, pruritic, inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands. It is characterized by dome-shaped, firm, discrete, skin-colored, and monomorphic perifollicular papules. The most common sites of involvement are axillae and anogenital and periareolar regions which are rich in apocrine sweat glands. Treatment is difficult. Topical, intralesional steroids, topical tretinoin, adapalene, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, oral contraceptives, isotretinoin, phototherapy, electrocauterisation, excision-liposuction and curettage, and fractional carbon dioxide laser are among the treatment options. In the literature, there are articles reporting beneficial effects of pimecrolimus in FFD. Nevertheless, there have not been any reports about the use of tacrolimus in FFD. We report two patients diagnosed with FFD by clinical and histopathologic examination and discussed therapeutic effects of topical tacrolimus on FFD in the light of literature.

  4. Spatiotemporal distribution of rabies in Arctic foxes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Moshøj, Charlotte; Wennerberg, Sanne E.;

    2015-01-01

    The temporal occurrence, spatial distribution, spread, and prevalence of rabies in Arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, in Greenland were studied using historical observations from 1969 to 2011 and survey data collected in the winters 1992 and 1993. Regionally, the prevalence of rabies ranged between 0...... and 7.1 %. Wavelet analysis was used to identify periodicities in the abundance of rabies cases based on the historical observations. No general length of the cyclic interval of rabies occurrences in Greenland could be demonstrated. The frequency of outbreaks was found to be variable but can be...... grouped as short (less than 5 years), medium (5–10 years), and long (more than 10 years). Moreover, rabies outbreaks in neighboring regions were found to be more closely correlated compared to regions further apart. In West Greenland, the temporal outbreaks of rabies were found to occur along a north...

  5. Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

  6. Population substructure and space use of Foxe Basin polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahanatien, Vicki; Peacock, Elizabeth; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    Climate change has been identified as a major driver of habitat change, particularly for sea ice-dependent species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Population structure and space use of polar bears have been challenging to quantify because of their circumpolar distribution and tendency to range over large areas. Knowledge of movement patterns, home range, and habitat is needed for conservation and management. This is the first study to examine the spatial ecology of polar bears in the Foxe Basin management unit of Nunavut, Canada. Foxe Basin is in the mid-Arctic, part of the seasonal sea ice ecoregion and it is being negatively affected by climate change. Our objectives were to examine intrapopulation spatial structure, to determine movement patterns, and to consider how polar bear movements may respond to changing sea ice habitat conditions. Hierarchical and fuzzy cluster analyses were used to assess intrapopulation spatial structure of geographic position system satellite-collared female polar bears. Seasonal and annual movement metrics (home range, movement rates, time on ice) and home-range fidelity (static and dynamic overlap) were compared to examine the influence of regional sea ice on movements. The polar bears were distributed in three spatial clusters, and there were differences in the movement metrics between clusters that may reflect sea ice habitat conditions. Within the clusters, bears moved independently of each other. Annual and seasonal home-range fidelity was observed, and the bears used two movement patterns: on-ice range residency and annual migration. We predict that home-range fidelity may decline as the spatial and temporal predictability of sea ice changes. These new findings also provide baseline information for managing and monitoring this polar bear population. PMID:26306171

  7. FoxM1在消化系统肿瘤中的研究进展%Research advancement of FoxM1 in digestive system tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓宇; 黄陈; 裘正军

    2014-01-01

    FoxM1(Forkhead box Protein M1)是一种转录因子蛋白质,具有调节细胞周期等重要作用。FoxM1与恶性肿瘤尤其是消化道肿瘤的发生、发展和转移密切相关。本文介绍 FoxM1的结构和功能以及在肿瘤中的作用,重点综述 FoxM1在消化系统肿瘤的表达及其临床意义,并展望 FoxM1在消化系统肿瘤中的应用前景。%FoxM1 is a transcriPtion factor Protein which Plays an imPortant role of regulation of the cell cycle. There-fore,FoxM1 is closely related to cancer Pathogenesis,develoPment and metastasis. This review aims to recommend the characteristics and functions of FoxM1 and its roles in tumor develoPment. FoxM1 exPression and clinical significance in digestive system tumors was reviewed mainly. Finally,the aPPlication ProsPect of FoxM1 in digestive system tumors was viewed.

  8. Adenoviruses of canine and human origins in stool samples from free-living pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio dos Sinos basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, G S; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Rech, N K; Soliman, M C; Staggemeier, R; Rodrigues, M T; Barros, M P; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The spread of enteric viruses of domestic animals and human beings to wild species can be facilitated by the resistance of these viruses on the environment and their ability to be transmitted by water and contaminated food. The health status of the populations of pampas foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) is largely unknown and the landscapes occupied by these animals in southern Brazil have been threatened by human occupation and expansion of agriculture. In this work, the search of genomes of human and canine adenoviruses in feces from these wild carnivores was used to track the dissemination of domestic animals and human pathogens to the free-living populations in a wildlife reserve located in southern Brazil. This was performed by virus-specific differential real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on stool specimens, avoiding capture and additional stress to the animals. Genus-specific conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was complementarily performed aiming the detection of enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV) on these same samples. HAdV genomes were found on 14 out of the 17 (82.35%) stool samples analysed, whereas CAV was found co-infecting 5 of these samples. RV genomes were detected on 7 of the 17 samples (41.18%) and all samples were negative for EV. The results point to the dispersion of HAdV and RV at a high rate to these species of South American wild carnivores, which can be an effect of growing anthropisation of the habitat of these animals.

  9. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  10. Thickness of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that can be...

  11. Horicon and Fox River National Wildlife Refuge: Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance and Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This CWD Plan for Horicon and Fox River NWRs provides background information on the disease and a summary of surveillance and history of CWD in Wisconsin and...

  12. Evaluation of diphacinone as a predacide for introduced arctic fox in the Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic fox were introduced for the purpose of fur farming by the Russians at the turn of the century on the majority of the islands in the Aleutian chain. These...

  13. Notes of blue foxes on Rat Island in 1962: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the study of the blue fox during summer of 1961 on Rat Island. The work completed can be found on the Aleutian Islands NWR Narrative Report....

  14. Analysis of Delmarva Fox Squirrel Benchmark Population Data 1991 through 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes Delmarva fox squirrel population performance between January 1991 and May 1998 on seven benchmark study sites: Blackwater National Wildlife...

  15. Den ecology, distribution, and productivity of foxes at Kokechik Bay, Alaska: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In May 1985 fieldwork was initiated at Kokechik Bay, Alaska to collect information on the ecology of foxes inhabiting the nesting grounds of geese on the...

  16. FoxM1 mediated resistance to gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuo XU; Xin ZHANG; Xun WANG; Hai-yan GE; Xiao-ying WANG; David GARFIELD; Ping YANG; Yuan-lin SONG; Chun-xue BAI

    2012-01-01

    Gefitinib is effective in only approximately 20% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC),and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.FoxM1 is upregulated in NSCLC and associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients.In this study,we examined the possible role of FoxM1 in gefitinib resistance and the related mechanisms.Methods:Gefitinib resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1 and gefitinib-sensitive human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line NCI-H292 were used.mRNA and protein expression of FoxM1 and other factors were tested with quantitative RT PCR and Western blot analysis.RNA interference was performed to suppress FoxM1 expression in SPC-A-1 cells,and lentiviral infection was used to overexpress FoxM1 in H292 cells.MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of the cells.Results:Treatment of SPC-A-1 cells with gefitinib (1 and 10 μmol/L) upregulated the expression of FoxM1 in time- and concentrationdependent manners,while gefrtinib (1 μmol/L) downregulated in H292 cells.In SPC-A-1 cells treated with gefitinib (1 μmol/L),the expression of several downstream targets of FoxM1,including survivin,cyclin B1,SKP2,PLK1,Aurora B kinase and CDC25B,were significantly upregulated.Overexpression of FoxM1 increased the resistance in H292 cells,while attenuated FoxM1 expression restored the sensitivity to gefitinib in SPC-A-1 cells by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis.Conclusion:The results suggest that FoxM1 plays an important role in the resistance of NSCLC cells to gefitinib in vitro.FoxM1 could be used as a therapeutic target to overcome the resistance to gefitinib.

  17. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2013-07-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified.

  18. Review of Arctic fox. Life at the top of the world, by Gary Hamilton

    OpenAIRE

    Ims, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic fox is the only truly Arctic species among the terrestrial carnivorous mammals of the world. It is distributed across the circumpolar Arctic region. Like polar bears, Arctic foxes regularly traverse the pack ice of the polar basin, a fact that astonished Fridtjof Nansen during his attempt to reach the North Pole more than 100 years ago. However, despite its unique lifestyle, which in some respects is more fascinating than that of the polar bear, there has been no popular book (exce...

  19. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Cecilia A; Baker, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers) who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators) designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators' gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1) the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2) that the responsible government agencies in Australia support carers who rescue potentially ABLV-infected bats by offering compensation for PPE. PMID:26829399

  20. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators' gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years. Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1 the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2 that the responsible government agencies in Australia support

  1. The elimination of fox rabies from Europe: determinants of success and lessons for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Freuling, C.; Hampson, K.; Selhorst, T; Schroder, R.; Meslin, F. X.; Mettenleiter, T C; Muller, T

    2013-01-01

    Despite perceived challenges to controlling an infectious disease in wildlife, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of foxes has proved a remarkably successful tool and a prime example of a sophisticated strategy to eliminate disease from wildlife reservoirs. During the past three decades, the implementation of ORV programmes in 24 countries has led to the elimination of fox-mediated rabies from vast areas of Western and Central Europe. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of 22 European ORV p...

  2. 浅析提高Visual FoxPro的性能的措施%Analysis on Measures to Improvethe Performance of Visual FoxPro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凌燕

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft FoxPro数据库管理系统中数据库引擎,最显著的特点,就是性能高,那么如何提高引擎的存取速度是我们一直研究的课题,Visual FoxPro关系型数据库将对象模型的引进大大增强了服务器的性能。但在管理系统功能增强的同时,也给管理带来了麻烦。即在开发出稳定、远程数据操作程序的同时也出现性能较低的应用程序。如何提高数据的访问速度而提高Visual FoxPro的性能是本文主要阐述的内容。%Microsoft FoxPro database management system,database engine,the most notable characteristic is the high-performance,then how to improve the access speed of the engine we have been subject of study, Visual FoxPro relational database,object model will greatly enhance the introduction of the server performance.However, in the management of system enhancements,but also to the management of trouble.That in the development of a stable,long-range data manipulation programs also appear lower performance applications.How to improve data access speed and improve the performance of Visual FoxPro is the article focuses on the content.

  3. Application of bioluminescence ATP measurement for evaluation of fungal viability of foxing spots on old documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirainy, Malalanirina Sylvia; Dubar, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence-based protocol was tested to assess the viability of fungal species in old documents damaged by foxing. Foxing appears as scattered yellow brownish-red stains, damaging the aesthetics of documents and their long-term readability. In the field of cultural heritage conservation, the debate over the mechanism of foxing is ongoing. Previous studies found evidence of mold-like structures in some coloured areas; however, many species have not yet been identified and their role in the phenomenon is not understood. To better understand their involvement in this type of paper decay, we focused our attention first on their viability. We demonstrated the reliability and sensitivity of the ATP bioluminescence assay compared with conventional methods based on cultivation, which has rarely given rise to in vitro growth from foxed papers. From nine books dating back from the 19th and 20th centuries, the mean ATP amount of foxed spots ranged from 0.29 to 3.63 ng/cm(2), suggesting the presence of strains inside the brownish spots and providing evidence of their viability. Outside the spots, ATP content was considered negligible, with a mean ATP amount of 0 to 0.03 ng/cm(2). ATP assay appears to be a useful and robust method for the detection and quantification of viable elements in foxing spots.

  4. Explosive vocal activity for attracting human attention is related to domestication in silver fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Volodin, Ilya A; Volodina, Elena V; Kharlamova, Anastasia V; Trut, Lyudmila N

    2011-02-01

    Domestication affects behavioral and vocal responses, involved in communication with humans; in particular, those that attract human attention. In this study, we found that silver foxes of Tame strain, experimentally domesticated for a few tenses of generation, displayed bursts of vocal activity during the first minute after appearance of an unfamiliar human, that faded quickly during the remaining time of the test, when the experimenter stayed passively before the cage. Distinctively, foxes of Aggressive strain, artificially selected for tenses of generation for aggressive behavior toward humans, and the control group of Unselected for behavior silver foxes kept steady levels of vocal activity for the duration of the tests. We found also that Aggressive foxes vocalized for a larger proportion of time than Unselected foxes for all 5 min of the test. We discuss the obtained data in relation to proposal effects of domestication on mechanisms directed to involving people into human-animal interactions and structural similarity between human laughter and vocalization of Tame foxes.

  5. Applications of post-translational modifications of FoxO family proteins in biological functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhao; Yachen Wang; Wei-Guo Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The functions of the FoxO family proteins, in particular their transcriptional activities, are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, methylation and glycosylation. These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses, which in turn regulate the subcellular localization of FoxO family proteins, as well as their half-life, DNA binding, transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins. In this review, we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.%The functions of the FoxO family proteins,in particular their transcriptional activities,are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs),including phosphorylation,acetylation,ubiquitination,methylation and glycosylation.These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses,which in turn regulate the subceilular localization of FoxO family proteins,as well as their half-life,DNA binding,transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins.In this review,we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.

  6. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  7. FoxM1 is a general target for proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppoor G Bhat

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors are currently in the clinic or in clinical trials, but the mechanism of their anticancer activity is not completely understood. The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is one of the most overexpressed genes in human tumors, while its expression is usually halted in normal non-proliferating cells. Previously, we established that thiazole antibiotics Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibit FoxM1 and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we report that Siomycin A and thiostrepton stabilize the expression of a variety of proteins, such as p21, Mcl-1, p53 and hdm-2 and also act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. More importantly, we also found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. In addition, overexpression of FoxM1 specifically protects against bortezomib-, but not doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors is a general feature of these drugs and it may contribute to their anticancer properties.

  8. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  9. Intratumoral FoxP3 expression is associated with angiogenesis and prognosis in malignant canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Gregório, Hugo; Lobo, Luis; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2016-10-01

    The activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is closely associated with the expression of FoxP3 transcription factor. FoxP3 regulatory T cells (FoxP3Treg) have immunosuppressive properties and can work for prevention of harmful autoimmune responses, however can also interfere with beneficial anti-tumor immunity. In human breast cancer these cells play a crucial role in tumor progression. In canine mammary tumors (CMT) this topic is not well-documented. This study included 80 malignant CMT and studied, by immunohistochemistry, the intratumoral FoxP3 expression together with microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and several clinicopathological characteristics. Abundant FoxP3Treg cells were associated with tumor necrosis (p=0.001), high mitotic grade (paggression in these tumors. The association of intratumoral FoxP3 expression with shorter OS in multivariate analysis suggests the usefulness of Treg cells as an independent prognostic marker. PMID:27496736

  10. Inhibition of ROS and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines by FoxO3a promotes survival against Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Julie; Ametepe, Emmanuelle S.; Haribabu, Naveen; Agbayani, Gerard; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Blais, Alexandre; Sad, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Virulent intracellular pathogens, such as the Salmonella species, engage numerous virulence factors to subvert host defence mechanisms to induce a chronic infection that leads to typhoid or exacerbation of other chronic inflammatory conditions. Here we show the role of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO3a during infection of mice with Salmonella typhimurium (ST). Although FoxO3a signalling does not affect the development of CD8+ T cell responses to ST, FoxO3a has an important protective role, particularly during the chronic stage of infection, by limiting the persistence of oxidative stress. Furthermore, FoxO3a signalling regulates ERK signalling in macrophages, which results in the maintenance of a proinflammatory state. FoxO3a signalling does not affect cell proliferation or cell death. Thus, these results reveal mechanisms by which FoxO3a promotes host survival during infection with chronic, virulent intracellular bacteria. PMID:27599659

  11. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum......; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara...

  12. A Fault-Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment (FOX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hensbergen, Eric; Speight, William; Xenidis, Jimi

    2013-03-15

    IBM Research’s contribution to the Fault Oblivious Extreme-scale Execution Environment (FOX) revolved around three core research deliverables: • collaboration with Boston University around the Kittyhawk cloud infrastructure which both enabled a development and deployment platform for the project team and provided a fault-injection testbed to evaluate prototypes • operating systems research focused on exploring role-based operating system technologies through collaboration with Sandia National Labs on the NIX research operating system and collaboration with the broader IBM Research community around a hybrid operating system model which became known as FusedOS • IBM Research also participated in an advisory capacity with the Boston University SESA project, the core of which was derived from the K42 operating system research project funded in part by DARPA’s HPCS program. Both of these contributions were built on a foundation of previous operating systems research funding by the Department of Energy’s FastOS Program. Through the course of the X-stack funding we were able to develop prototypes, deploy them on production clusters at scale, and make them available to other researchers. As newer hardware, in the form of BlueGene/Q, came online, we were able to port the prototypes to the new hardware and release the source code for the resulting prototypes as open source to the community. In addition to the open source coded for the Kittyhawk and NIX prototypes, we were able to bring the BlueGene/Q Linux patches up to a more recent kernel and contribute them for inclusion by the broader Linux community. The lasting impact of the IBM Research work on FOX can be seen in its effect on the shift of IBM’s approach to HPC operating systems from Linux and Compute Node Kernels to role-based approaches as prototyped by the NIX and FusedOS work. This impact can be seen beyond IBM in follow-on ideas being incorporated into the proposals for the Exasacale Operating

  13. The Prognostic Significance of FoxP3+ T Cells and CD8+ T Cells in Colorectal Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Asuman; Vardar, Enver; Kebat, Tulu; Erdinç, Ömer; Erkan, Nazif

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies report that tumor microenvironment effects prognosis of colorectal cancers. We analyzed the densities of FoxP3+ cells and CD8+ cells, the ratio of FoxP3+/CD8+ cells and the relationship between these parameters, clinicopathological features, and prognosis. A total of 186 colorectal adenocarcinoma were evaluated in terms of clinicopathological features. Immunohistochemically, densities of intratumoral (IT; IT-FoxP3) and nontumoral (NT; NT-FoxP3) FoxP3+ cells and IT-CD8 and NT-CD8 CD8+ cells were calculated. The ratio of Foxp3/CD8 was recorded. IT-FoxP3 and the ratio of IT-FoxP3/IT-CD8 were higher than NT-FoxP3 and the ratio of NT-FoxP3/NT-CD8, respectively. In multivariate analysis, high FoxP3+ cell density is the most important predictive marker after clinical stage and surgical margin positivity in disease-free survival and the most important predictive marker after clinical stage in overall survival (OS). Short OS time was correlated with clinical stage, decrease in IT-FoxP3, increasing age, number of metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin positivity, satellite tumor nodule, medullary carcinoma, and the number of pericolorectal lymph nodes. The ratio of FoxP3/CD8 increased noticeably in the IT area, but no relationship was found with survival. The relationships of the cells with one another in the tumor microenvironment seem to have many secrets. Studies in large series supported by molecular techniques can illuminate those secrets to some extent. PMID:27481490

  14. Endothelial cell–restricted disruption of FoxM1 impairs endothelial repair following LPS-induced vascular injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, You-Yang; Gao, Xiao-Pei; Zhao, Yidan D.; Mirza, Muhammad K.; Frey, Randall S.; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.; Wang, I-Ching; Costa, Robert H.; Malik, Asrar B.

    2006-01-01

    Recovery of endothelial integrity after vascular injury is vital for endothelial barrier function and vascular homeostasis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of endothelial barrier repair following injury. To investigate the functional role of forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) in the mechanism of endothelial repair, we generated endothelial cell–restricted FoxM1-deficient mice (FoxM1 CKO mice). These mutant mice were viable and exhibited no overt phenotype. However, in response to...

  15. The fall and rise of the Icelandic Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus): a 50-year demographic study on a non-cyclic Arctic fox population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnsteinsdottir, E R; Hersteinsson, P; Pálsson, S; Angerbjörn, A

    2016-08-01

    In territorial species, observed density dependence is often manifest in lowered reproductive output at high population density where individuals have fewer resources or are forced to inhabit low-quality territories. The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) in Iceland is territorial throughout the year and feeds mostly on birds, since lemmings are absent from the country. Thus, the population does not exhibit short-term population cycles that are evident in most of the species' geographical range. The population has, however, gone through a major long-term fluctuation in population size. Because of the stability in hunting effort and reliable hunting records since 1958, the total number of adult foxes killed annually can be used as an index of population size (N t ). An index of carrying capacity (K) from population growth data for five separate time blocks during 1958-2007 revealed considerable variation in K and allowed a novel definition of population density in terms of K, or N t /K. Correlation analysis suggested that the reproductive rate was largely determined by the proportion of territorial foxes in the population. Variation in litter size and cub mortality was, on the other hand, related to climatic variation. Thus, Arctic foxes in Iceland engage in typical contest competition but can adapt their territory sizes in response to both temporal and spatial variation in carrying capacity, resulting in surprisingly little variation in litter size. PMID:27126366

  16. Dos obras de Kohn-Pedersen-Fox/EE.UU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Two works by Pedersen Fox Associates PC are described in this article. In the first one, the play of volumes and the curved curtain wall façade are the leading part defining the building. At the same time it must be pointed out the decorative use of the different cladding materials and the contrast between the base of the volume and its upper part, of a very different feature from the point of view of the design. The second work takes benefit of the site with symbolic aims as for its façade, the whole being harmonized around a gardened inner court full colored.En la primera de ellas juegan un papel decisivo el cerramiento de muro-cortina y la línea curva de la fachada, elementos ambos que definen el edificio. Asimismo hay que destacar el empleo decorativo de los diferentes materiales de revestimiento y el contraste entre la base del edificio y la parte superior, de muy distinta concepción desde el punto de vista del diseño. La segunda de ellas aprovecha con fines simbólicos el emplazamiento del edificio en cuanto a su fachada principal armonizándolo con una distribución en torno a un patio interior ajardinado, con predominio del color.

  17. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  18. Experimental infection of Foxes with European bat Lyssaviruses type-1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biarnais Mélanie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1954, there have been in excess of 800 cases of rabies as a result of European Bat Lyssaviruses types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2 infection, mainly in Serotine and Myotis bats respectively. These viruses have rarely been reported to infect humans and terrestrial mammals, as the only exceptions are sheep in Denmark, a stone marten in Germany and a cat in France. The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs using silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes as a model. Results Our experimental studies have shown that the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs is low by the intramuscular (IM route, however, animals were sensitive to intracranial (IC inoculation. Mortality was 100% for both EBLV-1 (~4.5 logs and EBLV-2 (~3.0 logs delivered by the IC route. Virus dissemination and inflammatory infiltrate in the brain were demonstrated but virus specific neutralising antibody (VNA was limited (log(ED50 = 0.24–2.23 and 0.95–2.39 respectively for specific EBLV-1 and EBLV-2. Foxes were also susceptible, at a low level, to peripheral (IM infection (~3.0 logs with EBLV-1 but not EBLV-2. Three out of 21 (14.3% foxes developed clinical signs between 14 and 24 days post-EBLV-1 infection. None of the animals given EBLV-2 developed clinical disease. Conclusion These data suggest that the chance of a EBLV spill-over from bat to fox is low, but with a greater probability for EBLV-1 than for EBLV-2 and that foxes seem to be able to clear the virus before it reaches the brain and cause a lethal infection.

  19. Functions of FoxO Transcription Factors in Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis and Exercise-Related Regulation%FoxO转录因子在骨骼肌稳态中的作用及运动训练调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆; 丁树哲

    2015-01-01

    进化上高度保守的FoxO转录因子家族对维持细胞稳态起到重要的作用,该家族包括FoxO1、FoxO3、FoxO4和FOXO6.综述了FoxO转录因子在骨骼肌稳态中的关键作用.FoxO1和FoxO3通过控制糖脂分解及线粒体代谢,起到肌肉能量代谢的核心调控因子的作用.它们同时也调控蛋白质合成、降解,影响肌纤维类型、肌肉量.根据它们的激活水平,FoxO蛋白展示出不同的功能.FoxO蛋白也是机体运动适应所必需的,不同的运动训练方式对其产生不同的影响.FoxO过度激活可能会导致许多疾病,如代谢紊乱、肌肉萎缩等.更好地理解FoxO转录因子的功能,将会对促进防控许多病理条件下(如肌肉制动、去神经支配状态、神经肌肉疾病、衰老、糖尿病、艾滋病、癌症等)肌肉耗费治疗手段的发展起到重要作用.

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health. PMID:27279259

  1. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressanti, Charline; Delverdier, Maxence; Iriart, Xavier; Morcel, Frédérique; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2012-10-01

    A 2-year-old male fennec fox presented with a 4 month history of nonpruritic, crusty skin lesions on the forehead, the pinnae and the tail tip. Initial investigations, including routine haematology, biochemistry profile, multiple skin scrapings, trichoscopic examination, Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture, failed to reveal any abnormalities. Histopathological examination of a first set of skin biopsies showed an interface dermatitis pattern, with lymphocyte infiltration in the basal layer, a significant lymphocytic exocytosis and occasional apoptotic basal epidermal keratinocytes; periodic acid Schiff stain did not reveal any fungal elements. On further biopsies, there was a pustular neutrophilic dermatitis, with numerous crusts containing high numbers of arthrospores and fungal hyphae. Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection was confirmed on fungal culture and PCR. The fennec fox received oral itraconazole (5 mg/kg once daily for 6 weeks) combined with a miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo applied on affected areas once weekly, followed with an enilconazole dip. The fox improved dramatically, and a fungal culture performed at 6 weeks was negative. Unfortunately, a few days later the fennec fox developed anorexia, icterus and died. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Trichophyton infection in a fennec fox and, although a postmortem examination was not performed, this is possibly the first report of fatal acute liver failure associated with itraconazole in a canid. PMID:22822716

  2. Missed, Not Missing: Phylogenomic Evidence for the Existence of Avian FoxP3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Denyer

    Full Text Available The Forkhead box transcription factor FoxP3 is pivotal to the development and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs, which make a major contribution to peripheral tolerance. FoxP3 is believed to perform a regulatory role in all the vertebrate species in which it has been detected. The prevailing view is that FoxP3 is absent in birds and that avian Tregs rely on alternative developmental and suppressive pathways. Prompted by the automated annotation of foxp3 in the ground tit (Parus humilis genome, we have questioned this assumption. Our analysis of all available avian genomes has revealed that the foxp3 locus is missing, incomplete or of poor quality in the relevant genomic assemblies for nearly all avian species. Nevertheless, in two species, the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and the saker falcon (F. cherrug, there is compelling evidence for the existence of exons showing synteny with foxp3 in the ground tit. A broader phylogenomic analysis has shown that FoxP3 sequences from these three species are similar to crocodilian sequences, the closest living relatives of birds. In both birds and crocodilians, we have also identified a highly proline-enriched region at the N terminus of FoxP3, a region previously identified only in mammals.

  3. Missed, Not Missing: Phylogenomic Evidence for the Existence of Avian FoxP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyer, Michael P.; Pinheiro, Dammy Y.; Garden, Oliver A.; Shepherd, Adrian J.

    2016-01-01

    The Forkhead box transcription factor FoxP3 is pivotal to the development and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which make a major contribution to peripheral tolerance. FoxP3 is believed to perform a regulatory role in all the vertebrate species in which it has been detected. The prevailing view is that FoxP3 is absent in birds and that avian Tregs rely on alternative developmental and suppressive pathways. Prompted by the automated annotation of foxp3 in the ground tit (Parus humilis) genome, we have questioned this assumption. Our analysis of all available avian genomes has revealed that the foxp3 locus is missing, incomplete or of poor quality in the relevant genomic assemblies for nearly all avian species. Nevertheless, in two species, the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the saker falcon (F. cherrug), there is compelling evidence for the existence of exons showing synteny with foxp3 in the ground tit. A broader phylogenomic analysis has shown that FoxP3 sequences from these three species are similar to crocodilian sequences, the closest living relatives of birds. In both birds and crocodilians, we have also identified a highly proline-enriched region at the N terminus of FoxP3, a region previously identified only in mammals. PMID:26938477

  4. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  5. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  6. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age.

  7. From ‘third pole’ to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-01

    The ‘third pole’ of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60–5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3–4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our ‘Out-of-Tibet’ hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age. PMID:24920475

  8. Natural Hendra Virus Infection in Flying-Foxes - Tissue Tropism and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K Goldspink

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV is a lethal zoonotic agent that emerged in 1994 in Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes are the natural reservoir. To date, HeV has spilled over from flying-foxes to horses on 51 known occasions, and from infected horses to close-contact humans on seven occasions. We undertook screening of archived bat tissues for HeV by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Tissues were tested from 310 bats including 295 Pteropodiformes and 15 Vespertilioniformes. HeV was detected in 20 individual flying-foxes (6.4% from various tissues including spleen, kidney, liver, lung, placenta and blood components. Detection was significantly higher in Pteropus Alecto and P. conspicillatus, identifying species as a risk factor for infection. Further, our findings indicate that HeV has a predilection for the spleen, suggesting this organ plays an important role in HeV infection. The lack of detections in the foetal tissues of HeV-positive females suggests that vertical transmission is not a regular mode of transmission in naturally infected flying-foxes, and that placental and foetal tissues are not a major source of infection for horses. A better understanding of HeV tissue tropism will strengthen management of the risk of spillover from flying-foxes to horses and ultimately humans.

  9. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  10. InsR/FoxO1 signaling curtails hypothalamic POMC neuron number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona Plum

    Full Text Available Insulin receptor (InsR signaling through transcription factor FoxO1 is important in the development of hypothalamic neuron feeding circuits, but knowledge about underlying mechanisms is limited. To investigate the role of InsR/FoxO1 signaling in the development and maintenance of these circuits, we surveyed the pool of hypothalamic neurons expressing Pomc mRNA in different mouse models of impaired hypothalamic InsR signaling. InsR ablation in the entire hypothalamus did not affect Pomc-neuron number at birth, but resulted in a 25% increase, most notably in the middle arcuate nucleus region, in young adults. Selective restoration of InsR expression in POMC neurons in these mice partly reversed the abnormality, resulting in a 10% decrease compared to age-matched controls. To establish whether FoxO1 signaling plays a role in this process, we examined POMC neuron number in mice with POMC-specific deletion of FoxO1, and detected a 23% decrease in age-matched animals, consistent with a cell-autonomous role of InsR/FoxO1 signaling in regulating POMC neuron number, distinct from its established role to activate Pomc transcription. These changes in Pomc cells occurred in the absence of marked changes in humoral factors or hypothalamic NPY neurons.

  11. Male territorial aggression and androgen modulation in high latitude populations of the Sooty, Passerella iliaca sinuosa, and Red Fox Sparrow, Passerella iliaca zaboria

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Douglas W.; Coverdill, Alexander J.; Bauer, Carolyn M.; Wingfield, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fox Sparrows, Passerella iliaca, include multiple groups and subspecies distributed at several latitudes from the Alaskan arctic to the southwestern United States. As such, this species represents a potential model for investigating latitudinal variation in androgen secretion and aggressive territoriality in male passerines. Breeding male Fox Sparrows from two subspecies within two groups, the Sooty Fox Sparrow, P. i. sinuosa, and the Red Fox Sparrow, P. i. zaboria, were assessed for aggr...

  12. Detection of a high-endemic focus of echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in southern Denmark, January 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Knapp, J.;

    2013-01-01

    The Danish surveillance programme for Echinococcus multilocularis was initiated in September 2011, and so far 679 wild carnivores have been examined. In April 2012, one infected fox was detected in Højer near the Danish-German border, and in January 2013 three additional foxes from the same area...

  13. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox... restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River due to a water ski show. This temporary safety zone...

  14. Isolation and culture of melanocytes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Bao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coat colour is a phenotypic marker of fur animal species, which was determined by the pigment generated from melanocytes. In this study, we developed and validated a method for isolation, purification and passage culture of melanocytes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus. Skin biopsies were harvested from the dorsal region of adult foxes and enzyme digestion by Dispase II. The primary culture of melanocytes from arctic fox skin was obtained by using keratinocyte serum-free medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract with/without phorbol- 12-myristate-13-acetate, and by carrying out a medium change strategy. After serial passages, it yielded pure population of melanocytes, which become efficient tools for investigating the function of colour genes and unraveling the process of melanin synthesis.

  15. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in a red fox in mainland Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Boughtflower, Valerie; Allanson, Peter C; Hartley, Kayleigh M; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Stephens, Nathalie A; Marucci, Gianluca; Smith, Graham C

    2015-03-15

    Active surveillance of red foxes for Trichinella has been undertaken in mainland Britain since 1999. Post-mortems are carried out, followed by a magnetic stirrer method for sample digestion based on European Commission (EC) Regulation 216/2014 (which amends 2075/2005). Initially samples are tested in batches of 20 foxes and in December 2013, for the first time under the surveillance programme, a batch tested positive for Trichinella at the Animal and Plant Health Agency, York. Further individual tests identified one infected fox, from the Bristol area. The larvae were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Great Britain and suggests the possibility of a cycle of infection existing in wildlife. PMID:25659659

  16. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a free-roaming red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Ketterer-Pintur, Sandra; Contzen, Matthias; Mauder, Norman; Süss-Dombrowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) ulcerans could be isolated from the spleen of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) that had been found dead in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Pathohistological examination suggested that the fox had died of distemper, as was confirmed by PCR. The isolate was identified biochemically, by MALDI-TOF MS, FT-IR and by partial 16S rRNA, rpoB and tox gene sequencing. Using the Elek test the C. ulcerans isolate demonstrated diphtheria toxin production. FT-IR and sequencing data obtained from the C. ulcerans isolate from the red fox showed higher similarity to isolates from humans than to those from wild game. PMID:26054226

  17. Anatomo-radiographic description of the axial skeleton of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína D. Barisson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the axial skeleton of a wild Brazilian carnivorous, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous. Five specimens of crab-eating fox were previously unfrozen for radiographic exams and their bones went through dissection and chemical maceration. This animal presents seven cervical vertebrae, and from the third on, they become shorter and wider than the other ones e the spinous process was makeable from the fifth cervical vertebrae on. There are thirteen thoracic vertebrae and the spinous process of the lumbar vertebrae, which are seven, decreases from the fifth on. The sacrum is formed by two vertebrae and there are twenty or twenty one caudal vertebrae. It can be concluded that the crab-eating fox axial skeleton is similar to that of the domestic dog.

  18. An evaluation of the efficacy of FoxO1 as a medicine in treating metabolic syndrome%靶向 FoxO1治疗代谢综合症的潜在意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梁; 刘小玲; 许俞露; 许宏勋; 胡海

    2014-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia , a prominent metabolic disease , is believed to play an important part in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease .Preclinical studies show that FoxO 1 can effectively control insulin-dependent regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein ( MTP ) and apolipoprotein C-Ⅲ ( ApoC-Ⅲ) .Under physiological conditions, FoxO1 activity can be inhibited by insulin.In insulin resistant states, FoxO1 becomes deregulated, contributing to unbridled FoxO1 activity in the liver.This effect contributes to hepatic overproduction of VLDL and impaired catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles, accounting for the pathogenesis of HTG .These data spur the hypothesis that selective inhibition of FoxO1 activity in the liver would improve triglyceride metabolism and ameliorate HTG .In this article, we review the role of FoxO1 in insulin action and lipid metabolism , and evaluate the potential therapeutic value of targeting FoxO1 for treating HTG .%高甘油三酯血症( Hypertriglyceridemia ,HTG)是一种重要的代谢综合征,导致动脉粥样硬化和冠状动脉疾病。FoxO1对调控胰岛素依赖调节的微粒体甘油三酸酯转运蛋白( Microsomal Riglyceride Transfer Protein ,MTP)和载脂蛋白C-III( Apolipoprotein C-III,ApoC-III)有重要作用。文章综述了FoxO1在胰岛素调节和脂类代谢中的作用,并评估利用靶向FoxO1治疗HTG的可能性。

  19. Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

    2011-02-01

    There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight.

  20. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. ► Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. ► Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. ► Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. ► FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GC cells by regulating apoptotic signaling, which could be a promising therapeutic approach for gastric cancer.

  1. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Gui-Fen [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Yao, E-mail: shiyao_chen@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Zhi-Rong [Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing [Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Song, Dong-Li [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis

  2. Mst1-FoxO signaling protects Naive T lymphocytes from cellular oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhyun Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ste-20 family kinase Hippo restricts cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis for proper organ development in Drosophila. In C. elegans, Hippo homolog also regulates longevity. The mammalian Ste20-like protein kinase, Mst1, plays a role in apoptosis induced by various types of apoptotic stress. Mst1 also regulates peripheral naïve T cell trafficking and proliferation in mice. However, its functions in mammals are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that the Mst1-FoxO signaling pathway plays a crucial role in survival, but not apoptosis, of naïve T cells. In Mst1(-/- mice, peripheral T cells showed impaired FoxO1/3 activation and decreased FoxO protein levels. Consistently, the FoxO targets, Sod2 and catalase, were significantly down-regulated in Mst1(-/- T cells, thereby resulting in elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and induction of apoptosis. Expression of constitutively active FoxO3a restored Mst1(-/- T cell survival. Crossing Mst1 transgenic mice (Mst1 Tg with Mst1(-/- mice reduced ROS levels and restored normal numbers of peripheral naïve T cells in Mst1 Tg;Mst1(-/- progeny. Interestingly, peripheral T cells from Mst1(-/- mice were hypersensitive to gamma-irradiation and paraquat-induced oxidative stresses, whereas those from Mst1 Tg mice were resistant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data support the hypothesis that tolerance to increased levels of intracellular ROS provided by the Mst1-FoxOs signaling pathway is crucial for the maintenance of naïve T cell homeostasis in the periphery.

  3. Long-distance and frequent movements of the flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus: implications for management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie J Roberts

    Full Text Available Flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are large bats capable of long-distance flight. Many species are threatened; some are considered pests. Effective conservation and management of flying-foxes are constrained by lack of knowledge of their ecology, especially of movement patterns over large spatial scales. Using satellite telemetry, we quantified long-distance movements of the grey-headed flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus among roost sites in eastern Australia. Fourteen adult males were tracked for 2-40 weeks (mean 25 weeks. Collectively, these individuals utilised 77 roost sites in an area spanning 1,075 km by 128 km. Movement patterns varied greatly between individuals, with some travelling long distances. Five individuals travelled cumulative distances >1,000 km over the study period. Five individuals showed net displacements >300 km during one month, including one movement of 500 km within 48 hours. Seasonal movements were consistent with facultative latitudinal migration in part of the population. Flying-foxes shifted roost sites frequently: 64% of roost visits lasted 12 weeks, 10 moved >100 km in one or more weeks. Median cumulative displacement distances over 1, 10 and 30 weeks were 0 km, 260 km and 821 km, respectively. On average, over increasing time-periods, one additional roost site was visited for each additional 100 km travelled. These findings explain why culling and relocation attempts have had limited success in resolving human-bat conflicts in Australia. Flying-foxes are highly mobile between camps and regularly travel long distances. Consequently, local control actions are likely to have only temporary effects on local flying-fox populations. Developing alternative methods to manage these conflicts remains an important challenge that should be informed by a better understanding of the species' movement patterns.

  4. Climate change and the effects of temperature extremes on Australian flying-foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbergen, Justin A; Klose, Stefan M; Markus, Nicola; Eby, Peggy

    2008-02-22

    Little is known about the effects of temperature extremes on natural systems. This is of increasing concern now that climate models predict dramatic increases in the intensity, duration and frequency of such extremes. Here we examine the effects of temperature extremes on behaviour and demography of vulnerable wild flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.). On 12 January 2002 in New South Wales, Australia, temperatures exceeding 42 degrees C killed over 3500 individuals in nine mixed-species colonies. In one colony, we recorded a predictable sequence of thermoregulatory behaviours (wing-fanning, shade-seeking, panting and saliva-spreading, respectively) and witnessed how 5-6% of bats died from hyperthermia. Mortality was greater among the tropical black flying-fox, Pteropus alecto (10-13%) than the temperate grey-headed flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus (less than 1%), and young and adult females were more affected than adult males (young, 23-49%; females, 10-15%; males, less than 3%). Since 1994, over 30000 flying-foxes (including at least 24500 P. poliocephalus) were killed during 19 similar events. Although P. alecto was relatively less affected, it is currently expanding its range into the more variable temperature envelope of P. poliocephalus, which increases the likelihood of die-offs occurring in this species. Temperature extremes are important additional threats to Australian flying-foxes and the ecosystem services they provide, and we recommend close monitoring of colonies where temperatures exceeding 42.0 degrees C are predicted. The effects of temperature extremes on flying-foxes highlight the complex implications of climate change for behaviour, demography and species survival.

  5. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  6. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.;

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...... a moderate tolerance to freezing and they survived for 4 weeks in decaying tissue at room temperature. This is the first study to describe these biological characteristics of T. zimbabwensis....

  7. Fox- and raccoon-dog–associated rabies outbreaks in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye; Liu; Shoufeng; Zhang; Jinghui; Zhao; Fei; Zhang; Nan; Li; Hai; Lian; Wurengege; Shiyu; Guo; Rongliang; Hu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Rabies is a generally fatal disease caused by the rabies virus(RABV),and is transmitted mainly by Carnivora and Chiroptera(Fooks A R,et al.,2014;Tao X,et al.,2013).In China,stray dogs and some wild animals(e.g.,Chinese ferret badgers,foxes,and raccoon dogs)are the principal reservoirs for RABV(Hu R L,et al.,2009).Historically,rabies in wild foxes and raccoon dogs(Nyctereutes procyonoides)was recorded in the early

  8. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes) in Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume; Jordan, David; Edson, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Melville, Debra; Parry-Jones, Kerryn; Broos, Alice; Divljan, Anja; McMichael, Lee; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW), with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes), the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species distribution

  9. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume Field

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD and New South Wales (NSW, with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes, the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of fox rabies cases in Germany 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eckardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to achieve new insights into rabies dynamics, this paper is the first to investigate fox rabies in Germany from a space-time pattern perspective. Based on a locally restricted dataset covering a fourteen month period, our findings indicate a strongly aggregated spatiotemporal point pattern resulting from an inhomogeneous stochastic process. In contrast to spatial or temporal approaches or cellular automata, our analysis focuses on the disease dynamics in time and space in a continuous time domain. Our findings confirm existing theories regarding fox rabies control highlighting the potential risk of urban areas and the need for effective rabies vaccination.

  11. Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krystufek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare. Peradeniya possibly supports the largest aggregation of the Indian flying fox known currently.

  12. VW Fox: Estudo de Caso Baseado na Inovação de Valor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Bottacin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This technological article aims to analyze the development, launch and market evolution of the Volkswagen (VW Fox when analyzed under the concept of value innovation. The research methodology was a longitudinal case study (1999-2014, as the analysis was limited to a single automotive product from its conception stage until the time the research was conducted. As a result, value innovation tools were adopted retrospectively in order to analyze a product developed by the researched company’s own process. In conclusion, the VW Fox market introduction could be considered as a case of value innovation.

  13. Nástroje marketingového mixu ve firmě Fox interier

    OpenAIRE

    VÍTOVCOVÁ, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    The theme of my bachelor´s work is named "Tools of Marketing Mix in the Firm Fox interier". Selected firm is concerned with sale of wood. The aim of this bachelor work is to describe precisely tools of marketing used in the firm Fox interier´s branch office Kozolupy. Then pursuant to realized data recommend change or expansion of marketing tools which are currently used by the firm to from literature. In the first part of my work is processed literature review, which introduces the basic theo...

  14. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS Detects Genetic Structure and Confirms Behavioral QTL in Tame and Aggressive Foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Johnson

    Full Text Available The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approach to provide insights into the genetic composition of these fox populations. Sequence analysis of EcoT22I genomic libraries of tame and aggressive foxes identified 48,294 high quality SNPs. Population structure analysis revealed genetic divergence between the two strains and more diversity in the aggressive strain than in the tame one. Significant differences in allele frequency between the strains were identified for 68 SNPs. Three of these SNPs were located on fox chromosome 14 within an interval of a previously identified behavioral QTL, further supporting the importance of this region for behavior. The GBS SNP data confirmed that significant genetic diversity has been preserved in both fox populations despite many years of selective breeding. Analysis of SNP allele frequencies in the two populations identified several regions of genetic divergence between the tame and aggressive foxes, some of which may represent targets of selection for behavior. The GBS protocol used in this study significantly expanded genomic resources for the fox, and can be adapted for SNP discovery and genotyping in other canid species.

  15. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) Detects Genetic Structure and Confirms Behavioral QTL in Tame and Aggressive Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L; Wittgenstein, Helena; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hyma, Katie E; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Vladimirova, Anastasiya V; Fong, Hiu Wa Flora; Acland, Gregory M; Trut, Lyudmila N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to provide insights into the genetic composition of these fox populations. Sequence analysis of EcoT22I genomic libraries of tame and aggressive foxes identified 48,294 high quality SNPs. Population structure analysis revealed genetic divergence between the two strains and more diversity in the aggressive strain than in the tame one. Significant differences in allele frequency between the strains were identified for 68 SNPs. Three of these SNPs were located on fox chromosome 14 within an interval of a previously identified behavioral QTL, further supporting the importance of this region for behavior. The GBS SNP data confirmed that significant genetic diversity has been preserved in both fox populations despite many years of selective breeding. Analysis of SNP allele frequencies in the two populations identified several regions of genetic divergence between the tame and aggressive foxes, some of which may represent targets of selection for behavior. The GBS protocol used in this study significantly expanded genomic resources for the fox, and can be adapted for SNP discovery and genotyping in other canid species.

  16. Utilzation of Visual FoxPro in Products′ Materials Selecting%Visual FoxPro软件在产品选材中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李风; 靳兰芬

    2001-01-01

    用Visual FoxPro软件建立了集金属材料信息存储、管理、查 询于一体的工具软件——金属材料咨询系统,为材料的研制、应用和产业信息化的发展提供 支持。%A reference software——Consulting System on Me tallic Materials which contains the storing, managing, inquiring for metallic ma terials information has been created by using Visual FoxPro. It would play an a c tive role in the materials research, application and the development of industri al information

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of FOX-12%N-脒基脲二硝酰胺盐(FOX-12)的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨通辉; 何金选; 张海林

    2004-01-01

    以二硝酰胺铵(ADN)和双氰胺为原材料经过一系列反应,制备出新型有机二硝酰胺盐-N-脒基脲二硝酰胺盐(FOX-12),并鉴定了其结构,测定了其熔点、感度、吸湿性等性能.

  18. Visual FoxPro上机实践中常见错误汇总%Summary of Commom Errors in Visual FoxPro Experimental Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦萍萍

    2015-01-01

    Visual FoxPro数据库程序语言设计是一门操作性比较强的高级程序语言类课程,它有着强大的功能,并能针对不同用户有着不同用途。该文主要针对学生在上级实验学习的过程出经常遇到的问题进行归总和解析,找出了问题产生原因,并提供解决该问题的方法。为Visual FoxPro数据库程序语言设计的教学提供参考,以提高教学效果和质量。%Visual Foxpro Database programming language design is a relatively strong operability advanced programming language courses. It has powerful features, and can have different purposes for different users. In this paper, aimed at students in the course of the experiment on the computer learning problems often encountered have been aggregated and analysis, to identify the causes of the problem and provide a solution to this problem. Provide a reference for the Visual FoxPro database programming language de⁃signed for teaching to improve teaching effectiveness and quality.

  19. Overexpression of FoxM1 is associated with tumor progression in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yi-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fork head box M1 (FoxM1 is a proliferation-associated transcription factor essential for cell cycle progression. Numerous studies have documented that FoxM1 has multiple functions in tumorigenesis and its elevated levels are frequently associated with cancer progression. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression of FoxM1 and its prognostic significance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC. Meanwhile, the function of FoxM1 in human ccRCC was further investigated in cell culture models. Methods Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to explore FoxM1 expression in ccRCC cell lines and primary ccRCC clinical specimens. FoxM1 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA in Caki-1 and 786-O cells; proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis were assayed. Results FoxM1 expression was up-regulated in the majority of the ccRCC clinical tissue specimens at both mRNA and protein levels. Clinic pathological analysis showed that FoxM1 expression was significantly correlated with primary tumor stage (P P = 0.01, distant metastasis (P = 0.01, TNM stage (P P = 0.003. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed that high FoxM1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in ccRCC patients (P P = 0.008. Experimentally, we found that down-regulation of FoxM1 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest with reduced expression of cyclin B1, cyclin D1, and Cdk2, and increased expression of p21 and p27. Also, down-regulation of FoxM1 reduced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, resulting in the inhibition of migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Conclusions These results suggest that FoxM1 expression is likely to play important roles in ccRCC development and progression, and that FoxM1 is a prognostic biomarker and a

  20. FoxO1基因cDNA序列的克隆及组织表达%Cloning and Tissues Expression Analysis of Goose Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Gene cDNA Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐; 魏守海

    2014-01-01

    为了研究鹅FoxO1(forkhead box O1)基因的功能,根据GenBank已收录的鸡(Gallus gallus)、人(Homo sapiens)和小鼠(Mus musculus)等物种FoxO1基因序列的同源保守区域,设计特异性引物,利用RT-PCR技术克隆鹅FoxO1基因cDNA序列,并对基因序列进行了生物信息学分析.结果表明,成功克隆得到了鹅FoxO1基因cDNA序列,通过BLAST比对,鹅FoxO1基因与原鸡、人、小鼠的核苷酸序列同源性分别为97%、83%、82%,FoxO1基因在四川白鹅中表达水平总体表现为:皮脂>腹脂>腿肌>胸肌>肝脏.因此,FoxO1基因在多个组织中都有表达,且表达差异较大.

  1. FoxO转录因子的活性调节及对哺乳动物细胞进程的调控%Mediation of the FoxO Transcriptional Activity and the Cell Cycle and Apoptosis in Mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远孝; 王恬

    2009-01-01

    FoxO transcriptional factors play a critical role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival in mammals. The transcriptional activity of FoxOs is regulated by multiple pathways, such as PI3K-dependent way, CBP/p300-mediated acetylation and Sirt1-mediated deacetylation, Ubiquitination and degradation, and other signaling pathways.FoxO that induces the cell proliferation and controls the cell cycle, is a switch between survive and death of cells. FoxO and other cell cycle regulators join as a complex network of cell signals and then control the progress of cell cycle.%FoxO转录因子在哺乳动物的细胞分化、增殖和细胞存活中发挥着重要调控作用,其转录活性受PI3K通路、非PI3K依赖通路、乙酰化和泛素化作用等多种途径调控.FoxO受到上游信号分子PI3K/Akt、SGK等的激活,调节靶基因的转录,从而调节哺乳动物细胞周期的进程和凋亡事件.FoxO已成为肿瘤、癌症科学研究的热点之一.

  2. The prevalance of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Limburg 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Vries A de; Chu ML; Stortelder V; Mulder JL; Lezenne Coulander C de; Teunis P; MGB

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a survey carried out between January 2002 and March 2003 to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a very

  3. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman J W M; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified

  4. Seasonal food habits of swift fox (Vulpes velox) in cropland and rangeland landscapes in western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Telesco, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Food habits of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) occupying two distinct landscapes (dominated by cropland versus rangeland) in western Kansas were determined by analysis of scats collected in 1993 and 1996. Frequencies of occurrence of prey items in scats were compared between cropland and rangeland areas by season. Overall, the most frequently occurring foods of swift foxes were mammals (92% of all scats) and arthropods (87%), followed by birds (24%), carrion (23%), plants (15%) and reptiles (4%). No differences were detected between landscapes for occurrence of mammals, arthropods or carrion in any season (P ??? 0.100). Plants, specifically commercial sunflower seeds, were consumed more frequently in cropland than in rangeland in spring (P = 0.004) and fall (P = 0.001). Birds were more common in the swift fox diet in cropland than in rangeland during the fall (P = 0.008), whereas reptiles occurred more frequently in the diet in rangeland than in cropland during spring (P = 0.042). Variation in the diet of the swift fox between areas was most likely due to its opportunistic foraging behavior, resulting in a diet that closely links prey use with availability.

  5. Determinants of emigration and their impact on survival during dispersal in fox and jackal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapota, Dror; Dolev, Amit; Bino, Gilad; Yosha, Dotan; Guter, Amichai; King, Roni; Saltz, David

    2016-01-01

    Animals disperse in response to poor resource conditions as a strategy of escaping harsh competition and stress, but may also disperse under good resource conditions, as these provide better chances of surviving dispersal and gaining fitness benefits such as avoiding kin competition and inbreeding. Individual traits should mediate the effect of resources, yielding a complex condition-dependent dispersal response. We investigated how experimental food reductions in a food-rich environment around poultry-growing villages interact with individual-traits (age, gender, body-mass) in two sympatric canids, red foxes and golden jackals, to jointly affect emigration propensity and survival during dispersal. Sub-adult foxes emigrated more frequently from the food-rich habitat than from the pristine, food-limited habitat, while adult foxes showed the opposite trend. During dispersal, adults exhibited lower survival while sub-adults did not experience additional mortality costs. Although fox mortality rates increased in response to food reduction, dispersal remained unchanged, while jackals showed strong dispersal response in two of the three repetitions. Jackal survival under food reduction was lowest for the dispersing individuals. While resources are an important dispersal determinant, different age classes and species experience the same resource environment differently and consequently have different motivations, yielding different dispersal responses and consequences. PMID:27050564

  6. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Canine Distemper Virus HLJ1-06, Isolated from Foxes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoliang; Ge, Yanhua; Lin, Huan; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Jiasen; Guo, Dongchun; Si, Changde; Qu, Liandong

    2013-01-01

    A new strain of canine distemper virus, HLJ1-06, has been isolated from foxes in China, and its complete genome has been sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that HLJ1-06 belongs to the Asia-1 cluster and has low identity to the vaccine strain.

  7. Creating Imaginative Worlds: Unique Details and Structure in Norma Fox Mazer's Young Adult Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how writer Norma Fox Mazer has helped many readers make the leap between reality and imagination simply in the way she handles details in the lives of her characters. Explores the ideas of communicating with detail, experimenting with structure, and playing with time in crucial scenes. (SG)

  8. Using Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" To Reach Kids Where They Hide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, C J

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how one teacher uses Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" to explore leaders and followers as the main topic of discussion in a sophomore class. Describes how students keep a reader's journal with quotations from the text and personal responses. (SG)

  9. High prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in foxes from western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the two westernmost provinces (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) of Austria were therefore examined for the presence of E. boehmi at necropsy. Eggs and adult nematodes were identified morphologically and molecularly (cox1) as E. boehmi. These nematodes were found in 26 (78.8 %) and 13 (92.9 %) foxes from Tyrol and Vorarlberg, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 83.0 % (39/47). The prevalence rate of infection recorded in this study is among the highest in Europe. These results suggest that foxes may represent an important source of infection for dogs and other canids, but further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics. PMID:27230019

  10. Expression of full-length and splice forms of FoxP3 in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L R; Woetmann, A; Ødum, N;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare the presence of full-length and alternative splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in CD4 cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used to measure...

  11. An investigation into FOXE1 polyalanine tract length in premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watkins, WJ; Harris, SE; Craven, MJ; Vincent, AL; Winship, IM; Gersak, K; Shelling, AN

    2006-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition affecting 1% of women worldwide. There is strong evidence for genetic involvement in POF as many cases are familial, and mutations in several genes have been associated with POF. We investigated variation in FOXE1 polyalanine tract length, follow

  12. Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even

    2008-04-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, 'naturally' contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the whale blubber were 488 and 395 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Animals were sacrificed and sampled when they were at their fattest (winter) as well as their lowest body weight (summer). The results show that PCB and OCP exposure causes renal (and probably also liver) lesions in arctic foxes. The prevalence of glomerular, tubular and interstitial lesions was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi-square: all p0.05). The prevalence of lesions was not significantly different between lean (winter) and fat (summer) foxes for any of the lesions (chi-square: all p>0.05). We suggest that wild arctic foxes exposed to an environmental cocktail of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs and OCPs, in their natural diet are at risk for developing chronic kidney and liver damage. Whether such lesions may have an impact on age and health of the animals remains uncertain.

  13. Characteristics of selected peripheral blood parameters in polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) fed diets with inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymeczko, Roman; Głowińska, Beata; Burlikowska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Bogusławska-Tryk, Monika; Kozłowska, Izabela; Brudnicki, Adam; Pietruszyńska, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating changes in selected peripheral blood parameters in male polar foxes fed diets with different supplementation of inulin: 0.25% (group El), 0.5% (E2) and 1% (E3). The blood for analysis was sampled from the brachial vein. The study showed that adding 0.25 and 0.5% of inulin to fox feed resulted in a lower content of haemoglobin (Hb) as well as mean mass of Hb in red blood cells in the 0.5% inulin group. The total count of thrombocytes decreased significantly with a higher level of prebiotic, while the total number of white blood cells and the percentage of different leukocytes tested remained invariable. The lowest supplementation of inulin affected the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, however, the remaining acid-base parameters did not change. The present study provides the first preliminary information about the effect of dietary inulin on some haematological indices and acid-base parameters in adult polar foxes. The results may be helpful in practice to improve the health condition of farmed polar foxes.

  14. Development of an Updated Strategic Marketing Plan for Fox Valley Technical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Susan A.

    This project was conducted to develop a comprehensive strategic marketing plan for Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC). Components included a review of the literature, establishing criteria for the plan, validation of the criteria, the actual development of the plan involving a formative committee, and the review of institutional marketing plans…

  15. Transcription factor FoxO1 is essential for enamel biomineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Poché

    Full Text Available The Transforming growth factor β (Tgf-β pathway, by signaling via the activation of Smad transcription factors, induces the expression of many diverse downstream target genes thereby regulating a vast array of cellular events essential for proper development and homeostasis. In order for a specific cell type to properly interpret the Tgf-β signal and elicit a specific cellular response, cell-specific transcriptional co-factors often cooperate with the Smads to activate a discrete set of genes in the appropriate temporal and spatial manner. Here, via a conditional knockout approach, we show that mice mutant for Forkhead Box O transcription factor FoxO1 exhibit an enamel hypomaturation defect which phenocopies that of the Smad3 mutant mice. Furthermore, we determined that both the FoxO1 and Smad3 mutant teeth exhibit changes in the expression of similar cohort of genes encoding enamel matrix proteins required for proper enamel development. These data raise the possibility that FoxO1 and Smad3 act in concert to regulate a common repertoire of genes necessary for complete enamel maturation. This study is the first to define an essential role for the FoxO family of transcription factors in tooth development and provides a new molecular entry point which will allow researchers to delineate novel genetic pathways regulating the process of biomineralization which may also have significance for studies of human tooth diseases such as amelogenesis imperfecta.

  16. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; B.E.E. Martina (Byron); S. Losch; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C.P. Muller (Claude)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled be

  17. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; S. Losch; J. Mossong; C.P. Muller (Claude); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled be

  18. Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, P M; Witte, C; Clifford, D L; Imai, D M; O'Brien, T D; Trejo, M; Liberta, F; Annamalai, K; Fändrich, M; Masliah, E; Munson, L; Sigurdson, C J

    2016-05-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is highly prevalent (34%) in endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) and poses a risk to species recovery. Although elevated serum AA (SAA) from prolonged or recurrent inflammation predisposes to AA amyloidosis, additional risk factors are poorly understood. Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98% [n= 78 of 80] vs 56% [n= 45], respectively;P< .0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19% [n= 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7% [n= 7];P= .01). Univariate odds ratios (ORs) of severe renal AA amyloidosis were greater for short- and long-term captive foxes as compared with free-ranging foxes (ORs = 3.2, 3.7, respectively; overall P= .05) and for females as compared with males (OR = 2.9;P= .05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that independent risk factors for amyloid development were increasing age class (OR = 3.8;P< .0001), San Clemente Island subspecies versus San Nicolas Island subspecies (OR = 5.3;P= .0003), captivity (OR = 5.1;P= .0001), and nephritis (OR = 2.3;P= .01). The increased risk associated with the San Clemente subspecies or captivity suggests roles for genetic as well as exogenous risk factors in the development of AA amyloidosis. PMID:26419399

  19. Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; Dann, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Predator-control aims to reduce an impact on prey species, but efficacy of long-term control is rarely assessed and the reductions achieved are rarely quantified. Aims: We evaluated the changing efficacy of a 58-year-long campaign against red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on Phillip Island, a 100-k

  20. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  1. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas and blood from red foxes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Bartonella are arthropod-borne, fastidious, Gram-negative, and aerobic bacilli distributed by fleas, lice, sand flies, and, possibly, ticks. The zoonotic Bartonella species, Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the causes of cat scratch disease and endocarditis in humans, have been reported from cats, cat fleas, and humans in Australia. However, to date, there has been no report of B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae in Australian wild animals and their ectoparasites. B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), an introduced pest animal species in Australia, and only B. clarridgeiae was detected in blood from one red fox. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed that the B. henselae detected in the current study were related to B. henselae strain Houston-1, a major pathogenic strain in humans in Australia, and confirmed the genetic distinctness of B. clarridgeiae. The identification and characterization of Bartonella species in red foxes in the Southwest of Western Australia suggests that red foxes may act as reservoirs of infection for animals and humans in this region. PMID:21919728

  2. Habitat evaluation using GIS a case study applied to the San Joaquin Kit Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, R.; Stine, P.; Church, R.; Gilpin, M.

    2001-01-01

    Concern over the fate of plant and animal species throughout the world has accelerated over recent decades. Habitat loss is considered the main culprit in reducing many species' abundance and range, leading to numerous efforts to plan and manage habitat preservation. Our work uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and modeling to define a spatially explicit analysis of habitat value, using the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) of California (USA) as an example. Over the last 30 years, many field studies and surveys have enhanced our knowledge of the life history, behavior, and needs of the kit fox, which has been proposed as an umbrella or indicator species for grassland habitat in the San Joaquin Valley of California. There has yet been no attempt to convert much of this field knowledge into a model of spatial habitat value useful for planning purposes. This is a significant omission given the importance and visibility of the imperiled kit fox and increasing trends toward spatially explicit modeling and planning. In this paper we apply data from northern California to derive a small-cell GIS raster of habitat value for the kit fox that incorporates both intrinsic habitat quality and neighborhood context, as well the effects of barriers such as roads. Such a product is a useful basis for assessing the presence and amounts of good (and poor) quality habitat and for eventually constructing GIS representations of viable animal territories that could be included in future reserves. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Hunting Reynard : How 'Reynard the Fox' tricked his way into English and Dutch children's literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, Sanne

    2008-01-01

    This article examines adaptations in their capacity of preserving literary heritage. It describes how the Middle Dutch beast epic Reynard the Fox lost its position in literature for adults and became part of a literary heritage that was no longer read but only studied for its historical value. Versi

  4. FoxP1 orchestration of ASD-relevant signaling pathways in the striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Daniel J.; Anderson, Ashley G.; Berto, Stefano; Runnels, Wesley; Harper, Matthew; Ammanuel, Simon; Rieger, Michael A.; Huang, Hung-Chung; Rajkovich, Kacey; Loerwald, Kristofer W.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Gibson, Jay R.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factor Forkhead box p1 (FOXP1) are causative for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. However, the function of FOXP1 within the brain remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify the gene expression program regulated by FoxP1 in both human neural cells and patient-relevant heterozygous Foxp1 mouse brains. We demonstrate a role for FoxP1 in the transcriptional regulation of autism-related pathways as well as genes involved in neuronal activity. We show that Foxp1 regulates the excitability of striatal medium spiny neurons and that reduction of Foxp1 correlates with defects in ultrasonic vocalizations. Finally, we demonstrate that FoxP1 has an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating pathways involved in striatal neuron identity through gene expression studies in human neural progenitors with altered FOXP1 levels. These data support an integral role for FoxP1 in regulating signaling pathways vulnerable in autism and the specific regulation of striatal pathways important for vocal communication. PMID:26494785

  5. FoxO1 antagonist suppresses autophagy and lipid droplet growth in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longhua; Zheng, Louise D; Zou, Peng; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Long, Yun Chau; Almeida, Fabio A; Liu, Dongmin; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders constitute one of the most pressing heath concerns worldwide. Increased adiposity is linked to autophagy upregulation in adipose tissues. However, it is unknown how autophagy is upregulated and contributes to aberrant adiposity. Here we show a FoxO1-autophagy-FSP27 axis that regulates adipogenesis and lipid droplet (LD) growth in adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was associated with upregulation of autophagy and fat specific protein 27 (FSP27), a key regulator of adipocyte maturation and expansion by promoting LD formation and growth. However, FoxO1 specific inhibitor AS1842856 potently suppressed autophagy, FSP27 expression, and adipocyte differentiation. In terminally differentiated adipocytes, AS1842856 significantly reduced FSP27 level and LD size, which was recapitulated by autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin-A1 and leupeptin, BL). Similarly, AS1842856 and BL dampened autophagy activity and FSP27 expression in explant cultures of white adipose tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study addressing FoxO1 in the regulation of adipose autophagy, shedding light on the mechanism of increased autophagy and adiposity in obese individuals. Given that adipogenesis and adipocyte expansion contribute to aberrant adiposity, targeting the FoxO1-autophagy-FSP27 axis may lead to new anti-obesity options. PMID:27260854

  6. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential reservoir host of cardiorespiratory parasites in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard

    2016-06-15

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals. PMID:27198779

  7. Arsenite-induced stress signaling: Modulation of the phosphoinositide 3′-kinase/Akt/FoxO signaling cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrit Hamann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FoxO transcription factors and their regulators in the phosphoinositide 3′-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway play an important role in the control of cellular processes involved in carcinogenesis, such as proliferation and apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that physiologically relevant heavy metal ions, such as copper or zinc ions, can stimulate this pathway, triggering phosphorylation and nuclear export of FoxO transcription factors. The present study aims at investigating the effect of arsenite on FoxO transcription factors and the role of PI3K/Akt signaling therein. Exposure of HaCaT human keratinocytes to arsenite resulted in a distinct decrease of glutathione levels only at cytotoxic concentrations. In contrast, a strong phosphorylation of FoxO1a/FoxO3a and Akt was observed at subcytotoxic concentrations of arsenite in HaCaT human keratinocytes. A time- and concentration-dependent increase in phosphorylation of FoxO1a and FoxO3a at sites known to be phosphorylated by Akt as well as phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473 was detected. These phosphorylations were blunted in the presence of wortmannin, pointing to the involvement of PI3K.

  8. FoxP3 Tregs Response to Sublingual Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Children Depends on the Manifestation of Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Głodkowska-Mrówka, Eliza; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis) coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis), whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations. PMID:26457309

  9. FoxP3 Tregs Response to Sublingual Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Children Depends on the Manifestation of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT. Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis, whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  10. Induction of forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) by EGF through ERK signaling pathway promotes trophoblast cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunpeng; Cui, Dan; Sui, Linlin; Xu, Yuefei; Zhang, Ningning; Ma, Yanni; Li, Yinghua; Kong, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports have demonstrated that FoxM1 is oncogenic and plays important roles in angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. However, little is known about the roles of FoxM1 in the invasion of EVT cells. EGF, as a growth factor (epidermal growth factor), has been studied extensively in reproduction. JAR cells are a reliable model for studying early invasive trophoblast regulation. We have observed the relationship between EGF and FoxM1 in JAR cells by using specific inhibitors for the intervention in and study of potential signal pathways. We have also tested the ability of JAR cells to be influenced by the expression of FoxM1. Our data indicate that EGF promotes FoxM1 expression through the ERK signal pathway. Over-FoxM1 expression upregulates the ability of JAR cells to migrate and invade and vice versa. Our investigation of FoxM1 should provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion. PMID:26022336

  11. Thermal Decomposition of CL-20/DNTF/FOX-12-CMDB Propellant%含CL-20、DNTF和FOX-12的CMDB推进剂的热分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江宁; 冯长根; 田长华

    2005-01-01

    用PDSC研究了添加CL-20(或DNTF或FOX-12)的改性双基推进剂的热分解行为.发现PDSC曲线中CL-20、DNTF推进剂有两个放热峰,第一个为双基黏结剂的分解峰,第二个为CL-20或DNTF的分解峰.FOX-12改性双基推进剂只有一个分解峰,表明FOX-12和双基黏结剂(NC、NG等组分)一起分解.

  12. High glucose induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells are regulated by FoxO3a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoming Peng

    Full Text Available AIM: Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular complications in diabetes, whereas, the underlying mechanism is not fully clarified. FoxO transcription factors are involved in apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the potential role of FoxO3a on the CMECs injury induced by high glucose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CMECs were isolated from hearts of adult rats and cultured in normal or high glucose medium for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h respectively. To down-regulate FoxO3a expression, CMECs were transfected with FoxO3a siRNA. ROS accumulation and apoptosis in CMECs were assessed by dihydroethidine (DHE staining and TUNEL assay respectively. Moreover, the expressions of Akt, FoxO3a, Bim and BclxL in CMECs were assessed by Western blotting assay. RESULTS: ROS accumulation in CMECs was significantly increased after high glucose incubation for 6 to 24 h. Meanwhile, high glucose also increased apoptosis in CMECs, correlated with decreased the phosphorylation expressions of Akt and FoxO3a. Moreover, high glucose incubation increased the expression of Bim, whereas increased anti-apoptotic protein BclxL. Furthermore, siRNA target FoxO3a silencing enhanced the ROS accumulation, whereas suppressed apoptosis in CMECs. FoxO3a silencing also abolished the disturbance of Bcl-2 proteins induced by high glucose in CMECs. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that high glucose induced FoxO3a activation which suppressed ROS accumulation, and in parallel, resulted in apoptosis of CMECs.

  13. Selection for tameness, a key behavioral trait of domestication, increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shihhui; Slomianka, Lutz; Farmer, Andrew J; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Herbeck, Yury E; Trut, Lyudmila N; Wolfer, David P; Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Work on laboratory and wild rodents suggests that domestication may impact on the extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its responsiveness to regulatory factors. There is, however, no model of laboratory rodents and their nondomesticated conspecifics that would allow a controlled comparison of the effect of domestication. Here, we present a controlled within-species comparison of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in farm-bred foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that differ in their genetically determined degree of tameness. Quantitative comparisons of cell proliferation (Ki67) and differentiating cells of neuronal lineage (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampus of foxes were performed as a proxy for neurogenesis. Higher neurogenesis was observed in tameness-selected foxes, notably in an extended subgranular zone of the middle and temporal compartments of the hippocampus. Increased neurogenesis is negatively associated with aggressive behavior. Across all animals, strong septotemporal gradients were found, with higher numbers of proliferating cells and young neurons relative to resident granule cells in the temporal than in the septal hippocampus. The opposite gradient was found for the ratio of DCX/Ki67- positive cells. When tameness-selected and unselected foxes are compared with rodents and primates, proliferation is similar, while the number of young neurons is higher. The difference may be mediated by an extended period of differentiation or higher rate of survival. On the background of this species-specific neurogenic pattern, selection of foxes for a single behavioral trait key to domestication, i.e., genetic tameness, is accompanied by global and region-specific increases in neurogenesis.

  14. Fox faeces and vole distribution on a local range: ecological data in a parasitological perspective for Echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guislain M.H.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus multilocularis needs a spatial overlap between intermediate host species (voles and definitive host (fox faeces. Factors influencing the importance of this overlap were investigated in north eastern France. Kilometric transects were walked to collect fox faeces and to estimate vole relative densities through surface indices. Habitat and climatic conditions were the strongest predictors of the number of faeces collected, while vole densities had no predictive power. Densities of both Microtus sp. and fox faeces were higher in medium-height vegetation edge. The consequences of such results to understand local transmission processes and human exposure are discussed.

  15. FoxP1 marks medium spiny neurons from precursors to maturity and is required for their differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precious, S V; Kelly, C M; Reddington, A E; Vinh, N N; Stickland, R C; Pekarik, V; Scherf, C; Jeyasingham, R; Glasbey, J; Holeiter, M; Jones, L; Taylor, M V; Rosser, A E

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the steps involved in striatal development is important both for understanding the striatum in health and disease, and for generating protocols to differentiate striatal neurons for regenerative medicine. The most prominent neuronal subtype in the adult striatum is the medium spiny projection neuron (MSN), which constitutes more than 85% of all striatal neurons and classically expresses DARPP-32. Through a microarray study of genes expressed in the whole ganglionic eminence (WGE: the developing striatum) in the mouse, we identified the gene encoding the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P1 (FoxP1) as the most highly up-regulated gene, thus providing unbiased evidence for the association of FoxP1 with MSN development. We also describe the expression of FoxP1 in the human fetal brain over equivalent gestational stages. FoxP1 expression persisted through into adulthood in the mouse brain, where it co-localised with all striatal DARPP-32 positive projection neurons and a small population of DARPP-32 negative cells. There was no co-localisation of FoxP1 with any interneuron markers. FoxP1 was detectable in primary fetal striatal cells following dissection, culture, and transplantation into the adult lesioned striatum, demonstrating its utility as an MSN marker for transplantation studies. Furthermore, DARPP-32 expression was absent from FoxP1 knock-out mouse WGE differentiated in vitro, suggesting that FoxP1 is important for the development of DARPP-32-positive MSNs. In summary, we show that FoxP1 labels MSN precursors prior to the expression of DARPP-32 during normal development, and in addition suggest that FoxP1 labels a sub-population of MSNs that are not co-labelled by DARPP-32. We demonstrate the utility of FoxP1 to label MSNs in vitro and following neural transplantation, and show that FoxP1 is required for DARPP-32 positive MSN differentiation in vitro. PMID:27154297

  16. 定义和使用Visual FoxPro数组应注意的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强

    2010-01-01

    Visual FoxPro(简称VFP),是目前许多高校非计算机专业的必修课程,同时也是全国计算机二级考试的一大分支.在定义和使用Visual FoxPro数组时,许多学生经常犯一些常识性的错误.本论述主要针对Visual FoxPro数组的定义和使用时应注意的几个问题进行简单的阐述.

  17. FOXE1 Association with both Isolated Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate; and Isolated Cleft Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Lina M; Mansilla, Maria Adela; Bullard, Steve A;

    2009-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are a common complex birth defect caused by genetic and environmental factors and/or their interactions. A previous genome-wide linkage scan discovered a novel locus for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) at 9q22-q33. To identify the etiologic gene, we......) and rs4460498 (p=6.51E-12) were located inside a 70Kb high LD block containing FOXE1. Association signals for Caucasians and Asians clustered 5' and 3' of FOXE1, respectively. Isolated cleft palate (CP) was also associated indicating that FOXE1 plays a role in two phenotypes thought to be genetically...

  18. FoxO3a与泌尿系肿瘤关系的研究进展%New development in the research on FoxO3a and urologic neoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田跃军; 陶燕; 郭琦; 王志平; 洪梅

    2015-01-01

    The forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factor family plays an important role in cell functions, including metabo-lism, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, stress reactions, DNA repair, and immune response. As a member of this family, forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) regulates its target genes by modulating histone modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation. FoxO3a expression is abnormally downregulated in urologic neoplasm. Protein modifications and FoxO3a activity are mainly con-trolled by PI3K/Akt signal pathway and other signaling pathways. FoxO3a is also involved in the initiation, progression, and prognosis of urologic neoplasm. This review focuses on the function of FoxO3a in urologic neoplasm and elucidates the regulatory mechanisms involved. This article will provide novel strategies to clinical diagnosis and drug therapy of urologic neoplasms.%FoxO转录因子家族通过对其靶基因的调节作用,在细胞代谢、凋亡、增殖、应激反应、DNA修复和免疫应答等生命活动中发挥着重要作用。该家族成员FoxO3a可调控靶基因启动子发生组蛋白磷酸化、乙酰化、甲基化等修饰从而影响其表达。FoxO3a在泌尿系肿瘤中存在异常的低表达,其蛋白质修饰状态和活性受到以PI3K/Akt为主的多条信号通路的复杂调控,对泌尿系肿瘤的发生、发展和预后产生重要的影响。本文将对FoxO3a在泌尿系肿瘤中的研究进展进行综述,探讨FoxO3a调控的机制,为临床诊断和靶向治疗提供新的策略。

  19. Thickness of the combined Lower Hell Creek and Fox Hills aquifers in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the combined Lower Hell Creek and Fox Hills aquifers in the Powder River basin. The data are presented as ASCII text...

  20. Highly diastereoselective synthesis of enantiopure β-trifluoromethyl β-amino alcohols from chiral trifluoromethyl oxazolidines (Fox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julien; Chelain, Evelyne; Brigaud, Thierry

    2012-01-20

    The organolithium species addition to 2-hydroxymethyl fluorinated oxazolidines (Fox) provides a highly diastereoselective and straightforward route for the synthesis of enantiopure trifluoromethyl β-amino alcohols quaternarized at the β-position.

  1. Physical characteristics, terrain associations and soil properties of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) dens in northern Yukon Territory, Canada: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical and soil characteristics of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) dens on Herschel Island and the Yukon Coastal Plain, Yukon Territory, Canada are described....

  2. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W;

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel......Fur protocols after two years of developmental work. Reviews for each of the 12 WQ welfare criteria were written for foxes and mink to identify the welfare measures that have been used in scientific studies. The reviews formed the basis for potential measures to be included in the WelFur protocols. All measures...... which the welfare of animals on European fur farms can be assessed....

  3. A molecular survey of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Thuringia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Herb, Ingrid; Fensterer, Veronika; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Wild canines which are closely related to dogs constitute a potential reservoir for haemoparasites by both hosting tick species that infest dogs and harbouring tick-transmitted canine haemoparasites. In this study, the prevalence of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. was investigated in German red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks. DNA extracts of 261 spleen samples and 1953 ticks included 4 tick species: Ixodes ricinus (n=870), I. canisuga (n=585), I. hexagonus (n=485), and Dermacentor reticulatus (n=13) were examined for the presence of Babesia/Theileria spp. by a conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. One hundred twenty-one out of 261 foxes (46.4%) were PCR-positive. Out of them, 44 samples were sequenced, and all sequences had 100% similarity to Theileria annae. Similarly, sequencing was carried out for 65 out of 118 PCR-positive ticks. Theileria annae DNA was detected in 61.5% of the sequenced samples, Babesia microti DNA was found in 9.2%, and Babesia venatorum in 7.6% of the sequenced samples. The foxes were most positive in June and October, whereas the peak of tick positivity was in October. Furthermore, the positivity of the ticks was higher for I. canisuga in comparison to the other tick species and for nymphs in comparison to adults. The high prevalence of T. annae DNA in red foxes in this study suggests a reservoir function of those animals for T. annae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. annae in foxes from Germany as well as the first detection of T. annae and B. microti in the fox tick I. canisuga. Detection of DNA of T. annae and B. microti in three tick species collected from foxes adds new potential vectors for these two pathogens and suggests a potential role of the red fox in their natural endemic cycles.

  4. Rabies and Canine Distemper Virus Epidemics in the Red Fox Population of Northern Italy (2006-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Nouvellet; Donnelly, Christl A.; Marco Nardi; Rhodes, Chris J.; Paola De Benedictis; Carlo Citterio; Federica Obber; Monica Lorenzetto; Manuela Dalla Pozza; Simon Cauchemez; Giovanni Cattoli

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to ...

  5. Infection of foxes by Echinococcocus multilocularis in urban and suburban areas of Nancy, France: influence of feeding habits and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Robardet E.; Giraudoux P.; Caillot C.; Boue F.; Cliquet F.; Augot D.; Barrat J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of biological and environmental factors on the infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) by Echinococcus multilocularis in an endemic area of north-east France. From January 2004 to April 2006, 127 foxes were examined for E. multilocularis and their stomach contents analysed. The effect of year, season, age, sex and urbanisation level on E. multilocularis presence was estimated using a General Linear Model (GLM) with logit link, (i.e. logistic regression). Urbanis...

  6. MiR-183 promotes growth of non-small cell lung cancer cells through FoxO1 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Quan, Hongyu; Wang, Sihai; Li, XueHui; Che, Xiaoyu

    2015-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a prevalent cancer in lung of high incidence. NSCLCs often appear to be fast growing, which renders comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the growth of NSCLC extremely critical. Previous study has addressed a role of microRNA (miR) family member, miR-183, in the regulation of the invasiveness of NSCLC, whereas the role of miR-183 in the growth control of NSCLC is not clear. Here, we analyzed the regulation of FoxO1 by miR-183 in vitro using luciferase-reporter assay. We also analyzed the effects of miR-183 on NSCLC cell growth in vitro using a microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay and in vivo by visualizing tumor growth using bioluminescence assay. We found that overexpression of miR-183 in NSCLC cells decreased FoxO1 protein levels, whereas inhibition of miR-183 increased FoxO1 protein levels without affecting FoxO1 transcripts. Moreover, miR-183 bound to FoxO1 mRNA to prevent its translation through its 3'untranslated region (UTR). Furthermore, administration of miR-183 suppressed FoxO1 levels in NSCLC, resulting in a significant increase in NSCLC growth in vitro and in vivo, while administration of antisense of miR-183 significantly increased FoxO1 levels in NSCLC resulting in a significant decrease in NSCLC growth. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-183/FoxO1 axis may be a novel therapeutic target for regulating the growth of NSCLC. PMID:25983004

  7. A conceptual model for the impact of climate change on fox rabies in Alaska, 1980–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bryan I.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Gilbert, Amy; Castrodale, Louisa; Hueffer, Karsten; Slate, Dennis; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of climate change on host species and infectious disease dynamics are likely to initially manifest at latitudinal extremes. As such, Alaska represents a region in the United States for introspection on climate change and disease. Rabies is enzootic among arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) throughout the northern polar region. In Alaska, arctic and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are reservoirs for rabies, with most domestic animal and wildlife cases reported from north...

  8. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915

  9. FoxO1 gain of function in the pancreas causes glucose intolerance, polycystic pancreas, and islet hypervascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Genetic studies revealed that the ablation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the pancreas causes diabetes. FoxO1 is a downstream transcription factor of insulin/IGF-1 signaling. We previously reported that FoxO1 haploinsufficiency restored β cell mass and rescued diabetes in IRS2 knockout mice. However, it is still unclear whether FoxO1 dysregulation in the pancreas could be the cause of diabetes. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing constitutively active FoxO1 specifically in the pancreas (TG. TG mice had impaired glucose tolerance and some of them indeed developed diabetes due to the reduction of β cell mass, which is associated with decreased Pdx1 and MafA in β cells. We also observed increased proliferation of pancreatic duct epithelial cells in TG mice and some mice developed a polycystic pancreas as they aged. Furthermore, TG mice exhibited islet hypervascularities due to increased VEGF-A expression in β cells. We found FoxO1 binds to the VEGF-A promoter and regulates VEGF-A transcription in β cells. We propose that dysregulation of FoxO1 activity in the pancreas could account for the development of diabetes and pancreatic cysts.

  10. Oral rabies vaccination of red foxes and golden jackals in Israel: preliminary bait evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, S B; King, R; Zamir, S; Naveh, U; Davidson, M; Perl, S

    1997-12-01

    Field trials were conducted in late April to early May of 1995 and 1996 in central Israel to assess the potential for controlling rabies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) by using vaccine-laden baits. Of the bait types which were field tested, polymer fish meal baits were selected as the most suitable for both species. Fish meal baits containing tetracycline hydrochloride, an oral biomarker, were distributed by four-wheel-drive vehicle at a density of approximately 30 baits/km2 in two test areas of 35 km2. Of the animals which were trapped and euthanized seven to ten days after treatment, 65% of foxes and 56% of jackals gave positive results when tested for the biomarker. These results indicate the potential effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination of these species in Israel and possibly elsewhere in the Middle East, where rabies is a problem in wild canids. PMID:9567312

  11. Vicente Fox presidential campaing and the model of propaganda in political communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana BORJAS BENAVENTE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of political communication identified by Dominque Wolton can be used to analyse the electoral process of 1988 in Mexico, as public opinion and opinion began to emerge through the exchange between legitimate political actors. The main features of this exchange emerged and were consolidated during the 2000 presidential election campaign, coinciding with the typology developed by Gilles Achache regarding a model of propaganda. The objectives of the paper are to examine the electoral campaign of Vicente Fox of the PAN for the presidency in 2000, and to identify the differences that set it apart from the campaign of other candidates and from the traditional electoral behaviour of previous electoral processes, in order to demonstrate that through the use of techniques of political marketing in the public space, the Fox campaign introduced a new model of propaganda in political communication in Mexico.

  12. When things go wrong: Cysticercus longicollis in an adult wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjević, Dean; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Sindičić, Magda; Martinković, Franjo; Jan, Dagny Stojčević

    2016-03-01

    First case of Cysticercus longicollis, larval stage of Taenia crassiceps, was diagnosed in a wild adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The fox was killed by dogs at Nature Park Medvednica and presented to the University of Zagreb Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with history of being unable to run away and having skin lesions on legs that resembled to those of mange. Necropsy revealed whitish fluctuant mass full of cysticercus-like structures, surrounded by fibrous capsule and placed between the leg muscles, and numerous of spherical cysts in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Cysticerci were identified as C. longicollis based on their size, number and size of the rostellar hooks, mode of proliferation and DNA analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of T. crassiceps cysticercosis in a wild carnivore. PMID:26746845

  13. Helminths of foxes and other wild carnivores from rural areas in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papdopoulos, H; Himonas, C; Papazahariadou, M; Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K

    1997-09-01

    Twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in Greece. Of the 314 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species Mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species Uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and Toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. Five cestode and three nematode species were reported from six wolves (CaniS lupus), together with one trematode, three cestode and four nematode species from five jackals (Canis aureus) and two cestode and three nematode species from four wild cats (Felis silvestris) examined. The species J. echinorhynchoides, Taenia crassiceps and Onicola canis and the genera Spirometra, Rictularia and Pachysentis are reported here for the first time in Greece. The results are discussed in the light of the feeding characteristics of wild carnivores in rural areas of Greece. PMID:9705680

  14. Q-switched operation with Fox-Smith-Michelson laser cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new kind of three-mirror composite cavity, Fox-Smith-Michelson cavity has been configured. This laser cavity is capable of high power output, owing to the low threshold of Michelson cavity. Also, thanks to the mode selection function of Fox-Smith cavity, stable pulses at high repetition rate can be generated. In our experiment, 15.54 W CW output at 1064 nm has been achieved, with an optic-to-optic conversion efficiency of 42.2%. At the Q-switching repetition rate of 100 kHz, the average output power is 11.92 W, with an optic-to-optic conversion efficiency of 38.2%. For Q-switching frequency from 30 kHz to 100 kHz, the pulse width variation is below 4.4% and the amplitude variation is below 4.8%

  15. Of Lions and Foxes: Power and Rule in Hebrew Medieval Fables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Refael-Vivante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the lion and the fox as an expression of the disposition of powers in the political-governmental arena and their relationship to the governed, in ancient and medieval philosophical thought. This article will also examine the mutual relationships between rulers and their advisors and between rulers and subjects in a kingdom or within a court under their rule, with a focus on Hebrew medieval fables. This article is based on two examples: one from Mishle Shualim by Berechiah Hanakdan (England / Provence, at the end of the 12th century or the first half of the 13th century and the other from Meshal Haqadmoni, by Isaac Ibn Sahula (Spain, 1281. The characters of the lion and the fox as metaphors are reflected as well as in modern political thought in theories that discuss the ruling elite, and their relevance seems applicable to our times.

  16. Regulation of FoxO transcription factors by environmental NO(x). Influence of metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Regulation von FoxO-Transkriptionsfaktoren durch Umweltnoxen. Einfluss von Metallionen und polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Anna

    2009-12-15

    FoxO transcription factors are crucial modulators of various cellular processes, controlling the expression of target genes such as those coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and selenoprotein P (SeP), thereby supporting defense against oxidative stress. Environmental stimuli such as heavy metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) modulate signaling pathways both by interaction with proteins or by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure of hepatoma cells to nickel ions at subcytotoxic doses did not translate into modulation of FoxO activity despite an activation of the Ser/Thr-kinase Akt. The cellular response to nickel ions under these conditions is most likely independent of the formation of ROS, since there were no increased levels of glutathione disulfide detectable. FoxO activity was then found to be modulated in response to exposure of cells to PAH or the tryptophan photoproduct FICZ. Both PAH and FICZ caused an increased activity of a FoxO-responsive promoter construct as well as of glucose 6-phosphatase promoter activity. In contrast, the activities of promoters of genes coding for MnSOD or SeP were decreased in response to exposure to the PAH 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). In line with the promoter effects, 3-MC also decreased steady-state levels of SeP mRNA. The response of the SeP promoter to 3-MC was abrogated by point mutations introduced at the two identified FoxO binding elements of the SeP promoter, implying that interaction of FoxO proteins with these sites is essential for the downregulation of promoter activity. In addition to FoxO activity being modulated by xenobiotics, it was then demonstrated that FoxO expression was also modulated by exposure of cells to PAH or FICZ. FoxO4 mRNA levels were downregulated in hepatoma cells exposed to 3-MC or FICZ. Similarly, insulin treatment caused a downregulation of mRNA levels of FoxO 1a, 3a and 4 in hepatoma cells. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative assessment of common genetic variants on FOXE1 and differentiated thyroid cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Zhu

    Full Text Available Forkhead box E1 encodes the transcription factor FOXE1 (or TTF-2, which together with Homeobox protein NKX2-1, PAX8 and HHEX, are pivotal proteins required for thyroid gland formation, differentiation and function. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified FOXE1 as a thyroid cancer (TC susceptibility gene in populations of European descent. After that, a number of studies reported that the rs965513, rs1867277, and rs71369530 polymorphism in FOXE1 has been implicated in TC risk. However, the causal variants remain unknown. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis of 9,828 TC cases and 109,995 controls from 14 case-control studies was performed. Overall, significant results were observed for rs965513 (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.59-1.85, P<10(-5, rs1867277 (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.51-1.78, P<10(-5 and rs71369530 (OR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.66-2.44, P<10(-5 polymorphism. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found that rs965513 polymorphism confer high risk for Caucasians with per-allele OR of 1.80 (95% CI: 1.69-1.92, P<10(-5 compared to East Asians of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.09-1.67, P=0.006. There was strong evidence of heterogeneity, which largely disappeared after stratification by ethnicity. In the subgroup analysis by sample size, and study design, significantly increased risks were found for the polymorphism. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that common variations of FOXE1 are a risk factor associated with increased TC susceptibility.

  18. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (ΦST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  19. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  20. The Terry Fox Research Institute’s Ontario Dialogue: how will personalized medicine change health care?

    OpenAIRE

    Curwin, K.; Paige, C J; Sutcliffe, S

    2011-01-01

    This is the final instalment in a series of three articles by the Terry Fox Research Institute about its pan-Canadian dialogue series, Cancer: Let’s Get Personal, a public research and outreach project undertaken in 2010. The dialogues served to launch a national and continuing conversation on personalized medicine with the medical and scientific communities and the public, including cancer survivors, patients, and caregivers. Participants at the Ontario dialogue, held in Toronto, October 18,...

  1. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Cabaj, Władysław

    2013-06-01

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens. Natural transmission between hosts can only occur through the ingestion of infected meat. To date, two Trichinella species are known to be etiological agents of disease among domestic animals and wildlife in Poland: T. spiralis and T. britovi. In the last decades, since the administration of an oral vaccination against rabies, the red fox population in Poland has increased exponentially. The study area covers the Nowy Targ region: a mountainous area (585-1138 m above the sea) in southern Poland. Of 24 red foxes examined in the study, four were infected with Trichinella isolates: three were identified as T. britovi and one as T. pseudospiralis. The muscle of red foxes infected with T. britovi harboured 2.75, 3.11, 4.4 LPG and with T. pseudospiralis 0.36 LPG. Trichinella larvae were identified at species level by genomic and mitochondrial multiplex PCR, the products of which were sequenced for comparison with other sequences available in GenBank. The sequences obtained from the Polish T. pseudospiralis isolate, deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JQ809660.1 and JQ809661.1, matched sequences already published in GenBank. Sequence comparison showed a 100% match with the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene of T. pseudospiralis isolate ISS 013, and a 96-95% match with those of T. pseudospiralis isolates ISS 141 and ISS 470. This is the first report of the identification of T. pseudospiralis larvae from red fox in Poland. PMID:23666649

  2. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Von Köller J.; Kapel C.M.O.; Enemark H.L.; Hindsbo O.

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced meat were digested and released larvae were inoculated in mice to evaluate the Reproductive Capacity Index (RCI). The RCI decreased with the length of storage, but the larvae from older infections app...

  3. Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2. Application for construction permits and operating licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application to construct and operate Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2, is presented. The two BWR type reactors will have a rated core thermal power of 3579 MW(t) and a net electrical power of approximately 1150 MW(e). The facility will be located in Inola Township, 23 miles east of Tulsa on the east side of the Verdigris River in Rogers County, Oklahoma

  4. A potential novel Brucella species isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Erwin; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Riehm, Julia M; Nöckler, Karsten; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Tomaso, Herbert; Scholz, Holger C

    2012-02-24

    The wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a known indicator species for natural foci of brucellosis. Here, we describe phenotypic and molecular characteristics of two atypical Brucella strains isolated from two foxes hunted 2008 in Eastern Austria. Both strains agglutinated with monospecific anti-Brucella A serum and were positive in ELISA with monoclonal antibodies directed against various Brucella lipopolysaccharide epitopes. However, negative nitrate reductase- and negative oxidase-reaction were atypical traits. Affiliation to the genus Brucella was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by detection of the Brucella specific insertion element IS711 and gene bcsp31 using real-time PCR. Both fox strains showed identical IS711 Southern blot profiles but were distinct from known brucellae. The number of IS711 copies detected was as high as found in B. ovis or marine mammal Brucella strains. Molecular analyses of the recA and omp2a/b genes suggest that both strains possibly represent a novel Brucella species.

  5. An Indirect ELISA for Detection of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in Farmed Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åkerstedt J

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the intracellular microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi can cause serious disease, encephalitozoonosis, in the blue fox (Alopex lagopus. The disease diagnosis is based on clinical signs and pathological findings, and detection of E. cuniculi or circulating antibodies directed against the parasite. Indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT and carbon immunoassay (CIA are the most commonly used serological methods for diagnosis in this species. In the present study, an indirect ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was established and evaluated against IFAT by testing of 205 field samples from blue foxes. There was high agreement between the results of the ELISA and CIA (κ = 0.99, and the ELISA and IFAT (κ = 0.958. There was no significant statistical difference between the tests (p > 0.05. It was concluded that the ELISA could be used to identify seropositive farmed blue foxes. The advantage of the ELISA lies in the potential of screening large numbers of animals with the goal of eradicating E. cuniculi infection in the farms.

  6. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreíza Ramos Heleno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary care after rescue in cases of running over, burnings, and floods caused by the filling of hydroelectric reservoir lakes or even in projects on captive breeding and restocking. Samples were collected from the digestive system of three wild animals in the region of Guarapuava-PR region. The crab-eating foxes under study were longer than the average reported for the species, had a shorter intestine, and a lower small intestine/body length ratio than other carnivores, besides other anatomical and histological characteristics different from those found in the literature on carnivores.

  7. The Nuclear Zinc Finger Protein Zfat Maintains FoxO1 Protein Levels in Peripheral T Cells by Regulating the Activities of Autophagy and the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Shuhei; Iwaihara, Yuri; Tanaka, Yoko; Luo, Hao; Nishi, Kensuke; Doi, Keiko; Koyanagi, Midori; Okamura, Tadashi; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Shirasawa, Senji

    2016-07-15

    Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is a key molecule for the development and functions of peripheral T cells. However, the precise mechanisms regulating FoxO1 expression in peripheral T cells remain elusive. We previously reported that Zfat(f/f)-CD4Cre mice showed a marked decline in FoxO1 protein levels in peripheral T cells, partially through proteasomal degradation. Here we have identified the precise mechanisms, apart from proteasome-mediated degradation, of the decreased FoxO1 levels in Zfat-deficient T cells. First, we confirmed that tamoxifen-inducible deletion of Zfat in Zfat(f/f)-CreERT2 mice coincidently decreases FoxO1 protein levels in peripheral T cells, indicating that Zfat is essential for maintaining FoxO1 levels in these cells. Although the proteasome-specific inhibitors lactacystin and epoxomicin only moderately increase FoxO1 protein levels, the inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine restore the decreased FoxO1 levels in Zfat-deficient T cells to levels comparable with those in control cells. Furthermore, Zfat-deficient T cells show increased numbers of autophagosomes and decreased levels of p62 protein, together indicating that Zfat deficiency promotes lysosomal FoxO1 degradation through autophagy. In addition, Zfat deficiency increases the phosphorylation levels of Thr-308 and Ser-473 of Akt and the relative amounts of cytoplasmic to nuclear FoxO1 protein levels, indicating that Zfat deficiency causes Akt activation, leading to nuclear exclusion of FoxO1. Our findings have demonstrated a novel role of Zfat in maintaining FoxO1 protein levels in peripheral T cells by regulating the activities of autophagy and the Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27226588

  8. Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kirk Thompson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor functionally relevant for learned vocalizations in humans and songbirds. In songbirds, FoxP2 mRNA expression in the medium spiny neurons of the basal ganglia song nucleus Area X is developmentally regulated and varies with singing conditions in different social contexts. How individual neurons in Area X change FoxP2 expression across development and in social contexts is not known, however. Here we address this critical gap in our understanding of FoxP2 as a link between neuronal networks and behavior. We used a statistically unbiased analysis of FoxP2-immunoreactivity (IR on a neuron-by-neuron basis and found a bimodal distribution of FoxP2-IR neurons in Area X: weakly-stained and intensely-stained. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was 10 times higher in juveniles than in adults, exponentially decreased with age, and was negatively correlated with adult song stability. Three-week old neurons labeled with BrdU were more than five times as likely to be intensely-stained than weakly-stained. The density of FoxP2-IR putative migratory neurons with fusiform-shaped nuclei substantially decreased as birds aged. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was not affected by singing whereas the density of weakly-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was. Together, these data indicate that young Area X medium spiny neurons express FoxP2 at high levels and decrease expression as they become integrated into existing neural circuits. Once integrated, levels of FoxP2 expression correlate with singing behavior. Together, these findings raise the possibility that FoxP2 levels may orchestrate song learning and song stereotypy in adults by a common mechanism.

  9. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen mus...

  10. Expression of Transcription Factor FoxO3a in Gonads of Zebrafish%重要转录因子FoxO3a在斑马鱼性腺中的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振; 罗仲文; 蒋明贵; 周勇华; 文胜; 刘文彬; 肖亚梅; 李万程

    2012-01-01

    FoxO蛋白作为Forkhead Box家族的重要一员,在动物的生长发育、细胞分化、代谢、免疫和凋亡等方面起重要作用,研究发现FoxO蛋白是哺乳动物卵泡发育的重要调节因子.通过检测雌雄斑马鱼性腺中foxo3a基因的表达情况,初步研究FoxO在鱼类生殖发育中的作用.PCR和蛋白免疫杂交结果都显示foxo3a基因在斑马鱼雌性性腺中的表达量要明显高于雄性.这一结果提示,foxo3a基因在斑马鱼的卵巢发育中可能发挥重要作用.%As a crucial member in the Forkhead Box family, FoxO plays a major role in the animal growth, cell differentiation, metabolism, immunization and apoptosis. FoxO was found to be an essential regulatory factor in the follicular development in mammalian. The expression of the foxo3a gene was detected by reverse transcriptase technology and Western blotting for studying the function of FoxO in the fish reproductive development. It's revealed that the expression level of foxoia in the ovary is higher than that in the spermary in zebrafish. The results indicated that the transcription factor Fox03α may play an important role in ovarian development in fish.

  11. Comparative behavioral effects between synthetic 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) and the odor of natural fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Gaelle; Hacquemand, Romain; Pourie, Gregory; Lucarz, Annie; Jacquot, Laurence; Brand, Gerard

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT)--a component of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces--is frequently used to induce unconditioned fear in rodents. Surprisingly, direct comparison between TMT and natural fox feces odor is almost nonexistent. In this study, Experiment 1 compared the avoidance in relation to TMT concentration, natural fox feces, and gender of fox and mice. Results show that the avoidance is (a) higher with either pure or 50% TMT as compared to natural fox feces, whereas the difference is slight with 10% TMT, and (b) significantly higher for the female mouse group compared to the male mouse group with TMT as well as natural fox feces. In addition, no clear difference in effect was observed between male and female fox feces. Experiment 2 compared behavioral parameters recorded as an index of fear and anxiety, general activity, and avoidance in elevated plus-maze and open-field chamber between 10% TMT and natural fox feces in relation to the estrus cycle of the mice. Results show no cycle period effect--except for the avoidance parameter "distance to odorant"--and no different effects between 10% TMT and natural fox feces except for freezing.

  12. Foxes and rabies in Lorraine: e behavioural-ecology approach / La Volpe e la rabbia in Lorena: aspetti di ecologia comportamentale delle volpi

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Artois; Michel Aubert

    1991-01-01

    Abstract Some aspects of the behavioural ecology of rabid foxes were studied in areas invaded by rabies since the year 1973. The principal aim was to understand how fox populations can survive, despite a high level of mortality due to the virus. The individual and seasonal activity-areas of eleven foxes ranged from about 200 ha to 400 ha. All the situations encountered during the study of neighbouring foxes showed a lack of, or only a small, sharing of neighbouri...

  13. OPN induces FoxM1 expression and localization through ERK 1/2, AKT, and p38 signaling pathway in HEC-1A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunpeng; Li, Yinghua; Kong, Ying

    2014-12-16

    Mammalian embryo implantation is an extremely complex process and requires endometrial receptivity. In order to establish this receptivity, sequential proliferation and differentiation during the menstrual cycle is necessary. Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is described as a major oncogenic transcription factor in tumor initiation, promotion and progression. According to these functions, we believe that FoxM1 should also play an essential role in embryo implantation. Osteopontin (OPN), an adhesion molecule, has been studied extensively in reproduction. In this study, we observed the expression and distribution of FoxM1 during the proliferative-phase and secretory-phase human endometrium and the pre-implantation mouse uterus firstly. Then we observed the relationship between OPN and FoxM1. Our results showed that FoxM1 was mainly distributed in glandular epithelium. OPN increased the expression of FoxM1 in the human uterine epithelial cell line HEC-1A cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. OPN regulates FoxM1 to influence HEC-1A cell proliferation through extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK 1/2), protein kinase B (PKB, AKT), and the p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38MAPK, p38) signaling pathway. Inhibition of ERK 1/2, AKT and p38 suppressed OPN-induced FoxM1 expression and location. Our data indicate that FoxM1 might be regulated by OPN to influence endometrial proliferation to establish endometrial receptivity.

  14. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1-3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1-39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  15. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, G; Maksimov, A; Conraths, F J; Schares, G

    2016-04-15

    More than 200 Sarcocystis spp. have been named and most of them appear to be involved in a particular predator-prey cycle. Among canids, the European fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are widely distributed in Europe and probably play an important role as definitive hosts in the epidemiology of Sarcocystis spp. infections. A total of 50 small intestines from foxes and 38 from raccoon dogs were sampled in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Mucosal scrapings were collected and analyzed by sugar flotation and when oocysts or sporocysts were detected, an overnight sedimentation was performed and DNA extracted with a commercial kit. A PCR was conducted using primers targeting a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (with a size of approximately 850 bp) and the amplicons were purified and sequenced. Samples with an inconclusive sequencing were cloned into plasmids and ≥ 3 plasmids from each amplicon were sequenced. Sarcocystis spp. oocysts/sporocysts were detected in 38% (19/50) of fox and 52.6% (20/38) of raccoon dog samples. Sequencing analysis of amplicons from oocyst DNA revealed mixed infections in 9 fox and 5 raccoon dog samples. In the fox samples, the most often identified Sarcocystis spp. were S. tenella or S. capracanis (10.0%); S. miescheriana (8.0%) and S. gracilis (8.0%) followed by Sarcocystis spp., which use birds as intermediate hosts (6.0%), and S. capreolicanis (4.0%). In the raccoon dog samples, sequences with a ≥99% identity with the following species were detected: S. miescheriana (18.4%), S. gracilis (13.1%), Sarcocystis spp. using birds as IH (10.5%), S. tenella or S.capracanis (2.6%) and S. capreolicanis (2.6%). The estimated prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infections determined using mucosal scrapings was higher than in related studies performed by analyzing faecal samples. The methodology of 18S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing is suitable to identify mixed infections with Sarcocystis spp. and

  16. Role for Tissue-Dependent Methylation Differences in the Expression of FOXE1 in Nontumoral Thyroid Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Khudir, Rasha; Magne, Fabien; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Deal, Cheri; Van Vliet, Guy; Deladoëy, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background Discordance of monozygotic twins for thyroid dysgenesis suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may underlie defects in thyroid gland development. This prompted us to evaluate whether differentially methylated regions (DMRs) can be found between human thyroids (either eutopic or ectopic) and matched leukocytes. Methods To compare the genome-wide methylation profile of thyroids and leukocytes, immunoprecipitated methylated DNA was interrogated on human promoter plus CpG island tiling arrays. In addition, the methylation profile of the human FOXE1, PAX8, and NKX2.1 promoter was examined using bisulfite sequencing. Finally, the functional impact of CpG methylation of the promoter on FOXE1 expression was assessed with luciferase assays. Results Genome-wide methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of CpG islands of PAX8 and NKX2.1 promoters revealed no DMR between thyroid and leukocytes. However, bisulfite sequencing revealed that the methylation level of two consecutive CpG dinucleotides (CpG14 and CpG15, which were not covered by the genome-wide array) in one CpG island of the FOXE1 promoter (−1600 to −1140 from the transcription start site) is significantly higher in leukocytes than in eutopic or ectopic thyroid tissues, suggesting that methylation of this region may decrease FOXE1 gene expression. Indeed, luciferase activities were decreased when FOXE1 promoter constructs were methylated in vitro. Moreover, derepression of luciferase activity was observed when the methylation of CpG14 and CpG15 was prevented by mutations. Conclusion We report a tissue-dependent DMR in the FOXE1 promoter. This DMR contains two consecutive CpG dinucleotides, which are epigenetic modifiers of FOXE1 expression in nontumoral tissues. PMID:24646064

  17. FOXE1 association with both isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and isolated cleft palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lina M.; Mansilla, Maria Adela; Bullard, Steve A.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Busch, Tamara D.; Machida, Junichiro; Johnson, Marla K.; Brauer, David; Krahn, Katherine; Daack-Hirsch, Sandy; L'Heureux, Jamie; Valencia-Ramirez, Consuelo; Rivera, Dora; López, Ana Maria; Moreno, Manuel A.; Hing, Anne; Lammer, Edward J.; Jones, Marilyn; Christensen, Kaare; Lie, Rolv T.; Jugessur, Astanand; Wilcox, Allen J.; Chines, Peter; Pugh, Elizabeth; Doheny, Kim; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Lidral, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are a common complex birth defect caused by genetic and environmental factors and/or their interactions. A previous genome-wide linkage scan discovered a novel locus for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) at 9q22–q33. To identify the etiologic gene, we undertook an iterative and complementary fine mapping strategy using family-based CL/P samples from Colombia, USA and the Philippines. Candidate genes within 9q22–q33 were sequenced, revealing 32 new variants. Concurrently, 397 SNPs spanning the 9q22–q33 2-LOD-unit interval were tested for association. Significant SNP and haplotype association signals (P = 1.45E − 08) narrowed the interval to a 200 kb region containing: FOXE1, C9ORF156 and HEMGN. Association results were replicated in CL/P families of European descent and when all populations were combined the two most associated SNPs, rs3758249 (P = 5.01E − 13) and rs4460498 (P = 6.51E − 12), were located inside a 70 kb high linkage disequilibrium block containing FOXE1. Association signals for Caucasians and Asians clustered 5′ and 3′ of FOXE1, respectively. Isolated cleft palate (CP) was also associated, indicating that FOXE1 plays a role in two phenotypes thought to be genetically distinct. Foxe1 expression was found in the epithelium undergoing fusion between the medial nasal and maxillary processes. Mutation screens of FOXE1 identified two family-specific missense mutations at highly conserved amino acids. These data indicate that FOXE1 is a major gene for CL/P and provides new insights for improved counseling and genetic interaction studies. PMID:19779022

  18. Longevity Genes Revealed by Integrative Analysis of Isoform-Specific daf-16/FoxO Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Albert Tzong-Yang; Guo, Chunfang; Itani, Omar A; Budaitis, Breane G; Williams, Travis W; Hopkins, Christopher E; McEachin, Richard C; Pande, Manjusha; Grant, Ana R; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei; Hu, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    FoxO transcription factors promote longevity across taxa. How they do so is poorly understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the A- and F-isoforms of the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 extend life span in the context of reduced DAF-2 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) signaling. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for DAF-16/FoxO-dependent life span extension, we performed an integrative analysis of isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutants. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that DAF-16F plays a more prominent role in life span control than DAF-16A, isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutant phenotypes and whole transcriptome profiling revealed a predominant role for DAF-16A over DAF-16F in life span control, stress resistance, and target gene regulation. Integration of these datasets enabled the prioritization of a subset of 92 DAF-16/FoxO target genes for functional interrogation. Among 29 genes tested, two DAF-16A-specific target genes significantly influenced longevity. A loss-of-function mutation in the conserved gene gst-20, which is induced by DAF-16A, reduced life span extension in the context of daf-2/IGFR RNAi without influencing longevity in animals subjected to control RNAi. Therefore, gst-20 promotes DAF-16/FoxO-dependent longevity. Conversely, a loss-of-function mutation in srr-4, a gene encoding a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor family member that is repressed by DAF-16A, extended life span in control animals, indicating that DAF-16/FoxO may extend life span at least in part by reducing srr-4 expression. Our discovery of new longevity genes underscores the efficacy of our integrative strategy while providing a general framework for identifying specific downstream gene regulatory events that contribute substantially to transcription factor functions. As FoxO transcription factors have conserved functions in promoting longevity and may be dysregulated in aging-related diseases, these findings promise to illuminate fundamental

  19. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47 in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  20. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  1. Blood characteristics of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standley, W.G.; McCue, P.M.

    1992-09-01

    Hematology, serum chemistry, and prevalence of antibodies against selected, pathogens in a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, in 1989 and 1990. Samples from 18 (10 female, 8 male) adult kit foxes were used to establish normal hematology and serum chemistry values for this population. Average values were all within the normal ranges reported for kit foxes in other locations. Three hematology parameters had significant differences between male and female values; males had higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte counts. There were no significant differences between serum chemistry values from male and female foxes. Prevalence of antibodies was determined from serum samples from 47 (26 female, 21 male) adult kit foxes and eight (4 female, 4 male) juveniles. Antibodies were detected against five of the eight pathogens tested: canine parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus, and canine hepatitis virus. Antibodies were not detected against Brucella, canis, Coccidioides immitis, or Yersinia pestis.

  2. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis rileyi sporocysts in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakas, Petras; Liaugaudaitė, Simona; Kutkienė, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Švažas, Saulius

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that Sarcocystis rileyi is one of the earliest described species of the genus Sarcocystis forming macrocysts in ducks, the life cycle of this species is still unknown in Europe. Sarcocystis spp. oocysts/sporocysts were observed in faeces of four of 23 (17.4 %) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of four of 20 (20.0 %) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of seven of 13 (53.8 %) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) hunted in Lithuania. A very small number of Sarcocystis sporocysts measuring 11.9 × 8.3 μm (n = 5) was found in faecal samples, whereas considerably more sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts and free sporocysts were detected in the small intestines of red foxes and raccoon dogs. These sporocysts measured 12.9 × 8.1 μm (n = 16) and 12.1 × 8.1 μm (n = 54) in red foxes and raccoon dogs, respectively. Using species-specific PCR and subsequent sequencing, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region partial sequences of oocysts/sporocysts from small intestine mucosal scrapings of six raccoon dogs and three red foxes were identified as belonging to S. rileyi. The present study provides strong evidence showing that the red fox and the raccoon dog can serve as final hosts of S. rileyi in Europe; however, transmission experiments are needed for the ultimate approval.

  3. [Molecular and morphological comparison of hookworms from genus Uncinaria invading red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and dog (Canis familiaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Paweł; Radowańska, Agnieszka; Jaros, Dorota; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2006-01-01

    Two species of hookworms from genus Uncinaria have been found so far in Poland. Uncinaria stenocephala infects mainly dog, wolf and red fox, whereas Uncinaria criniformis is a parasite of mustelids (but it was also reported from red fox). 19 male and 29 female hookworms from red foxes have been compared with 10 male and 12 female worms from dogs. Hookworms from dogs were generally smaller than these from foxes, but no other morphological differences could be found. These hookworms were qualified to species Uncinaria stenocephala on the ground of morphology of male. Genomic DNA samples have been isolated from these hookworms and segments of rDNA including part of small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene; internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1); 5.8 S ribosomal RNA; internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and part of large subunit of ribosomal RNA have been amplified and sequenced. Sequences from Uncinaria obtained both from foxes and dogs have shown very high similarity to the sequence of Uncinaria stenocephala, so all examined hookworms have been classified as belonging to this species.

  4. Polymorphism and chromosomal location of the MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor) gene in the dog and red fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorczyk, Anna; Stachowiak, Monika; Szczerbal, Izabela; Klukowska-Roetzler, Jolanta; Schelling, Claude; Dolf, Gaudenz; Switonski, Marek

    2007-05-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is expressed in the hypothalamus and regulates energy intake and body weight. In silico screening of the canine chromosome 1 sequence and a comparison with the porcine MC4R sequence by BLAST were performed. The nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'-flanking regions of the dog (1214 bp) and red fox (1177 bp) MC4R gene was established and high conservation of the nucleotide sequences was revealed (99%). Five sets of PCR primers were designed and a search for polymorphism was performed by the SSCP technique in a group of 31 dogs representing nineteen breeds and 35 farm red foxes. Sequencing of DNA fragments, representing the identified SSCP patterns, revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (including a missense one) in dogs and four silent SNPs in red foxes. An average SNP frequency was approx. 1/400 bp in the dog and 1/300 bp in the red fox. We mapped the MC4R gene by FISH to the canine chromosome 1 (CFA1q1.1) and to the red fox chromosome 5 (VVU5p1.2).

  5. Metabolic inflexibility impairs insulin secretion and results in MODY-like diabetes in triple FoxO-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Zhao, Shangang; Srivastava, Shekhar; Mugabo, Yves; Noh, Hye-Lim; Kim, YoungJung R; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Ferrante, Anthony W; Skolnik, Edward Y; Prentki, Marc; Accili, Domenico

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic β cell failure in type 2 diabetes is associated with functional abnormalities of insulin secretion and deficits of β cell mass. It's unclear how one begets the other. We have shown that loss of β cell mass can be ascribed to impaired FoxO1 function in different models of diabetes. Here we show that ablation of the three FoxO genes (1, 3a, and 4) in mature β cells results in early-onset, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)-like diabetes, with abnormalities of the MODY networks Hnf4α, Hnf1α, and Pdx1. FoxO-deficient β cells are metabolically inflexible, i.e., they preferentially utilize lipids rather than carbohydrates as an energy source. This results in impaired ATP generation and reduced Ca(2+)-dependent insulin secretion. The present findings demonstrate a secretory defect caused by impaired FoxO activity that antedates dedifferentiation. We propose that defects in both pancreatic β cell function and mass arise through FoxO-dependent mechanisms during diabetes progression. PMID:25264246

  6. CL-20、DNTF和FOX-12在CMDB推进剂中的应用%Application of CL-20, FOX-12 and DNTF in CMDB Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞军; 王江宁; 张蕊娥; 谢波

    2005-01-01

    首次在螺压CMDB推进剂中对CL-20、DNTF、FOX-12 3种高能量密度材料进行了应用研究,发现这3种材料能在螺压工艺中安全地制成样品.当添加量为50%时,4~22 MPa压力指数小于0.3~0.6;添加50%CL-20或DNTF时,改性双基推进剂的能量(爆热)高于添加50%HMX的改性双基推进剂.添加3种新材料后,改性双基推进剂的安定性与同类推进剂相当.

  7. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  8. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2012-01-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  9. FoxM1, a forkhead transcription factor is a master cell cycle regulator for mouse mature T cells but not double positive thymocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xue

    Full Text Available FoxM1 is a forkhead box transcription factor and a known master regulator required for different phases of the cell cycle. In cell lines, FoxM1 deficient cells exhibit delayed S phase entry, aneuploidy, polyploidy and can't complete mitosis. In vivo, FoxM1 is expressed mostly in proliferating cells but is surprisingly also found in non-proliferating CD4(+CD8(+ double positive thymocytes. Here, we addressed the role of FoxM1 in T cell development by generating and analyzing two different lines of T-cell specific FoxM1 deficient mice. As expected, FoxM1 is required for proliferation of early thymocytes and activated mature T cells. Defective expression of many cell cycle proteins was detected, including cyclin A, cyclin B1, cdc2, cdk2, p27 and the Rb family members p107 and p130 but surprisingly not survivin. Unexpectedly, loss of FoxM1 only affects a few cell cycle proteins in CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes and has little effect on their sensitivity to apoptosis and the subsequent steps of T cell differentiation. Thus, regulation of cell cycle genes by FoxM1 is stage- and context-dependent.

  10. Differential effects of decoy receptor- and antibody-mediated tumour necrosis factor blockage on FoxP3 expression in responsive arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L Rebekka; Ryder, Lars P; Bartels, Else M;

    2013-01-01

    investigated in a 12-week prospective cohort study. FoxP3 isoforms, CD25 and CTLA-4 mRNA in blood CD4+ T cells were measured with quantitative real-time PCR. Patients benefitting from the treatment, based on changes in DAS28 scores, revealed a significant decrease in expression of full-length FoxP3 following...

  11. Serial Communication between PC and HP34970A Based on Visual FoxPro6.0%Visual FoxPro6.0下PC机与HP34970A的串行通信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树宇; 陈芳

    2003-01-01

    简单介绍了Visual FoxPro6.0中Microsoft Communications control控件的使用方法,叙述了数据采集/开关单元HP34970A的远程通信命令,给出了在Visual FoxPro6.0环境下Pc机与HP34970A的通信程序设计方法,该方法在测试系统中得到了应用.

  12. No evidence of Dirofilaria repens infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Pfeffer, Martin; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0%) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0%), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg.

  13. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical...... and 8 CON foxes were given restricted food rations for 6 months resulting in a body weight reduction (mean body mass=5.46 kg). The results showed that only BMD(skull) vs. BMD(vertebrae) were significantly correlated (R=0.68; p=0.03; n=10) probably due to a similar composition of trabecular and cortical......), energy absorption (J) and time (s) biomechanical properties than fat winter foxes (all p

  14. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  15. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. PMID:26762405

  16. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Róbert; Solymosi, Norbert; Takács, Nóra; Hornyák, Ákos; Hornok, Sándor; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of th...

  17. Predation on bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis by Cape hunting dogs Lycaon pictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.A. Rasmussen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The predatory habits of the Cape hunting dog Lycaon pictus have been well documented, and have been found to include almost exclusively mammalian herbivores (Childes 1988. The prey species chosen varies from area to area according to availability, with wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and Thompson's gazelle, Gazella thomsonii being recorded as preferred prey in East Africa (Malcolm & Van Lawick 1975, whereas impala Aepyceros melampus, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros and duiker Sylvicapra grimmia are predominantly selected in southern Africa (Fuller & Kat 1990. This paper documents a case of a pack of Cape hunting dogs preying specifically on bat-eared foxes.

  18. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Köller J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced meat were digested and released larvae were inoculated in mice to evaluate the Reproductive Capacity Index (RCI. The RCI decreased with the length of storage, but the larvae from older infections appeared better adapted to tolerate the degradation processes. The African species T. nelsoni had a relative higher tolerance to elevated temperature during storage and the unencysted species T. pseudospiralis was the most vulnerable genotype.

  19. La violencia y los movimientos sociales en el gobierno de Vicente Fox, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Velázquez García

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el movimiento social contra la construcción del aeropuerto en San Salvador Atenco entre 2001 y 2002. Este movimiento es la primera movilización social que enfrenta el presidente Vicente Fox. Se examinan los recursos utilizados en sus acciones, lo que incluye la utilización de la violencia y las consecuencias que tuvo para la imagen presidencial; se emplea la teoría de movilización de recursos para observar las formas de manifestación utilizadas frente al Estado.

  20. The Terry Fox Research Institute’s West Coast Dialogue: are we prepared for personalized medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Curwin, K.; Smith, C.; Sutcliffe, S

    2010-01-01

    This meeting report is the second in a series by the Terry Fox Research Institute about its Pan-Canadian Dialogue Series on Cancer: Let’s Get Personal, a public research and outreach project. The inaugural dialogue was held in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, in April 2010 on the thirtieth anniversary of the Marathon of Hope. That dialogue launched a continuing conversation that the Institute is having with the Canadian public during 2010. This report summarizes the dialogue held at Sim...

  1. FoxP3, GATA-3 and T-bet expression in elderly asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Vale-Pereira, Sofia; Todo-Bom, Ana; Geraldes, Luisa; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Akdis, Cesmi; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder in which Th2, Th1 and suppressive T cells (Tregs) play a role. The transcription factor FoxP3 plays a role in Treg differentiation while T-bet is important for Th1 and GATA-3 for Th2 differentiation from naïve T cells. Recent data show that age-related deregulation of Treg cells is a mechanism of senescence affecting several chronic diseases. It is crucial to understand the behaviour of these cell populations in asthma for elderly patients...

  2. The role of the Fox-Wright functions in fractional sub-diffusion of distributed order

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental solution of the fractional diffusion equation of distributed order in time (usually adopted for modelling sub-diffusion processes) is obtained based on its Mellin-Barnes integral representation. Such solution is proved to be related via a Laplace-type integral to the Fox-Wright functions. A series expansion is also provided in order to point out the distribution of time-scales related to the distribution of the fractional orders. The results of the time fractional diffusion equation of a single order are also recalled and then re-obtained from the general theory.

  3. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle;

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...... and applied criteria. The TT-TG offset distance has potential as an objective assessment of alignment of the distal portion of the quadriceps mechanism; its use as an aid in case selection for corrective femoral osteotomy among dogs with medial patellar luxation warrants investigation....

  4. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F Müller; Schröder, Ronald; Wysocki, Patrick; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Freuling, Conrad M.

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978–2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 ora...

  5. Persistence of genetic variants of the arctic fox strain of Rabies virus in southern Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Muldoon, Frances; Wandeler, Alexander I.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic-variant analysis of rabies viruses provides the most sensitive epidemiologic tool for following the spread and persistence of these viruses in their wildlife hosts. Since its introduction by a southern epizootic movement that began in the far north, the arctic fox (AFX) strain of Rabies virus has been enzootic in Ontario for almost 50 y. Prior genetic studies identified 4 principal genetic variants (ONT.T1 to ONT.T4) that were localized to different regions of the province; furthermor...

  6. The hormonal and behavioral response to the presence and activities of humans in three co-roosting flying fox species (Acerodon jubatus, Pteropus vampyrus and P. hypomelanus) in Boracay and Mambukal in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, Pascal J.H. van der; Lorica, Renee P.; Komdeur, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Many species of large flying foxes are endangered, mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. Although hunting and logging are prohibited in many areas in the Old World Tropics, numbers of flying foxes are still decreasing. The best compromise for the welfare of both local residents and flying foxes in

  7. A C2H2 zinc finger protein FEMU2 is required for fox1 expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Deng

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fox1 gene encodes a ferroxidase that is involved in cellular Fe uptake and highly induced during Fe deficient conditions. In an effort to identify fox1 promoter regulatory elements, an insertional library was generated in a transgenic Chlamydomonas strain (2A38 harboring an arylsulfatase (ARS reporter gene driven by the fox1 promoter. Mutants with a defective response to low iron conditions were selected for further study. Among these, a strain containing a disrupted femu2 gene was identified. Activation of the fox1 promoter by the femu2 gene product was confirmed by silencing the femu2 gene using RNA interference. In three femu2 RNAi transgenic lines (IR3, IR6, and IR7, ARS reporter gene activities declined by 84.3%, 86.4%, and 88.8%, respectively under Fe deficient conditions. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis of both the femu2 mutant and the RNAi transgenic lines showed significantly decreased transcript abundance of the endogenous fox1 gene under Fe deficient conditions. Amino acid sequence analysis of the femu2 gene product identified three potential C2H2 zinc finger (ZF motifs and a nuclear localization study suggests that FEMU2 is localized to the nucleus. In addition, a potential FEMU2 binding site ((G/TTTGG(G/T(G/TT was identified using PCR-mediated random binding site selection. Taken together, this evidence suggests that FEMU2 is involved in up-regulation of the fox1 gene in Fe deficient cells.

  8. Antibodies to West Nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Vicente, Joaquín; Sobrino, Raquel; Perez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-10-12

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central Spain and wild boar from Doñana National Park (DNP), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by ELISA and for antibodies against WNV by VNT. Mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to ELISA was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of 177) in Iberian pigs. A stone marten (Martes foina) also tested positive. Flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar was significantly higher in DNP, and increased with age. Haemolysis of the serum samples limited interpretation of VNT to 28 samples, confirming WNV seroprevalence in one red fox, four Iberian pigs and nine wild boars. ELISA positive, microVNT negative samples suggest presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against WNV or antibodies to other antigenically related flaviviruses. Despite the importance of wetlands for flavivirus maintenance and amplification, WNV/flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar and red foxes was not associated to wetland habitats. This is the first report of exposure of red foxes to WNV. With view to use of the tested species as sentinels for flavivirus activity, limited exposure of Iberian pigs that would be available for regular sampling, low numbers of foxes collected and concentration of wild boar harvest in the winter season are major drawbacks.

  9. Quinoline-based clioquinol and nitroxoline exhibit anticancer activity inducing FoxM1 inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-on W

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Waraporn Chan-on,1 Nguyen Thi Bich Huyen,2 Napat Songtawee,3 Wilasinee Suwanjang,1 Supaluk Prachayasittikul,3 Virapong Prachayasittikul2 1Center for Research and Innovation, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, 3Center of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Fork head box M1 (FoxM1 is an oncogenic transcription factor frequently elevated in numerous cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. A growing body of evidence documents its diverse functions contributing to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As such, discovery of agents that can target FoxM1 would be valuable for the treatment of CCA. The quinoline-based compounds, namely clioquinol (CQ and nitroxoline (NQ, represent a new class of anticancer drug. However, their efficacy and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in CCA. In this study, anticancer activities and inhibitory effects of CQ and NQ on FoxM1 signaling were explored using CCA cells.Methods: The effects of CQ and NQ on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay. Colony formation and cell migration affected by CQ and NQ were investigated using a clonogenic and a wound healing assay, respectively. To demonstrate the agents’ effects on FoxM1 signaling, expression levels of the target genes were quantitatively determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: CQ and NQ significantly inhibited cell survival of HuCCT1 and Huh28 in a dose- and a time-dependent fashion. Further investigations using the rapidly proliferating HuCCT1 cells revealed significant suppression of cell proliferation and colony formation induced by low doses of the compounds. Treatment of CQ and NQ repressed expression of cyclin D1 but enhanced expression of p21. Most importantly, upon CQ and NQ treatment

  10. Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-03-01

    Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

  11. TNF-α Inhibits FoxO1 by Upregulating miR-705 to Aggravate Oxidative Damage in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li; Su, Xiaoxia; Yang, Xiaohong; Hu, Chenghu; Li, Bei; Lv, Yajie; Shuai, Yi; Jing, Huan; Deng, Zhihong; Jin, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Decline of antioxidant defense after estrogen deficiency leads to oxidative damage in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), resulting a defect of bone formation in osteoporosis. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) protein is crucial for defending physiological oxidative damage in bone. But whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative damage during osteoporosis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that FoxO1 protein accumulation was decreased in BMMSCs of ovariectomized mice. The decrease of FoxO1 resulted in the suppression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) and catalase (Cat) expression and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting the osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs. The decline of FoxO1 protein was caused by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) accumulated after estrogen deficiency. Mechanistically, TNF-α activated NF-κB pathway to promote microRNA-705 expression, which function as a repressor of FoxO1 through post-transcriptional regulation. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway or knockdown of miR-705 largely prevented the decline of FoxO1-mediated antioxidant defense caused by TNF-α and ameliorated the oxidative damage in osteoporotic BMMSCs. Moreover, the accumulated ROS further activated NF-κB pathway with TNF-α, which formed a feed-forward loop to persistently inhibiting FoxO1 protein accumulation in BMMSCs. In conclusion, our study revealed that the decline of FoxO1 is an important etiology factor of osteoporosis and unclosed a novel mechanism of FoxO1 regulation by TNF-α. These findings suggested a close correlation between inflammation and oxidative stress in stem cell dysfunction during degenerative bone diseases. Stem Cells 2016;34:1054-1067. PMID:26700816

  12. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  13. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  14. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  15. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  16. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  17. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  18. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  19. La crisis nuclear de Corea del Norte: Sky News o Fox News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos, desde la teoría del framing, la información ofre - cida por los dos canales de noticias 24 horas del grupo News Corporation, Sky News y Fox News, con relación a la crisis nuclear de Corea del Norte en el periodo 9 -23 de abril de 2013. Nos centramos en aspectos como la “foxificación”, la presencia de expertos militares en los bloques de noti - cias y los encuadres informativos. En el caso de Sky News, la información se ofrece desde el prisma de los sucesos a nivel nacional debido al tiempo dedicado a la polémica con el documental del programa “Panorama” de la BBC. El tratamiento de la crisis nuclear en Fox News se traduce en constantes críticas a las políticas militares llevadas a cabo por Corea, la exalta - ción patriótica de los Estados Unidos poniendo el acento sobre el sistema defensivo y todo ello rodeado de una crítica feroz a la Administración Oba - ma por no promover una intervención militar en el conflicto.

  20. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Maher

    Full Text Available New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP. These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  1. Three flying fox (Pteropodidae: Pteropus rufus roosts, three conservation challenges in southeastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K.B. Jenkins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We visited three roosts of the Madagascar flying fox Pteropusrufus in December 2005 in the Anosy Region. Colony size was 900at Berenty Private Reserve, 412 at Amborabao and 54 at SainteLuce, based on single counts at each site. Hunting at the roost isprohibited at Berenty but P. rufus is trapped at night in the areasurrounding the reserve, where it feeds on sisal. At Amborabao,the bats roost in a sacred forest and hunting is forbidden. AtSainte Luce, the forest is highly degraded and the bats are huntedfrequently, despite efforts to engage the local community in forestconservation. Questionnaires with people living near theroosts revealed the flying foxes were regarded as pests of litchisin Amborabao and Sainte Luce. Berenty is the only site wheretourists are able to observe roosting P. rufus. The role of sacredforests and local taboos (fady is very relevant for P. rufus conservation and might be the only practical mechanism in sites wherelegislation on hunting and land use is not being enforced.

  2. El peso del pasado en “Caminar sobre las aguas” (2004 de Eytan Fox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Barrenetxea Marañón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad del cine de síntesis y simbolismo permite indagar en la naturaleza de las sociedades, en su concepción del pasado y sus realidades inmediatas desde puntos de vista sutilmente originales, diferentes o alternativos a como los plantea y estudia la ciencia histórica. Y condensarlos, así mismo, en un lenguaje universal, capaz de ser entendido por propios y extraños, y alcanzar a todos los rincones del planeta. Este artículo se centra en analizar tales claves en el filme Caminar sobre las aguas, del director israelí Eytan Fox. Fox explora de una manera incisiva sobre los fantasmas de la memoria, tanto en la sociedad israelí (en relación a la violencia palestina como en la alemana (el Holocausto, y su relación entre ellas.Palabras clave: los derechos fundamentales, los derechos sociales, el derecho a la alimentación; las políticas públicas.___________________

  3. Laser removal of mold and foxing stains from paper artifacts: preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofini, D.; Osticioli, I.; Micheli, S.; Montalbano, L.; Siano, S.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we focused on the laser removal of fungi growths and foxing stains from old paper artifacts. Irradiation tests have been carried out using Nd:YAG laser's second harmonic and characterized through morphological analysis by means of optical microscopy and UV-VIS fluorescence, along with SEM-EDX microscopy. In addition, FTIR spectroscopy and VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy have provided, respectively, very useful information on chemical processes of the paper ageing and on the laser removal effectiveness. High selectivity and removal gradualness were observed in the treatment of metal-induced foxing (Fe and Pb), likely arising from the contact with metal objects. Moreover, similarly satisfactory results have been achieved for the removal of fungal colonies without inducing detectable structural damage to the cellulose fibers. The best operating conditions determined have been finally used in order to approach a practical conservation problem of an original engraving by G. B. Piranesi entitled Veduta del Ponte e Castello Sant'Angelo (18th century).

  4. Charge-density studies of energetic materials: CL-20 and FOX-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meents, A; Dittrich, B; Johnas, S K J; Thome, V; Weckert, E F

    2008-02-01

    Experimental electron densities and derived properties have been determined for the two energetic materials CL-20 (3,5,9,11-tetraacetyl-14-oxo-1,3,5,7,9,11-hexaazapentacyclo-[5.5.3.02,6.04,10.08,12]pentadecane), and FOX-7 (1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene) from single-crystal diffraction. Synchrotron data extending to high scattering angles were measured at low temperature. Low figures-of-merit and excellent residuals were obtained. The Hansen & Coppens multipole-model electron density was compared with results from theoretical calculations via structure factors simulating an experiment. Chemical bonding in the molecules is discussed and a topological analysis gives insight especially into the character of those bonds that are thought to play a key role in the decomposition of the molecules. A comparison of theoretical and experimental electrostatic potentials shows no obvious evidence supporting earlier findings on other nitroheterocyclic molecules that electron-density maxima near the C-NO(2) bonds mapped on the electron-density isosurface can be correlated with impact sensitivities. For FOX-7 periodic Hartree-Fock calculations were performed to investigate the influence of the crystal field on the electron density distribution. PMID:18204210

  5. Inaccessibility of reinforcement increases persistence and signaling behavior in the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Mikel M; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2016-05-01

    Under natural conditions, wild animals encounter situations where previously rewarded actions do not lead to reinforcement. In the laboratory, a surprising omission of reinforcement induces behavioral and emotional responses described as frustration. Frustration can lead to aggressive behaviors and to the persistence of noneffective responses, but it may also lead to new behavioral responses to a problem, a potential adaptation. We assessed the responses to inaccessible reinforcement in free-ranging fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We trained squirrels to open a box to obtain food reinforcement, a piece of walnut. After 9 training trials, squirrels were tested in 1 of 4 conditions: a control condition with the expected reward, an alternative reinforcement (a piece of dried corn), an empty box, or a locked box. We measured the presence of signals suggesting arousal (e.g., tail flags and tail twitches) and found that squirrels performed fewer of these behaviors in the control condition and increased certain behaviors (tail flags, biting box) in the locked box condition, compared to other experimental conditions. When faced with nonreinforcement, that is, frustration, squirrels increased the number of interactions with the apparatus and spent more time interacting with the apparatus. This study of frustration responses in a free-ranging animal extends the conclusions of captive studies to the field and demonstrates that fox squirrels show short-term negatively valenced responses to the inaccessibility, omission, and change of reinforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078081

  6. Relation between Intensity of Biocide Practice and Residues of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduhn, Anke; Jacob, Jens; Schenke, Detlef; Keller, Barbara; Kleinschmidt, Sven; Esther, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are commonly used to control rodent infestations for biocidal and plant protection purposes. This can lead to AR exposure of non-target small mammals and their predators, which is known from several regions of the world. However, drivers of exposure variation are usually not known. To identify environmental drivers of AR exposure in non-targets we analyzed 331 liver samples of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for residues of eight ARs and used local parameters (percentage of urban area and livestock density) to test for associations to residue occurrence. 59.8% of samples collected across Germany contained at least one rodenticide, in 20.2% of cases at levels at which biological effects are suspected. Second generation anticoagulants (mainly brodifacoum and bromadiolone) occurred more often than first generation anticoagulants. Local livestock density and the percentage of urban area were good indicators for AR residue occurrence. There was a positive association between pooled ARs and brodifacoum occurrence with livestock density as well as of pooled ARs, brodifacoum and difenacoum occurrence with the percentage of urban area on administrative district level. Pig holding drove associations of livestock density to AR residue occurrence in foxes. Therefore, risk mitigation strategies should focus on areas of high pig density and on highly urbanized areas to minimize non-target risk. PMID:26418154

  7. Relation between Intensity of Biocide Practice and Residues of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Geduhn

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs are commonly used to control rodent infestations for biocidal and plant protection purposes. This can lead to AR exposure of non-target small mammals and their predators, which is known from several regions of the world. However, drivers of exposure variation are usually not known. To identify environmental drivers of AR exposure in non-targets we analyzed 331 liver samples of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes for residues of eight ARs and used local parameters (percentage of urban area and livestock density to test for associations to residue occurrence. 59.8% of samples collected across Germany contained at least one rodenticide, in 20.2% of cases at levels at which biological effects are suspected. Second generation anticoagulants (mainly brodifacoum and bromadiolone occurred more often than first generation anticoagulants. Local livestock density and the percentage of urban area were good indicators for AR residue occurrence. There was a positive association between pooled ARs and brodifacoum occurrence with livestock density as well as of pooled ARs, brodifacoum and difenacoum occurrence with the percentage of urban area on administrative district level. Pig holding drove associations of livestock density to AR residue occurrence in foxes. Therefore, risk mitigation strategies should focus on areas of high pig density and on highly urbanized areas to minimize non-target risk.

  8. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections. PMID:27078664

  9. Epidemiological study on the Trichinellosis of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in Tuscany (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the years 2004-2005, 112 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 4 badgers (Meles meles were caught in different areas of Tuscany (Central Italy and examined for Trichinella infection, using the diagnostic technique of artificial digestion through Stomacher. No animal was positive for Trichinella larvae. According to our results, Tuscany can be considered a low-risk area for trichinellosis in the fox. In this region the presence of the parasite cannot be ruled out, two cases of infection being reported in 1993. Riassunto Epidemiologia della trichinellosi della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Toscana (Italia centrale. Nel corso degli anni 2004-2005, 112 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 4 tassi (Meles meles sono stati catturati ed esaminati per la presenza di infestione da Trichinella in differenti aree della Toscana (Italia centrale. L'indagine di laboratorio è stata condotta mediante digestione artificiale tramite Stomacher. Nessun animale è risultato positivo. Da questi risultati si può ritenere la Toscana una regione a basso rischio di infezione. La presenza del parassita non può però essere esclusa totalmente. Infatti, nel 1993 sono stati riportati due casi di infestione.

  10. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Müller

    Full Text Available In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978-2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution.

  11. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas F; Schröder, Ronald; Wysocki, Patrick; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Freuling, Conrad M

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978-2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution. PMID:26280895

  12. Kind granddaughters of angry grandmothers: the effect of domestication on vocalization in cross-bred silver foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Volodin, Ilya A; Volodina, Elena V; Kharlamova, Anastasia V; Trut, Lyudmila N

    2009-07-01

    The genetic basis of the effects of domestication has previously been examined in relation to morphological, physiological and behavioural traits, but not for vocalizations. According to Belyaev [Belyaev, D.K., 1979. Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication. J. Hered. 70, 301-308], directional selection for tame behaviour toward humans resulted in domestication. This hypothesis has been confirmed experimentally on the farm-bred silver fox Vulpes vulpes population that has undergone 45 years of artificial selection for tameness and 35 years of selection for aggressiveness. These foxes, with their precisely known attitudes toward people, provide a means of examining vocal indicators of tameness and aggressiveness to establish the genetic basis for vocal production in canids. We examined vocalizations toward people in foxes selected for tameness and aggressiveness compared to those of three kinds of crosses: Hybrids (Tame x Aggressive), A-Backcrosses (Aggressive x Hybrid) and T-Backcrosses (Tame x Hybrid). We report the effects of selection for tameness on usage and structure of different vocalizations and suggest that vocal indicators for tameness and aggressiveness toward people are discrete phenotypic traits in silver foxes.

  13. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in wild rodents, foxes and domestic cats in three sites in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, A L; Cleaveland, S C; Brown, J; Mahajan, A; Shaw, D J

    2015-04-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian that is the causal agent of encephalitozoonosis, an important and emerging disease in both humans and animals. Little is known about its occurrence in wildlife. In this study, serum samples from 793 wild rodents [178 bank voles (BV), 312 field voles (FV) and 303 wood mice (WM)], 96 foxes and 27 domestic cats from three study areas in the UK were tested for the presence of antibodies to E. cuniculi using a direct agglutination test (DAT). Seroprevalence in the wild rodents ranged from 1.00% to 10.67% depending on species (overall 5.31%) and was significantly higher in foxes [49.50% (50/96)]. None of the 27 cats sampled were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of seroprevalence to E. cuniculi in BV, FV, WM, foxes and cats in the UK and provides some evidence that foxes could act as sentinels for the presence of E. cuniculi in rodents. The study demonstrates that wildlife species could be significant reservoirs of infection for both domestic animals and humans. PMID:23607769

  14. Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as Sentinels of Parasitic Diseases in the Province of Soria, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente; Serrano, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Four hundred red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (Leishmania spp., Trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). Different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. The most prevalent flea was Pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were Ixodes canisuga (on 5%), Sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and Hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. The endoparasites identified included Leishmania spp. (found in 12% of the foxes), Trichinella spp. (in 15.5%, with T. britovi the most prevalent species in 15.25%), Cestoda (in 72.75%, with Mesocestoides spp. the most prevalent in 69.50%), and intestinal ascarids (in 73.25%, with Ancylostoma caninum the most prevalent in 12.50%). No animal was free of parasites. The present results suggest that foxes can act as sentinels of diseases transmitted by ecto- and endoparasites. PMID:26565688

  15. Incomplete and inaccurate vocal imitation after knockdown of FoxP2 in songbird basal ganglia nucleus Area X.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haesler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD, a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum of the basal ganglia, which also express high levels of FOXP2. Since human speech and learned vocalizations in songbirds bear behavioral and neural parallels, songbirds provide a genuine model for investigating the basic principles of speech and its pathologies. In zebra finch Area X, a basal ganglia structure necessary for song learning, FoxP2 expression increases during the time when song learning occurs. Here, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi to reduce FoxP2 levels in Area X during song development. Knockdown of FoxP2 resulted in an incomplete and inaccurate imitation of tutor song. Inaccurate vocal imitation was already evident early during song ontogeny and persisted into adulthood. The acoustic structure and the duration of adult song syllables were abnormally variable, similar to word production in children with DVD. Our findings provide the first example of a functional gene analysis in songbirds and suggest that normal auditory-guided vocal motor learning requires FoxP2.

  16. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in wild rodents, foxes and domestic cats in three sites in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, A L; Cleaveland, S C; Brown, J; Mahajan, A; Shaw, D J

    2015-04-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian that is the causal agent of encephalitozoonosis, an important and emerging disease in both humans and animals. Little is known about its occurrence in wildlife. In this study, serum samples from 793 wild rodents [178 bank voles (BV), 312 field voles (FV) and 303 wood mice (WM)], 96 foxes and 27 domestic cats from three study areas in the UK were tested for the presence of antibodies to E. cuniculi using a direct agglutination test (DAT). Seroprevalence in the wild rodents ranged from 1.00% to 10.67% depending on species (overall 5.31%) and was significantly higher in foxes [49.50% (50/96)]. None of the 27 cats sampled were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of seroprevalence to E. cuniculi in BV, FV, WM, foxes and cats in the UK and provides some evidence that foxes could act as sentinels for the presence of E. cuniculi in rodents. The study demonstrates that wildlife species could be significant reservoirs of infection for both domestic animals and humans.

  17. Acetylation of FoxO1 Activates Bim Expression to Induce Apoptosis in Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Depsipeptide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor induced apoptosis are incompletely understood. In this study, depsipeptide, a novel HDAC inhibitor, was shown to be able to induce significant apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer cells. Further study showed that Bim, a BH3-only proapoptotic protein, was significantly upregulated by depsipeptide in cancer cells, and Bim's function in depsipeptide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by knockdown of Bim with RNAi. In addition, we found that depsipeptide-induced expression of Bim was directly dependent on acetylation of forkhead box class O1 (FoxO1 that is catalyzed by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein, and indirectly induced by a decreased four-and-a-half LIM-domain protein 2. Moreover, our results demonstrated that FoxO1 acetylation is required for the depsipeptide-induced activation of Bim and apoptosis, using transfection with a plasmid containing FoxO1 mutated at lysine sites and a luciferase reporter assay. These data show for the first time that an HDAC inhibitor induces apoptosis through the FoxO1 acetylation-Bim pathway.

  18. FoxO3a transcriptional regulation of bim controls apoptosis in paclitaxel-treated breast cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunters, A; de Mattos, SF; Stahl, M; Brosens, JJ; Zoumpoulidou, G; Saunders, CA; Coffer, PJ; Medema, RH; Coombes, RC; Lam, EWF

    2003-01-01

    Paclitaxel is used to treat breast cancers, but the mechanisms by which it induces apoptosis are poorly understood. Consequently, we have studied the role of the FoxO transcription factors in determining cellular response to paclitaxel. Western blotting revealed that in a panel of nine breast cancer

  19. FoxO3a transcriptional regulation of Bim controls apoptosis in paclitaxel-treated breast cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunters, A.; Fernandez de Mattos, S.; Stahl, M.; Brosens, J.J.; Zoumpoulidou, G.; Saunders, C.A.; Coffer, P.J.; Medema, R.H.; Coombes, R.C.; Lam, E.W.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Paclitaxel is used to treat breast cancers, but the mechanisms by which it induces apoptosis are poorly understood. Consequently, we have studied the role of the FoxO transcription factors in determining cellular response to paclitaxel. Western blotting revealed that in a panel of nine breast cancer

  20. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany.

  1. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  2. AmphiFoxE4, an amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene encoding a protein closely related to vertebrate thyroid transcription factor-2: expression during pharyngeal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Linda Z.; Jamrich, Milan; Blitz, Ira L.; Hollan, Nicholas D.

    2002-01-01

    The full-length sequence and developmental expression of amphioxus AmphiFoxE4 are described. Transcripts of the gene are first detected in the pharyngeal endoderm, where the club-shaped gland is forming and subsequently in the definitive gland itself. AmphiFoxE4 is closely related to vertebrate genes encoding the thyroid-specific transcription factor-2 (TTF2), which plays an early developmental role in the morphogenesis of the thyroid gland and a later role in hormone-mediated control of thyroid function. In amphioxus, AmphiFoxE4 expression is not thyroid specific because the club-shaped gland, the only structure expressing the gene, is not homologous to the vertebrate thyroid; instead, the thyroid homologue of amphioxus is a specialized region of the pharyngeal endoderm called the endostyle. We propose that (a) the pharynx of an amphioxus-like ancestor of the vertebrates included a club-shaped gland that expressed FoxE4 as well as an endostyle that did not, and (b) the club-shaped gland soon disappeared in the vertebrate line of descent but (c) not before there was a homeogenetic transfer of FoxE4 expression from the club-shaped gland to the nearby endostyle. Such a transfer could have provided part of the genetic program enabling the endostyle to separate from the pharyngeal endoderm and migrate away as the rudiment of the thyroid gland.

  3. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  4. FoxM1 Drives a Feed-forward STAT3-activation Signaling Loop that Promotes the Self-renewal and Tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ai-hua; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Sicong; Yao, Jun; Yuan, Ying; Zhou, Ai-dong; Lang, Frederick F.; Heimberger, Amy B.; Rao, Ganesh; Huang, Suyun

    2015-01-01

    The growth factor PDGF controls the development of glioblastoma (GBM) but its contribution to the function of GBM stem-like cells (GSC) has been little studied. Here we report that the transcription factor FoxM1 promotes PDGFA-STAT3 signaling to drive GSC self-renewal and tumorigenicity. In GBM we found a positive correlation between expression of FoxM1 and PDGF-A. In GSC and mouse neural stem cells, FoxM1 bound to the PDGF-A promoter to upregulate PDGF-A expression, acting to maintain the stem-like qualities of GSC in part through this mechanism. Analysis of the human cancer genomic database TCGA revealed that GBM express higher levels of STAT3, a PDGF-A effector signaling molecule, as compared with normal brain. FoxM1 regulated STAT3 transcription through interactions with the β-catenin/TCF4 complex. FoxM1 deficiency inhibited PDGF-A and STAT3 expression in neural stem cells and GSC, abolishing their stem-like and tumorigenic properties. Further mechanistic investigations defined a FoxM1-PDGFA-STAT3 feed-forward pathway that was sufficient to confer stem-like properties to glioma cells. Collectively, our findings showed how FoxM1 activates expression of PDGF-A and STAT3 in a pathway required to maintain the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of glioma stem-like cells. PMID:25832656

  5. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  6. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted.

  7. First Report on the Efficiency of Oral Vaccination of Foxes against Rabies in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupulovic, D; Maksimovic Zoric, J; Vaskovic, N; Bugarski, D; Plavsic, B; Ivanovic, N; Petrovic, T; Pusic, I; Marcic, D; Grgic, Z; Lazic, S

    2015-12-01

    Rabies is one of the oldest known zoonotic diseases that has significant impact on public health, but still remains neglected in Serbia. Rabies virus can infect humans and other mammals and causes inflammation of the brain associated with encephalomyelitis and neurological symptoms. In 2010, Veterinary Directorate (national Competent Authority for animal health in Serbia) has started multi-annual project of oral rabies vaccination of foxes and other wild carnivores (e.g. jackals), as support of long-term programme of eradication of rabies in Serbia, co-funded by EU (financed by Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance). Monitoring of the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns has been carried out in continuation from 2011 and was based on: (i) post-mortem laboratory examination of brain tissue of target animals (foxes, jackals and other carnivores) by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), (ii) detection of antibodies against rabies virus in serum samples by ELISA and (iii) detection of tetracycline biomarker in the mandibles for the evaluation of vaccine bait uptake. From September 2011 to May 2014, the total number of 4943 brain tissue samples, 4241 sera and 4971 mandibles were analysed. Confirmed rabies-positive brains decreased from 10 in 2011/2012 to 6 in 2012/2013 and eventually to 1 positive case in 2013/2014. The seroconversion rate increased from 10.48% (133/1269) in 2011/2012 to 20.11% (362/1800) in 2012/2013 and 42.23% (495/1172) in 2013/2014. Along with the seroconversion, the number of detected tetracycline-positive mandibles demonstrated an increasing tendency in the same period, being 49.67% (682/1373) in 2011/2012, 62.60% (1294/2067) in 2012/2013 and 90.33% (1383/1531) in the monitoring programme carried out in 2013/2014. Presented results confirmed that ORV of foxes and other wildlife in Serbia against rabies was successful and characterized by steady increase of vaccine baits uptake and immunization of animals. PMID:25903646

  8. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  9. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  10. Arterialization and anomalous vein wall remodeling in varicose veins is associated with upregulated FoxC2-Dll4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sumi; S Ramegowda, Kalpana; Suresh, Aarcha; Binil Raj, S S; Lakkappa, Ravi Kumar B; Kamalapurkar, Giridhar; Radhakrishnan, N; C Kartha, Chandrasekharan

    2016-04-01

    Varicose veins of lower extremities are a heritable common disorder. Mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still vague. Structural failures such as valve weakness and wall dilatation in saphenous vein result in venous retrograde flow in lower extremities of body. Reflux of blood leads to distal high venous pressure resulting in distended veins. In an earlier study, we observed a positive association between c.-512C>T FoxC2 gene polymorphism and upregulated FoxC2 expression in varicose vein specimens. FoxC2 overexpression in vitro in venous endothelial cells resulted in the elevated mRNA expression of arterial endothelial markers such as Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 2 (Hey2). We hypothesized that an altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling underlies saphenous vein wall remodeling in patients with varicose veins. Saphenous veins specimens were collected from 22 patients with varicose veins and 20 control subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections were immunostained for Dll4, Hey2, EphrinB2, α-SMA, Vimentin, and CD31 antigens and examined under microscope. These observations were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. An examination of varicose vein tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry indicated an elevated expression of Notch pathway components, such as Dll4, Hey2, and EphrinB2, and smooth muscle markers, which was further confirmed by gene and protein expression analyses. We conclude that the molecular alterations in Dll4-Hey2 signaling are associated with smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in varicose veins. Our observations substantiate a significant role for altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling in structural alterations of saphenous veins in patients with varicose veins.

  11. Trim32 reduces PI3K–Akt–FoxO signaling in muscle atrophy by promoting plakoglobin–PI3K dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Shenhav; Lee, Donghoon; Zhai, Bo; Gygi, Steven P.; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the PI3K–Akt–FoxO pathway induces cell growth, whereas its inhibition reduces cell survival and, in muscle, causes atrophy. Here, we report a novel mechanism that suppresses PI3K–Akt–FoxO signaling. Although skeletal muscle lacks desmosomes, it contains multiple desmosomal components, including plakoglobin. In normal muscle plakoglobin binds the insulin receptor and PI3K subunit p85 and promotes PI3K–Akt–FoxO signaling. During atrophy, however, its interaction with PI3K–p85 is r...

  12. Increased proportion of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with tumor recurrence and reduced survival in patients with glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sayour, Elias J.; McLendon, Pat; Mclendon, Roger; Leon, Gabriel; Reynolds, Renee; Kresak, Jesse; Sampson, John H; Mitchell, Duane A

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with profound host immunosuppression mediated in part by FoxP3 expressing regulatory CD4+ T lymphocytes (Tregs) that down-regulate anti-tumor immunity. In order to assess whether FoxP3 was an independent driver differentially expressed in primary versus recurrent GBMs, we stained resected primary and recurrent GBM tumors for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FoxP3 expression using standard immunohistochemistry. Slides were scanned with a hi...

  13. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1 Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively. Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC or low (LC concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation relative to expected calving date (d-42 to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1 and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1 were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation.

  14. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, Titus Franciscus; Frith, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox admissions was 59.3%. This study highlights the effects of urbanisation on wild animal populations and a need for continued public education in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of wildlife, especially threatened species. PMID:26207984

  15. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  16. Deletion of Hepatic FoxO1/3/4 Genes in Mice Significantly Impacts on Glucose Metabolism through Downregulation of Gluconeogenesis and Upregulation of Glycolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiwen Xiong; Rongya Tao; DePinho, Ronald A.; X Charlie Dong

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO) and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fast...

  17. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  18. Clinical effects of topical pimecrolimus in a patient with Fox-Fordyce disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcic, Danijela; Nikolic, Milos

    2012-05-01

    Fox-Fordyce disease (FFD) is characterized by a pruritic eruption of skin-coloured or yellowish papules in areas rich in apocrine glands. The histology comprises dilatation of follicular infundibula with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and spongiosis of the infundibular epithelium with perifollicular infiltration of lymphocytes and foamy histiocytes. We treated a 12-year-old girl with FFD with topical pimecrolimus for 12 weeks, this resulted in a complete clearance of lesions. After the therapy, the patient was followed for an additional 19 months without signs of relapse. The effects of pimecrolimus in FFD might imply that an inflammatory process inducing secondary reactive hyperkeratosis could be involved in the pathogenesis of FFD. PMID:22571582

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the black flying fox, Pteropus alecto (Chiroptera: Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. The mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition was A (33.1%), G (14.5%), C (27.2%) and T (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of A and T (58.3%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of these genes were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic information to study the evolution of bats. PMID:24438271

  20. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  1. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  2. Mode B ultrasonography and abdominal Doppler in crab-eating-foxes ( Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna S.L. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Annually hundreds of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous are referred to rehabilitation centers and zoos in Brazil. The ultrasonographic study of wildlife species is an important tool for a non-invasive and accurate anatomical description and provides important information for wildlife veterinary care. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the main abdominal organs as well as the vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous using mode B ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. Ultrasonographic features of the main abdominal organs were described and slight differences were noticed between ultrasound imaging of abdominal organs of crab-eating foxes and other species. The bladder presented wall thickness of 12±0.01mm, with three defined layers. Both, the right and left kidneys presented corticomedullary ratio of 1:1 and similarly to the adrenals and the liver, they were homogeneous and hypoechoic compared to the spleen. The spleen was homogeneous and hyperechoic compared to the kidneys. The stomach presented 3 to 5 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 39±0.05mm and lumen and mucosa with hyperechoic and hypoechoic features, respectively. Small and large intestines presented 2 to 3 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 34±0.03mm and three defined layers with hyperechogenic (submucosa and serosa and hypoechogenic (muscular features. Ovaries of the female crab-eating fox were hypoechoic compared to the spleen and with heterogeneous parenchyma due to the presence of 2x2mm ovarian follicles. Prostates of the six males were regular and with a well defined boundary, with a homogeneous and hyperechoic parenchyma compared to the spleen. Vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta (PSV: 25.60±0.32cm/s; EDV: 6.96±1.68cm/s; PI: 1.15±0.07 e RI: 0.73±0.07 and right (PSV: 23.08±3.34cm/s; EDV: 9.33±2.36cm/s; PI: 1.01±0

  3. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amizura Hanadi Mohd Radzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid. Six participants were asked to write a 150-word entry response on the short story and a grading criteria was used to assess the participants’ level of comprehension. An in-depth interview was also conducted on each participant. The entry responses and the interview patterns were analyzed to determine whether content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text. This study discovered that content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text because the learners’ comprehension was facilitated by their background knowledge on the content-familiar texts. 

  4. Genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes at a continental scale in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Knapp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe helminth disease affecting humans, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE represents a serious public health issue in larger regions of China, Siberia, and other regions in Asia. In Europe, a significant increase in prevalence since the 1990s is not only affecting the historically documented endemic area north of the Alps but more recently also neighbouring regions previously not known to be endemic. The genetic diversity of the parasite population and respective distribution in Europe have now been investigated in view of generating a fine-tuned map of parasite variants occurring in Europe. This approach may serve as a model to study the parasite at a worldwide level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genetic diversity of E. multilocularis was assessed based upon the tandemly repeated microsatellite marker EmsB in association with matching fox host geographical positions. Our study demonstrated a higher genetic diversity in the endemic areas north of the Alps when compared to other areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Europe, based on 32 genetic clusters, suggests that Europe can be considered as a unique global focus of E. multilocularis, which can be schematically drawn as a central core located in Switzerland and Jura Swabe flanked by neighbouring regions where the parasite exhibits a lower genetic diversity. The transmission of the parasite into peripheral regions is governed by a "mainland-island" system. Moreover, the presence of similar genetic profiles in both zones indicated a founder event.

  5. A study on intestinal helminthes of dogs, foxes and jackals in the western part of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimi, A; Sattari, A; Motamedi, Gh

    2006-11-30

    Human infection especially with helminth parasites is an emerging health issue, as the human environment is increasingly shared with infected animals, either pets or wild life. In this survey, the intestinal content of 83 stray dogs, 22 red foxes and 10 golden Jackals collected from the West Azarbaijan, Kordestan and Kermanshah provinces in the west of Iran, were studied for the presence of helminth parasites. The percentage of different species recovered from these animals is listed as follows: From stray dogs: Toxocara canis (6.02%), Toxascaris leonina (32.53%), Ancylostoma caninum (3.61%), Oxynema sp. (1.35%), Rictularia affinis (12.05%), Taenia hydatigena (53.01%), Taenia ovis (7.23%), Taenia multiceps (4.82%), Echinococcus granulosus (13.25%), Dipylidium caninum (38.55%), Mesocestoides lineatus (26.50%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (4.82%). From red foxes: T. canis (4.54%), T. leonina (31.82%), A. caninum (4.54%), Uncinaria stenocephala (13.64%), Oxynema sp. (9.09%), R. affinis (54.54%), Strongyloides sp. (4.54%), Physaloptera sp. (4.54%), T. hydatigena (9.09%), E. granulosus (4.54%), D. caninum (9.09%), M. lineatus (81.82%), Joyeuxiella pasqalei (27.27%), Diplopylidium nolleri (4.54%), M. hirudinaceus (22.72%) and Macracanthorhynchus sp. (9.09%). From golden jackals: T. canis (10%), T. leonina (30%), R. affinis (50%), T. hydatigena (10%), D. caninum (20%), M. lineatus (70%), J. pasqalei (30%.), Alaria canis (10%), M. hirudinaceus (30%) and Macracanthomynchus sp. (10%). PMID:16899340

  6. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhosin, Mahmoud; Anselm, Eric; Rashid, Sherzad; Kim, Jong Hun; Madeira, Socorro Vanesca Frota; Bronner, Christian; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-01-01

    The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO). The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ), which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase), SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK), and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK). Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene. PMID:23533577

  7. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Alhosin

    Full Text Available The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ, which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  8. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Photo-Arrays of Delmarva Fox Squirrel (DFS) and Photomonitoring Summary for the Spring and Summer of 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of this photomonitoring effort was to determine the status of Prime Hook National Widlife Refuge (PHNWR) Delmarva Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger...

  9. Downregulation of FoxM1 inhibits proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of HeLa cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zou, Yang; Yang, Hong; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Hong

    2014-12-01

    FoxM1 is a specific transcription factor that has an important function in aggressive human carcinomas, including cervical cancer. However, the specific function and internal molecular mechanism in cervical cancer remain unclear. In this study, RNAi-mediated FoxM1 knockdown inhibited cell growth. This process also decreased the migration and invasion activities of HeLa cells in vitro. Downregulation of FoxM1 inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, the expressions of uPA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and VEGF were significantly decreased in vitro and in vivo. These results suggested that the inactivation of FoxM1 could be a novel therapeutic target for cervical cancer treatment.

  10. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  11. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  12. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  13. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness: Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  14. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  15. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  16. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  17. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  18. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  19. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Fox River National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay and Gravel Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Fox River NWR, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  20. WIND DIRECTION, pH and other data from FOX in the Caribbean Sea from 1974-08-30 to 1974-08-31 (NCEI Accession 7601844)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected in the Caribbean Sea from August 30-31, 1974. HMS FOX of the British navy was used to collect the data. Mr. Paul Ruiz, Tauton, Somerset,...

  1. Photomonitoring of Delmarva Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus, DFS) on the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of this photomonitoring was to determine the status of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Delmarva Fox Squirrel population. The Photomonitor...

  2. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410 had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436. The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral, identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous

  3. Homozygous FOXE3 mutations cause non-syndromic, bilateral, total sclerocornea, aphakia, microphthalmia and optic disc coloboma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; McKibbin, Martin; Rocha-Medina, J. Alberto; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Koga-Nakamura, Wilson; Ashiq, Aruna; Khan, Kamron; Booth, Adam P.; Williams, Grange; Raashid, Yasmin; Jafri, Hussain; Rice, Aine; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the genetic basis of recessively-inherited congenital, non syndromic, bilateral, total sclerocornea in two consanguineous pedigrees, one from the Punjab province of Pakistan and the other from the Tlaxcala province of Mexico. Methods Ophthalmic examinations were conducted on each family member to confirm their diagnosis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasonography of the eyes was performed on some family members. Genomic DNA was analyzed by homozygosity mapping using the Affymetrix 6.0 SNP array and linkage was confirmed with polymorphic microsatellite markers. Candidate genes were sequenced. Results A diagnosis of autosomal recessive sclerocornea was established for 7 members of the Pakistani and 8 members of the Mexican pedigrees. In the Pakistani family we established linkage to a region on chromosome 1p that contained Forkhead Box E3 (FOXE3), a strong candidate gene since FOXE3 mutations had previously been associated with various anterior segment abnormalities. Sequencing FOXE3 identified the previously reported nonsense mutation, c.720C>A, p.C240X, in the Pakistani pedigree and a novel missense mutation which disrupts an evolutionarily conserved residue in the forkhead domain, c.292T>C, p.Y98H, in the Mexican pedigree. Individuals with heterozygous mutations had no ocular abnormalities. MRI or ultrasonography confirmed that the patients with sclerocornea were also aphakic, had microphthalmia and some had optic disc coloboma. Conclusions This is the fourth report detailing homozygous FOXE3 mutations causing anterior segment abnormalities in human patients. Previous papers have emphasized aphakia and microphthalmia as the primary phenotype, but we find that the initial diagnosis – and perhaps the only one possible in a rural setting – is one of non-syndromic, bilateral, total sclerocornea. Dominantly inherited anterior segment defects have also been noted in association with heterozygous FOXE3 mutations. However the absence

  4. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Daniel; Field, Hume; McMichael, Lee; Vidgen, Miranda; Goldspink, Lauren; Broos, Alice; Melville, Deb; Kristoffersen, Joanna; de Jong, Carol; McLaughlin, Amanda; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Jordan, David; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV) which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus) were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs) were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410) had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436). The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral), identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous spread, and with

  5. Population dynamics and host reactions in young foxes following experimental infection with the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissen Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT including the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio, are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. However, little is known about the infection dynamics and clinical symptoms in the final hosts which include a range of animal species and man. We aimed to generate such information using an experimental model with H. pumilio in foxes. Method Eight commercially bred foxes were each orally infected with 2000 H. pumilio metacercariae. Another three foxes served as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly. The body weight was measured, standard haematological and biochemical analysis were performed regularly. All foxes were euthanized at day 56 post infection (p.i.. Adult worms were quantified and location in the small intestine noted. Results Anorexia was observed in all infected foxes starting day 12 p.i. and lasting for approximately a week. A weight loss was noticed in the infected group in weeks 3–6 p.i. Five of eight infected foxes excreted H. pumilio eggs day 9 p.i. onwards, the remaining three started on day 13 p.i. Mean (± SD faecal egg counts showed an initial peak at day 16–20 with a maximum of 1443 ± 1176 eggs per gram of faeces (epg, where after a stable egg output around 4–500 epg was seen. Worm burdens ranged between 116–2070 adult flukes with a mean (± SD worm recovery of 948 ± 666. The majority of worms were found in the lower part of the jejunum. Total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were significant lower in the infected group from first week p.i. onwards and throughout the study period. A significantly lower level of eosinophils was found in week 2 p.i. and transient anaemia was seen in week 2 and 4 p.i. Conclusion This study showed a short prepatency period, an initial peak in egg excretion, establishment of infection in all animals with predilection site in the lower jejunum and a marked but

  6. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at Pprotein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation.

  7. Increased CD45RA+ FoxP3(low regulatory T cells with impaired suppressive function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg in the control of the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE has not been well defined. Therefore, we dissect the phenotypically heterogeneous CD4(+FoxP3(+ T cells into subpopulations during the dynamic SLE development. METHODLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the proliferative and suppressive capacities of different CD4(+ T cell subgroups between active SLE patients and healthy donors, we employed CD45RA and CD25 as surface markers and carboxyfluorescein diacetatesuccinimidyl ester (CFSE dilution assay. In addition, multiplex cytokines expression in active SLE patients was assessed using Luminex assay. Here, we showed a significant increase in the frequency of CD45RA(+FoxP3(low naive Treg cells (nTreg cells and CD45RA(-FoxP3(low (non-Treg cells in patients with active SLE. In active SLE patients, the increased proportions of CD45RA(+FoxP3(low nTreg cells were positively correlated with the disease based on SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI and the status of serum anti-dsDNA antibodies. We found that the surface marker combination of CD25(+CD45RA(+ can be used to defined CD45RA(+FoxP3(low nTreg cells for functional assays, wherein nTreg cells from active SLE patients demonstrated defective suppression function. A significant correlation was observed between inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12 and TNFα, and the frequency of nTreg cells. Furthermore, the CD45RA(+FoxP3(low nTreg cell subset increased when cultured with SLE serum compared to healthy donor serum, suggesting that the elevated inflammatory cytokines of SLE serum may promote nTreg cell proliferation/expansion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that impaired numbers of functional CD45RA(+FoxP3(low naive Treg cell and CD45RA(-FoxP3(low non-suppressive T cell subsets in inflammatory conditions may contribute to SLE development. Therefore, analysis of subsets of FoxP3(+ T cells, using a

  8. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Geographical information systems in the management of the 2009-2010 emergency oral anti-rabies vaccination of foxes in north-eastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mulatti; Nicola Ferrè; Tommaso Patregnani; Lebana Bonfanti; Stefano Marangon

    2011-01-01

    Emergency oral fox vaccination campaigns, targeting a recent rabies epidemic in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in north-eastern Italy, were implemented twice, first in the winter of 2009 and then in the spring of 2010. Following on an unsuccessful manual bait distribution campaign, vaccine baits were aerially distributed by helicopters using a satellite-navigated, computer-supported, automatic bait drop system. The flight paths were traced with distance of 500-1,000 m from one another to optimise...

  10. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) introduction (NW Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Balestrieri; Luigi Remonti; Claudio Prigioni

    2006-01-01

    Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115) in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989). Comparison included also the diet of badgers (...

  11. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 can modulate the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/FoxO1 pathway in SZ95 sebocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, Yasaman; Thielitz, Anja; Wiede, Antje; Goihl, Alexander; Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Hartig, Roland; Zouboulis, Christos C; Reinhold, Dirk; Simeoni, Luca; Bommhardt, Ursula; Quist, Sven; Gollnick, Harald

    2015-11-01

    A recent hypothesis suggests that a high glycaemic load diet-associated increase of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin may promote acne by reducing nuclear localization of the forkhead box-O1 (FoxO1) transcription factor via activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Using SZ95 sebocytes as a model, we investigated the effect of the most important insulinotropic western dietary factors, IGF-1 and insulin on acne. SZ95 sebocytes were stimulated with different concentrations of IGF-1 and insulin (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μM) for 15 to 120 min ± PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (50 μM). Cytoplasmic and nuclear protein expression of p-Akt and p-FoxO1 as well as FoxO transcriptional activity was analysed. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of sebocytes and their TLR2/4 expression were determined. We found that high concentrations of IGF-1 and insulin differentially stimulate the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway by an early up-regulation of cytoplasmic p-Akt and delayed up-regulation of p-FoxO1 resulting in FoxO1 shift to the cytoplasm and the reduction of FoxO transcriptional activity, physiological serum concentration had no effect. IGF-1 at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μM significantly reduced proliferation but increased differentiation of sebocytes to a greater extent than insulin (0.1 and 1 μM), but up-regulated TLR2/4 expression to comparable extent. These data provide the first in vitro evidence that FoxO1 principally might be involved in the regulation of growth-factor-stimulatory effects on sebaceous lipogenesis and inflammation in the pathological condition of acne. However, the in vivo significance under physiological conditions remains to be elucidated. PMID:26257240

  12. The last "pest". The fox in the Italian law and in the actual hunting management / L'ultimo "nocivo". La Volpe nella legislazione italiana e nella pratica venatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Cassola

    1991-01-01

    Abstract In the general mentality as well as in the actual hunting management of the Italian territory, the fox Vulpes vulpes has largely replaced the wolf Canis lupus as the target of abnormal and injustified destructive efforts. By exagerating its predatory pressure on domestic and game animals, and more recently as an asserted anti-rabies measure, the control of fox populations still continue to be heady practised in m...

  13. FoxP3 mRNA splice forms in synovial CD4+ T cells in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L Rebekka; Bartels, Else Marie; Woetmann, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to elucidate the relative amount of the different splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood (PB) compared to synovial fluid (SF) in RA and PsA patients. FoxP3 mRNA was measured using a quantitative real-time PCR method. CD4+ T cells were isolated from 17 paired sa...

  14. Nonoverlapping roles of PD-1 and FoxP3 in maintaining immune tolerance in a novel autoimmune pancreatitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baihao; Chikuma, Shunsuke; Hori, Shohei; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku

    2016-07-26

    PD-1 (programmed-death 1), an immune-inhibitory receptor required for immune self-tolerance whose deficiency causes autoimmunity with variable severity and tissue specificity depending on other genetic factors, is expressed on activated T cells, including the transcription factor FoxP3(+) Treg cells known to play critical roles in maintaining immune tolerance. However, whether PD-1 expression by the Treg cells is required for their immune regulatory function, especially in autoimmune settings, is still unclear. We found that mice with partial FoxP3 insufficiency developed early-onset lympho-proliferation and lethal autoimmune pancreatitis only when PD-1 is absent. The autoimmune phenotype was rescued by the transfer of FoxP3-sufficient T cells, regardless of whether they were derived from WT or PD-1-deficient mice, indicating that Treg cells dominantly protect against development of spontaneous autoimmunity without intrinsic expression of PD-1. The absence of PD-1 combined with partial FoxP3 insufficiency, however, led to generation of ex-FoxP3 T cells with proinflammatory properties and expansion of effector/memory T cells that contributed to the autoimmune destruction of target tissues. Altogether, the results suggest that PD-1 and FoxP3 work collaboratively in maintaining immune tolerance mostly through nonoverlapping pathways. Thus, PD-1 is modulating the activation threshold and maintaining the balance between regulatory and effector T cells, whereas FoxP3 is sufficient for dominant regulation through maintaining the integrity of the Treg function. We suggest that genetic or environmental factors that even moderately affect the expression of both PD-1 and FoxP3 can cause life-threatening autoimmune diseases by disrupting the T-cell homeostasis. PMID:27410049

  15. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at Pdairy cows in early lactation. PMID:26800252

  16. Changes in the distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in urban areas in Great Britain: findings and limitations of a media-driven nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Scott

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major forms of habitat alteration occurring at the present time. Although this is typically deleterious to biodiversity, some species flourish within these human-modified landscapes, potentially leading to negative and/or positive interactions between people and wildlife. Hence, up-to-date assessment of urban wildlife populations is important for developing appropriate management strategies. Surveying urban wildlife is limited by land partition and private ownership, rendering many common survey techniques difficult. Garnering public involvement is one solution, but this method is constrained by the inherent biases of non-standardised survey effort associated with voluntary participation. We used a television-led media approach to solicit national participation in an online sightings survey to investigate changes in the distribution of urban foxes in Great Britain and to explore relationships between urban features and fox occurrence and sightings density. Our results show that media-based approaches can generate a large national database on the current distribution of a recognisable species. Fox distribution in England and Wales has changed markedly within the last 25 years, with sightings submitted from 91% of urban areas previously predicted to support few or no foxes. Data were highly skewed with 90% of urban areas having <30 fox sightings per 1000 people km(-2. The extent of total urban area was the only variable with a significant impact on both fox occurrence and sightings density in urban areas; longitude and percentage of public green urban space were respectively, significantly positively and negatively associated with sightings density only. Latitude, and distance to nearest neighbouring conurbation had no impact on either occurrence or sightings density. Given the limitations associated with this method, further investigations are needed to determine the association between sightings density and actual fox

  17. Regulation of glucose metabolism via hepatic forkhead transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) by Morinda citrifolia (noni) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Pratibha V; Nishioka, Adrienne; Eck, Philip O; Johns, Lisa M; Volper, Esther; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2012-07-01

    Renewed interest in alternative medicine among diabetic individuals prompted us to investigate anti-diabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased glucose production due to the inability of insulin to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and promote glycolysis. Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis by modulating transcription factors such as forkhead box O (FoxO1). Based on microarray analysis data, we tested the hypothesis that fermented noni fruit juice (fNJ) improves glucose metabolism via FoxO1 phosphorylation. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a HFD and fNJ for 12 weeks. Body weights and food intake were monitored daily. FoxO1 expression was analysed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Specificity of fNJ-associated FoxO1 regulation of gluconeogenesis was confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies using human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Supplementation with fNJ inhibited weight gain and improved glucose and insulin tolerance and fasting glucose in HFD-fed mice. Hypoglycaemic properties of fNJ were associated with the inhibition of hepatic FoxO1 mRNA expression, with a concomitant increase in FoxO1 phosphorylation and nuclear expulsion of the proteins. Gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate C kinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P), were significantly inhibited in mice fed a HFD+fNJ. HepG2 cells demonstrated more than 80 % inhibition of PEPCK and G6P mRNA expression in cells treated with FoxO1 siRNA and fNJ. These data suggest that fNJ improves glucose metabolism via FoxO1 regulation in HFD-fed mice.

  18. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha impacts FoxP3 levels in mycosis fungoides--cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Hernández, M; Torres-Zárate, C; Pérez-Montesinos, G; Jurado-Santacruz, F; Domínguez-Gómez, M A; Peniche-Castellanos, A; Ferat-Osorio, E; Neri, N; Nambo, M J; Alvarado-Cabrero, I; Moreno-Lafont, M; Huerta-Yepez, S; Bonifaz, L C

    2014-05-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common variant of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and decreased forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression has been reported in MF late stages. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) may regulate FoxP3 expression; however, it is unknown whether HIF-1α is expressed in the CD4(+) T cells of MF patients and how it could affect the expression of FoxP3. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of HIF-1α and FoxP3 in CD4(+) T cells obtained from the skin lesions of MF patients. We found increased cell proliferation and an increase in CD4(+) T cells with an aberrant phenotype among early stage MF patients. HIF-1α was overexpressed in these CD4(+) T cells. In addition, we found a decrease in the percentage of FoxP3(+) cells both in the skin of MF patients, when compared with control skin samples, and with disease progression. In addition, a negative correlation was established between HIF-1α and FoxP3 expression. Skin HIF-1α expression in MF patients correlated with the extent of the affected area and increased with the disease progression. Finally, we showed that ex vivo inhibition of HIF-1α degradation increases the percentage of FoxP3(+) T cells in skin lesions. Our results suggest that overexpression of HIF-1α affects the levels of FoxP3 in MF patients, which could have relevant implications in terms of disease outcome.

  19. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kato, T.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  20. Discussion on the teaching method of Visual FoxPro course in higher vocational colleges%高职院校Visual FoxPro课程教学方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹耀辉

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at vocational colleges and based on the many years’ teaching experience of Visual FoxPro Program Design course, the paper puts forward some effective teaching methods and experience, so as to be helpful for the young teacher, which can play a very good role in guiding to the majority of students learning.%针对高职院校,基于“Visual FoxPro程序设计”课程的多年教学经验,文章提出一些行之有效的教学方法与经验,以便对青年教师能有所借鉴,同时对广大学生学习能够起到很好的指导作用。

  1. Obese and lean porcine difference of FoxO1 and its regulation through C/EBPβ and PI3K/GSK3β signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, W J; Wei, N; Wang, Y; Xiong, Y; Chen, F F; Wu, W J; Zhao, C Z; Sun, S D; Yang, G S

    2014-05-01

    Forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) is an important transcription factor implicated in adipogenesis. In this study, we detected the breed differences in FoxO1 between Bamei pigs (an obese breed) and Large White pigs (a lean breed). Compared with Large White pigs, the BW of Bamei pigs was lower (P SAT) of Bamei pigs at 180 d, adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction extracted from SAT of Bamei pigs at 1 d compared with Large White pigs. Knockdown of FoxO1 increased triglyceride content (P via upregulating or downregulating the levels of GSK3β and its phosphorylation in adipocytes. Taken together, there is low, but detectable, expression of FoxO1 in SAT of obese pigs and FoxO1 inhibited adipogenesis through C/EBPβ and PI3K/GSK3β signaling pathway. These findings provide useful information to further the understanding of the function of FoxO1 in porcine adipogenesis. PMID:24663213

  2. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  3. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  4. Echinococcus multilocularis infections of rural, residential and urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 267 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, for intestinal infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. This region is situated in the core area of the endemic range of this zoonotic cestode in Central Europe. Several factors were taken into account and urbanisation level appeared to be the most explicative to describe observed differences. The prevalence decreased significantly from rural and residential areas (prevalence of 52 %, CI 43-62 %, and 49 %, CI 38-59 %, respectively to the urban area (prevalence of 31 %, CI 19-42 %. A few juvenile foxes harboured very high burdens up to more than 120,000 worms and were significantly more heavily infected than adults. The intensity of infection decreased from rural and residential areas to the city, suggesting a lower contamination of the urban environment.

  5. Information transfer among widely spaced individuals: latrines as a basis for communication networks in the swift fox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine; Steffensen, Lise K.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    In species where individuals are widely spaced instantaneous signals cannot readily form the basis of communication networks, that is several individuals within signalling range of each other. However, markings, signals that remain in the environment after the signaller has left, may fulfil this...... role. In this study, we have investigated the possible function of swift fox, Vulpes velox, latrines, collections of scat, urine and possibly other secretions, in a communication network context. We found that latrines had higher frequencies of occurrence inside the core (defined as the 50% kernel....... That is, they function in territory defence in the exclusive areas of a pair's core and as centres for information exchange in the outer areas of a pair's home-range that overlap with neighbouring foxes. We discuss the possible information content of latrines and the possibility of latrines forming the...

  6. Topography of the medullary cone of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox is the most common Canidae of South America. In general, its diet varies according to the season and inhabited region. In this study, the medullary cone of the crab-eating fox was described because of interests in comparative anatomy, with the goal of providing information that could assist in epidural anesthesia, which cannot be efficiently practiced without knowledge of this anatomical region. We investigated an adult male from the Bauxite Mine (Paragominas, PA, which was dissected in the lumbosacral region. The medullary cone was 10.13 cm long; the base began at the L6 and the apex was at the S3. Considering that the specimen studied had nine lumbar and four sacral vertebrae, we conclude that the sacrococcygeal region is probably the most suitable place for epidural anesthesia.

  7. Nematodes parasites of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) in the seasonally dry tropical highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raul; López-González, Carlos A; Jones, Robert W

    2011-06-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) is the most abundant and opportunistic wild canid in Mexico. However, the parasites of this canid in Mexico are poorly known, and an intensive parasite survey is lacking. A survey of gray fox parasitological feces was conducted in El Cimatario National Park, a protected area representative of the seasonally dry, tropical highlands of Mexico. Feces were collected in six 1-km-length transects during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2004. The coproparasitoscopical survey registered nine species of nematodes, typical of wild and domestic canids such as Strongyloides stercoralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dioctophyme renale, Trichuris vulpis, Trichuris sp., and Capillaria sp. Ecological factors such as temperature and humidity appear to play a more important role in the establishment of these species of parasites in this protected area than the presence of domestic dogs.

  8. Population trends of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.

    1992-10-01

    Population trends of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1989 through August 1991. Six semiannual livetrapping sessions and eight scent-station survey sessions were conducted. Livetrapping results and radiotelemetry data were used to calculate minimum population size, density, and distribution. A total of 175 individual foxes were trapped 463 times. The number of individuals trapped and minimum population size calculations showed a decline over time. The highest minimum population (109) was observed in winter 1988. Summer 1991 had the lowest minimum population size (45). No evidence was found to indicate that the apparent population decline was a result of military-authorized activities.

  9. Contrasting Population Trends at Two Razorbill Colonies in Atlantic Canada: Additive Effects of Fox Predation and Hunting Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Lavers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a stochastic, stage-based, matrix-projection population model to assess population viability and estimate the impact of mortality caused by hunting, illegal and incidental to the murre (Uria sp. hunt, and fox (Alopex lagopus predation on Razorbill (Alca torda populations breeding on the Gannet Islands, Labrador, the “affected” population, and Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, the “unaffected” population. We estimated the potential population growth rate in the absence of anthropogenic mortality sources by using juvenile survival estimates from the relatively unaffected Machias Seal Island Razorbill population. We used data collected on fox predation on the Gannet Islands from 1978–2009 to estimate the change in productivity as a result of fox presence. The intrinsic growth rate (λ of the stochastic matrix based on vital rates from the Gannet Islands was 0.957±0.008 and 1.058±0.005 for Machias Seal Island. Hunting mortality reduced the predicted Gannet Islands population growth rate by 0.033, while fox predation reduced population growth rate by 0.017. These sources combined reduced the baseline population growth rate by 0.050. According to our model, the Razorbill population on Machias Seal Island appears to be growing rapidly. In contrast, the Gannet Islands population may decline, likely because of hunting. However, oceanographic differences between the two areas and uncertainty regarding dispersal behavior in this species may also contribute to the disparity between populations. Based on our findings, we make several recommendations for the conservation and management of Razorbills in Atlantic Canada.

  10. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Nouvellet

    Full Text Available Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV. Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  11. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) plays a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle of Trichinella in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Kálmán; Pozio, Edoardo; Tonanzi, Daniele; Sala, Claudia; Ilie, Marius S; Imre, Mirela; Morar, Adriana

    2015-09-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a worldwide distribution. The majority of the biomass of these nematodes circulates among wildlife, but when humans fail in the proper management of domestic animals and wildlife, Trichinella infections are transmitted from the sylvatic to the domestic environment. Such failures occur in Romania, where a high prevalence of Trichinella spiralis has been detected in domestic pigs. The aim of the present study was to provide data about the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that are hunted in Romanian counties, in which the prevalences of Trichinella spp. infection in backyard and free-ranging pigs range from 0.17 to 2.5%, to determine the role played by this carnivore species in the transmission of the parasite to domestic cycle. A total of 121 animals from 45 hunting grounds of three counties were screened to detect Trichinella spp. larvae by the digestion method. Infections were detected in 26 (21.5%) foxes from 18 (40%) hunting grounds of the three counties (13/67 in Arad, 1/3 in Hunedoara, and 12/51 in Timiş). The mean larval density was 10.5 larvae per gram. Of the 25 successfully tested samples, the Trichinella larvae from 24 isolates were identified as T. britovi (96%), and the larvae from one isolate were identified as T. spiralis (4%). No mixed infections were recorded. The present results revealed that the red fox should be considered an important T. britovi reservoir in the sylvatic cycle; in contrast, the detection of only a single T. spiralis-positive isolate suggests that red foxes play a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle in the investigated area of western Romania. PMID:26185060

  12. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity.

  13. Kinematics and subpopulations' structure definition of blue fox (Alopex lagopus) sperm motility using the ISAS® V1 CASA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, C; García, A; Contell, J; Segervall, J; Sancho, M

    2014-08-01

    Over recent years, technological advances have brought innovation in assisted reproduction to the agriculture. Fox species are of great economical interest in some countries, but their semen characteristics have not been studied enough. To advance the knowledge of function of fox spermatozoa, five samples were obtained by masturbation, in the breeding season. Kinetic analysis was performed using ISAS® v1 system. Usual kinematic parameters (VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN, STR, WOB, ALH and BCF) were considered. To establish the standardization for the analysis of samples, the minimum number of cells to analyse and the minimum number of fields to capture were defined. In the second step, the presence of subpopulations in blue fox semen was analysed. The minimum number of cells to test was 30, because kinematic parameters remained constant along the groups of analysis. Also, the effectiveness of ISAS® D4C20 counting chamber was studied, showing that the first five squares presented equivalent results, while in the squares six and seven, the kinematic parameters showed a reduction in all of them, but not in the concentration or motility percentage. Kinematic variables were grouped into two principal components (PC). A linear movement characterized PC1, while PC2 showed an oscillatory movement. Three subpopulations were found, varying in structure among different animals. PMID:24890953

  14. The MuvB complex sequentially recruits B-Myb and FoxM1 to promote mitotic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Subhashini; Duan, Shenghua; DeCaprio, James A

    2012-03-01

    Cell cycle progression is dependent on two major waves of gene expression. Early cell cycle gene expression occurs during G1/S to generate factors required for DNA replication, while late cell cycle gene expression begins during G2 to prepare for mitosis. Here we demonstrate that the MuvB complex-comprised of LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, LIN54, and RBBP4-serves an essential role in three distinct transcription complexes to regulate cell cycle gene expression. The MuvB complex, together with the Rb-like protein p130, E2F4, and DP1, forms the DREAM complex during quiescence and represses expression of both early and late genes. Upon cell cycle entry, the MuvB complex dissociates from p130/DREAM, binds to B-Myb, and reassociates with the promoters of late genes during S phase. MuvB and B-Myb are required for the subsequent recruitment of FoxM1 to late gene promoters during G2. The MuvB complex remains bound to FoxM1 during peak late cell cycle gene expression, while B-Myb binding is lost when it undergoes phosphorylation-dependent, proteasome-mediated degradation during late S phase. Our results reveal a novel role for the MuvB complex in recruiting B-Myb and FoxM1 to promote late cell cycle gene expression and in regulating cell cycle gene expression from quiescence through mitosis. PMID:22391450

  15. The MuvB complex sequentially recruits B-Myb and FoxM1 to promote mitotic gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Subhashini; Duan, Shenghua; DeCaprio, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is dependent on two major waves of gene expression. Early cell cycle gene expression occurs during G1/S to generate factors required for DNA replication, while late cell cycle gene expression begins during G2 to prepare for mitosis. Here we demonstrate that the MuvB complex—comprised of LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, LIN54, and RBBP4—serves an essential role in three distinct transcription complexes to regulate cell cycle gene expression. The MuvB complex, together with the Rb-like protein p130, E2F4, and DP1, forms the DREAM complex during quiescence and represses expression of both early and late genes. Upon cell cycle entry, the MuvB complex dissociates from p130/DREAM, binds to B-Myb, and reassociates with the promoters of late genes during S phase. MuvB and B-Myb are required for the subsequent recruitment of FoxM1 to late gene promoters during G2. The MuvB complex remains bound to FoxM1 during peak late cell cycle gene expression, while B-Myb binding is lost when it undergoes phosphorylation-dependent, proteasome-mediated degradation during late S phase. Our results reveal a novel role for the MuvB complex in recruiting B-Myb and FoxM1 to promote late cell cycle gene expression and in regulating cell cycle gene expression from quiescence through mitosis. PMID:22391450

  16. Reproduction of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, K A; Berry, W H; Standley, W G; O`Farrell, T P

    1992-09-01

    The reproduction of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) was investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 38 vixens radiocollared prior to parturition, 12 (32%) were successful in raising pups from conception to the point where pups were observed above ground. No yearling vixens were known tb be reproductively active. The mean litter size during 1989 - 1991 was 3.0 (n = 21, SE = 0.28) and ranged from one to six pups. Both the proportion of vixens successfully raising pups and the mean litter size observed at Camp Roberts during this study were lower than those reported at other locations. Sex ratios of kit fox pups were male biased two of the three years, but did not differ statistically from 1:1 throughout the study. Whelping was estimated to occur between February 15 and March 5. Results of this study support previous reports that kit foxes are primarily monogamous, although one case of polygamy may have occurred. Both the proportion of dispersing radiocollared juveniles (26%) and the mean dispersal distance (5.9 km) of juveniles at Camp Roberts appeared low compared to other locations.

  17. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  18. Infection of foxes by Echinococcocus multilocularis in urban and suburban areas of Nancy, France: influence of feeding habits and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robardet E.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of biological and environmental factors on the infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes by Echinococcus multilocularis in an endemic area of north-east France. From January 2004 to April 2006, 127 foxes were examined for E. multilocularis and their stomach contents analysed. The effect of year, season, age, sex and urbanisation level on E. multilocularis presence was estimated using a General Linear Model (GLM with logit link, (i.e. logistic regression. Urbanisation level was the only influencing factor, with a decreasing gradient from rural [54%, CI 95% (40-68] to peri-urban [31%, CI 95% (15-52] and urban area [4%, CI 95% (0.7-15]. The consumption of Arvicola terrestris and Microtus sp., grassland species, the main presumed intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis, was studied by the same approach. The two species were consumed less in the urban area and more in autumn than in spring. Anthropogenic food consumption was linked to urbanisation and to age. The frequency of anthropogenic food consumption decreased in the rural area. A global model explaining the presence of E. multilocularis and including urbanisation level and diet was then elaborated. Independently of urbanisation, there was a suggestion of less E. multilocularis infection with anthropogenic food consumption. Red foxes consuming Microtus sp. and A. terrestris had higher worm burden than those that did not. The results suggest that the decreasing gradient observed from rural to urban area is linked to behaviour and feeding habits.

  19. miR-370 targeted FoxM1 functions as a tumor suppressor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungang, Wu; Xiaoyu, Li; Pang, Taizhong; Wenming, Li; Pan, Xinliang

    2014-03-01

    microRNAs, a family of small non-coding RNAs, involve in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). MiR-370 is frequently aberrant expressed in various types of human cancer including LSCC. However, the role for miR-370 in LSCC remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that miR-370 was down-regulated in human LSCC tissues. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between Forkhead Box ml (FoxM1), which was up-regulated and miR-370 expression in LSCC tissues. FoxM1 was subsequently predicted by bioinformatics and verified to be a target of miR-370 by Luciferase reporter assay. Restored expression of miR-370 in Hep2 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-370 may function as a tumor suppressor in LSCC through downregulation of FoxM1, suggesting that miR-370 could serve as a novel potential maker for LSCC therapy. PMID:24055400

  20. Paleodistribution modeling suggests glacial refugia in Scandinavia and out-of-Tibet range expansion of the Arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Hurtado, Marcelo; Hof, Anouschka R; Jansson, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary glacial cycles have shaped the geographic distributions and evolution of numerous species in the Arctic. Ancient DNA suggests that the Arctic fox went extinct in Europe at the end of the Pleistocene and that Scandinavia was subsequently recolonized from Siberia, indicating inability to track its habitat through space as climate changed. Using ecological niche modeling, we found that climatically suitable conditions for Arctic fox were found in Scandinavia both during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene. Our results are supported by fossil occurrences from the last glacial. Furthermore, the model projection for the LGM, validated with fossil records, suggested an approximate distance of 2000 km between suitable Arctic conditions and the Tibetan Plateau well within the dispersal distance of the species, supporting the recently proposed hypothesis of range expansion from an origin on the Tibetan Plateau to the rest of Eurasia. The fact that the Arctic fox disappeared from Scandinavia despite suitable conditions suggests that extant populations may be more sensitive to climate change than previously thought. PMID:26811782

  1. Epigenetic modification of the FoxP3 TSDR in HAM/TSP decreases the functional suppression of Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique R; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Massoud, Raya; Ngouth, Nyater; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Oh, Unsong; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-09-01

    HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus that is associated with the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In these patients, HTLV-1 is primarily found in the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell subset (Regulatory T cells:Tregs), which is responsible for peripheral immune tolerance and is known to be dysfunctional in HAM/TSP. Recent evidence suggests that FoxP3 expression and function is determined epigenetically through DNA demethylation in the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR). We analyzed the methylation of the TSDR in PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from normal healthy donors (NDs) and HAM/TSP patients. We demonstrated that there is decreased demethylation in analyzed PBMCs and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from HAM/TSP patients as compared to NDs. Furthermore, decreased TSDR demethylation was associated with decreased functional suppression by Tregs. Additionally, increased HTLV-1 Tax expression in HAM/TSP PBMC culture correlated with a concomitant decline in FoxP3 TSDR demethylation. Overall, we suggest that HTLV-1 infection decreases Treg functional suppressive capacity in HAM/TSP through modification of FoxP3 TSDR demethylation and that dysregulated Treg function may contribute to HAM/TSP disease pathogenesis. PMID:24845974

  2. The competitor release effect applied to carnivore species: how red foxes can increase in numbers when persecuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to numerically simulate the population dynamics of a hypothetical community of three species of small to medium–sized carnivores subjected to non–selective control within the context of the competitor release effect (CRE. We applied the CRE to three carnivore species, linking interspecific competition with predator control efforts. We predicted the population response of European badger, the red fox and the pine marten to this wildlife management tool by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical responses differed depending on the intrinsic rate of growth (r, although modulated by the competition coefficients. The red fox, showing the highest r value, can increase its populations despite predator control efforts if control intensity is moderate. Populations of the other two species, however, decreased with control efforts, even reaching extinction. Three additional theoretical predictions were obtained. The conclusions from the simulations were: 1 predator control can play a role in altering the carnivore communities; 2 red fox numbers can increase due to control; and 3 predator control programs should evaluate the potential of unintended effects on ecosystems.

  3. Reproduction of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproduction of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) was investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 38 vixens radiocollared prior to parturition, 12 (32%) were successful in raising pups from conception to the point where pups were observed above ground. No yearling vixens were known tb be reproductively active. The mean litter size during 1989 - 1991 was 3.0 (n = 21, SE = 0.28) and ranged from one to six pups. Both the proportion of vixens successfully raising pups and the mean litter size observed at Camp Roberts during this study were lower than those reported at other locations. Sex ratios of kit fox pups were male biased two of the three years, but did not differ statistically from 1:1 throughout the study. Whelping was estimated to occur between February 15 and March 5. Results of this study support previous reports that kit foxes are primarily monogamous, although one case of polygamy may have occurred. Both the proportion of dispersing radiocollared juveniles (26%) and the mean dispersal distance (5.9 km) of juveniles at Camp Roberts appeared low compared to other locations

  4. Kinematics and subpopulations' structure definition of blue fox (Alopex lagopus) sperm motility using the ISAS® V1 CASA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, C; García, A; Contell, J; Segervall, J; Sancho, M

    2014-08-01

    Over recent years, technological advances have brought innovation in assisted reproduction to the agriculture. Fox species are of great economical interest in some countries, but their semen characteristics have not been studied enough. To advance the knowledge of function of fox spermatozoa, five samples were obtained by masturbation, in the breeding season. Kinetic analysis was performed using ISAS® v1 system. Usual kinematic parameters (VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN, STR, WOB, ALH and BCF) were considered. To establish the standardization for the analysis of samples, the minimum number of cells to analyse and the minimum number of fields to capture were defined. In the second step, the presence of subpopulations in blue fox semen was analysed. The minimum number of cells to test was 30, because kinematic parameters remained constant along the groups of analysis. Also, the effectiveness of ISAS® D4C20 counting chamber was studied, showing that the first five squares presented equivalent results, while in the squares six and seven, the kinematic parameters showed a reduction in all of them, but not in the concentration or motility percentage. Kinematic variables were grouped into two principal components (PC). A linear movement characterized PC1, while PC2 showed an oscillatory movement. Three subpopulations were found, varying in structure among different animals.

  5. Efficacy of a square presentation of V-RG vaccine baits in red fox, domestic dog and raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, F; Guiot, A L; Schumacher, C; Maki, J; Cael, N; Barrat, J

    2008-01-01

    Oral vaccination programmes conducted in rabies infected countries from Eastern Europe and Eurasia should not be restricted to foxes but should target other major rabies vectors such as dogs and raccoon dogs as well. The objective of this experimental trial was to assess the protection induced by the vaccine by challenging these different species, which had been previously vaccinated intramuscularly with the square V-RG baits (produced in the US). Different parameters were evaluated such as attractiveness of the baits and induction of neutralising antibodies as an indicator for immunogenicity and protection after rabies challenge. The acceptability of the square bait was satisfactory in dogs, foxes and raccoon dogs, confirming previous laboratory and field studies conducted with the rectangular baits. Only one vaccinated dog out of nine seroconverted after vaccination and among them one dog died of rabies. Eight of ten vaccinated foxes seroconverted after vaccination and survived the rabies challenge. All vaccinated raccoon dogs seroconverted after challenge and all survived the challenge. These trials demonstrated that the square presentation of the V-RG vaccine was attractive, immunogenic and efficacious.

  6. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  7. Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait is affected by foxing spots. The portrait has no fungal or bacterial infections in place, but is contaminated with airborne spores and fungal material that could play a role in its disfigurement. The knowledge of the nature of the stains is of great concern because future conservation treatments should be derived from scientific investigations. The lack of reliable scientific data, due to the non‐culturability of the microorganisms inhabiting the portrait, prompted the investigation of the drawing using non‐invasive and micro‐invasive sampling, in combination with scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and molecular techniques. The fungus E urotium halophilicum was found in foxing spots using SEM analyses. Oxalates of fungal origin were also documented. Both findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tonophilic fungi germinate on paper metabolizing organic acids, oligosaccharides and proteic compounds, which react chemically with the material at a low water activity, forming brown products and oxidative reactions resulting in foxing spots. Additionally, molecular techniques enabled a screening of the fungi inhabiting the portrait and showed differences when different sampling techniques were employed. Swabs samples showed a high abundance of lichenized Ascomycota, while the membrane filters showed a dominance of A cremonium sp. colonizing the drawing. PMID:26111623

  8. 离子色谱法测定炸药FOX7中3种阴离子%Determination of Three Anions in FOX7 by Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 何乃珍; 郭蓉; 索志荣

    2014-01-01

    建立了测定炸药FOX7中3种阴离子的离子色谱分析方法,并用该方法测定了炸药FOX7。采用离子色谱检测法,以Metrosep A Supp5-250型阴离子柱为色谱柱;3.2 mmol/L Na2 CO3+1.0 mmol/L NaHCO3为流动相,流速为0.7 mL/min。结果表明:测定SO2-4、 NO3-、 Cl-三种离子的精密度试验、重复性试验、加样回收率试验的RSD均小于3.0%,平均回收率( n=6)分别为99.1%,98.4%和99.0%。方法快速,准确,可用于炸药FOX7的质量控制。%An ion chromatography method was established for determining of three kinds of anions in FOX7 simultaneously. Ion chromatography was used. The anions were analyzed on Metrosep A Supp5 -250 anion exchange column and the mobile phase consisted of 3. 2 mmol/L Na2 CO3 +1. 0 mmol/L NaHCO3. The flow rate was 0. 7 mL/min. The RSD of precision test, reproducibility test and recovery test were all less than 3%. The average recoveries ( n=6 ) were 99. 1% for SO2-4 , 98. 4% for NO3- and 99. 0% for Cl-, respectively. A rapid, sensitive and accurate method for the determination of three kinds of anions was founded. This study may provide a scientific basis for the quality control of FOX7.

  9. TLR2 Plays a Critical Role in HMGB1-Induced Glomeruli Cell Proliferation Through the FoxO1 Signaling Pathway in Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Chao; Yang, Gui-Fang; Liu, Qing-Juan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Hao, Jun; Xing, Ling-Ling; Yang, Min; Liu, Shu-Xia

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role and possible mechanisms of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in high-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1)-induced mouse mesangial cell (MMC) proliferation and glomeruli proliferation of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice. First, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TLR2 and Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice was quantified, and the correlation with cell proliferation of glomeruli was analyzed. Then, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR2 neutralization antibody, and small hairpin TLR2 (shTLR2) were used to confirm the role of TLR2 in HMGB1-induced MMC proliferation. Furthermore, wild-type FoxO1 (WT-FoxO1) vector was used to investigate the effect of FoxO1 pathway on HMGB1-induced MMC proliferation. Finally, electroporation was used to knockdown TLR2 in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice, and renal function, FoxO1, and PCNA expression were detected. The results showed that the TLR2 expression was upregulated and FoxO1 expression was decreased in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice, and these effects were significantly correlated with cell proliferation of the glomeruli. In vitro, the TLR2 neutralization antibody and the WT-FoxO1 vector, both reduced the MMC proliferation levels induced by HMGB1. The TLR2 neutralization antibody also blocked the HMGB1-dependent activation of the FoxO1 pathway and cell proliferation. In addition, transfection with shTLR2 decreased the proliferation levels and PCNA expression induced by HMGB1. In vivo, treatment with shTLR2 significantly reduced the PCNA expression in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice and improved renal function. In addition, treatment with shTLR2 or blocking of TLR2 also reduced the translocation of FoxO1. Thus, TLR2 plays a critical role in HMGB1-induced glomeruli cell proliferation through the FoxO1 signaling pathway in lupus nephritis. PMID:26799193

  10. Foxes and rabies in Lorraine: e behavioural-ecology approach / La Volpe e la rabbia in Lorena: aspetti di ecologia comportamentale delle volpi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Artois

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some aspects of the behavioural ecology of rabid foxes were studied in areas invaded by rabies since the year 1973. The principal aim was to understand how fox populations can survive, despite a high level of mortality due to the virus. The individual and seasonal activity-areas of eleven foxes ranged from about 200 ha to 400 ha. All the situations encountered during the study of neighbouring foxes showed a lack of, or only a small, sharing of neighbouring part of activity-areas. These foxes tend to shift their activity areas quite permanently. Of six rabid foxes, no one strolled beyond the farther border of their immediate neighbours. The data suggest that transmission is effected by aggressive contacts between rabid and healthy foxes, rather than by a more passive transmission (e.g. grooming. Post-mortem examinations of 1,259 foxes from eastern France suggest that rabies reaches the yearling foxes less frequently than adults. Despite rabies out break the fox population level in spring is roughly the same (e.g.: the decrease from one year to the next, if it occurs, is usually less important than intra-annual decrease. Riassunto Nel presente studio sono esposti alcuni aspetti di ecologia comportamentale della Volpe in un'area interessata dalla rabbia dal 1973. Lo scopo principale è quello di capire come la popolazione volpina sopravviva nonostante sia sottoposta ad una elevata mortalità dovuta alla rabbia. 11 volpi erano catturate, marcate con radiocollari e rilasciate; di queste, 3 erano infettate in laboratorio con virus rabido prima del rilascio e altre 3 contraevano la rabbia naturalmente dopo la liberazione. Le aree vitali individuali e stagionali delle 11 volpi catturate variavano da 200-400 ha e non erano sovrapposte, o mostravano una minima sovrapposizione, con le aree limitrofe di altre volpi. Per queste ultime le aree vitali cambiavano molto frequentemente. Nessuna delle 6 volpi rabide

  11. Evaluation of Scat Deposition Transects versus Radio Telemetry for Developing a Species Distribution Model for a Rare Desert Carnivore, the Kit Fox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Dempsey

    Full Text Available Development and evaluation of noninvasive methods for monitoring species distribution and abundance is a growing area of ecological research. While noninvasive methods have the advantage of reduced risk of negative factors associated with capture, comparisons to methods using more traditional invasive sampling is lacking. Historically kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America. Once the most abundant carnivore in the Great Basin Desert of Utah, the species is now considered rare. In recent decades, attempts have been made to model the environmental variables influencing kit fox distribution. Using noninvasive scat deposition surveys for determination of kit fox presence, we modeled resource selection functions to predict kit fox distribution using three popular techniques (Maxent, fixed-effects, and mixed-effects generalized linear models and compared these with similar models developed from invasive sampling (telemetry locations from radio-collared foxes. Resource selection functions were developed using a combination of landscape variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation height, and soil type. All models were tested against subsequent scat collections as a method of model validation. We demonstrate the importance of comparing multiple model types for development of resource selection functions used to predict a species distribution, and evaluating the importance of environmental variables on species distribution. All models we examined showed a large effect of elevation on kit fox presence, followed by slope and vegetation height. However, the invasive sampling method (i.e., radio-telemetry appeared to be better at determining resource selection, and therefore may be more robust in predicting kit fox distribution. In contrast, the distribution maps created from the noninvasive sampling (i.e., scat transects were significantly different than the invasive method, thus scat

  12. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. pseudospiralis and T. spiralis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Bajmóczy, E; Cséplo, A; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

    2008-10-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered one of the main reservoir of Trichinella spp. in Europe. As limited information on Trichinella infection in wildlife of Hungary is available, 2116 red foxes, representing more than 3% of the estimated fox population of the country, were screened to detect Trichinella larvae by a digestion method. Trichinella larvae from the 35 positive foxes were identified by a multiplex PCR as Trichinella britovi (30 isolates, 85.7%), Trichinella spiralis (4 isolates, 11.4%), and Trichinella pseudospiralis (1 isolate, 2.9%). The true mean intensity of T. britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis larvae in lower forelimb muscles was 23.6, 3.5 and 13.5larvae/g, respectively. T. spiralis was detected only in the southern and eastern regions. The non-encapsulated T. pseudospiralis was recorded for the first time in Hungary. Although the overall true prevalence of Trichinella infection in foxes was only 1.8% (95% confidence interval, CI=1.5-2.1%), the spatial analysis reveals different risk regions. In the north-eastern counties bordering Slovakia and Ukraine (21% of the Hungarian territory), the true prevalence of Trichinella infection is significantly higher than that observed in other regions (6.0%, CI=4.8-7.1%). In the southern counties bordering Croatia, Serbia and Romania (41% of the Hungarian territory), the true prevalence of Trichinella infection is moderate (1.4%, CI=1.0-1.8%). In the north-western and central counties (38% of Hungarian territory), the prevalence of Trichinella infection is significantly lower (0.2%, CI=0.1-0.4%) than that of the other regions. Based on the statistical analysis and the evaluation of epidemiological data, none of the counties can be considered free of Trichinella infection. In the past decade, Trichinella infection has been detected only in few backyard pigs, and only few wild boar-related autochthonous infections in humans were described. Nevertheless, these results highlight the need of the

  13. Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, Á; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T

    2014-07-14

    Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. PMID:24810374

  14. Fox squirrels match food assessment and cache effort to value and scarcity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel M Delgado

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The fox squirrel, an obligate scatter-hoarder, assesses cacheable food items using two overt movements, head flicks and paw manipulations. These behaviors allow an examination of squirrel decision processes when storing food for winter survival. We measured wild squirrels' time allocations and frequencies of assessment and investment behaviors during periods of food scarcity (summer and abundance (fall, giving the squirrels a series of 15 items (alternating five hazelnuts and five peanuts. Assessment and investment per cache increased when resource value was higher (hazelnuts or resources were scarcer (summer, but decreased as scarcity declined (end of sessions. This is the first study to show that assessment behaviors change in response to factors that indicate daily and seasonal resource abundance, and that these factors may interact in complex ways to affect food storing decisions. Food-storing tree squirrels may be a useful and important model species to understand the complex economic decisions made under natural conditions.

  15. Dynamics of the force of infection: insights from Echinococcus multilocularis infection in foxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser I Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the force of infection (FOI is an essential part of planning cost effective control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis in humans, a serious disease with a high fatality rate and an increasing global spread. Red foxes are high prevalence hosts of E. multilocularis. Through a mathematical modelling approach, using field data collected from in and around the city of Zurich, Switzerland, we find compelling evidence that the FOI is periodic with highly variable amplitude, and, while this amplitude is similar across habitat types, the mean FOI differs markedly between urban and periurban habitats suggesting a considerable risk differential. The FOI, during an annual cycle, ranges from (0.1,0.8 insults (95% CI in urban habitat in the summer to (9.4, 9.7 (95% CI in periurban (rural habitat in winter. Such large temporal and spatial variations in FOI suggest that control strategies are optimal when tailored to local FOI dynamics.

  16. Temporal Variation in Physiological Biomarkers in Black Flying-Foxes (Pteropus alecto), Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; Mayer, David; McLaughlin, Amanda; Goldspink, Lauren; Vidgen, Miranda E; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2016-03-01

    Bats of the genus Pteropus (Pteropodidae) are recognised as the natural host of multiple emerging pathogenic viruses of animal and human health significance, including henipaviruses, lyssaviruses and ebolaviruses. Some studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may be associated with Hendra virus infection in flying-foxes in Australia; however, it is essential to understand the normal range and seasonal variability of physiological biomarkers before seeking physiological associations with infection status. We aimed to measure a suite of physiological biomarkers in P. alecto over time to identify any seasonal fluctuations and to examine possible associations with life-cycle and environmental stressors. We sampled 839 adult P. alecto in the Australian state of Queensland over a 12-month period. The adjusted population means of every assessed hematologic and biochemical parameter were within the reported reference range on every sampling occasion. However, within this range, we identified significant temporal variation in these parameters, in urinary parameters and body condition, which primarily reflected the normal annual life cycle. We found no evident effect of remarkable physiological demands or nutritional stress, and no indication of clinical disease driving any parameter values outside the normal species reference range. Our findings identify underlying temporal physiological changes at the population level that inform epidemiological studies and assessment of putative physiological risk factors driving Hendra virus infection in P. alecto. More broadly, the findings add to the knowledge of Pteropus populations in terms of their relative resistance and resilience to emerging infectious disease. PMID:27026357

  17. Control-Structure Ratings on the Fox River at McHenry and Algonquin, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary P.; Hortness, Jon E.; Parker, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Natural Resources-Office of Water Resources operates control structures on a reach of the Fox River in northeastern Illinois between McHenry and Algonquin. The structures maintain water levels in the river for flood-control and recreational purposes. This report documents flow ratings for hinged-crest gates, a broad-crested weir, sluice gates, and an ogee spillway on the control structures at McHenry and Algonquin. The ratings were determined by measuring headwater and tailwater stage along with streamflow at a wide range of flows at different gate openings. Standard control-structure rating techniques were used to rate each control structure. The control structures at McHenry consist of a 221-feet(ft)-long broad-crested weir, a 4-ft-wide fish ladder, a 50-ft-wide hinged-crest gate, five 13.75-ft-wide sluice gates, and a navigational lock. Sixty measurements were used to rate the McHenry structures. The control structures at Algonquin consist of a 242-ft-long ogee spillway and a 50-ft-wide hinged-crest gate. Forty-one measurements were used to rate the Algonquin control structures.

  18. Characterization of Th17 and FoxP3(+) Treg Cells in Paediatric Psoriasis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, Y; Yang, X; Wei, J; Zhou, S; Zhao, Z; Cheng, J; Duan, H; Jia, T; Lei, Q; Huang, J; Feng, C

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most common inflammatory skin conditions affecting both children and adults. Growing evidence indicates that T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, the relationship between Th17 and Treg cells and their dynamic variations in paediatric psoriasis remain unclear. In this study, we found that both Th17 and FoxP3(+) Treg cells and the ratio of Th17 to Treg cell frequency in the peripheral circulation were increased in patients with paediatric psoriasis and were positively correlated with the disease severity. The function of Treg to suppress CD4(+) CD25(-) T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion was impaired during the onset of psoriasis. After disease remission, both the Th17 and Treg cell frequencies were decreased, and the suppressive function of the Treg cells was obviously restored. However, neither Treg cells from the disease onset nor those after remission can regulate IL-17 secretion by CD4(+) T cells. These findings will further our understanding of the associations between Th17 and Treg cells in paediatric psoriasis and their influence on disease severity.

  19. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy

  20. Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, Á; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T

    2014-07-14

    Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary.

  1. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tian-Li [Department of General Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuqing, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Yue [Department of Respiration, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie, E-mail: gejie198003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy.

  2. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Routti, Heli

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4-11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ13C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ13C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. PMID:25536177

  3. Modification of the FoxP3 transcription factor principally affects inducible T regulatory cells in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Verhagen

    Full Text Available T regulatory (Treg cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3 play a key role in protection against autoimmune disease. GFP-FoxP3 reporter mice have been used widely to study the induction, function and stability of both thymically- and peripherally-induced Treg cells. The N-terminal modification of FoxP3, however, affects its interaction with transcriptional co-factors; this can alter Treg cell development and function in certain self-antigen specific animal models. Interestingly, Treg cell function can be negatively or positively affected, depending on the nature of the model. In this study, we focused on the effect of the GFP-FoxP3 reporter on Treg cell development and function in the Tg4 mouse model. In this model, T cells express a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR specific for the Myelin Basic Protein (MBP peptide Ac1-9, making the animals susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a disease akin to multiple sclerosis in humans. Unlike diabetes-susceptible mice, Tg4 FoxP3(gfp mice did not develop spontaneous autoimmune disease and did not demonstrate augmented susceptibility to induced disease. Concurrently, thymic generation of natural Treg cells was not negatively affected. The induction of FoxP3 expression in naive peripheral T cells was, however, significantly impaired as a result of the transgene. This study shows that the requirements for the interaction of FoxP3 with co-factors, which governs its regulatory ability, differ not only between natural and inducible Treg cells but also between animal models of diseases such as diabetes and EAE.

  4. Effects of habitat composition on the use of resources by the red fox in a semi arid environment of North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Arte, Graziella L.; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2005-09-01

    The red fox Vulpes vulpes is considered an opportunistic predator able to avoid prey shortages by exploiting a wide range of available food resources. However, as predicted by the Resources Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH), the distribution of other key resources such as suitable areas for dens can affect fox populations. Furthermore, in insularity conditions, resources are spatially limited and their availability is greatly influenced by territory sizes and the feeding habits of predators. In this paper we report the spatial use and foraging habits of foxes in three habitats (grassland, cultivation and suburban) of a sub-arid island off north Africa in relation to habitat composition and food availability. We found that diet composition in a gross sense did not differ significantly among habitats, with insects comprising > 48% and fruits 25% of the total prey items. Grasslands offered temporary clumped food resources (e.g. birds) that induced foxes to increase their territory sizes and to enlarge their diet range during prey shortages. Inversely, in cultivated and suburban areas, the main prey (insects) were more evenly distributed, especially in olive groves which constitute the most extensive form of cultivation on the island. In large areas covered by olive trees, the high availability of Coleoptera spp. significantly reduced core areas used by foxes and also distances among dens. Palm groves were patchy on the island but contained high densities of Orthoptera spp. and date fruits which represent alternative food sources. Thus, these patches are attractive foraging places, but a modification of the perimeter of fox territories was necessary for their exploitation. Our study confirmed that in this arid environment, habitat composition per se affected a generalist predator less than the dispersion of its main prey. In addition, the patchy distribution of resources can assume a role in the spacing and feeding behaviours of foxes only in relation to clumped alternative

  5. Chemotherapy resistance and metastasis-promoting effects of thyroid hormone in hepatocarcinoma cells are mediated by suppression of FoxO1 and Bim pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Chen, Shen-Liang; Cheng, Yi-Hung; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Tsai, Ming-Ming; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Huang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and systemic chemotherapy is the major treatment strategy for late-stage HCC patients. Poor prognosis following chemotherapy is the general outcome owing to recurrent resistance. Recent studies have suggested that in addition to cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, chemotherapy can induce an alternative cascade that supports tumor growth and metastasis. In the present investigation, we showed that thyroid hormone (TH), a potent hormone-mediating cellular differentiation and metabolism, acts as an antiapoptosis factor upon challenge of thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-expressing HCC cells with cancer therapy drugs, including cisplatin, doxorubicin and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TH/TR signaling promoted chemotherapy resistance through negatively regulating the pro-apoptotic protein, Bim, resulting in doxorubicin-induced metastasis of chemotherapy-resistant HCC cells. Ectopic expression of Bim in hepatoma cells challenged with chemotherapeutic drugs abolished TH/TR-triggered apoptosis resistance and metastasis. Furthermore, Bim expression was directly transactivated by Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), which was negatively regulated by TH/TR. TH/TR suppressed FoxO1 activity through both transcriptional downregulation and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 triggered by Akt-mediated phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of the constitutively active FoxO1 mutant, FoxO1-AAA, but not FoxO1-wt, diminished the suppressive effect of TH/TR on Bim. Our findings collectively suggest that expression of Bim is mediated by FoxO1 and indirectly downregulated by TH/TR, leading to chemotherapy resistance and doxorubicin-promoted metastasis of hepatoma cells. PMID:27490929

  6. FoxQ1 overexpression influences poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer, associates with the phenomenon of EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We determined the expression of forkhead box Q1 (FoxQ1, E-cadherin (E-cad, Mucin 1 (MUC1, vimentin (VIM and S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4, all epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT indicator proteins in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissue samples. We also investigated the relationship between these five proteins expression and other clinicopathologic factors in NSCLC. Finally, we assessed the potential value of these markers as prognostic indicators of survival in NSCLC's patients. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize the expression of the FoxQ1 mRNA and protein in NSCLC. Expression of transcripts and translated products for the other four EMT indicator proteins was assessed by immunohistochemistry in the same clinical NSCLC samples. RESULTS: FoxQ1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in NSCLC compared with normal tissues (P = 0.015 and P<0.001, respectively. Expression of FoxQ1 in adenocarcinoma was higher than in squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.005, and high expression of FoxQ1 correlated with loss of E-cad expression (P = 0.012, and anomalous positivity of VIM (P = 0.024 and S100A4 (P = 0.004. Additional survival analysis showed that high expression of FoxQ1 (P = 0.047 and E-cad (P = 0.021 were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: FoxQ1 maybe plays a specific role in the EMT of NSCLC, and could be used as a prognostic factor for NSCLC.

  7. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  8. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  9. Expression of FoxA and GATA transcription factors correlates with regionalized gut development in two lophotrochozoan marine worms: Chaetopterus (Annelida and Themiste lageniformis (Sipuncula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A through gut is present in almost all metazoans, and most likely represents an ancient innovation that enabled bilaterian animals to exploit a wide range of habitats. Molecular developmental studies indicate that Fox and GATA regulatory genes specify tissue regions along the gut tube in a broad diversity of taxa, although little is known about gut regionalization within the Lophotrochozoa. In this study, we isolated FoxA and GATA456 orthologs and used whole mount in situ hybridization during larval gut formation in two marine worms: the segmented, polychaete annelid Chaetopterus, which develops a planktotrophic larva with a tripartite gut, and the non-segmented sipunculan Themiste lageniformis, which develops a lecithotrophic larva with a U-shaped gut. Results FoxA and GATA456 transcripts are predominantly restricted to gut tissue, and together show regional expression spanning most of the alimentary canal in each of these lophotrochozoans, although neither FoxA nor GATA456 is expressed in the posterior intestine of Chaetopterus. In both species, FoxA is expressed at the blastula stage, transiently in presumptive endoderm before formation of a definitive gut tube, and throughout early larval development in discrete foregut and hindgut domains. GATA456 genes are expressed during endoderm formation, and in endoderm and mesoderm associated with the midgut in each species. Several species-specific differences were detected, including an overlap of FoxA and GATA456 expression in the intestinal system of Themiste, which is instead complimentary in Chaetopterus. Other differences include additional discrete expression domains of FoxA in ectodermal trunk cells in Themiste but not Chaetopterus, and expression of GATA456 in anterior ectoderm and midgut cells unique to Chaetopterus. Conclusions This study of gene expression in a sipunculan contributes new comparative developmental insights from lophotrochozoans, and shows that FoxA and

  10. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ13C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ13C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year. • Concentrations of

  11. Deletion of hepatic FoxO1/3/4 genes in mice significantly impacts on glucose metabolism through downregulation of gluconeogenesis and upregulation of glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Xiong

    Full Text Available Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fasting and non-fasting conditions and they manifested better glucose and pyruvate tolerance on regular chow diet. After challenged by a high-fat diet, wild-type mice developed type 2 diabetes, but LTKO mice remained euglycemic and insulin-sensitive. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined the roles of SIRT6 (Sirtuin 6 and Gck (glucokinase in the FoxO-mediated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SIRT6 in the liver only reduced gluconeogenesis in wild-type but not LTKO mice whereas knockdown of Gck caused glucose intolerance in both wild-type and LTKO mice. The data suggest that both decreased gluconeogenesis and increased glycolysis may contribute to the overall glucose phenotype in the LTKO mice. Collectively, FoxO1/3/4 transcription factors play important roles in hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin causes airway goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion by inactivating the transcriptional factor FoxA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghua; Kuang, Zhizhou; Walling, Brent E; Bhatia, Shikha; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Yin; Gaskins, H Rex; Lau, Gee W

    2012-03-01

    The redox-active exotoxin pyocyanin (PCN) can be recovered in 100 µM concentrations in the sputa of bronchiectasis patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). However, the importance of PCN within bronchiectatic airways colonized by PA remains unrecognized. Recently, we have shown that PCN is required for chronic PA lung infection in mice, and that chronic instillation of PCN induces goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH), pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema and influx of immune cells in mouse airways. Many of these pathological features are strikingly similar to the mouse airways devoid of functional FoxA2, a transcriptional repressor of GCH and mucus biosynthesis. In this study, we postulate that PCN causes and exacerbates GCH and mucus hypersecretion in bronchiectatic airways chronically infected by PA by inactivating FoxA2. We demonstrate that PCN represses the expression of FoxA2 in mouse airways and in bronchial epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface or conventionally, resulting in GCH, increased MUC5B mucin gene expression and mucus hypersecretion. Immunohistochemical and inhibitor studies indicate that PCN upregulates the expression of Stat6 and EGFR, both of which in turn repress the expression of FoxA2. These studies demonstrate that PCN induces GCH and mucus hypersecretion by inactivating FoxA2.

  13. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases.

  14. Sequence analysis of the Ras-MAPK pathway genes SOS1, EGFR & GRB2 in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes): candidate genes for hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jo-Anna B J; Tully, Sara J; Dawn Marshall, H

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis (HHG) is an autosomal recessive disease that presents with progressive gingival proliferation in farmed silver foxes. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is an analogous condition in humans that is genetically heterogeneous with several known autosomal dominant loci. For one locus the causative mutation is in the Son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1) gene. For the remaining loci, the molecular mechanisms are unknown but Ras pathway involvement is suspected. Here we compare sequences for the SOS1 gene, and two adjacent genes in the Ras pathway, growth receptor bound protein 2 (GRB2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), between HHG-affected and unaffected foxes. We conclude that the known HGF causative mutation does not cause HHG in foxes, nor do the coding regions or intron-exon boundaries of these three genes contain any candidate mutations for fox gum disease. Patterns of molecular evolution among foxes and other mammals reflect high conservation and strong functional constraints for SOS1 and GRB2 but reveal a lineage-specific pattern of variability in EGFR consistent with mutational rate differences, relaxed functional constraints, and possibly positive selection.

  15. Brucella vulpis sp. nov., isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hammerl, Jens A; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Vergnaud, Gilles; Witte, Angela; Aistleitner, Karin; Hofer, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Two slow-growing, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains F60T and F965), isolated in Austria from mandibular lymph nodes of two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. In a recent study, both isolates were assigned to the genus Brucella but could not be attributed to any of the existing species. Hence, we have analysed both strains in further detail to determine their exact taxonomic position and genetic relatedness to other members of the genus Brucella. The genome sizes of F60T and F965 were 3 236 779 and 3 237 765 bp, respectively. Each genome consisted of two chromosomes, with a DNA G+C content of 57.2 %. A genome-to-genome distance of >80 %, an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 97 % and an average amino acid identity (AAI) of 98 % compared with the type species Brucella melitensis confirmed affiliation to the genus. Remarkably, 5 % of the entire genetic information of both strains was of non-Brucella origin, including as-yet uncharacterized bacteriophages and insertion sequences as well as ABC transporters and other genes of metabolic function from various soil-living bacteria. Core-genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions placed the novel species well separated from all hitherto-described species of the genus Brucella, forming a long-branched sister clade to the classical species of Brucella. In summary, based on phenotypic and molecular data, we conclude that strains F60T and F965 are members of a novel species of the genus Brucella, for which the name Brucella vulpis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain F60T ( = BCCN 09-2T = DSM 101715T).

  16. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  17. Regulatory O-GlcNAcylation sites on FoxO1 are yet to be identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardini, Yann [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Perez-Cervera, Yobana [Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, Lille 1 University, CNRS (UMR 8576), IFR 117, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca, Oaxaca (Mexico); Camoin, Luc [INSERM, U1068, CRCM, Marseille Protéomique IBiSA, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes Team, Cell Polarity, Cell Signaling and Cancer, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Aix-Marseille Université, F-13284, Marseille (France); CNRS, UMR7258, CRCM, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Pagesy, Patrick [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Lefebvre, Tony [Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, Lille 1 University, CNRS (UMR 8576), IFR 117, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Issad, Tarik, E-mail: tarik.issad@inserm.fr [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France)

    2015-06-26

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates cytosolic and nuclear proteins. We and others previously demonstrated that FoxO1 is O-GlcNAcylated in different cell types, resulting in an increase in its transcriptional activity. Four O-GlcNAcylation sites were identified in human FOXO1 but directed mutagenesis of each site individually had modest (T317) or no effect (S550, T648, S654) on its O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the consequences of mutating all four sites had not been investigated. In the present work, we mutated these sites in the mouse Foxo1 and found that mutation of all four sites did not decrease Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity, and would even tend to increase them. In an attempt to identify other O-GlcNAcylation sites, we immunoprecipitated wild-type O-GlcNAcylated Foxo1 and analysed the tryptic digest peptides by mass spectrometry using High-energy Collisional Dissociation. We identified T646 as a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1. However, site directed mutagenesis of this site individually or together with all four previously identified residues did not impair Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation and transcriptional activity. These results suggest that residues important for the control of Foxo1 activity by O-GlcNAcylation still remain to be identified. - Highlights: • We mutate four previously identified O-GlcNAcylation sites on Foxo1. • Unexpectedly, these mutations do not reduce Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation. • These mutation do not reduce Foxo1 transcriptional activity. • We identify a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1 by mass spectrometry. • Mutation of this site increases Foxo1 transcriptional activity.

  18. Transgenic C. elegans dauer larvae expressing hookworm phospho null DAF-16/FoxO exit dauer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Gelmedin

    Full Text Available Parasitic hookworms and the free-living model nematode Caenorhabtidis elegans share a developmental arrested stage, called the dauer stage in C. elegans and the infective third-stage larva (L3 in hookworms. One of the key transcription factors that regulate entrance to and exit from developmental arrest is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO. During the dauer stage, DAF-16 is activated and localized in the nucleus. DAF-16 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation by the upstream kinase AKT, which causes DAF-16 to localize out of the nucleus and the worm to exit from dauer. DAF-16 is conserved in hookworms, and hypothesized to control recovery from L3 arrest during infection. Lacking reverse genetic techniques for use in hookworms, we used C. elegans complementation assays to investigate the function of Ancylostoma caninum DAF-16 during entrance and exit from L3 developmental arrest. We performed dauer switching assays and observed the restoration of the dauer phenotype when Ac-DAF-16 was expressed in temperature-sensitive dauer defective C. elegans daf-2(e1370;daf-16(mu86 mutants. AKT phosphorylation site mutants of Ac-DAF-16 were also able to restore the dauer phenotype, but surprisingly allowed dauer exit when temperatures were lowered. We used fluorescence microscopy to localize DAF-16 during dauer and exit from dauer in C. elegans DAF-16 mutant worms expressing Ac-DAF-16, and found that Ac-DAF-16 exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Surprisingly, Ac-DAF-16 with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites also exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Our results suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the regulation DAF-16 nuclear localization during recovery from developmental arrest.

  19. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rebecca M; Vaishnavi, Aria; Maruyama, Rika; Andrew, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    FoxA transcription factors play major roles in organ-specific gene expression, regulating, for example, glucagon expression in the pancreas, GLUT2 expression in the liver, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in dopaminergic neurons. Organ-specific gene regulation by FoxA proteins is achieved through cooperative regulation with a broad array of transcription factors with more limited expression domains. Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet little is known regarding how Fkh regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we characterize Sage, a bHLH transcription factor expressed exclusively in the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). We show that Sage is required for late SG survival and normal tube morphology. We find that many Sage targets, identified by microarray analysis, encode SG-specific secreted cargo, transmembrane proteins, and the enzymes that modify these proteins. We show that both Sage and Fkh are required for the expression of Sage target genes, and that co-expression of Sage and Fkh is sufficient to drive target gene expression in multiple cell types. Sage and Fkh drive expression of the bZip transcription factor Senseless (Sens), which boosts expression of Sage-Fkh targets, and Sage, Fkh and Sens colocalize on SG chromosomes. Importantly, expression of Sage-Fkh target genes appears to simply add to the tissue-specific gene expression programs already established in other cell types, and Sage and Fkh cannot alter the fate of most embryonic cell types even when expressed early and continuously.

  20. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  1. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  2. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation "Embracing Diversity" bracelets are available to help ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  3. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  6. AmphiFoxQ2, a novel winged helix/forkhead gene, exclusively marks the anterior end of the amphioxus embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.

    2003-01-01

    A full-length FoxQ-related gene (AmphiFoxQ2) was isolated from amphioxus. Expression is first detectable in the animal/anterior hemisphere at the mid blastula stage. The midpoint of this expression domain coincides with the anterior pole of the embryo and is offset dorsally by about 20 degrees from the animal pole. During the gastrula stage, expression is limited to the anterior ectoderm. By the early neurula stage, expression remains in the anterior ectoderm and also appears in the adjacent anterior mesendoderm. By the early larval stages, expression is detectable in the anteriormost ectoderm and in the rostral tip of the notochord. AmphiFoxQ2 is never expressed anywhere except at the anterior tip of amphioxus embryos and larvae. This is the first gene known that exclusively marks the anterior pole of chordate embryos. It may, therefore, play an important role in establishing and/or maintaining the anterior/posterior axis.

  7. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus, in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Franciscus Scheelings

    Full Text Available To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7% were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%. Overall the mortality rate for flying fox admissions was 59.3%. This study highlights the effects of urbanisation on wild animal populations and a need for continued public education in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of wildlife, especially threatened species.

  8. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer;

    2013-01-01

    from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes respectively harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, of which several were of zoonotic significance. Significantly more nematode...... between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion to new areas might have shaped the marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon dog and the native red fox.......Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of invaded ecosystems and may introduce pathogens to native species. The raccoon dog is a very successful invaded Europe and has recently invaded Denmark. The present study included analyses of Trichinella spp. and gastrointestinal helminths...

  9. A mutation in the FOXE3 gene causes congenital primary aphakia in an autosomal recessive consanguineous Pakistani family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjum, Iram; Eiberg, Hans; Baig, Shahid Mahmood;

    2010-01-01

    with a clear aphakia phenotype. METHODS: The initial homozygosity screening of the family was extended to all the known autosomal recessive cataract loci in order to exclude the possibility of surgical cataract removal leading to aphakia. The screening was performed using polymorphic nucleotide repeat markers...... known autosomal recessive loci resulted in negative LOD (logarithm of odds) scores. The aphakia phenotype suggested a mutation in FOXE3 close to the AR-locus 1p34.3-p32.2, and sequence analyses revealed the nonsense mutation c.720C>A, changing cysteine 240 to a stop codon. Segregation in the family...

  10. The MuvB complex sequentially recruits B-Myb and FoxM1 to promote mitotic gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sadasivam, Subhashini; Duan, Shenghua; DeCaprio, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression is tightly regulated during cell cycle progression. DeCaprio and colleagues now provide a comprehensive model of the MuvB complex's dynamic control of cell cycle gene expression from quiescence through mitosis. They find that MuvB sequentially recruits B-Myb and then FoxM1 to gene promoters during G2/M. The study provides a definitive description of MuvB's central role as a part of three distinct transcription complexes in the coordinated expression of a large number of genes ...

  11. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  12. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  13. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  14. Potential role of FoxO1 and mTORC1 in the pathogenesis of Western diet-induced acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-05-01

    Acne in adolescents of developed countries is an epidemic skin disease and has currently been linked to the Western diet (WD). It is the intention of this viewpoint to discuss the possible impact of WD-mediated nutrient signalling in the pathogenesis of acne. High glycaemic load and dairy protein consumption both increase insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) that is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 signalling of puberty. The cell's nutritional status is primarily sensed by the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) and the serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Increased IIS extrudes FoxO1 into the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear FoxO1 suppresses hepatic IGF-1 synthesis and thus impairs somatic growth. FoxO1 attenuates androgen signalling, interacts with regulatory proteins important for sebaceous lipogenesis, regulates the activity of innate and adaptive immunity, antagonizes oxidative stress and most importantly functions as a rheostat of mTORC1, the master regulator of cell growth, proliferation and metabolic homoeostasis. Thus, FoxO1 links nutrient availability to mTORC1-driven processes: increased protein and lipid synthesis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation including hyperproliferation of acroinfundibular keratinocytes, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, increased sebaceous lipogenesis, insulin resistance and increased body mass index. Enhanced androgen, TNF-α and IGF-1 signalling due to genetic polymorphisms promoting the risk of acne all converge in mTORC1 activation, which is further enhanced by nutrient signalling of WD. Deeper insights into the molecular interplay of FoxO1/mTORC1-mediated nutrient signalling are thus of critical importance to understand the impact of WD on the promotion of epidemic acne and more serious mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. PMID:23614736

  15. Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, A V; Vanak, A T; Gompper, M E

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing concern that free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) populations may serve as reservoirs of pathogens which may be transmitted to wildlife. We documented the prevalence of antibodies to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), in free-ranging dog and sympatric Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) populations in and around the Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary, in Maharashtra, central India. A total of 219 dogs and 33 foxes were sampled during the study period. Ninety-three percentage of dogs and 87% of foxes were exposed to one or more of the three pathogens. Exposure rates in dogs were high: >88% for CPV, >72% for CDV and 71% for CAV. A large proportion of adult dogs had antibodies against these pathogens due to seroconversion following earlier natural infection. The high prevalence of exposure to these pathogens across the sampling sessions, significantly higher exposure rates of adults compared with juveniles, and seroconversion in some unvaccinated dogs documented during the study period suggests that these pathogens are enzootic. The prevalence of exposure to CPV, CDV and CAV in foxes was 48%, 18% and 52%, respectively. Further, a high rate of mortality was documented in foxes with serologic evidence of ongoing CDV infection. Dogs could be playing a role in the maintenance and transmission of these pathogens in the fox population, but our findings show that most dogs in the population are immune to these pathogens by virtue of earlier natural infection, and therefore, these individuals make little current or future contribution to viral maintenance. Vaccination of this cohort will neither greatly improve their collective immune status nor contribute to herd immunity. Our findings have potentially important implications for dog disease control programmes that propose using canine vaccination as a tool for conservation management of wild carnivore populations.

  16. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  17. Screening the RAPD Marker Linked to Self-biting Disease of Blue Fox%蓝狐自咬症RAPD标记的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任二军; 刘宗岳; 张铁涛; 邢秀梅; 杨福合

    2011-01-01

    Blue fox is a precious fur-bearing animal. The self-biting disease of blue foxes can cause serious problem on their growth and the pelt-quality, eventually cause considerable economic losses in blue fox farming industry. In order to identify the genetic marker linked to self-biting disease, RAPD was used to analyze molecular marker of the healthy and self-biting blue foxes. 6 primers amplified specific fragments in healthy foxes and self-biting ones were screened from 120 random primers by RAPD, they were S77、S79、S88、S472、S474、 S485 respectively. Detected by individuals, the numbers with specific fragments amplified by primer S472 and primer S485 in the healthy foxes and self-biting foxes showed significantly difference (P<0.01), theses two primers could be used as molecular marker of self-biting disease. The results provided theoretical basis for further study on the self-biting disease of blue foxes.%蓝狐是一种珍贵的毛皮动物,自咬症的发生严重影响了蓝狐的生长发育和毛皮质量,给蓝狐养殖业带来了巨大的经济损失.为了寻找与蓝狐自咬症紧密连锁的遗传标记,采用RAPD技术对健康和自咬蓝狐分子标记进行筛选.从120条随机引物中筛选出在健康监狐和自咬蓝狐中扩增出差异条带的6条引物,分别为S77、S79、S88、S472、S474、S485.经个体验证,S472、S4852条随机引物在健康蓝狐和自咬蓝狐出现特异条带的个体数量差异达极显著水平(P<0.01),可作为蓝狐自咬症的分子标记,为蓝狐自咬症的深入研究奠定了基础.

  18. Visual FoxPro 6.0与大型数据库的无"数据源"连接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪显利

    2002-01-01

    Visual FoxPro x.0是广大用户非常喜爱的数据库产品,本文从详细介绍一组SQL函数出发,说明Visual FoxPro 6.0用非DSN连接方式与现在流行大型数据库连接的方法,最后通过实例阐述了连接、操作的具体过程.

  19. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically wer...

  20. Comment on 'Consequences of phase separation on the distribution of hydrothermal fluids at ASHES vent field, axial volcano, Juan de Fuca ridge' by Christopher G. Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M. A.; Ingebritsen, S. E.; Essaid, H. I.

    1993-02-01

    Fox (1990), in order to explain observations during the Axial Seamount Hydrothermal Emissions Study (ASHES), proposed a conceptual model for a two-phase subsea hydrothermal system in which steam controlled flow patterns by blocking liquid flow. An attempt is made here to demonstrate with a very general model that relative permeability contrasts by themselves do not cause spatial isolation of phases in steam/liquid water systems and that density segregation, independent of relative permeability effects, should not be ruled out as an explanation for the observations at the ASHES site. Fox replies that density segregation is probably not the only mechanism at work.