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Sample records for american dietetic association

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2009-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2009-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world. PMID:11678498

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne; Nitzke, Susan

    2002-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that all foods can fit into a healthful eating style. The ADA strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize the total diet, or overall pattern of food eaten, rather than any one food or meal. If consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity, all foods can fit into a healthful diet. Public policies that support the total diet approach include Reference Dietary Intakes, Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Nutrition Labeling and Healthy People 2010. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Eating practices are influenced by taste and food preferences, concerns about nutrition and weight control, physiology, lifestyle, environment, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, dietetics professionals plan communications and educational programs that utilize theories and models related to human behavior. Communication campaigns/programs should implement an active, behaviorally focused approach within the larger context of food choices. Nutrition confusion can be reduced by emphasizing moderation, appropriate portion size, balance and adequacy of the total diet over time, the importance of obtaining nutrients from foods, and physical activity. PMID:11794489

  7. American Dietetic Association's Standardized Nutrition Language: Project logic model and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melinda; Myers, Esther; Charney, Pam; Escott-Stump, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Standardized terminology and digital sources of evidence are essential for evidence-based practice. Dieticians desire concise and consistent documentation of nutrition diagnoses, interventions and outcomes that will be fit for electronic health records. Building on more than 5 years of work to generate the Nutrition Care Process and Model as a road map to quality nutrition care and outcomes, and recognizing existing standardized languages serving other health professions, a task force of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) has begun to develop and disseminate standardized nutrition language. This paper will describe the group's working logic model, the Nutrition Care Process, and the current status of the nutrition language with comparisons to nursing process and terminology.

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: integration of medical nutrition therapy and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the application of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and lifestyle counseling as a part of the Nutrition Care Process is an integral component of the medical treatment for management of specific disease states and conditions and should be the initial step in the management of these situations. If optimal control cannot be achieved with MNT alone and concurrent pharmacotherapy is required, then The Association promotes a team approach to care for clients receiving concurrent MNT and pharmacotherapy and encourages active collaboration among dietetics professionals and other members of the health care team. There are a number of medical conditions, many of them chronic, that will respond to MNT and, therefore, MNT should be the first intervention for these conditions. In addition to being a vital element of the optimal management and control of these conditions, MNT is also a cost-effective method of management. However, because of the long-term nature of these conditions, concurrent pharmacotherapy may become necessary to achieve or maintain optimal control. In cases where this is necessary, MNT should continue to be an integral component of the therapy because it may complement or enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for multiple medications. The utilization of a coordinated multidisciplinary team approach is critical to the success of the concurrent use of MNT and pharmacotherapy because of the long-term duration of the treatments, the necessity of monitoring compliance and effectiveness, and the likelihood of multiple medication-nutrient interactions.

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Approximately 2.5% of adults in the United States and 4% of adults in Canada follow vegetarian diets. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat, fish, or fowl. Interest in vegetarianism appears to be increasing, with many restaurants and college foodservices offering vegetarian meals routinely. Substantial growth in sales of foods attractive to vegetarians has occurred and these foods appear in many supermarkets. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin A, n-3 fatty acids, and iodine. A vegetarian, including vegan, diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, use of fortified foods or supplements can be helpful in meeting recommendations for individual nutrients. Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals. Vegetarians have been reported to have lower body mass indices than non-vegetarians, as well as lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease, lower blood cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer. While a number of federally funded and institutional feeding programs can accommodate vegetarians, few have foods suitable for vegans at this time. Because

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Approximately 2.5% of adults in the United States and 4% of adults in Canada follow vegetarian diets. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat, fish, or fowl. Interest in vegetarianism appears to be increasing, with many restaurants and college foodservices offering vegetarian meals routinely. Substantial growth in sales of foods attractive to vegetarians has occurred and these foods appear in many supermarkets. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin A, n-3 fatty acids, and iodine. A vegetarian, including vegan, diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, use of fortified foods or supplements can be helpful in meeting recommendations for individual nutrients. Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals. Vegetarians have been reported to have lower body mass indices than non-vegetarians, as well as lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease, lower blood cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer. While a number of federally funded and institutional feeding programs can accommodate vegetarians, few have foods suitable for vegans at this time. Because

  12. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-11-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. PMID:21061737

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  16. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  17. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition intervention in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian (RD) is an essential component of the team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. However, it is thought that a continuum of disordered eating may exist that ranges from persistent dieting to subthreshold conditions and then to defined eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Understanding the complexities of eating disorders, such as influencing factors, comorbid illness, medical and psychological complications, and boundary issues, is critical in the effective treatment of eating disorders. The nature of eating disorders requires a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of psychological, nutritional, and medical specialists. The RD is an integral member of the treatment team and is uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. RDs provide nutritional counseling, recognize clinical signs related to eating disorders, and assist with medical monitoring while cognizant of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy that are cornerstones of eating disorder treatment. Specialized resources are available for RDs to advance their level of expertise in the field of eating disorders. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to eating disorders along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions.

  19. Practice paper of the American Dietetic Association: using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Barr, Susan I

    2011-05-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes, a set of nutrient reference standards developed for the United States and Canada by the Institute of Medicine, provide tools for dietary assessment and planning for individuals and groups. Because a distribution of requirements is provided for most nutrients, it is possible to estimate a probability of nutrient inadequacy for an individual's usual intake, and the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among the intakes of a group of people. The availability of a Tolerable Upper Intake Level for many nutrients also allows an evaluation of the risk of excessive intakes. However, some of these new applications are complex, and their implementation would be facilitated by better training aids and improved computer software. These new tools would help registered dietitians become more familiar with the appropriate applications of the Dietary Reference Intakes in the Nutrition Care Process, and better recognize both the benefits and challenges associated with their use. Ultimately, use of more comprehensive methods of assessing and planning nutrient intakes has the potential to further enhance recognition of registered dietitians' essential roles in nutrition care.

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Liberalization of the diet prescription improves quality of life for older adults in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedert, Kathleen C

    2005-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that the quality of life and nutritional status of older residents in long-term care facilities may be enhanced by liberalization of the diet prescription. The Association advocates the use of qualified dietetics professionals to assess and evaluate the need for medical nutrition therapy according to each person's individual medical condition, needs, desires, and rights. In 2003, ADA designated aging as its second "emerging" area. Nutrition care in long-term settings must meet two goals: maintenance of health and promotion of quality of life. The Nutrition Care Process includes assessment of nutritional status through development of an individualized nutrition intervention plan. Medical nutrition therapy must balance medical needs and individual desires and maintain quality of life. The recent paradigm shift from restrictive institutions to vibrant communities for older adults requires dietetics professionals to be open-minded when assessing risks vs benefits of therapeutic diets, especially for frail older adults. Food is an essential component of quality of life; an unacceptable or unpalatable diet can lead to poor food and fluid intake, resulting in weight loss and undernutrition and a spiral of negative health effects. Facilities are adopting new attitudes toward providing care. "Person-centered" or "resident-centered care" involves residents in decisions about schedules, menus, and dining locations. Allowing residents to participate in diet-related decisions can provide nutrient needs, allow alterations contingent on medical conditions, and simultaneously increase the desire to eat and enjoyment of food, thus decreasing the risks of weight loss, undernutrition, and other potential negative effects of poor nutrition and hydration.

  1. 美国营养教育和注册营养师培养制度%American dietetics education and registered dietitian training system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秀华; 唐文静; Susan Travis; 蔡威

    2009-01-01

    详细介绍了美国最具权威性的营养师资质"注册营养师"的培训、资格认定和获得注册资格后的继续教育项目.并以美国康奈尔大学营养科学系本科营养师课程项目和营养师实习项目为例,介绍了美国注册营养师培养单位的资质认定和培养营养师过程,特别是康奈尔大学营养实习地点、实习内容和方式.还介绍了美国注册营养师的就业单位等方面内容.%A registered dietitian credential is generally accepted and recognized as the most authoritative certificate of eligibility for American dietitians.In this article we describe in detail the American Registered Dieti-tian (RD) training system,administered by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education (CADE) and the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR) of the American Dietetic Association (ADA).Taking the Division of Nutritional Sciences of Cornell University as a good example of the RD training unit,we describe the Cornell Un-dergraduate Didactic Program in Dietetics and Dietetic Internship.Career opportunities and job outlook for Ameri-can registered dietitians are also presented.

  2. What factors are associated with the number of consultations per dietetic treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    van Tol, J.; Swinkels, I.; Veenhof, C.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the costs and effectiveness of dietetic healthcare. In order to study these effects, it is important to increase transparency in dietetic treatment, for example by comparing consultation sessions. This study examined variation and explored variables that were associated with the number of consultations per treatment. Data were used from the National Information Service for Allied Health Care (LiPZ). LiPZ is a Dutch registration network of allied healthcare professionals,...

  3. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  4. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26920240

  5. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26917108

  6. Consensus statement of the academy of nutrition and dietetics/american society for parenteral and enteral nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagno...

  7. Factors associated with the number of consultations per dietetic treatment: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Tol Jacqueline; Swinkels Ilse C; Spreeuwenberg Peter M; Leemrijse Chantal J; de Bakker Dinny H; Veenhof Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Greater understanding of the variance in the number of consultations per dietetic treatment will increase the transparency of dietetic healthcare. Substantial inter-practitioner variation may suggest a potential to increase efficiency and improve quality. It is not known whether inter-practitioner variation also exists in the field of dietetics. Therefore, the aims of this study are to examine inter-practitioner variation in the number of consultations per treatment and th...

  8. The Nutritional Status of Patients with Clostridium Difficile Associeated Disease and Dietetic Practices Concerning the Management of These Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of noscomial infection and is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality (Hookman & Barkin, 2009). There are limited data available on the nutritional status and dietetic management of these patients. Aims: 1. To carry out an observational study to assess the prevalence of the risk of malnutrition in patients with Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) and compare it to a group of patients in the same hospital. 2. To investi...

  9. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  10. Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: indicators recommended for the identification and documentation of pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patricia; Carney, Liesje Nieman; Corkins, Mark R; Monczka, Jessica; Smith, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan E; Spear, Bonnie A; White, Jane V

    2015-02-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), utilizing an evidence-informed, consensus-derived process, recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic indicators be used to identify and document pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition) in routine clinical practice. The recommended indicators include z scores for weight-for-height/length, body mass index-for-age, or length/height-for-age or mid-upper arm circumference when a single data point is available. When 2 or more data points are available, indicators may also include weight gain velocity (nutritional risk is not the purpose of this paper. Clinicians should use as many data points as available to identify and document the presence of malnutrition. The universal use of a single set of diagnostic parameters will expedite the recognition of pediatric undernutrition, lead to the development of more accurate estimates of its prevalence and incidence, direct interventions, and promote improved outcomes. A standardized diagnostic approach will also inform the prediction of the human and financial responsibilities and costs associated with the prevention and treatment of undernutrition in this vulnerable population and help to further ensure the provision of high-quality, cost-effective nutritional care.

  11. Factors associated with the number of consultations per dietetic treatment: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Jacqueline

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greater understanding of the variance in the number of consultations per dietetic treatment will increase the transparency of dietetic healthcare. Substantial inter-practitioner variation may suggest a potential to increase efficiency and improve quality. It is not known whether inter-practitioner variation also exists in the field of dietetics. Therefore, the aims of this study are to examine inter-practitioner variation in the number of consultations per treatment and the case-mix factors that explain this variation. Methods For this observational study, data were used from the National Information Service for Allied Health Care (LiPZ. LiPZ is a Dutch registration network of allied health care professionals, including dietitians working in primary healthcare. Data were used from 6,496 patients who underwent dietetic treatment between 2006 and 2009, treated by 27 dietitians working in solo practices located throughout the Netherlands. Data collection was based on the long-term computerized registration of healthcare-related information on patients, reimbursement, treatment and health problems, using a regular software program for reimbursement. Poisson multilevel regression analyses were used to model the number of consultations and to account for the clustered structure of the data. Results After adjusting for case-mix, seven percent of the total variation in consultation sessions was due to dietitians. The mean number of consultations per treatment was 4.9 and ranged from 2.3–10.1 between dietitians. Demographic characteristics, patients’ initiative and patients’ health problems explained 28% of the inter-practitioner variation. Certain groups of patients used significantly more dietetic healthcare compared to others, i.e. older patients, females, the native Dutch, patients with a history of dietetic healthcare, patients who started the treatment on their own initiative, patients with multiple diagnoses, overweight

  12. Adding cognitive therapy to dietetic treatment is associated with less relapse in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werrij, Marieke Q.; Mulkens, Sandra; Elgersma, Hermien J.; Ament, Andre J. H. A.; Hospers, Hann J.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of obesity is universally disappointing; although usually some weight loss is reported directly after treatment, eventual relapse to, or even above, former body weight is common. In this study it is tested whether the addition of cognitive therapy to a standard dietetic trea

  13. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Let’s Teach Our Children About Sleep How ...

  14. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  15. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  16. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  17. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living Conditions Caregiver ...

  18. American Diabetes Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2383) Give by Mail Close November is American Diabetes Month® Share your personal diabetes story and show ... Next » « Previous Our Mission: To prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people ...

  19. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  20. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  1. American Hospital Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    About AHA AHA Engaged Vision & Mission Organization Membership Careers Member Center The Value of Membership Constituency Sections Personal Membership Groups Associate Membership Regional Executives State Issues ...

  2. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  3. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision & Mission Board of Directors Fellows What is Occupational Health Nursing Public/Legislative Affairs AAOHN Alliances AAOHN Affiliates AAOHN ... Total Worker Health ® Agenda The American Association of Occupational ... nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission ...

  4. Roles of National and Local Governments and the Dietetic Association in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters: Systems and Experiences in Japan and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    In the first half of this symposium, the disaster response system in Japan will be introduced. The ultimate aim of nutrition assistance is to keep people in disaster areas healthy. This is a task for the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the health departments of prefectural governments. Our first speaker, Dr. Yasuhiro Kanatani, National Institute of Public Health, will briefly overview the disaster response system in Japan and its related laws. He will also mention how the Ministry responded to the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the second presentation, I will play one chapter of DVD that we released in last September. In that chapter, Ms. Makiko Sawaguchi, a registered dietitian working for a public health center in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, talks about her experience in supporting disaster victims. As an employee of Iwate Prefectural Government, she helped affected municipal governments and coordinated outside support. One type of outside support was registered dietitians dispatched by the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA). Dr. Nobuyo Tsuboyama-Kasaoka will report what those dietitians did in the affected areas. She will also explain the aim and training of the JDA-Disaster Assistance Team. Provision of food is essential in nutrition assistance. This is a task for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Our fourth speaker, Mr. Kunihiro Doi, analyzed the government procurement data and will discuss the limitations of government emergency food supplies and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake. As for the systems and experiences in the US, we invited Ms. Toni Abernathy from the Office of Emergency Management, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), United States Department of Agriculture.

  5. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  6. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Certification APRN Resources Education State-of-the-art educational programs provide evidence- based knowledge, directly applicable to practice ... Policy Disclaimer © American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Learn ...

  7. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice Management Research American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Making effective communication, a human right, accessible and ... for focused information and more. Join a SIG ASHA Corporate Partners Become A Corporate Partner Policies  About ...

  8. American Association of Colleges of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Interprofessional Education Public Health Nursing QSEN Module Series NURSING SHORTAGE RESOURCES About the Nursing Shortage I mpact ... Social Media Communities American Association of Colleges of Nursing One Dupont Circle, NW Suite 530 Washington, DC ...

  9. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Nutrition Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Susan L; Russell, Mary K; Mogensen, Kris M; Wooley, Jennifer A; Bobo, Elizabeth; Chen, Yimin; Malone, Ainsley; Roberts, Susan; Romano, Michelle M; Taylor, Beth

    2014-12-01

    This 2014 revision of the Standards of Practice (SOP) and Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for Registered Dietitians Nutritionists (RDNs) in Nutrition Support represents an update of the 2007 Standards composed by content experts of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The revision is based upon the Revised 2012 SOP in Nutrition Care and SOPP for RDs, which incorporates the Nutrition Care Process and the six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. These SOP and SOPP are designed to promote the provision of safe, effective, and efficient nutrition support services, facilitate evidence-based practice, and serve as a professional evaluation resource for RDNs who specialize or wish to specialize in nutrition support therapy. These standards should be applied in all patient/client care settings in which RDNs in nutrition support provide care. These settings include, but are not limited to, acute care, ambulatory/outpatient care, and home and alternate site care. The standards highlight the value of the nutrition support RDN's roles in quality management, regulatory compliance, research, teaching, consulting, and writing for peer-reviewed professional publications. The standards assist the RDN in nutrition support to distinguish his or her level of practice (competent, proficient, or expert) and would guide the RDN in creating a personal development plan to achieve increasing levels of knowledge, skill, and ability in nutrition support practice.

  10. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Nutrition Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Susan L; Russell, Mary K; Mogensen, Kris M; Wooley, Jennifer A; Bobo, Elizabeth; Chen, Yimin; Malone, Ainsley; Roberts, Susan; Romano, Michelle M; Taylor, Beth

    2014-12-01

    This 2014 revision of the Standards of Practice (SOP) and Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for Registered Dietitians Nutritionists (RDNs) in Nutrition Support represents an update of the 2007 Standards composed by content experts of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The revision is based upon the Revised 2012 SOP in Nutrition Care and SOPP for RDs, which incorporates the Nutrition Care Process and the six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. These SOP and SOPP are designed to promote the provision of safe, effective, and efficient nutrition support services, facilitate evidence-based practice, and serve as a professional evaluation resource for RDNs who specialize or wish to specialize in nutrition support therapy. These standards should be applied in all patient/client care settings in which RDNs in nutrition support provide care. These settings include, but are not limited to, acute care, ambulatory/outpatient care, and home and alternate site care. The standards highlight the value of the nutrition support RDN's roles in quality management, regulatory compliance, research, teaching, consulting, and writing for peer-reviewed professional publications. The standards assist the RDN in nutrition support to distinguish his or her level of practice (competent, proficient, or expert) and would guide the RDN in creating a personal development plan to achieve increasing levels of knowledge, skill, and ability in nutrition support practice. PMID:25362700

  11. American Evaluation Association: Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Evaluation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association (AEA) strives to promote ethical practice in the evaluation of programs, products, personnel, and policy. This article presents the list of principles which AEA developed to guide evaluators in their professional practice. These principles are: (1) Systematic Inquiry; (2) Competence; (3) Integrity/Honesty; (4)…

  12. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in nutrition support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Susan L; Russell, Mary K; Mogensen, Kris M; Wooley, Jennifer A; Bobo, Elizabeth; Chen, Yimin; Malone, Ainsley; Roberts, Susan; Romano, Michelle M; Taylor, Beth

    2014-12-01

    This 2014 revision of the Standards of Practice (SOP) and Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Nutrition Support represents an update of the 2007 Standards composed by content experts of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The revision is based on the Revised 2012 SOP in Nutrition Care and SOPP for RDs, which incorporates the Nutrition Care Process and the following six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. These SOP and SOPP are designed to promote the provision of safe, effective, and efficient nutrition support services; facilitate evidence-based practice; and serve as a professional evaluation resource for RDNs who specialize in or wish to specialize in nutrition support therapy. These standards should be applied in all patient/client care settings in which RDNs in nutrition support provide care. These settings include, but are not limited to, acute care, ambulatory/outpatient care, and home and alternate site care. The standards highlight the value of the nutrition support RDN's roles in quality management, regulatory compliance, research, teaching, consulting, and writing for peer-reviewed professional publications. The standards assist the RDN in nutrition support to distinguish his or her level of practice (competent, proficient, or expert) and would guide the RDN in creating a personal development plan to achieve increasing levels of knowledge, skill, and ability in nutrition support practice. PMID:25443567

  13. American Telemedicine Association: 2014 Fall Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The American Telemedicine Association (ATA will host its annual Fall Forum in Palm Desert, California, Sept. 6-9, 2014. In addition to two full days of programs related to managing and improving chronic conditions, ATA will host a full-day American-Chinese Telemedicine Forum on Sunday, Sept. 7, 2014. The forum, co-sponsored by the American International Telemedicine Council, will deliver the tools and information that are essential to building a successful telemedicine business abroad. Attendees will learn about the existing clinical and business landscape oftelemedicine in China, and how to establish key partnerships to help their respective health system, or business, grow in the international market.

  14. Abstracts from Dietetic Research Event: June 09-11, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Winnipeg, Manitoba was the host city of the 2016 Dietitians of Canada Annual Conference. Through the support of Dietitians of Canada and CFDR, the 2016 event was both an exciting and informative exchange of research and experience-sharing efforts that inspired attendees. The submissions for this year's Canadian Foundation for Dietetic Research (CFDR) event represented the diversity of dietetic research conducted within Canada. The topics highlighted from this year's abstracts include Community Based Nutritional Care, Wellness & Public Health, Determinants of Food Choice, Dietary Intake, Nutrition Health & Education, Dietetic Practice & Education, Clinical Research & Patient Service, and Nutrition Social Media & the Web. Each presenter provided an 11-minute oral presentation (8 minutes for presenting and 3 minutes for questions). This allowed for meaningful interaction between the presenters and those attending the sessions. This year there were professional and student oral research presentations on each day of the conference. These presentations offered the newest insights into important research findings that apply to dietetic practice. This research event would not be possible without the commitment and dedication of many people. On behalf of Dietitians of Canada and CFDR, I would like to extend a special thank you to the 2016 Abstract Review Committee who represented research, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, and education: Masha Jessri (Ph.D Candidate, University of Toronto), Joyce Slater (Associate Professor, University of Manitoba) and Miyoung Suh (Associate Professor, University of Manitoba). We would also like to thank all of our moderators who assisted during the conference to keep our research presentation sessions on time: Marcia Cooper, Miyoung Suh, Andrea Buchholz, Dawna Royall, Paul Fieldhouse, Joyce Slater, Isabelle Giroux, and Bethany Hopkins. Finally, a special thank you to Michelle Naraine and Greg Sarney at CFDR for their assistance and

  15. A Review of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating amongst Nutrition Students and Dietetic Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Heather Mciver; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    The diet industry and media have a powerful influence over women, leading many to believe that they must modify their appearance for societal acceptance. Dietetics, as one of many predominantly female professions, may be particularly vulnerable to these pressures. An integrative review process was used to examine eating disorders and disordered eating within the dietetics profession with the aim to both synthesize existing data and develop questions for future research. Seventeen articles were reviewed using broad search terms and dates because of the dearth of available literature. Given nutrition programs and dietetic practice often involve significant exposure to food, ideas and opinions about food, weight, and its place in health and dietetic practice researchers were compelled to ask "why". Findings were organized under 3 categories including thinness ideology, implications of food and body associated with nutrition or dietetic education, and establishment of a continuum. This review serves as a platform to inspire future research in an understudied but important topic related to dietetic education and practice. Minimally as a profession, baseline data need to be collected to understand the prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders along the continuum of practice in Canada. PMID:26067246

  16. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  17. Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tung T Nguyen; McPhee, Stephen J.; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Zhang, Lena; Wong, Ching; Maxwell, Annette E.; Bastani, Roshan; Taylor, Vicky M.; Chen, Moon S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 7–14% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites. OBJECTIVE Describe factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans. DESIGN A population-based telephone survey conducted in 2007–2008. PARTICIPANTS Vietnamese Americans age 18–64 and living in the Northern Californi...

  18. Comparative Evaluation of American Cancer Society and American Lung Association Smoking Cessation Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Harry A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of the American Cancer Society's "FreshStart," the American Lung Association's "Freedom from Smoking," and a laboratory smoking cessation clinic. A one-year followup favored the more intensive laboratory and "Freedom from Smoking" clinics over the "FreshStart" method. (FMW)

  19. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p < 0.05). Data of peroxide values were kept under the critical value reported for detection of organoleptic rancidity. Reported values of hedonic test showed that these dietetics pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers. PMID:11048573

  20. Faculty member receives American Agricultural Law Association highest honor

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    L. Leon Geyer of Blacksburg, Va., professor of agricultural and applied economics in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, has received the 2008 American Agricultural Law Association (AALA) Distinguished Service Award.

  1. Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tung T Nguyen; McPhee, Stephen J.; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Zhang, Lena; Wong, Ching; Maxwell, Annette E.; Bastani, Roshan; Taylor, Vicky M.; Chen, Moon S.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 7–14% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites. Describe factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans. A population-based telephone survey conducted in 2007–2008. Vietnamese Americans age 18–64 and living in the Northern California and Washington, DC areas (N = ...

  2. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Selecting Nutrient-Dense Foods for Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie D; Kandiah, Jayanthi; Maggi, Annette

    2016-09-01

    The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage selection of nutrient-dense foods for health promotion and disease prevention and management. The purpose of this Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics practice paper is to provide an update regarding the science and practice of nutrient-dense food identification and selection. Characterization of tools used to identify nutrient density of foods is provided and recommendations for how registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, might use available profiling tools to help consumers select nutrient-dense foods is discussed. PMID:27568089

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the Oenological Products and Practices International Association (OENOPPIA) on lysozyme from hen‟s egg to be used in the manufacture of wine as an anti-microbial stabilizer, /additive pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from the Oenological Products and Practices International Association (OENOPPIA) on lysozyme from hen‟s egg used...... in the manufacture of wine as an anti-microbial stabilizer/additive pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling. Allergic sensitisation against lysozyme is common among egg allergic individuals. In winemaking, lysozyme is used for the control of lactic acid...

  4. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  5. An Association Perspective: Responding to the American Dental Association's Future of Dentistry Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rowland A.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    In response to the American Dental Association's (ADA) Future of Dentistry Project, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) provided perspective on the most critical issues facing the dental profession. ADEA responded in six areas, each corresponding to areas of focus in the ADA project. This report reflects comments provided to the ADEA…

  6. Reading and analysis on management guidelines for hyperthyroidism published in 2011 by American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists published 'Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists', and created 100 evidence-based recommendations. The guideline systematically introduced the diagnoses and therapies of hyperthyroidism, emphasizing the indications, contraindications, preparations, methodologies and follow-up strategies. The guideline also provided detailed management principles for hyperthyroidism in children and pregnancy, Graves' ophthalmopathy and some unusual causes of hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  7. Canadian perspectives on the nutrition care process and international dietetics and nutrition terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marlis; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Hotson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits of adoption of the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) by Canadian dietitians, discuss implementation considerations for broad-based action and change, and determine future directions. The NCP and IDNT are recommended by the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations for international adoption as a framework for dietetic practice. The NCP uses a client-centred framework to clarify the role of registered dietitians (RDs), nutrition practice elements and skills, and the environments in which RDs practice. It also incorporates an evaluation framework, including identification of specific goals and monitoring of clinical and behavioural outcomes, to improve the quality and effectiveness of nutrition care. The process helps RDs to identify interventions that are more likely to improve nutrition outcomes by providing a systematic approach that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving. IDNT provides a standard set of core nutrition care terms and definitions for the four steps of the nutrition care process: assessment, nutrition diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring/evaluation. Use of IDNT promotes uniform documentation of nutrition care, enables differentiation of the type and amount of nutrition care provided, and provides a basis for linking nutrition care activities with actual or predicted outcomes. To continue to advance the dietetic profession in the Canadian health system, RDs must demonstrate their value by highlighting population, group, and individual health outcomes that are most influenced by the RD. The NCP and IDNT will help dietitians achieve these goals.

  8. Obesity in American Indian and Mexican American Men and Women: Associations with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, bl...

  9. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  10. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  11. Associations among Asian Americans' Enculturation, Emotional Experiences, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Lai, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Using a computer-based text analysis of 218 Asian Americans' writing samples, the authors found that enculturation as well as use of negative emotion and positive emotion words were associated with depressive symptoms. Enculturation was also found to moderate the relation between use of negative emotion words and cognitive--affective depressive…

  12. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to soy isoflavones and maintenance of bone mineral density (ID 1655) and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause (ID 1654, 1704, 2140, 3093, 3154, 3590

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to soy isoflavones...... and maintenance of bone mineral density and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim, soy isoflavones, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects, maintenance of bone mineral density and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated...... between the consumption of soy isoflavones and maintenance of bone mineral density, and between the consumption of soy isoflavones and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause....

  14. Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Robert A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher among African Americans (AA vs European Americans (EA, independent of obesity and other known confounders. Although the reason for this disparity is not known, it is possible that relatively low levels of vitamin D among AA may contribute, as vitamin D has been positively associated with insulin sensitivity in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D would be associated with a robust measure of insulin sensitivity in AA and EA women. Methods Subjects were 115 African American (AA and 137 European American (EA healthy, premenopausal women. Dietary intake was determined with 4-day food records; the insulin sensitivity index (SI with a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling; the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR with fasting insulin and glucose; and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Vitamin D intake was positively associated with SI (standardized β = 0.18, P = 0.05 and inversely associated with HOMA-IR (standardized β = -0.26, P = 0.007 in AA, and the relationships were independent of age, total body fat, energy intake, and % kcal from fat. Vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in EA (standardized β = 0.03, P = 0.74 and standardized β = 0.02, P = 0.85 for SI and HOMA-IR, respectively. Similar to vitamin D, dietary calcium was associated with SI and HOMA-IR among AA but not EA. Conclusions This study provides novel findings that dietary vitamin D and calcium were independently associated with insulin sensitivity in AA, but not EA. Promotion of these nutrients in the diet may reduce health disparities in type 2 diabetes risk among AA, although longitudinal and intervention studies are required.

  15. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the United…

  16. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  17. Communication in the Disciplines: Interpersonal Communication in Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to expand the scope of oral communication across the curriculum research by exploring oral genres in a dietetics curriculum from the perspective of the dietetics faculty. The goals of this qualitative study, couched within the communication in the disciplines framework, are to identify the oral genres integral to the study and…

  18. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: food and water safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Mildred M; Stretch, Theresa

    2014-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have access to a safe food and water supply. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics supports science-based food and water regulations and recommendations that are applied consistently across all foods and water regulated by all agencies and incorporate traceability and recall to limit food- and waterborne outbreaks. Registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered, are encouraged to participate in policy decisions, program development, and implementation of a food safety culture. Food safety affects all segments of the population in a global society, and, although the United States food and water system has many protections in place, food safety continues to be a public health concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in six Americans are sickened, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die annually from foodborne disease. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates for foodborne illness, it is estimated that the basic cost-of-illness averages $1,068/episode with a total annual cost of $51 billion. The food safety system is challenged by changing demographics, consumer preferences for convenience and variety, and issues of concern in the commercial food chain and in regulatory systems. The 2011-enacted Food Safety Modernization Act is an extensive expansion of federal food regulatory authority that mandates a risk-based food safety system approach and focuses on comprehensive science-based preventive measures across the total food safety system. Registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered, have unique roles in promoting and establishing food safety cultures in foodservice settings, clinical practices, community settings, and in public venues because their training integrates food; science; and health, both preventive and therapeutic.

  19. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention. PMID:9391932

  20. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention.

  1. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The goal of credentialed dietetics practitioners(RDs and DTRs) is to provide safe,culturally competent, quality care. Within the flexible and broad boundaries of the profession of nutrition and dietetics, RDs and DTRs assume accountability and responsibility for safe, ethical, and competent practice that achieves desirable outcomes. RDs and DTRs engage in continuing education and training to maintain currency,demonstrate competence, and advance their careers. The Academy developed this Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics overview document, as well as other resources, such as the Scope of Practice for the Registered Dietitian and the Scope of Practice for the Dietetic Technician, Registered to aid RDs and DTRs in assessing their individual scope of practice and, if applicable, statutory scope of practice,and to support RDs and DTRs in providing safe, quality food and nutrition services.The Scope of Practice Decision Tool,which is an online, interactive tool, assists RDs and DTRs in examining his or her individual scope of practice activities to meet the needs of quality food and nutrition services. PMID:23454018

  2. 76 FR 22709 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities, Inc. for Deeming Authority for... decision to approve the American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities...

  3. Relationship between soy and isoflavone intake and periodontal disease: The Freshmen in Dietetic Courses Study II

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo Hitomi; Murakami Kentaro; Sasaki Satoshi; Tanaka Keiko; Takahashi Yoshiko; Miyake Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Much research has shown that soy products inhibited various diseases. However, no published studies have examined the effects of consumption of soy and isoflavones on periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soy and isoflavone intake is associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods The subjects were 3956 Japanese female students, aged 18 to 22 years, who were taking a dietetic course. Periodontal disease was defined as present ...

  4. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements. PMID:27503067

  5. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements.

  6. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different

  7. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  8. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  9. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bowie, Janice V.; Juon, Hee-Soon; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Cho, Juhee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Hispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, "Hispanic" is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. Methods To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans li...

  10. American Telemedicine Association: First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/

  11. Food science instruction in undergraduate dietetic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deskins, B B; Spicher, C B

    1989-09-01

    To assess the current status of food science instruction in undergraduate dietetic education, a survey was conducted of those persons responsible for teaching this subject in 267 Plan IV and 65 Coordinated Undergraduate Programs. Responses were received from 155 institutions offering a total of 177 programs. Factors examined included the number and academic background of faculty members teaching food science, the structure of the first course in food science, the structure of advanced food science courses required or offered to undergraduate dietetic students, and perceived adequacy of course content. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents had or were candidates for doctoral degrees, and 37% had master's degrees. The results indicated that although all programs offered a beginning course in food science, the required prerequisites and level of difficulty of subject matter varied. Fifty-three percent of the programs required at least one advanced food science course. More than 95% of both beginning and advanced courses are structured to include both lecture and laboratory. Although a majority of respondents indicated satisfaction with the adequacy of course content currently being offered, many made recommendations for improvements. Other concerns included difficulty in locating textbooks and other suitable instructional materials, isolation from others teaching food science, and a lack of standards for content to be included in basic and advanced courses.

  12. A marketing model: applications for dietetic professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, S C; Moody, D L

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally, dietitians have communicated the availability of their services to the "public at large." The expectation was that the public would respond favorably to nutrition programs simply because there was a consumer need for them. Recently, however, both societal and consumer needs have changed dramatically, making old communication strategies ineffective and obsolete. The marketing discipline has provided a new model and new decision-making tools for many health professionals to use to more effectively make their services known to multiple consumer groups. This article provides one such model as applied to the dietetic profession. The model explores a definition of the business of dietetics, how to conduct an analysis of the environment, and, finally, the use of both in the choice of new target markets. Further, the model discusses the major components of developing a marketing strategy that will help the practitioner to be competitive in the marketplace. Presented are strategies for defining and re-evaluating the mission of the profession, for using future trends to identify new markets and roles for the profession, and for developing services that make the profession more competitive by better meeting the needs of the consumer.

  13. 77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ..., March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La... Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and... Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National...

  14. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2016-01-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for...

  15. American woodcock (Scolopax minor) mortality associated with a reovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.

  16. Dietetic recommendations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Alhambra-Expósito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that has a significant effect on patients’ physical, emotional, and social functioning. For decades, patients have used different diets to try to improve the symptoms of RA. The possible benefits of dietary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed in this article. Nutritional objectives for RA, are to halt the loss of bone mass, promote healing of bone fractures and improving bone-associated inflammatory disorders and joints. In general, diets low in saturated fat, rich in polyunsaturated fats: omega 3 and omega 6, rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber are recommended.

  17. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504583

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

    2012-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe. PMID:22709780

  20. Peculiar dietetic products (1900-1950 (II: scientism and advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Boatella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of the article “Peculiar dietetic products (1850-1950” (Act Diet. 2009; 13:27-30, this paper discusses various dietetic foods developed in Spain during the period 1900-1950. This time, the uniqueness of them focuses on aspects of their formulation (unreported, doubtful effectiveness, erroneous based on current knowledge, etc.. or with the advertising strategies used.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.3.10

  1. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Incarcerated African American Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026

  2. American Telemedicine Association: 18th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees.  The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:http://www.americantelemed.org.

  3. American Telemedicine Association: 19th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 American Telemedicine Association (ATA 2014 Annual International Meeting & Exposition, will be held May 18-20, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. ATA 2014 will bring together healthcare professionals, leading telemedicine programs, and industry. This meeting has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space for over 19 years. ATA 2014 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees. The exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The educational sessions at ATA 2014 will offer training, information, and updates on issues vital to the practice and industry of telemedicine.   Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and Continuing Medical Education (CME information--will be available January 2014 at: http://www.americantelemed.org.

  4. American Telemedicine Association: 20th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 American Telemedicine Association (ATA 2015 Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow, will be held May 3-5, 2015 at the Los Angeles Convention Center. ATA 2015 will bring together healthcare professionals, leading telemedicine programs, and industry. This meeting has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space for over 20 years.  The world-class, peer reviewed program will include over 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and delivery models in telemedicine. The expansive exhibit hall will host hundreds of leading vendors with groundbreaking remote healthcare technologies and services. The educational sessions at ATA 2015 will offer training, information, and updates on issues vital to the practice and industry of telemedicine.Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and Continuing Medical Education (CME information--will be available at: http://www.americantelemed.org/ata-2015/conference-overview

  5. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified.

  6. Media literacy: a critical role for dietetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Laurie A; Thompson, Angela M

    2005-01-01

    The mass media, including broadcast, electronic, and print media, have become entrenched in Canadians' daily lives. Spending the majority of their leisure time with mass media puts Canadians at increased health risk. Our review of the research literature shows that television (TV) viewing and content are linked to potential consumer health risks due to developed health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours. The associated health risks of children and youth are of particular concern. Excessive TV viewing has been associated with obesity development, increased energy consumption, reduced energy expenditure, negative body image development, and reduced concern with the concept of self-care. Media literacy, the ability to view critically and understand mediated messages, is a possible technique to mitigate these adverse effects. The enhanced inclusion of media literacy concepts in health education activities of dietetic practice is advocated. Dietitians could increase their understanding of research findings on the health-related effects of mass media use and the implications of including media literacy in daily practice. Such awareness would further augment available health promotion strategies.

  7. Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R Patel

    Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.

  8. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Campbell, Christina G

    2014-09-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child.Components leading to healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy pre-pregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Nutrition assessment needs to encompass changes in anthropometric,biochemical, and clinical indicators throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women should gain weight according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Energy needs are no higher than the Estimated Energy Requirement for nonpregnant women until the second trimester; thereafter, the extra energy need per day is 340 kcal and 452 kcal in the second and third trimesters,respectively. Using the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetics technicians, registered,can help pregnant women select a food plan based on age, physical activity, trimester, weight gain, and other considerations.Women are encouraged to participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity spread throughout the week or 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise on most days of the week.When good food choices are made, food consumption to meet extra energy needs and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy are generally adequate to meet most nutrient needs. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation may be important in vulnerable cases including food insecurity; alcohol, tobacco, or other substance dependency; anemia; strict vegetarian (vegan) diet; or poor eating habits. Multiple strategies are needed to support healthy lifestyles for all women, from preconception

  9. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J;

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...

  10. 77 FR 70446 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for Continuing CMS Approval of Its Ambulatory Surgical Center Accreditation Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid... Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for continued recognition as...

  11. Diet and dietetics in al-Andalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica

    2006-08-01

    Al-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in al-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in al-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy.

  12. DIETETICS IN AYURVEDA-THE FORGOTTEN SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, the world’s most comprehensive, personalized, holistic and sustainable health system based on sound philosophical and scientific principles, is now poised to regain the global leadership it lost in the 19th century. The science of Ayurveda is based on sound principles of its philosophy and not on mysticism, magic and anecdotes. Ayurveda is based on its unique principles of health and disease. The theories of Ayurveda were established by many ancient sages after rigorous testing in several ways and proving the same with reasoning. According to Ayurveda, Ahara i.e. diet is the best preventive medicine and is solely responsible for health and illness, sorrow and happiness. Although, specific drugs are required for management of specific diseases, Ahara is best of all the medicines.The need of the hour is to explore the potential of the science of dietetics in Ayurveda and find ways and means to adopt the recommendations of our ancient sages to achieve the ever cherished target of ‘Health for all’.

  13. AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION AND EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY GUIDELINES (2006 FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (ENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fuster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A report of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines.

  14. AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION AND EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY GUIDELINES (2006 FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (ENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fuster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A report of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines.

  15. Factors affecting a student's choice of dietetics as a profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, E J; Huyck, N I

    1992-08-01

    In order to design more effective recruitment strategies, 419 junior students in 38 coordinated dietetics programs completed self-administered questionnaires to identify factors that attracted them to the profession. The majority (43.9%) first became interested in a dietetics career while in college; 24.9% became interested before or during secondary school; and 17.7% were making a career change. Factors that most frequently led to a career in dietetics were a course in nutrition (32.9%), a friend or relative other than parent (31.0%), and a dietitian (30.3%). Students rated the opportunity to help others (95.2%) and the relationship of nutrition to health (94.0%) as characteristics of the profession that had a highly positive influence on their decision. Interests in health, disease, and health care (70.5%); teaching and health promotion (42.7%); sports and fitness (40.7%); counseling and behavior change (35.6%); and food and cooking (35.4%) were most frequently cited as influencing the choice of a dietetics career. Students were most interested in practicing dietetics as a consultant or in private practice (37.5%) or as a clinical dietitian (34.8%). New and innovative recruitment strategies should target high school and college students and pay special attention to second-career students. Interests such as health, disease, and health care and health promotion and characteristics of the profession such as the opportunity to help others attracted present dietetics students and should be emphasized in recruiting. The best marketing tools may be the practicing dietitian and a course in nutrition.

  16. The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K; Cockett, A T

    1992-11-01

    A symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was developed and validated by a multidisciplinary measurement committee of the American Urological Association (AUA). Validation studies were conducted involving a total of 210 BPH patients and 108 control subjects. The final AUA symptom index includes 7 questions covering frequency, nocturia, weak urinary stream, hesitancy, intermittence, incomplete emptying and urgency. On revalidation, the index was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and the score generated had excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.92). Scores were highly correlated with subjects' global ratings of the magnitude of their urinary problem (r = 0.65 to 0.72) and powerfully discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver operating characteristic area 0.85). Finally, the index was sensitive to change, with preoperative scores decreasing from a mean of 17.6 to 7.1 by 4 weeks after prostatectomy (p < 0.001). The AUA symptom index is clinically sensible, reliable, valid and responsive. It is practical for use in practice and for inclusion in research protocols.

  17. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  18. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups. PMID:25364834

  19. [The potentials for the dietetic therapy of alcoholic liver lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemaia, M A

    1990-01-01

    Most frequent and typical changes of the food status in patients with alcoholic diseases of the liver have been considered by the author. Typical concomitant gastroenterologic disorders in this category of patients have been described. The changes detected have required an adequate dietetic correction to eliminate the imbalance in nutrition and to stimulate the resources of the affected liver. The dietetic correction has proved to be sufficiently effective in most patients. The investigations conducted have shown the necessity of dietotherapy as an important component of the combined treatment of alcoholic affections of the liver. PMID:2399674

  20. Parental Factors Associated with Mexican American Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mogro-Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.

  1. Educational activities of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was incorporated in 1958. Among the main purposes of the Association as specified in its Articles of Incorporation is to 'promote the application of physics to medicine and biology, to encourage interest and training in medical physics and related fields, and to prepare and to disseminate technical information in medical physics and related fields'. AAPM's activities in education emanate primarily from its Educational and Science Councils, International Affairs Committee (IAC), Annual Meeting, Annual Summer School, Medical Physics journal, and Website (www.aapm.org). AAPM devotes nearly one third of its total budget to educational activities not only in the United States but also internationally, with many of the international activities being co-sponsored and/or in conjunction and cooperation with the International Organization of Medical Physics, International Atomic Energy Agency, and other international societies. The AAPM's IAC has subcommittees devoted to all regions of the earth including subcommittees for African Affairs, Asian Oceanic Affairs, European Affairs, Latin American Affairs, Middle East Affairs, and the Exchange Scientist Program. The AAPM includes under its umbrella of Education the creation of Task Group Reports on various training and standard of practice documents, teaching syllabi, slide sets, PowerPoint presentations, support of continuing educational meetings throughout the world including meetings in developing countries, and free access to most of the educational and professional modules on its website. The AAPM's Education Council oversees the activities of several committees and task groups dedicated to national and international educational activities for medical physicists as well as other health professional (such as physicians and medical technologists) via the activities of our committees on Continuing Professional Development, Education and Training of Medical

  2. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ..., March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La... that appeared in the Federal Register of June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35317). The document announced that Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM...

  3. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Dietetic Assistant. Visually Impaired. [Vol 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Barbara; And Others

    This instructional package is one of two designed for visually impaired students on the vocational area of dietetic assistant. The forty-seven learning modules are organized into three units: nutrition; menu planning and food ordering; and housekeeping and safety. Each module, printed in large block type, includes these elements: a performance…

  4. Reading and analysis on management guidelines for hypothyroidism published in 2012 by American thyroid association and American association of clinical endocrinologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists published Clinical Guideline for Hypothyroidism. The authors took an evidence-based medicine approach, and created 52 recommendations on 15 issues. The guideline emphasized that serum thyrotropin is the single best screening test for primary thyroid dysfunction for the vast majority of outpatient clinical situations. The standard treatment for hypothyroidism is replacement with L-thyroxine. The decision to treat subclinical hypothyroidism when the serum thyrotropin is less than 10 mIU/L should be tailored to the individual patient. (authors)

  5. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Pawlak, Roman

    2015-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that vegetarian diets can provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain health conditions, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Well-designed vegetarian diets that may include fortified foods or supplements meet current nutrient recommendations and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarians must use special care to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B-12. Vegetarian diets are primarily plant-based, comprised of grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables, and fruit; do not include flesh foods (beef, pork, poultry and fowl, wild game, and fish); and may or may not include some animal products, such as dairy (milk and milk products), eggs, and processed foods that contain casein or whey. Although vegetarians may have a higher deficiency risk for some nutrients (eg, vitamin B-12) compared to nonvegetarians, nutritional deficiencies are not the main causes of mortality or morbidity in Western societies. Vegetarian diets are associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer; low-fat vegetarian diets, in combination with other healthy lifestyle factors, have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Vegetarians have lower low-density lipoprotein, better serum glucose control, and lower oxidative stress. Low intake of foods containing saturated fat and cholesterol, and high intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, and soy products that are rich in fiber and phytochemicals are components of a vegetarian diet that contribute to reduction of chronic disease.

  6. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Pawlak, Roman

    2015-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that vegetarian diets can provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain health conditions, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Well-designed vegetarian diets that may include fortified foods or supplements meet current nutrient recommendations and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarians must use special care to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B-12. Vegetarian diets are primarily plant-based, comprised of grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables, and fruit; do not include flesh foods (beef, pork, poultry and fowl, wild game, and fish); and may or may not include some animal products, such as dairy (milk and milk products), eggs, and processed foods that contain casein or whey. Although vegetarians may have a higher deficiency risk for some nutrients (eg, vitamin B-12) compared to nonvegetarians, nutritional deficiencies are not the main causes of mortality or morbidity in Western societies. Vegetarian diets are associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer; low-fat vegetarian diets, in combination with other healthy lifestyle factors, have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Vegetarians have lower low-density lipoprotein, better serum glucose control, and lower oxidative stress. Low intake of foods containing saturated fat and cholesterol, and high intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, and soy products that are rich in fiber and phytochemicals are components of a vegetarian diet that contribute to reduction of chronic disease. PMID:25911342

  7. Ishwar Puri elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has awarded the distinction of Fellow to Ishwar Puri, head of the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics in the Virginia Tech College of Engineering.

  8. 77 FR 17068 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Application by the American Association for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Application by the American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Deeming... Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities ] (AAAASF) for recognition as a national accreditation...

  9. 75 FR 51464 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Continued Deeming Authority for Ambulatory Surgical Centers AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). ACTION: Final notice... for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities' (AAAASF) request for continued recognition as...

  10. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Practice Management and for Preventive Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. The guidelines were developed by the Sections on Community and Preventive Dentistry and Practice Administration. (MLW)

  11. American Urological Association survey of transurethral prostatectomy and the impact of changing medicare reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1990-08-01

    The American Urological Association, in a survey of all American urologists, found that TURP accounts for 38 per cent of their major surgery and also found that activities associated with the operation account for nearly 25 per cent of their total patient workload. American urologists regard TURP as complex, and they believe proficiency requires more practical case experience during residency training than is required for any other urologic operation. American urologists assign TURP a significantly higher relative value than that proposed in the pending national Medicare Fee Schedule formulated by medical economists and the Physician Payment Review Commission. The legislated reductions in allowable Medicare fees for TURP and the possible shift in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia to nonsurgical methods create a financial vulnerability for American urologists who remain economically dependent on this dominant operation. Adjustments in practice patterns and manpower policy planning may well be required.

  12. Association Between Asthma and Obesity Among Immigrant Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2001–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin J. Becerra; Scroggins, Christy M.; Monideepa B. Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001–2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime a...

  13. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans : the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unkno

  14. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  15. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous

  16. HPV Literacy and Associated Factors Among Hmong American Immigrants: Implications for Reducing Cervical Cancer Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Raiza; Simms, Tina; Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that certain minority and ethnic communities experience low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates despite a higher cervical cancer burden. HPV is known to be responsible for almost all cervical cancer cases. Hmong Americans, a growing Asian American population, appear to be at increased risk. The cervical cancer incidence rate among Hmong American women is three times higher than other Asian/Pacific Islanders and more than four times higher than Non-Hispanic Whites. Despite such alarming statistics, there is limited research focusing on HPV literacy and its associated factors in the Hmong American community. This study's objectives are to investigate: (1) the level of HPV knowledge among Hmong Americans; (2) HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates of Hmong Americans; and (3) factors associated with HPV literacy in the Hmong American community. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the study's theoretical framework. A self-administered paper and online health survey was completed by192 Hmong Americans living in a major metropolitan area in Minnesota. Results revealed a mean score of 4.76 (SD 1.67) for the 7-item questionnaire measuring HPV knowledge. The HPV vaccination initiation rate was 46.3 % (n = 56), with 32.7 % completing the recommended three doses. Multiple regression analysis found that participants' level of education, number of doctor visits, and cervical cancer screening literacy were significantly associated with HPV knowledge. This study's results indicate the important role of health providers in educating Hmong Americans patients about HPV and cervical cancer prevention to decrease the cervical cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:26696118

  17. Polymorphic allele of human IRGM1 is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Y King

    Full Text Available An ancestral polymorphic allele of the human autophagy-related gene IRGM1 is associated with altered gene expression and a genetic risk for Crohn's Disease (CD. We used the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10065172C/T as a marker of this polymorphic allele and genotyped 370 African American and 177 Caucasian tuberculosis (TB cases and 180 African American and 110 Caucasian controls. Among African Americans, the TB cases were more likely to carry the CD-related T allele of rs10065172 (odds ratio of 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.02; P<0.01 compared to controls. Our finding suggests that this CD-related IRGM1 polymorphic allele is also associated with human susceptibility to TB disease among African Americans.

  18. Characterization of genome-wide association-identified variants for atrial fibrillation in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica T Delaney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a greater burden of risk factors, atrial fibrillation (AF is less common among African Americans than European-descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS for AF in European-descent populations have identified three predominant genomic regions associated with increased risk (1q21, 4q25, and 16q22. The contribution of these loci to AF risk in African American is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 73 African Americans with AF from the Vanderbilt-Meharry AF registry and 71 African American controls, with no history of AF including after cardiac surgery. Tests of association were performed for 148 SNPs across the three regions associated with AF, and 22 SNPs were significantly associated with AF (P<0.05. The SNPs with the strongest associations in African Americans were both different from the index SNPs identified in European-descent populations and independent from the index European-descent population SNPs (r(2<0.40 in HapMap CEU: 1q21 rs4845396 (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.67, P = 0.003, 4q25 rs4631108 (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.59-7.42, P = 0.002, and 16q22 rs16971547 (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.46-45.4, P = 0.016. Estimates of European ancestry were similar among cases (23.6% and controls (23.8%. Accordingly, the probability of having two copies of the European derived chromosomes at each region did not differ between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Variable European admixture at known AF loci does not explain decreased AF susceptibility in African Americans. These data support the role of 1q21, 4q25, and 16q22 variants in AF risk for African Americans, although the index SNPs differ from those identified in European-descent populations.

  19. Valuation and the American Evaluation Association: Helping 100 Flowers Bloom, or at Least Be Understood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The author explores the challenges encountered when organizations attempt to facilitate evaluation and improvement through policy statements of professional associations. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is used as an example. Various AEA statements are described as general and avoiding particular value preferences. The author concludes…

  20. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013... updated Guidelines. DATES: Public concerns regarding the updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia...

  1. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  2. Review of Indigenous Health Curriculum in Nutrition and Dietetics at One Australian University: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M.; Mehta, Kaye; Miller, Jacqueline; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Jackson, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda; Miller, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a review undertaken in 2012-2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of…

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish) consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    , Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury. In the present Opinion, the NDA Panel has reviewed the role of seafood in European diets and evaluated the beneficial...... of mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption...... of about 1‑2 servings of seafood per week and up to 3‑4 servings per week during pregnancy has been associated with better functional outcomes of neurodevelopment in children compared to no consumption of seafood. Such amounts have also been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease mortality...

  4. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children. PMID:20797479

  5. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  6. Employers' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Policies on Hiring of Graduates of Online Dietetic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehpahlavan, Jaleh

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative explorative study explored dietetic employers' perceptions, attitudes, and policies regarding hiring of online dietetic graduates; how their perceptions were formed; and factors contributing to their development. Higher educational institutions and learners have embraced online education, evidenced by increased online program…

  7. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  8. Bibliographic Services of the American Historical Association: Recently Published Articles and Writings on American History. A Report of the ABH/AHA Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrank, Lawrence J.; And Others

    The American Historical Association (AHA) has been providing bibliographic services for its membership by reviewing the monographic literature in the "American Historical Review" (AHR), using a list of books the AHA receives, and employing its periodical current awareness service comprised of "Recently Published Articles" (RPA) and its spinoff,…

  9. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics Associated with Pulmonary Hypertension in African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Gaurav; Jankowich, Matthew; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. It is frequently associated with cardiopulmonary diseases that are prevalent in African Americans (AAs). However, the prevalence or determinants of PH in the AA population is not known. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of PH (defined as trans-tricuspid gradient ≥ 35 mm Hg) and associated clinical characteristics in AAs using the Jackson Heart Study cohort (n=3,28...

  10. 2011 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…

  11. Factors associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen research among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanzhen; Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-04-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  12. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira ER

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Ramos Vieira,1,2 Ruth Tappen,3 Gabriella Engstrom,3 Bruno R da Costa11Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Neuroscience, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 3Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAPurpose: To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups.Participants and methods: Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics.Results: Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0, having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013, back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8, feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7, and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6 were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups.Conclusion: Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging.Keywords: ethnicity, falls, risks, community dwelling, older adults

  13. Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2008;108(10):1716–1731. [ Top ] What foods have fiber? Examples of foods that have fiber ...

  14. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia. PMID:7474278

  15. AERA Code of Ethics: American Educational Research Association Approved by the AERA Council February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) articulates a common set of values upon which education researchers build their professional and scientific work. The Code is intended to provide both the principles and the rules to cover professional situations encountered by education researchers. It has as its primary…

  16. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to repeal extant…

  17. Neuropsychological Training in American Psychological Association-Accredited and Nonaccredited School Psychology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Rik Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines whether American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited and nonaccredited programs differ in views and offerings of neuropsychological training. Of 72 programs surveyed, 59 percent of APA-accredited programs and 53 percent of nonaccredited programs offered course work in neuropsychology. Found that students viewed neuropsychological…

  18. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  19. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  20. American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

    2012-01-01

    The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the…

  1. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  2. Expanding the Epistemological Terrain: Increasing Equity and Diversity within the American Educational Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the quest for civil rights by African Americans and other groups of color reverberated throughout the United States and the world, including within educational professional and research organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of…

  3. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  4. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Louisa A; Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  5. Spirituality and Counselor Competence: A National Survey of American Counseling Association Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. Scott; Wiggins-Frame, Marsha; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2007-01-01

    A random sample of 505 American Counseling Association (ACA) members completed a questionnaire that evaluated respondents' ratings of the importance of 9 competencies developed at the Summit on Spirituality (G. Miller, 1999; "Summit Results," 1995) meetings to effectively address spiritual and religious issues in counseling practice. Results…

  6. Albinism in the american mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud;

    2008-01-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the prodicted...

  7. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  8. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea; Vissenberg, Kris; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2016-04-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for amplifying the genomic DNA and cDNA at the beginning of intron 2 of AP TYRP1 revealed the presence of a large insertion of approximately eight kb. The insertion most likely disrupts different elements necessary for the splicing of intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene. In AP RNAseq data indicate, however, the presence of the wild-type (wt) transcript at very low levels and Western blot reveals three products when using an antibody raised against middle part of the TYRP1 protein. One individual from another brown mink phenotype-commercially named Dawn-was also investigated at the molecular level by long-range PCR and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown. PMID:26886941

  9. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  10. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  11. Insulin Promoter Factor 1 variation is associated with type 2 diabetes in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective insulin secretion is a key defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM. The β-cell specific transcription factor, insulin promoter factor 1 gene (IPF1, is essential to pancreatic development and the maintenance of β-cell mass. We hypothesized that regulatory or coding variants in IPF1 contribute to defective insulin secretion and thus T2DM. Methods We screened 71 Caucasian and 69 African American individuals for genetic variants in the promoter region, three highly conserved upstream regulatory sequences (PH1, PH2 and PH3, the human β-cell specific enhancer, and the two exons with adjacent introns. We tested for an association of each variant with T2DM Caucasians (192 cases and 192 controls and African Americans (341 cases and 186 controls. Results We identified 8 variants in the two populations, including a 3 bp insertion in exon 2 (InsCCG243 in African Americans that resulted in an in-frame proline insertion in the transactivation domain. No variant was associated with T2DM in Caucasians, but polymorphisms at -3766 in the human β-cell enhancer, at -2877 bp in the PH1 domain, and at -108 bp in the promoter region were associated with T2DM in African American subjects (p Conculsion The common alleles of regulatory variants in the 5' enhancer and promoter regions of the IPF1 gene increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes among African American individuals, likely as a result of gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. In contrast, IPF1 is not a cause of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians. A previously described InsCCG243 variant may contribute to diabetes susceptibility in African American individuals, but is of low penetrance.

  12. The Association Between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Activities Among African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Brunner Huber, Larissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform varying forms of self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy to manage hypertension and six clinically prescribed hypertension self-care behaviors. We interviewed 190 African Americans with hypertension who resided in the greater metropolitan Charlotte area about their self-efficacy a...

  13. TREM2 is associated with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Sheng Chih; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Benitez, Bruno A.; Skorupa, Tara; Carrell, David; Patel, Dwani; Lincoln, Sarah; Krishnan, Siddharth; Kachadoorian, Michaela; Reitz, Christiane; Mayeux, Richard; Wingo, Thomas S.; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Murrell, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background TREM2 encodes for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 and has rare, coding variants that associate with risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) in Caucasians of European and North-American origin. This study evaluated the role of TREM2 in LOAD risk in African-American (AA) subjects. We performed exonic sequencing and validation in two independent cohorts of >800 subjects. We selected six coding variants (p.R47H, p.R62H, p.D87N, p.E151K, p.W191X, and p.L211P) for...

  14. Continuous improvement in dietetics education with a regional advisory board: a model that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rose L

    2003-08-01

    Continuous improvement has been a focus of business and health care for years. The Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education has also identified the need for continuous improvement in dietetics education programs and requires them to seek outside counsel to help accomplish it. Most dietetics education programs develop advisory boards to provide this outside counsel, but finding individuals to commit to an ongoing advisory board can be challenging. Dietetics internship directors from dietetics practicum programs throughout Arizona created the Arizona Dietetic Practicum Advisory Committee (AzDPAC), which uses suggestions from preceptors, interns, and committee members to generate ideas for improvement. Since the conception of AzDPAC both tangible and intangible outcomes have occurred. Tangible outcomes include better coordination among programs, development of a combined annual affiliate meeting, standardization of forms, creation of a combined "Clinical Bootcamp," development of a Web page describing all programs, and better networking among interns from different programs. In addition, AzDPAC improved cooperation and sharing of expertise and created an available group of peers for new directors. An advisory committee of regional program directors is a model that works in providing dietetics education programs with ongoing outside counsel and ideas for continuous improvement. PMID:12891153

  15. Academy of nutrition and dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in sports nutrition and dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmuller, Patricia L; Kruskall, Laura J; Karpinski, Christine A; Manore, Melinda M; Macedonio, Michele A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2014-04-01

    Sports nutrition and dietetics addresses relationships of nutrition with physical activity, including weight management, exercise, and physical performance. Nutrition plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and for maintenance of health, and the ability to engage in physical activity, sports, and other aspects of physical performance. Thus, the Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance as a resource for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this emerging practice area. The revised document reflects advances in sports nutrition and dietetics practice since the original standards were published in 2009 and replaces those standards. The Standards of Practice represents the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance covers six standards of professional performance: quality in practice, competence and accountability, provision of services, application of research, communication and application of knowledge, and utilization and management of resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standards can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists in sports nutrition and dietetics practice.

  16. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  17. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholette D Palmer

    Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.

  18. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2012 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for Dietetic Technicians, Registered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    DTRs face complex situations every day. Competently addressing the unique needs of each situation and applying standards appropriately is essential to providing safe, timely, person-centered quality care and service. All DTRs are advised to conduct their practice based on the most recent edition of the Academy's Code of Ethics and the Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics, the Scope of Practice for the DTR, the 2012 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for DTRs. These resources provide minimum standards and tools for demonstrating competence and safe practice, and are used collectively to gauge and guide a DTR's performance in nutrition and dietetics practice. The SOP and SOPP for the DTR are self-evaluation tools that promote quality assurance and performance improvement. Self-assessment provides opportunities to identify areas for enhancement, new learning and skill development, and to encourage progression of career growth. All DTRs are advised to have in their personal libraries the most recent copy of the Academy's Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics and its components: The 2012 Academy Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for DTRs; the Code of Ethics; and the Scope of Practice for the DTR. To ensure that credentialed dietetics practitioners always have access to the most current materials, each resource is maintained on the Academy's website. The documents will continue to be reviewed and updated as new trends in the profession of nutrition and dietetics and external influences emerge. PMID:23454022

  19. Delegation of China-Latin America Friendship Association Visits Four Latin American Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Cheng Siwei,former Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and President of the China -Latin America Friendship Association (CLAFA),led a CLAFA delegation on a visit to four Central and South American countries from October 25 to November 11,2009 during which they met national leaders and other influential persons in the fields of foreign and cul-

  20. How Planners Deal with Uncomfortable Knowledge: The Dubious Ethics of the American Planning Association

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Flyvbjerg

    2013-01-01

    With a point of departure in the concept "uncomfortable knowledge," this article presents a case study of how the American Planning Association (APA) deals with such knowledge. APA was found to actively suppress publicity of malpractice concerns and bad planning in order to sustain a boosterish image of planning. In the process, APA appeared to disregard and violate APA's own Code of Ethics. APA justified its actions with a need to protect APA members' interests, seen as preventing planning a...

  1. Multi-modality Imaging: Bird's eye view from the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J; Lloyd, Steven G; Chaudhry, Farooq A; AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-04-01

    Multiple novel studies were presented at the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions which was considered a successful conference at many levels. In this review, we will summarize key studies in nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and cardiac computed tomography that were presented at the Sessions. We hope that this bird's eye view will keep readers updated on the newest imaging studies presented at the meeting whether or not they were able to attend the meeting.

  2. The Policy Views of American Economic Association Members: The Results of a New Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Whaples

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a 2007 policy-views survey of a random sample of members of the American Economic Association. The new survey contains questions about many policy issues not treated by previous surveys. The questions treat such issues as trade restrictions, social insurance for those put out of work by international competition, genetically modified foods, curbside recycling, health insurance (several questions), medical malpractice, barriers to entering the medical profe...

  3. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T. L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide associati...

  4. Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeejeebhoy, Farida M; Zelop, Carolyn M; Lipman, Steve; Carvalho, Brendan; Joglar, Jose; Mhyre, Jill M; Katz, Vern L; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Einav, Sharon; Warnes, Carole A; Page, Richard L; Griffin, Russell E; Jain, Amish; Dainty, Katie N; Arafeh, Julie; Windrim, Rory; Koren, Gideon; Callaway, Clifton W

    2015-11-01

    This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on maternal resuscitation. This document will provide readers with up-to-date and comprehensive information, guidelines, and recommendations for all aspects of maternal resuscitation. Maternal resuscitation is an acute event that involves many subspecialties and allied health providers; this document will be relevant to all healthcare providers who are involved in resuscitation and specifically maternal resuscitation.

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci association with fasting insulin and insulin resistance in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanjie; Bentley, Amy; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Shriner, Daniel; Zhou, Jie; Doumatey, Ayo; Huang, Hanxia; Ramos, Edward; Erdos, Michael; Gerry, Norman; Herbert, Alan; Christman, Michael; Rotimi, Charles

    2012-10-15

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a key determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic disorders. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) was designed to shed light on the genetic basis of fasting insulin (FI) and IR in 927 non-diabetic African Americans. 5 396 838 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for associations with FI or IR with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension status and first two principal components. Genotyped SNPs (n = 12) with P KLF14 and PPARG) which exert their action via IR. In summary, variants in/near SC4MOL, and TCERG1L were associated with FI and IR in this cohort of African Americans and were replicated in West Africans. SC4MOL is under-expressed in an animal model of T2D and plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis, with implications for the regulation of energy metabolism, obesity and dyslipidemia. TCERG1L is associated with plasma adiponectin, a key modulator of obesity, inflammation, IR and diabetes. PMID:22791750

  6. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response. PMID:26757982

  7. Genome-wide association studies of the PR interval in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gustav Smith

    Full Text Available The PR interval on the electrocardiogram reflects atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction time. The PR interval is heritable, provides important information about arrhythmia risk, and has been suggested to differ among human races. Genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified common genetic determinants of the PR interval in individuals of European and Asian ancestry, but there is a general paucity of GWA studies in individuals of African ancestry. We performed GWA studies in African American individuals from four cohorts (n = 6,247 to identify genetic variants associated with PR interval duration. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. Imputation was performed for 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using combined YRI and CEU HapMap phase II panels. We observed a strong signal (rs3922844 within the gene encoding the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A with genome-wide significant association (p<2.5 x 10⁻⁸ in two of the four cohorts and in the meta-analysis. The signal explained 2% of PR interval variability in African Americans (beta  = 5.1 msec per minor allele, 95% CI  = 4.1-6.1, p = 3 x 10⁻²³. This SNP was also associated with PR interval (beta = 2.4 msec per minor allele, 95% CI = 1.8-3.0, p = 3 x 10⁻¹⁶ in individuals of European ancestry (n = 14,042, but with a smaller effect size (p for heterogeneity <0.001 and variability explained (0.5%. Further meta-analysis of the four cohorts identified genome-wide significant associations with SNPs in SCN10A (rs6798015, MEIS1 (rs10865355, and TBX5 (rs7312625 that were highly correlated with SNPs identified in European and Asian GWA studies. African ancestry was associated with increased PR duration (13.3 msec, p = 0.009 in one but not the other three cohorts. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of common variants to African Americans at four loci previously associated with PR interval in European and

  8. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Carol G; Bader, Shelley A

    2003-04-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.

  9. An evaluation of a community dietetics intervention on the management of malnutrition for healthcare professionals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S

    2010-12-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community setting have limited knowledge of the evidence-based management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to evaluate a community dietetics intervention, which included an education programme for healthcare professionals in conjunction with the introduction of a community dietetics service for patients \\'at risk\\' of malnutrition. Changes in nutritional knowledge and the reported management of malnourished patients were investigated and the acceptability of the intervention was explored.

  10. Prevalence and magnitude of body weight and image dissatisfaction among women in dietetics majors

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Izaga, Marta; Basabe, Nekane; Serrano, Leticia; Sánchez, Celia; Ansotegui Alday, Laura; Rocandio Pablo, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Some authors have suggested that body weight dissatisfaction may be high in students majoring in dietetics. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the extent of body weight and image dissatisfaction in a sample of women in dietetics major. Additionally, predictors of magnitude of body weight dissatisfaction were analyzed. Participants were 62 volunteers with normalweight whose mean age was 21.87±1.89 years old (nonrandom sample). The assessment instruments included anthropometric...

  11. An Evaluation of a Community Dietetics Intervention on the Management of Malnutrition for Healthcare Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Kennelly, Sharon, (Thesis); Kennedy, N. P.; Flanaghan-Rughoobur, G.; Glennon-Slattery, C.; Sugrue, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Background: Healthcare professionals working in the community setting have limited knowledge of the evidence-based management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to evaluate a community dietetics intervention, which included an education programme for healthcare professionals in conjunction with the introduction of a community dietetics service for patients ‘at risk’ of malnutrition. Changes in nutritional knowledge and the reported management of malnourished patients were investigated...

  12. Prospective associations of coronary heart disease loci in African Americans using the MetaboChip : The PAGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Franceschini (Nora); Hu, Y. (Yijuan); A. Reiner (Alexander); Buyske, S. (Steven); M.A. Nalls (Michael); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Y. Li (Yun); Hindorff, L.A. (Lucia A.); Cole, S.A. (Shelley A.); Howard, B.V. (Barbara V.); Stafford, J.M. (Jeanette M.); C. Carty (Cara); P. Sethupathy (Praveen); Martin, L.W. (Lisa W.); D.Y. Lin (Dan); Johnson, K.C. (Karen C.); L.C. Becker (Lewis); K.E. North (Kari); A. Dehghan (Abbas); J.C. Bis (Joshua); Y. Liu (Yongmei); P. Greenland (Philip); J.E. Manson (Joann); Maeda, N. (Nobuyo); M.E. Garcia (M.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D.M. Becker (Diane); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); G. Heiss (Gerardo); Kooperberg, C. (Charles); E. Boerwinkle (Eric)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD,

  13. An Analysis of Independent, Non-Academic Characteristics of Chinese and American Business Students Associated with Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…

  14. Dietetic preceptor educational needs from the preceptor, student, and faculty perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E Laurette; Hasseberg, Cindy M; Anderson, Mark A; Knehans, Allen W

    2010-01-01

    Quality dietetic education relies on strong preceptors to encourage, motivate, and teach dietetic students so that they can excel as practitioners. The purpose of this study was to examine the needs of dietetic preceptors, determine how those needs should be met, and suggest who can best address those needs. Grounded theory methodology was used to design this study of preceptor needs. Focus groups and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 22 preceptors, 5 former students, and 4 faculty members of a clinical dietetic training program. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The central category/ factor that influenced preceptor participation and effectiveness was determined to be lack of time. Preceptors felt they did not have sufficient time to devote to precepting students. Other categories found to be important for successful precepting included student-preceptor orientation, the teaching-learning environment, views of dietetic professionalism, and the responsibilities and rewards of precepting. Based on the themes that emerged with this grounded theory methodology, this study suggests that preceptors should be trained in the following five areas: 1) basic teaching skills, 2) time management strategies, 3) methods for coaching students, 4) adult learning styles, and 5) methods for providing constructive feedback. This training should increase the likelihood that the experience will be both time-efficient and successful for the preceptor, student, and faculty involved. This should improve the effectiveness of preceptors as educators, which should consequently facilitate recruitment and retention of dietetic preceptors. PMID:21184025

  15. The American Association of Plastic Surgeons Recent History, with a Review of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, W Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The American Association of Plastic Surgeons was founded in 1921 and is the oldest of the plastic surgery societies. It was born out of the enthusiasm of reconstructive surgeons who had recently increased in numbers and expanded the scope of their activities as a result of the challenges posed by battle-injured soldiers during World War I. Early meetings were small, focused exclusively on the head and neck, and often included live surgical demonstrations. The Association has grown in size and scope with time, but it has maintained its academic focus. This article focuses on the most recent 15 years of the Association's history, as prior publications have chronicled the history of the organization up to 2000. The organization has remained robust in the new millennium, with the national meetings being its most prominent activity. The format of the meetings has continually been improved to remain relevant and of interest to the membership and other attendees. The organization continues to support the development of young academic plastic surgeons through the Academic Scholars Program. It has established new programs such as the Constable Fellowship to support international exchange and has also sponsored two consensus conferences to help define standards of care in plastic surgery-related issues. The Association annually recognizes significant contributors to the field through the variety of awards that it bestows as well. The mission of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons is to provide scholarly leadership in plastic surgery, and the organization continues to successfully accomplish this mission. PMID:27348660

  16. Dietetic management in gastrointestinal complications from antimalignant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto-Lima, L; Martins de Andrade, E; Gomes, A P; Geller, M; Siqueira-Batista, R

    2012-01-01

    Antineoplastic chemotherapy (CT) represents the systemic treatment of malignant tumors. It can be used alone or combined with surgery and / or radiotherapy. The cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy work on both cancerous cells and noncancerous cells of the body, generally resulting in high toxicity. The biological aggressiveness of chemotherapy particularly affects rapidly replicating cells, such as those of the digestive tract, resulting in adverse effects that impair food intake, leading to compromised nutritional status and which may lead to cachexia. The main toxic effects of chemotherapy in the gastrointestinal tract include nausea, vomiting -these are the most frequent- constipation, diarrhea, xerostomia, mucositis, dysphagia and anorexia. Given the high frequency of such effects, nutritional intervention should be an integral part of cancer treatment, to maintain and/or improve the patient's nutritional status and reduce or minimize the side effects caused by treatment. Accordingly, the goal of this study is to review dietetic conduct in the process of caring for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

  17. Menu planning competencies in administrative dietetic practice. I. The methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Spears, M C; Vaden, A G

    1979-06-01

    This research was intended to develop a methodology to analyze competencies in one area of administrative dietetic practice--menu planning. Five basic competencies, with sub-competencies, in menu planning were drawn from previous research. To produce descriptive statements for each sub-competency, taped interviews were held with twenty practitioners to ascertain knowledge, attitudes, and skills required in menu planning. The original 607 responses were reduced to ninety-two by eliminating duplication and ranking them by importance. These were then expressed in appropriate behavioral terminology and validated by an educational consultant. The competency statements and sub-competencies with the ninety-two descriptors were incorporated into a questionnaire submitted to a nationwide sample of hospital administrative and generalist dietitians for further validation. PMID:447968

  18. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M

    2016-09-27

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes.

  20. Comments to guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Viktorovich Fadeev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the discussion about to guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement.

  1. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  2. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. PMID:26514720

  3. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael D., E-mail: mdmill03@exchange.louisville.edu

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed.

  4. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian. PMID:26861958

  5. The American Association for Thoracic Surgery Consensus Guidelines: Reasons and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lars G; Gillinov, A Marc; Weisel, Richard D; Keshavjee, Shaf; Bacha, Emile A; Moon, Marc R; Cameron, Duke E; Sugarbaker, David J; Adams, David H; Gaynor, J William; Coselli, Joseph S; Del Nido, Pedro J; Jones, David; Sundt, Thoralf M; Cohn, Lawrence H; Pomar, Jose L; Lytle, Bruce W; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2016-04-01

    The time interval for the doubling of medical knowledge continues to decline. Physicians, patients, administrators, government officials, and payors are struggling to keep up to date with the waves of new information and to integrate the knowledge into new patient treatment protocols, processes, and metrics. Guidelines, Consensus Guidelines, and Consensus Statements, moderated by seasoned content experts, offer one method to rapidly distribute new information in a timely manner and also guide minimal standards of treatment of clinical care pathways as they are developed as part of bundled care programs. These proposed Consensus Guidelines advance The American Association for Thoracic Surgery's mission of leading in cardiothoracic health care, education, innovation, and modeling excellence.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of vitamin D and to provide, if necessary, revised Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) of vitamin D for all relevant population groups. The ULs...... for adults including pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents were revised. For adults, hypercalcaemia was selected as the indicator of toxicity. In two studies in men, intakes between 234 and 275 µg/day were not associated with hypercalcaemia, and a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL......) of 250 µg/day was established. Taking into account uncertainties associated with these studies, the UL for adults including pregnant and lactating women was set at 100 µg/day. Despite a continuing paucity of data for high vitamin D intakes in children and adolescents, the UL was adapted to 100 µg...

  7. Genetic Association Analysis of 30 Genes Related to Obesity in a European American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Lin, Wan-Yu; Allison, David B.; Chung, Wendy K.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity, which is frequently associated with diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, is primarily the result of a net excess of caloric intake over energy expenditure. Human obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes mediating susceptibility in non-syndromic obesity remain unclear. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with body mass index (BMI). Methods We re-analyzed 355 common genetic variants of 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in 1,982 unrelated European Americans from the New York Health Project. Data were analyzed by using a Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear model. The BMIs were log-transformed and then adjusted for covariates including age, age2, gender, and diabetes status. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modeled as additive effects. Results With the stipulated adjustments, nine SNPs in eight genes were significantly associated with BMI: GHRL (rs35683), AGRP (rs5030980), CPE (rs1946816 and rs4481204), GLP1R (rs2268641), HTR2A (rs912127), NPY5R (Y5R1c52), SOCS3 (rs4969170), and STAT3 (rs4796793). We also found a gender-by-SNP interaction (rs1745837 in HTR2A), which indicated that variants in the gene HTR2A had a stronger association with BMI in males. In addition, NPY1R was detected as having a significant gene effect even though none of the SNPs in this gene was significant. Conclusion Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3, and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans. The pathways in which these genes participate regulate energy intake and thus these associations are mechanistically plausible in this context. PMID:23900445

  8. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  9. Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in American Bulldogs Is Associated With NIPAL4 (ICHTHYIN) Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, E A; Wang, P; Evans, E; Cantner, C A; Ferracone, J D; Credille, K M; Casal, M L

    2015-07-01

    A minority of patients with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) display mutations in NIPAL4 (ICHTHYIN). This protein plays a role in epidermal lipid metabolism, although the mechanism is unknown. The study describes a moderate form of ARCI in an extended pedigree of American Bulldogs that is linked to the gene encoding ichthyin. The gross phenotype was manifest as a disheveled pelage shortly after birth, generalized scaling, and adherent brown scale with erythema of the abdominal skin. Pedigree analysis indicated an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Ultrastructurally, the epidermis showed discontinuous lipid bilayers, unprocessed lipid within corneocytes, and abnormal lamellar bodies. Linkage analysis, performed by choosing simple sequence repeat markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms near genes known to cause ACRI, revealed an association with NIPAL4. NIPAL4 was identified and sequenced using standard methods. No mutation was identified within the gene, but affected dogs had a SINE element 5' upstream of exon 1 in a highly conserved region. Of 545 DNA samples from American Bulldogs, 32 dogs (17 females, 15 males) were homozygous for the polymerase chain reaction fragment. All affected dogs were homozygous, with parents heterozygous for the insertion. Immunolabeling revealed an absence of ichthyin in the epidermis. This is the first description of ARCI associated with decreased expression of NIPAL4 in nonhuman species. PMID:25322746

  10. Association of acculturative stress, Islamic practices, and internalizing symptoms among Arab American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R

    2016-06-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243243

  11. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Nitzke, Susan

    2013-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies and dietary patterns that support the total diet approach include the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, MyPlate, Let's Move, Nutrition Facts labels, Healthy People 2020, and the Dietary Reference Intakes. In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as good or bad is overly simplistic and can foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Alternative approaches are necessary in some situations. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, time and convenience, environment, abundance of foods, economics, media/marketing, perceived product safety, culture, and attitudes/beliefs. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, skilled food and nutrition practitioners utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. Focusing on variety, moderation, and proportionality in the context of a healthy lifestyle, rather than targeting specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion and prevent unnecessary reliance on supplements. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes. PMID:23351634

  12. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn, M A; Pivonka, E

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.

  13. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Obesity, Reproduction, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Jamie; Huffman, Laurel G

    2016-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all women of reproductive age receive education about maternal and fetal risks associated with prepregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and significant postpartum weight retention, including potential benefits of lifestyle changes. Behavioral counseling to improve dietary intake and physical activity should be provided to overweight and obese women, beginning in the preconception period and continuing throughout pregnancy, for at least 12 to 18 months postpartum. Weight loss before pregnancy may improve fertility and reduce the risk of poor maternal-fetal outcomes, such as preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, assisted delivery, and select congenital anomalies. Lifestyle interventions that moderate gestational weight gain may reduce the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, large for gestational age, and macrosomia, as well as lower the risk for significant postpartum retention. Postpartum interventions that promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors may reduce postpartum weight retention and decrease obesity-related risks in subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of the evidence suggests that there is good evidence to support the role of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes in promoting optimal weight gain during pregnancy; however, there is currently a relative lack of evidence in other areas related to reproductive outcomes.

  14. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Obesity, Reproduction, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Jamie; Huffman, Laurel G

    2016-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all women of reproductive age receive education about maternal and fetal risks associated with prepregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and significant postpartum weight retention, including potential benefits of lifestyle changes. Behavioral counseling to improve dietary intake and physical activity should be provided to overweight and obese women, beginning in the preconception period and continuing throughout pregnancy, for at least 12 to 18 months postpartum. Weight loss before pregnancy may improve fertility and reduce the risk of poor maternal-fetal outcomes, such as preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, assisted delivery, and select congenital anomalies. Lifestyle interventions that moderate gestational weight gain may reduce the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, large for gestational age, and macrosomia, as well as lower the risk for significant postpartum retention. Postpartum interventions that promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors may reduce postpartum weight retention and decrease obesity-related risks in subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of the evidence suggests that there is good evidence to support the role of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes in promoting optimal weight gain during pregnancy; however, there is currently a relative lack of evidence in other areas related to reproductive outcomes. PMID:27017177

  15. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics.

  16. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  17. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. PMID:26748003

  18. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Parrott, Benjamin B.; Bowden, John A.; Kassim, Brittany L.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Bryan, Teresa A.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Lange, Ted R.; Delaney, J. Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M.; Long, Stephen E.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida’s north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different “treatments” of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. PMID:26748003

  19. Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American st...

  20. Gender and the Association between Discrimination and Psychological Distress Amongst African Americans in the California Quality of Life Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination serves as a psychosocial stressor with implications for health, including mental health. Previous research indicates that while African American men report more discrimination events, African American women are at greater risk for some psychiatric conditions. The responses from Black respondents to the California Quality of Life Survey (Cal-QOL) in 2005 and 2007 were analyzed to test the hypothesis that gender moderates the association between discrimination and distres...

  1. AEA Ideology: Campaign Contributions of American Economic Association Members, Committee Members, Officers, Editors, Referees, Authors, and Acknowledgees

    OpenAIRE

    William A. McEachern

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the 2004-election-cycle campaign contributions of the leadership of the American Economic Association. By cross-checking a name with an occupation, employer, and address, I develop a contribution profile for a sample of 2,000 AEA members, then use this profile as a benchmark to examine contributions of editors, referees, authors, and acknowledgees of the 2003 and 2004 issues of the American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Literature, and Journal of Economic Perspe...

  2. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2014-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, person...

  3. The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

  4. Sharing Singapore's experience in dietetic practice and school nutrition programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yen-Peng

    2008-01-01

    Dietetic practice in Singapore is mainly applied at the clinical settings, such as hospitals. The main scope of practice is in providing medical nutrition therapy to patients in a multidisciplinary team approach at both inpatient and outpatient clinics. This is delivered in the form of nutrition counseling and nutrition support. Dietitians are also involved in other areas such as conducting nutrition workshops and talks and provide consultation to the hospital's food service department. They set dietary guidelines for inpatient meal services and equip the food service personnel with the knowledge to plan and prepare healthier menus and therapeutic diets. In the schools, all the students are taught the basic principles of nutrition in the school curriculum. Healthy eating messages are reinforced through various interesting activities in schools. Nutrition guidelines on creating healthy and nutritious menus in the school tuckshops are available for schools to implement the Model School Tuckshop Programme. This programme is aimed at cultivating healthy eating habits among school children. For overweight students, they are referred to the students health centre for medical screening, assessment and for regular nutrition counseling at the Nutrition Clinic. PMID:18296379

  5. Dimensions of managerial work in hospital dietetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, J P; Spears, M C; Vaden, A G; Downey, R G

    1985-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify underlying dimensions of the managerial work of hospital dietetic services professional staff. A survey instrument was developed on the basis of Mintzberg's role theory of management. Respondents were asked to rate 80 activity statements on the relative importance and time demand of each. Principal component analysis was used to determine whether items could be conceptualized meaningfully by a smaller number of components capable of accounting for interrelationships. Reliabilities and correlations were computed for the resulting managerial factor scores. Six factors were identified from the importance ratings: Upper Management, Interaction with Subordinates, Outside Activities, Quality Assurance, Communication Activities, and Personnel Activities. Similar dimensions were identified from the time-demand ratings. Findings from this analysis suggest that managers in different functional specialties and at various organizational levels tend to vary in their allocation of time and to stress different roles. As a person rises on the administrative ladder of responsibility, concentration on extramural affairs and involvement in planning are greater, and concern with specific operational problems decreases. The importance of conceptual skills was especially evident in upper administrative positions, as was the critical need for intergroup skills.

  6. Evaluating career values of dietetic students. A model for other allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Vista V; Shanklin, Carol W

    2004-01-01

    Increased job opportunities in health professions make recruitment of students imperative. Effective recruitment requires a knowledge of what students value when making career decisions. This study of dietetic (n = 514) and other college students (n = 352) showed that achievement and economic security were the most important factors in their career selection regardless of major or race. Dietetic majors rated achievement, economic security, ability utilization, personal development, altruism, and working conditions significantly higher than did nondietetic students (p values important to students in this study are attainable through careers in dietetics and other allied health professions. The results of this study should be examined further with a larger sample of allied health majors to assist educators in recruiting and providing career counseling to students. PMID:15053221

  7. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  8. An update on the regional organizations of the american burn association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David; Holmes, James; Conlon, Kathe; Jeng, James

    2014-01-01

    In 1985, the American Burn Association (ABA) created 10 regions in the United States and charged the Chiefs of these regions with the development of regional disaster plans. Now more than 25 years after this mandate, the ABA's Organizational and Delivery of Burn Care Committee assessed the status of regional development. The extant region leaders were contacted by email and queried as to the activities of their region and their opinion as to the success or failure of the regionalization initiative. Several regional organizational meetings were attended at the annual ABA meeting and many phone interviews were conducted to clear up any conflicting information. The original map of the burn regions was based on the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma regions, but these have undergone significant redistricting. The organizational structure, age, and activities of the regions vary significantly. The financial costs of maintaining a regional organization and holding an annual meeting are a major concern for most regions. For the most part the regional organizations are a good source of professional networking and a cost-effective source of continuing medical education/continuing education units for burn centers. The regionalization experiment of the ABA been reasonably successful in its first 25 years, but the ABA and the regions should take this opportunity to consider the next steps for the regions in the coming 25 years. PMID:23799483

  9. Careers in Medical Physics and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amols, Howard

    2006-03-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members is based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.

  10. TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale. PMID:27031655

  11. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  12. Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003-2008: a report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2012-11-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ≥2 y of age in the 2003-2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods' nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with ...

  14. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial.

  15. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  16. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received. PMID:27607088

  17. Introducing DVM: DiVersity Matters (an Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Initiative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    Now more than ever, colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) are challenged to improve the educational experience, build environments that support long-term student and faculty success, and create a diverse and competitive workforce. Additionally, the nation's fast-evolving racial and ethnic demographics demand that the veterinary medical profession be responsive to the emerging needs of this changing population. In March 2005, during the 15th Iverson Bell Symposium, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) unveiled its DiVersity Matters (DVM) initiative, designed to bring the CVMs closer to achieving these goals. Several key objectives of the initiative and their possible long-term significance to success of the DiVersity Matters initiative are explored here, and CVMs are encouraged to expand efforts to increase racial and ethnic diversity in academic veterinary medicine.

  18. Report from the American Nurses' Association council on psychiatric and mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, L A; Baldwin, B; Stevens, G

    1989-01-01

    Society has demonstrated a major need for expanded gerontological and geropsychiatric nursing services. Current needs have not yet been met and the call for service will increase throughout the balance of this century and beyond. Social responsiveness demands that nurses: (1) formally establish their clinical authority in care of the aged; (2) lobby for public policy which enables the provider professional to control the practice environment, rather than be controlled by it; (3) improve the educational preparation of nurses to care for the aged; and (4) expand the professions' scientific and research base in this area. The national professional organization of registered nurses, the American Nurses' Association, provides leadership to influence the course of nursing as it continues to provide vital services in a dramatically changing environment. PMID:2744491

  19. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2013, Dallas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Naoki; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yamada, Satoshi; Yokoshiki, Hisashi; Mitsuyama, Hirofumi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held in Dallas on November 16-20, 2013. The meeting is one of the most leading conferences of cardiology in the world, with over 18,000 professional attendees from more than 105 countries. There were 315 invited sessions and 443 abstract sessions, comprising more than 5,000 presentations. The sessions were expanded to 26 program tracks, which included and integrated basic, translational, clinical, and population science. In the series of late-breaking sessions, updates of results from 20 clinical trials were disclosed. Japanese scientists submitted the second most abstracts to the Scientific Sessions in 2013. We appreciate the significant contribution to the sessions by Japanese cardiologists as well as the Japanese Circulation Society.

  20. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  1. Fourth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association Specialty Society program at the 104th annual meeting of the American Urological Association at Chicago 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Hinotsu, Shiro; Chancellor, Michael B; Homma, Yukio; Nelson, Peter S; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Menon, Mani; Kucuk, Omer; Hara, Isao; Egawa, Shin; Uzzo, Robert G; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2009-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 4th American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) Joint Meeting, held once again at the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (25-30 April 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA). 2009 is a memorable year, being the start of new collaborations between AUA and JUA. The JUA in collaboration with AUA is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for one month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The JUA will have an exhibit booth at the AUA annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. The Journal of Urology and International Journal of Urology will share reviewers. The JUA will participate in developing AUA guidelines. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities to young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the US. We would like to thank Professor Robert C. Flanigan, the Secretary General of AUA, Professor Glenn M. Preminger, the Chairman of the AUA Office of Education and the staff of AUA and JUA for supporting our program. We hope to keep holding the joint meeting and have plenty of ideas on themes and forums. We believe that this international program helps to establish a closer relationship between JUA and AUA in the scientific field. PMID:19682110

  2. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s.

  3. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association.

  4. Mental Health, Health, and Substance Abuse Service Needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Thomas L.; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining…

  5. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain: study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrent Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to

  6. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cameron G; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-01-01

    American football has unequivocally been linked to elevations in blood pressure and hypertension, especially in linemen. However, the mechanisms of this increase cannot be attributed solely to increased body weight and associated cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g.,dyslipidemia or hyperglycemia). Therefore, understanding the etiology of football-associated hypertension is essential for improving the quality of life in this mostly young population, as well as for lowering the potential for chronic disease in the future. We propose that inflammatogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released into the circulation from football-induced musculoskeletal trauma activate pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system-specifically, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA which activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and -9, respectively. Previously, we observed that circulating levels of these 2 DAMPs are increased in hypertension, and activation of TLR4 and -9 causes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, our novel hypothesis is that musculoskeletal injury from repeated hits in football players, particularly in linemen, leads to elevated circulating HMGB1 and mtDNA to activate TLRs on endothelial cells leading to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased vascular tone, and hypertension.

  7. Association of Long Runs of Homozygosity With Alzheimer Disease Among African American Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Mahdi; Reitz, Christiane; Cheng, Rong; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Jun, Gyungah; Sato, Christine; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick A.; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Lee, Joseph H.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mutations in known causal Alzheimer disease (AD) genes account for only 1% to 3% of patients and almost all are dominantly inherited. Recessive inheritance of complex phenotypes can be linked to long (>1-megabase [Mb]) runs of homozygosity (ROHs) detectable by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ROHs and AD in an African American population known to have a risk for AD up to 3 times higher than white individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study of a large African American data set previously genotyped on different genome-wide SNP arrays conducted from December 2013 to January 2015. Global and locus-based ROH measurements were analyzed using raw or imputed genotype data. We studied the raw genotypes from 2 case-control subsets grouped based on SNP array: Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set (871 cases and 1620 control individuals) and Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set (279 cases and 1367 control individuals). We then examined the entire data set using imputed genotypes from 1917 cases and 3858 control individuals. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The ROHs larger than 1 Mb, 2 Mb, or 3 Mb were investigated separately for global burden evaluation, consensus regions, and gene-based analyses. RESULTS The African American cohort had a low degree of inbreeding (F ~ 0.006). In the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set, we detected a significantly higher proportion of cases with ROHs greater than 2 Mb (P = .004) or greater than 3 Mb (P = .02), as well as a significant 114-kilobase consensus region on chr4q31.3 (empirical P value 2 = .04; ROHs >2 Mb). In the Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set, we identified a significant 202-kilobase consensus region on Chr15q24.1 (empirical P value 2 = .02; ROHs >1 Mb) and a cluster of 13 significant genes on Chr3p21.31 (empirical P value 2 = .03

  8. Prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with pulmonary hypertension in African-Americans.

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    Gaurav Choudhary

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. It is frequently associated with cardiopulmonary diseases that are prevalent in African Americans (AAs. However, the prevalence or determinants of PH in the AA population is not known. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of PH (defined as trans-tricuspid gradient ≥ 35 mm Hg and associated clinical characteristics in AAs using the Jackson Heart Study cohort (n=3,282 who underwent echocardiography and had a measurable trans-tricuspid regurgitant jet. Echocardiography is frequently used for screening for PH despite its limitations in estimating accurate PA systolic pressures. Overall and age-adjusted gender-specific prevalence were estimated and modified Poisson regression was used to identify independent clinical, spirometric, and echocardiographic characteristics associated with PH. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 56.1 ± 12.6 years with 67.5% female. The prevalence of PH was 6.8%, with higher prevalence in female AAs (age-adjusted prevalence: Men 4.9%, 95% CI 3.6-6.2%; Women 7.7%, 95% CI 6.6-8.8%. Pulmonary hypertension prevalence increased with age (Prevalence Ratio: 10.0, 95%CI 4.0-25.1, >65 versus <45 years old, presence of obesity, higher pulse pressure, diabetes, obstructive or restrictive spirometry pattern, and severe left heart valvular disease. Also, PH was significantly associated with left atrial size and left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary hypertension is prevalent in AAs, more in women than in men. The identified cardiopulmonary risk factors that increase the prevalence of PH may assist in diagnosis and management of these at-risk subjects in the AA population.

  9. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Role of the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sherry Coleman

    2016-10-01

    Incidence of food allergy has increased significantly over the past decade and represents an important health issue for millions of Americans. Diagnosis of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies is sometimes difficult because blood and skin tests have high rates of false positives, and oral food challenges are uncommon due to the expense and potential for serious reactions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid unnecessary dietary restriction, especially in children. Because registered dietitian nutritionists often work independently, receiving referrals for dietary education and guidance for a patient who is followed by one or several other practitioners, navigating the data available and making the appropriate follow-up contact optimizes treatment. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to the registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technician, registered on appropriate and evidence-based nutrition counseling for diagnosis and management of food allergies.

  10. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Role of the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sherry Coleman

    2016-10-01

    Incidence of food allergy has increased significantly over the past decade and represents an important health issue for millions of Americans. Diagnosis of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies is sometimes difficult because blood and skin tests have high rates of false positives, and oral food challenges are uncommon due to the expense and potential for serious reactions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid unnecessary dietary restriction, especially in children. Because registered dietitian nutritionists often work independently, receiving referrals for dietary education and guidance for a patient who is followed by one or several other practitioners, navigating the data available and making the appropriate follow-up contact optimizes treatment. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to the registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technician, registered on appropriate and evidence-based nutrition counseling for diagnosis and management of food allergies. PMID:27671759

  11. Relationship between soy and isoflavone intake and periodontal disease: The Freshmen in Dietetic Courses Study II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okubo Hitomi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much research has shown that soy products inhibited various diseases. However, no published studies have examined the effects of consumption of soy and isoflavones on periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soy and isoflavone intake is associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods The subjects were 3956 Japanese female students, aged 18 to 22 years, who were taking a dietetic course. Periodontal disease was defined as present when a subject reported diagnosis of the disorder by a dentist. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios and their confidence intervals of periodontal disease. Adjustment was made for cigarette smoking, toothbrushing frequency, region of residence, and body mass index. Results The prevalence of periodontal disease was 8.0%. Intake of total soy product and tofu was independently associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease; multivariate odds ratios in comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile were 0.68 and 0.68, respectively (95% confidence intervals = 0.47–0.97 and 0.47–0.98, P for trend = 0.01 and 0.004, respectively. A significant inverse dose-response relationship between the intake of isoflavones and the prevalence of periodontal disease was observed, although the difference in the adjusted odds ratio between the extreme quintiles was of borderline significance (P for trend = 0.04. There were no measurable dose-response relationships between consumption of tofu products, fermented soybeans, boiled soybeans, miso, or miso soup and the prevalence of periodontal disease. Conclusion Our findings suggest that soy and isoflavone intake may decrease the likelihood of periodontal disease. Further investigations with objective measures for periodontal disease are needed to confirm our findings.

  12. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p network and the role that it plays in people's lives.

  13. Evaluation of the American Heart Association 2015 revised Jones criteria versus existing guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhutia, Euden; Kumar, Pradeep; Shankar, Binoy; Juneja, Atul; Chandelia, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the diagnostic yield of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) by the American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) 2015 revised Jones criteria with the WHO 2004 and Australian guidelines 2012. Methods Retrospective observational study in 93 cases of suspected ARF admitted to the Division of Paediatric Cardiology between January 2012 and December 2014. WHO 2004, Australian guidelines and AHA/ACC 2015 Jones criteria were applied to assess definite and probable ARF. Results Of the 93 cases, 50 were diagnosed as the first episode of ARF and 43 as a recurrence of the condition. Subclinical carditis was a predominant presentation (38%) in the first episode group (p<0.01) whereas in the recurrence group carditis (88%) was the main presentation (p<0.01). Among the joint manifestations, the majority of patients in both the first episode group and the recurrence group presented with arthralgia. Of all the patients with suspected ARF (50), 34% of cases did not fulfil the standard Jones criteria 2004; however, 86% qualified as having ARF on applying the Australian and AHA/ACC 2015 criteria. Surprisingly in the recurrence group only 67% of the patients fulfilled AHA/ACC 2015 despite the modifications incorporated beyond WHO 2004; however, all the patients fulfilled the Australian guidelines either as definite (88.4%) or probable (11.6%). Inclusion of subclinical carditis, polyarthralgia and monoarthritis as major criteria influenced the diagnosis to definite ARF in 20%, 10% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of ARF, comprising subclinical carditis and arthralgia, are possibly milder in the Indian population; hence, inclusion of subclinical carditis, polyarthralgia and monoarthritis as major criteria in the newer guidelines has improved the diagnostic yield of ARF. In the absence of a gold standard for the diagnosis of ARF, it is not possible to comment on sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27326228

  14. Health insurance and household income associated with mammography utilization among American women, 2000-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-hai; ZHANG Zhi-ruo; RAO Ke-qin

    2011-01-01

    Background National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has provided free or low-costmammograms to low-income or no health insurance women in all of the states of the United States (US) since 1997.The objective of this study was to understand whether health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization since the implementation of NBCCEDP,in order to evaluate how the implementation of NBCCEDP impacted mammography utilization among American women.Methods Data were from the database of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) of the CDC in US.Mammography utilization was measured by whether the American woman aged 40 to 64 years had the mammography within the last two years.The chi square test and multivariate Logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between mammography utilization and health insurance,annual household income,and other factors for any given year.Results From 2000 to 2008,the rate of mammography utilization among participants had a steady decrease on the whole from 86.7% to 83.8%.The results showed that the mammography utilization correlated significantly with health insurance and annual household income for any given year.The results also showed that compared with participants who were uninsured,those who were insured had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than any other year from 2000 to 2008,and compared with participants whose annual household income was below $15 000,those whose annual household income was above $50 000 had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than in 2004 and 2006.Conclusions Health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization for any given year from 2000 to 2008,and the implementation of NBCCEDP has not achieved its original goal on breast cancer screening.

  15. Alcohol consumption associated with collegiate American football pre-game festivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Lisa J; Ahmedani, Brian K; Barondess, David A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Gold, Mark S

    2011-07-01

    Internationally, sporting events represent a specific context in which heavy episodic drinking is common. The current study assessed determinants of heavy episodic drinking among tailgaters (i.e., individuals engaging in pre-game social festivities) prior to American football games at two large universities. A total of 466 individuals at two universities completed a short interview and provided a breathalyzer sample to estimate breath alcohol content (BrAC) during the tailgating window (150min prior to and 10min after the start of the game). The plurality of participants, 48.5% at the southeastern university (School1) and 58.8% at the midwestern university (School2), engaged in heavy episodic drinking. Only 54 individuals (11.6%) from the combined sample at both universities abstained from alcohol (confirmed via BrAC). In total, 40.2% of participants at School1 and 31.9% at School2 produced breath samples over the legal limit for driving (i.e., BrAC=0.08 or higher). In site-specific regression analyses, younger ages, males, and non-students at School1, and younger ages and non-game attendance at School2 were associated with self-reported heavy episodic drinking and higher levels of estimated BrAC (p<0.05). Given the widespread participation in heavy episodic drinking among both students and non-students in this sample, public health interventions should be implemented both on- and off-campus to promote safety and to discourage heavy episodic drinking at American football games and other high-profile sporting events.

  16. American Medical Association concepts of nutrition and health. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-23

    Although human need for various nutrients is well-established, the exact requirements for the different nutrients are not well-known. Nutrient requirements are affected by genetics; environment; nature of the diet; and hemeostatic demands under changing physiological conditions expressed as growth, reproduction and response to the stress of injury or disease. Pregnant and lactating women should be properly nourished if well-nourished infants are desired. Nutrient and energy needs are considerably increased during pregnancy and lactation. The most rapid growth of infants occurs during the 1st 4 to 6 months of life. Because of the many advantages of breast milk over artificial milk, full-term newborn infants should be breastfed, unless there are specific contraindications or breastfeeding is unsuccessful. The American Medical Association (AMA) urges that better efforts be made to educate the public and the medical profession as to the advantages of breastfeeding. The 4th to the 6th months of life constitute the transitional period in infant feeding. The baby should be introduced to single-ingredient foods in small quantities, one at a time, to isolate food sensitivities. Good eating habits can be formed early in life through the proper and gradual introduction of varied and nutritional meal patterns. Energy balance is a nutritional problem in late childhood and once maturity is achieved, while calorically and nutritionally inadequate diets are a growing concern for the elderly. Immoderate eating habits (e.g., overeating) may aggravate or contribute to the development of degenerative diseases and should be discouraged. The AMA recommends that the American public focus on the achievement and maintenance of the most desirable body weight through a proper combination of dietary control and exercise. Specific dietary modifications (sodium restriction, weight control) are necessary in the management of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart diseases and other medical

  17. New AP4B1 mutation in an African-American child associated with intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Dronacharya

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) varies from 1–3%. Genetic causes of ID are being increasingly recognized. Although multiple mutations have been identified as a cause of syndromic ID, the genetic etiology of non-syndromic ID is poorly understood. However, more than 100 loci have been mapped that are associated with non-syndromic ID. There have been a couple of reports of AP4B1 gene mutation causing severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. They had structural brain abnormalities and seizures. The reported cases were from Arab families where consanguineous marriage is common. We encountered an African-American child who presented first at the age of 24 mo with language difficulties and was subsequently found to have moderate to severe intellectual disability by standardized tests. Shortly, he started to have seizures and problems with ambulation. Although he was hypotonic at the time of presentation, legs slowly became spastic at the age of 4 yr. After a thorough work up, he was found to have heterozygous mutation in the AP4B1 gene along with another missense mutation in the same gene. There has been no report of mutation in this gene in the North American population. Although AP4B1 typically is said to be an autosomal recessive disease-causing gene, our case is different in the sense that there are two mutations in the same gene one of which has never been reported before and co-exists with a known disease causing mutation. Yet, the phenotype of the case closely resembles those published previously.

  18. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  19. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students.

  20. Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S; Work, Thierry M; Bourne, David G

    2012-05-01

    Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions. PMID:22283330

  1. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  2. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Martha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  3. Darkness’s descent on the American Anthropological Association. A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Alice

    2011-09-01

    In September 2000, the self-styled “anthropological journalist” Patrick Tierney began to make public his work claiming that the Yanomamö people of South America had been actively—indeed brutally—harmed by the sociobiological anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon and the geneticist-physician James Neel. Following a florid summary of Tierney’s claims by the anthropologists Terence Turner and Leslie Sponsel, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) saw fit to take Tierney’s claims seriously by conducting a major investigation into the matter. This paper focuses on the AAA’s problematic actions in this case but also provides previously unpublished information on Tierney’s falsehoods. The work presented is based on a year of research by a historian of medicine and science. The author intends the work to function as a cautionary tale to scholarly associations, which have the challenging duty of protecting scholarship and scholars from baseless and sensationalistic charges in the era of the Internet and twenty-four-hour news cycles.

  4. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  5. A genome-wide association study of serum uric acid in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Norman P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uric acid is the primary byproduct of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is associated with body mass index (BMI, sex, and multiple complex diseases including gout, hypertension (HTN, renal disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS in individuals of European ancestry (EA have reported associations between serum uric acid levels (SUAL and specific genomic loci. The purposes of this study were: 1 to replicate major signals reported in EA populations; and 2 to use the weak LD pattern in African ancestry population to better localize (fine-map reported loci and 3 to explore the identification of novel findings cognizant of the moderate sample size. Methods African American (AA participants (n = 1,017 from the Howard University Family Study were included in this study. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix® Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Imputation was performed using MACH and the HapMap reference panels for CEU and YRI. A total of 2,400,542 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were assessed for association with serum uric acid under the additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, glomerular filtration rate, HTN, T2D, and the top two principal components identified in the assessment of admixture and population stratification. Results Four variants in the gene SLC2A9 achieved genome-wide significance for association with SUAL (p-values ranging from 8.88 × 10-9 to 1.38 × 10-9. Fine-mapping of the SLC2A9 signals identified a 263 kb interval of linkage disequilibrium in the HapMap CEU sample. This interval was reduced to 37 kb in our AA and the HapMap YRI samples. Conclusions The most strongly associated locus for SUAL in EA populations was also the most strongly associated locus in this AA sample. This finding provides evidence for the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid metabolism across human populations. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of following-up EA

  6. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  7. Prevalence of outsourcing and perception of clinical nutrition managers on performance of health care dietetics services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junehee; Yoon, Barbara J H

    2003-08-01

    A nationwide survey of clinical dietitians and clinical nutrition managers was conducted to assess the prevalence of outsourcing in health care dietetics services and to evaluate perceived performance of dietetics services. A questionnaire was developed, validated by an expert panel, and pilot tested prior to data collection. Members of the Clinical Nutrition Management Dietetic Practice Group (N=1,668) were selected as the study sample. Of 431 respondents, 152 (35.3%) indicated that management of both patient and cafeteria foodservices was outsourced. When mean scores of perceived performance ratings were compared using t test, respondents from self-operated facilities rated several items related to patient and cafeteria food quality and material and human resource utilization higher than respondents at contract-managed facilities. No significant differences were found in performance related to decision-making process, buying power, or training programs. Results suggest that careful weighing of advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing is needed before making decisions regarding outsourcing dietetics services.

  8. Critical-Thinking Dispositions among Dietetic Interns at the Completion of Their Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julie Raeder

    2014-01-01

    Critical-thinking skills permeate the ability to pass tests such as the Certification Registration Examination for Dietitians (RD Exam) (Dietetic Educators of Practitioners, 2011). The impact of critical thinking on the RD Exam should be evaluated to assist faculty members when developing curriculum-especially as trends in dispositions emerge.…

  9. Menu planning competencies in administrative dietetic practice. II. Practitioners' ratings of competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Spears, M C; Vaden, A G

    1979-06-01

    A nationwide sample of administrative and generalist dietitians rated five competencies with sub-competencies and ninety-two descriptors related to menu planning. Each item was rated numerically for importance and frequency of time consideration. Data were grouped according to three levels of practitioner experience. It was concluded that an effective methodology was developed for analyzing competencies for dietetic practice. PMID:447969

  10. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dietetics, Athletic Training, and Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meredith G.; Hansen, Pamela; Rhee, Yeong; Brundt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the preferred learning style (LS) of college students and compared LS preferences among students majoring in Dietetics, Exercise Science, and Athletic Training. LS questionnaires were distributed to students (N = 693, mean age 20.5 ± 1.7) enrolled in health science courses at three Midwestern universities. Most students…

  11. Sustained benefits of a community dietetics intervention designed to improve oral nutritional supplement prescribing practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community do not always prescribe oral nutritional supplements (ONS) according to best practice guidelines for the management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a community dietetics intervention on ONS prescribing practices and expenditure 1 year later.

  12. The Nutrition and Dietetics Workforce Needs Skills and Expertise in the New York Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Ann; Shrivastava, Apoorva; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an increased demand in the Nutrition and Dietetics field which has fostered credentialing to ensure competent graduates. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory analysis to identify nutrition/dietetics workforce needs, skills and expertise in the New York metropolitan area as exemplified in position announcements over a 4 year period. Methods: We recorded position announcements for jobs in nutrition and dietetics from the New York State Registered Dietitian Yahoo group, and the Hunter College Nutrition and Food Sciences student and alumni listserv (NFS-L) over a 4 year period. Keywords were identified using job categories defined by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) compensation and benefits survey. This served as a starting point to enumerate the types of positions that have been posted for the New York metropolitan area in recent years. Results: Four hundred and twelve (412) unique job postings were recorded. Various educational levels, credentials, and skills desired by these employers were identified, assessed, and compared with similar data from the “supply side” reports from AND. Conclusions: The credentials and skills most desired by employers are similar to some of the learning objectives set forth for DPD and DI programs by ACEND, but not entirely congruent. The need for both client/customer focus and computer literacy may be implicit in the standards, but a more overt inclusion of these skills would likely be of benefit to ensure these are inculcated into every program and student. PMID:26755482

  13. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  14. Advancing Multicultural and Diversity Competence in Art Therapy: American Art Therapy Association Multicultural Committee 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan S.; Doby-Copeland, Cheryl; Stepney, Stella A.; Washington, Brittney N.; Vance, Lindsey D.; Short, Gwendolyn M.; Boston, Charlotte G.; Ballbé ter Maat, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    For 25 years the Multicultural Committee of the American Art Therapy Association has provided education, networking, and mentoring activities for all art therapists, as well as support for art therapists of color. The formation of the committee demonstrates increasing cultural competence within the profession, and its continuation promises future…

  15. Counselor Education Student Perceptions of the American Counseling Association Ethical Code as It Pertains to the Use of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Tanner A.

    2012-01-01

    Student use of online social networks has increased exponentially in the past five years. Facebook is one of the largest and most utilized by students. Many counseling students use Facebook on a regular basis to keep in touch with friends, family, and acquaintances. (Lenhart & Madden, 2007). Current American Counseling Association (ACA)…

  16. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Mark Bielang, President of American Association of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    From returning phone calls to traversing the political landscape to building trust, American Association of School Administrators (AASA) president Mark Bielang covers a lot of territory as he describes the public relations challenges confronting today's school administrators. Having just concluded his term as AASA president, Mr. Bielang has served…

  17. Social Work and Evaluation: Why You Might Be Interested in the American Evaluation Association Social Work Topical Interest Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tracy C.; Kazi, Mansoor A.

    2012-01-01

    With increased pressure on programs to evaluate outcomes, the issue of evaluation in social work has never been so topical. In response to these pressures, there has been a growing interest in evidence-based practice and strategies for the evaluation of social work programs. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is an international…

  18. The Effects of the Physical Features Associated with Albinism on the Self-Esteem of African American Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moniqueka E.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the effects of the physical features associated with albinism on three groups of African American youths (ages 14-19) with albinism: those with no disabilities, those with visual impairments, and those with oculocutaneous albinism. No significant differences in self-esteem were found among the three groups. (Contains…

  19. Teaching the Principles of Economics: Reconciling the Canon of the American Economics Association to Catholic Social Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The American Economics Association, through its Committee on Economic Education, has worked since 1950 to develop a set of standards for what is taught in introductory economics courses. The result is the Test for Understanding in College Economics. The TUCE has come to define a canon of expectations for students in college business schools. Some…

  20. Political Ideology and Its Relationship to Perceptions of Social Justice Advocacy among Members of the American Counseling Association (ACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Janee Marie

    2010-01-01

    Social justice has become an increasingly controversial topic among members of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Specifically, concerns have been raised over what is perceived to be: (a) the liberal political agenda of social justice advocates, (b) the marginalization of conservative counselors, and (c) the inappropriate use of ACA…

  1. Associations of dietary folate, Vitamins B6 and B12 and methionine intake with risk of breast cancer among African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Lu, Quanjun; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Wiam, Bshara; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-03-15

    African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at younger ages and to develop poor prognosis tumors. However, these racial differences are largely unexplained. Folate and other methyl-group nutrients may be related to breast carcinogenesis, but few studies have examined these associations in AA populations. We examined the associations of dietary intake of these nutrients with breast cancer risk overall, by menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status among 1,582 AA (749 cases) and 1,434 EA (744 cases) women using data from a case-control study, the Women's Circle of Health Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of each nutrient and breast cancer risk. In AA women, inverse associations were observed for natural food folate intake among premenopausal women (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-1.00; p for trend = 0.06) and for ER-positive tumors (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.36-0.93; p for trend = 0.03), whereas in EA women, a positive association was observed for intake of synthetic folate (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.06-2.21; p for trend = 0.03). Our findings suggest that natural food folate intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk and that this association may vary by race, menopausal status or ER status. The finding of an increased risk observed among EA women with the highest intake of synthetic folate from fortified foods warrants further investigation.

  2. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims. PMID:27413658

  3. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM): a professional association in service to industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Daniel T; Egilman, David S; Frank, Arthur L; Kramer, Sharon N; Huff, James

    2007-01-01

    The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) is a professional association that represents the interests of its company-employed physician members. Fifty years ago the ACOEM began to assert itself in the legislative arena as an advocate of limited regulation and enforcement of occupational health and safety standards and laws, and environmental protection. Today the ACOEM provides a legitimizing professional association for company doctors, and continues to provide a vehicle to advance the agendas of their corporate sponsors. Company doctors in ACOEM recently blocked attempts to have the organization take a stand on global warming. Company doctors employed by the petrochemical industry even blocked the ACOEM from taking a position on particulate air pollution. Industry money and influence pervade every aspect of occupational and environmental medicine. The controlling influence of industry over the ACOEM physicians should cease. The conflict of interests inherent in the practice of occupational and environmental medicine is not resolved by the ineffectual efforts of the ACOEM to establish a pretentious code of conduct. The conflicted interests within the ACOEM have become too deeply embedded to be resolved by merely a self-governing code of conduct. The specialty practice of occupational and environmental medicine has the opportunity and obligation to join the public health movement. If it does, the ACOEM will have no further purpose as it exists, and specialists in occupational and environmental medicine will meet with and be represented by public health associations. This paper chronicles the history of occupational medicine and industry physicians as influenced and even controlled by corporate leaders. PMID:18085054

  4. Prospective associations of coronary heart disease loci in African Americans using the MetaboChip: the PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Franceschini

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD, attempted to fine map these loci, and characterize novel variants influencing CHD risk in African Americans.Up to 8,201 African Americans (including 546 first CHD events were genotyped using the MetaboChip array in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Women's Health Initiative (WHI. We tested associations using Cox proportional hazard models in sex- and study-stratified analyses and combined results using meta-analysis. Among 44 validated CHD loci available in the array, we replicated and fine-mapped the SORT1 locus, and showed same direction of effects as reported in studies of individuals of European ancestry for SNPs in 22 additional published loci. We also identified a SNP achieving array wide significance (MYC: rs2070583, allele frequency 0.02, P = 8.1 × 10(-8, but the association did not replicate in an additional 8,059 African Americans (577 events from the WHI, HealthABC and GeneSTAR studies, and in a meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies of European ancestry (24,024 individuals including 1,570 cases of MI and 2,406 cases of CHD from the CHARGE Consortium.Our findings suggest that some CHD loci previously identified in individuals of European ancestry may be relevant to incident CHD in African Americans.

  5. Variables Associated With Academic Achievement of African-American Males in Four-Year Undergraduate Educational Institutions: a Synthesis of Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Thelma Y.

    1998-01-01

    This project was a synthesis of studies of the academic achievement of African-American males in undergraduate, four-year institutions in the United States. The purpose of this synthesis was twofold. The first purpose was to collect studies on the academic achievement of African-American males. The second purpose was to identify variables associated with achievement of African-American males. In this review of 13 studies, 48 variables associated with ...

  6. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Anne M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Wen-Chih Wu; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Masoor Kamalesh; Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of lef...

  7. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, H; Papini, E; Paschke, R;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied. These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes...

  8. FGFR2 and other loci identified in genome-wide association studies are associated with breast cancer in African-American and younger women

    OpenAIRE

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Shetty, Priya B; Guan, Xiaowei; Nyante, Sarah J; Luo, Jingchun; Brennan, Donal J.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and multiple ancestry informative markers were genotyped in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) (742 African-American (AA) cases, 1230 White cases; 658 AA controls, 1118 White controls). In the entire study population, 9/10 SNPs in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) were significantly associated with breast cancer after adjusting for age, race and European ancestry ...

  9. Pautas para citar textos y hacer listas de referencias según las normas de la American Psichological Association (APA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ossa, Marcela

    2003-01-01

    La escritura de documentos, artículos, ensayos etc. implica seguir cuidadosamente algunas normas. La Revista EMA se guía para la edición de sus artículos por las normas de la American Psychological Association (APA). El presente documento tiene como objeto dar a conocer algunas de estas normas de tal modo que quien envíe un artículo para su publicación las utilice. Encontrarán algunas pautas para citar textos y hacer listas de referencias según las normas de la American Psychological Associat...

  10. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Acheampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.

  11. Hepatitis C Is Poorly Associated With Drug Use in Cambodian Americans in Lowell, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Catherine; Gifford, Allen L.; Christiansen, Cindy L.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States and affects Asian and non-Asian Americans comparably. Injection drug use, the most common national transmission risk, is not as prevalent in Asian-Americans, but prior studies do not include many Cambodian Americans. Lowell, Massachusetts has the second largest population of Cambodian Americans, allowing a direct comparison of HCV-infected Cambodian and non-Cambodian Americans not previously done. Improving our understanding of HCV risks in this unique community may improve their linkage to care. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, medical data were collected regarding HCV risk factors for HCV-infected Cambodian and non-Cambodian Americans seen at Lowell Community Health Center from 2009 to 2012. Results. Cambodian Americans (n = 128) were older (mean age 53 vs 43 years old) and less likely to be male (41% vs 67%, P drug use (1.6% vs 33.6%, P drug use (2.3% vs 82.1%, P drug use or any drug use history. Risk behavior screening fails to describe HCV transmission for Cambodian Americans and creates a barrier to their linkage to care.

  12. Symptoms of Anxiety and Associated Risk and Protective Factors in Young Asian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA…

  13. Family medicine's search for manpower: the American Osteopathic Association accreditation option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Mark; Kunkle, Judith L; Doane, Cheryl

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, family medicine has encountered problems recruiting and filling its Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited residencies. In addressing these reverses, one increasingly popular strategy has been to acquire American Osteopathic Association (AOA) accreditation as a way to tap into the growing number of osteopathic graduates. This stratagem is founded on assumptions that parallel-accredited postdoctoral programs are attractive to doctor of osteopathy (DO) graduates, that collaboration with sponsoring colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) provides direct access to osteopathic students, and that DOs can play an important role in replacing the increasing scarcity of United States medical graduates who are selecting specialty residencies. Within the past 5 years, nearly 10% of all ACGME family medicine residency programs have voluntarily obtained a second level of accreditation to also qualify as AOA-accredited family medicine residency programs. This strategy has produced mixed outcomes, as noted from the results of the osteopathic matching program. The flood of osteopathic graduates into these parallel-accredited programs has not occurred. In addition, recent AOA policy changes now require ACGME-accredited programs to make a deeper educational commitment to osteopathic postdoctoral education. The most successful ACGME/AOA-accredited programs have been those that are closely affiliated with and in near proximity of a COM and also train osteopathic students in required clerkship rotations. PMID:16518739

  14. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  15. Hypertension and coronary artery disease: a summary of the American Heart Association scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendorff, Clive

    2007-10-01

    The American Heart Association scientific statement on the treatment of hypertension in the prevention and management of ischemic heart disease was published recently. The main recommendations were as follows: (1) For most adults with hypertension, the blood pressure (BP) goal is abdominal aortic aneurism, and peripheral vascular disease), or 10-year Framingham risk score of >/=10%. For those with left ventricular dysfunction, the recommended BP target is <120/80 mm Hg. (2) For primary CAD prevention, any effective antihypertensive drug or combination is indicated, but preference is given to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and thiazide diuretics. (3) For the management of hypertension in patients with established CAD (stable or unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction), beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors (or ARBs) are the basis of treatment. If further BP lowering is needed, a thiazide diuretic and/or a dihydropyridine CCB (not verapamil or diltiazem) can be added. If a beta-blocker is contraindicated or not tolerated, diltiazem or verapamil can be substituted. (4) If there is left ventricular dysfunction, recommended therapy consists of an ACE inhibitor or ARB, a beta-blocker, and either a thiazide or loop diuretic. In patients with more severe heart failure, an aldosterone antagonist and hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate (in black patients) should be considered. PMID:17917507

  16. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language.

  17. Should title lengths really adhere to the American Psychological Association's twelve word limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M

    2016-04-01

    The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked. PMID:27042886

  18. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language. PMID:19354413

  19. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  20. Prosperity Games prototyping with the American Electronics Association, March 8--9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the American Electronics Association in conjunction with the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee of the National Science and Technology Council. Players were drawn from government, national laboratories, and universities, as well as from the electronics industry. The game explored policy changes that could enhance US competitiveness in the manufacturing of consumer electronics. Two teams simulated a presidentially appointed commission comprised of high-level representatives from government, industry, universities and national laboratories. A single team represented the foreign equivalent of this commission, formed to develop counter strategies for any changes in US policies. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning policy changes, foreign competition, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.

  1. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  2. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2015, Orlando.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Kimura, Mai; Kohno, Takashi; Fujita, Jun; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The American Heart Association Scientific Sessions were held in Orlando on November 7-15, 2015. The meeting attracted more than 18,000 participants, including physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel, from more than 100 countries. Sessions over the 5 days included a comprehensive and unparalleled education delivered via more than 5,000 presentations, with 1,000 invited faculty members and 4,000 abstract presentations from the world leaders in cardiovascular disease. It also displayed the newest cardiovascular technology and resources by more than 200 exhibitors. There were 19 trials scheduled in 6 late-breaking clinical trial sessions. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) aimed to determine the most appropriate targets for the systolic blood pressure among persons without diabetes. A total of 9,361 persons with systolic blood pressure of ≥130 mmHg and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, were randomly assigned to a target systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg (intensive treatment) or a target of <140 mmHg (standard treatment). A significantly lower rate of the primary composite outcome and all-cause mortality in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group was observed. Summaries and overviews of the late-breaking trials, clinical science special report sessions, and sessions to which members of the Japanese Circulation Society contributed are presented.

  3. Developmental effects of Arochlor 1242 in American kestrels and associated hormone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, diverse field and experimental studies have been brought together to suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife might be caused by the endocrine-like activity of pollutants acting on embryos. For example, hormonal and gonadal anomalies in juvenile alligators from Florida are associated with exposure to DDT and dicofol, experimental work on laboratory rodents has identified estrogenic and androgenic properties of several pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, and injection of gull eggs with metabolites of DDT produces intersex gonads in the male hatchlings. Very little evidence is available for birds that demonstrates a deficit in reproductive capability by this mechanism. Our breeding and egg-injection studies are investigating the potential of Aroclor 1242 and hydroxylated PCB congener 30, both with known estrogenic activity, to alter the course of embryonic development of reproductive structures and to affect later reproductive function in American kestrels. Findings from young birds whose parents were exposed indicated that gonadal morphology appeared consistent with the genetic sex of exposed birds; testes of exposed birds showed no difference in size or symmetry when compared to controls. Histological preparations showed very little intersexuality of male testes; females had ovaries that were indistinguishable from controls. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with greater dose of Aroclor; females hatchlings that resulted from injected eggs showed an opposite trend. Analyses in progress include LHRH and catecholamine concentrations in the brain.

  4. Should title lengths really adhere to the American Psychological Association's twelve word limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M

    2016-04-01

    The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked.

  5. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  6. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed.

  7. A combined genome-wide linkage and association approach to find susceptibility loci for platelet function phenotypes in European American and African American families with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alexander F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inability of aspirin (ASA to adequately suppress platelet aggregation is associated with future risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Heritability studies of agonist-induced platelet function phenotypes suggest that genetic variation may be responsible for ASA responsiveness. In this study, we leverage independent information from genome-wide linkage and association data to determine loci controlling platelet phenotypes before and after treatment with ASA. Methods Clinical data on 37 agonist-induced platelet function phenotypes were evaluated before and after a 2-week trial of ASA (81 mg/day in 1231 European American and 846 African American healthy subjects with a family history of premature CAD. Principal component analysis was performed to minimize the number of independent factors underlying the covariance of these various phenotypes. Multi-point sib-pair based linkage analysis was performed using a microsatellite marker set, and single-SNP association tests were performed using markers from the Illumina 1 M genotyping chip from deCODE Genetics, Inc. All analyses were performed separately within each ethnic group. Results Several genomic regions appear to be linked to ASA response factors: a 10 cM region in African Americans on chromosome 5q11.2 had several STRs with suggestive (p-value -4 and significant (p-value -5 linkage to post aspirin platelet response to ADP, and ten additional factors had suggestive evidence for linkage (p-value -4 to thirteen genomic regions. All but one of these factors were aspirin response variables. While the strength of genome-wide SNP association signals for factors showing evidence for linkage is limited, especially at the strict thresholds of genome-wide criteria (N = 9 SNPs for 11 factors, more signals were considered significant when the association signal was weighted by evidence for linkage (N = 30 SNPs. Conclusions Our study supports the hypothesis that platelet phenotypes in

  8. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  9. Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2003-01-01

    This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals a hierarchy based on exposure to four risk-related activities: sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with these activities vary according to the girl's relationship to the male gang and status within the community. Also, regardless of their relationship to the gang, participation in these activities resulted in different degrees of negative outcomes. The study concludes that problems associated with these females must go beyond being viewed as individual problems but rather seen within the social, cultural, and economic conditions of their environment. PMID:21218177

  10. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Weaver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS: left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans.

  11. Trusting George Cheyne: Scientific Expertise, Common Sense, and Moral Authority in Early Eighteenth-Century Dietetic Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Shapin, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Whenever physicians give directions to patients there is always a question of their authority to do so: what is it that they know, and who is it that they are, that gives them this authority? The problem is fully general, but it takes especially interesting forms in early modern dietetics, where patients were reckoned to possess much pertinent and reliable knowledge, and where medical dietetics occupied terrain already densely occupied by moral prudence. This article addresses these issues in...

  12. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-09-01

    Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts.

  13. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343

  14. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identifi...

  15. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−119), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified l...

  16. An initial investigation of associations between dopamine-linked genetic variation and smoking motives in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L C; McGeary, J E; Gray, J C; Palmer, R H C; Knopik, V S; MacKillop, J

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine dependence (ND) is a heterogeneous phenotype with complex genetic influences that may vary across ethnicities. The use of intermediate phenotypes may clarify genetic influences and reveal specific etiological pathways. Prior work in European Americans has found that the four Primary Dependence Motives (PDM) subscales (Automaticity, Craving, Loss of Control, and Tolerance) of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Motives represent core features of nicotine dependence and are promising intermediate phenotypes for understanding genetic pathways to ND. However, no studies have examined PDM as an intermediate phenotype in African American smokers, an ethnic population that displays unique patterns of smoking and genetic variation. In the current study, 268 African American daily smokers completed a phenotypic assessment and provided a sample of DNA. Associations among haplotypes in the NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 gene cluster, a dopamine-related gene region associated with ND, PDM intermediate phenotypes, and ND were examined. Dopamine-related genetic variation in the DBH and COMT genes was also considered on an exploratory basis. Mediational analysis was used to test the indirect pathway from genetic variation to smoking motives to nicotine dependence. NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 region variation was significantly associated with the Automaticity subscale and, further, Automaticity significantly mediated associations among NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 cluster variants and ND. DBH was also significantly associated with Automaticity, Craving, and Tolerance; Automaticity and Tolerance also served as mediators of the DBH-ND relationship. These results suggest that PDM, Automaticity in particular, may be a viable intermediate phenotype for understanding dopamine-related genetic influences on ND in African American smokers. Findings support a model in which putatively dopaminergic variants exert influence on ND through an effect on patterns of automatic routinized smoking. PMID

  17. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Pope, C Arden; Brook, Jeffrey R; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Holguin, Fernando; Hong, Yuling; Luepker, Russell V; Mittleman, Murray A; Peters, Annette; Siscovick, David; Smith, Sidney C; Whitsel, Laurie; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  18. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  19. American Diabetes Association and JDRF Research Symposium: Diabetes and the Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkovich, Clay F; Danska, Jayne; Darsow, Tamara; Dunne, Jessica L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Insel, Richard A; McElvaine, Allison T; Ratner, Robert E; Shuldiner, Alan R; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    From 27-29 October 2014, more than 100 people gathered in Chicago, IL, to participate in a research symposium titled "Diabetes and the Microbiome," jointly sponsored by the American Diabetes Association and JDRF. The conference brought together international scholars and trainees from multiple disciplines, including microbiology, bioinformatics, endocrinology, metabolism, and immunology, to share the current understanding of host-microbe interactions and their influences on diabetes and metabolism. Notably, this gathering was the first to assemble specialists with distinct expertise in type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, immunology, and microbiology with the goal of discussing and defining potential pathophysiologies linking the microbiome and diabetes. In addition to reviewing existing evidence in the field, speakers presented their own original research to provide a comprehensive view of the current understanding of the topics under discussion.Presentations and discussions throughout the conference reflected a number of important concepts. The microbiota in any host represent a complex ecosystem with a high degree of interindividual variability. Different microbial communities, comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi, occupy separate niches in and on the human body. Individually and collectively, these microbes provide benefits to the host-including nutrient harvest from food and protection against pathogens. They are dynamically regulated by both host genes and the environment, and they critically influence both physiology and lifelong health. The objective of the symposium was to discuss the relationship between the host and the microbiome-the combination of microbiota and their biomolecular environment and ecology-specifically with regard to metabolic and immunological systems and to define the critical research needed to understand and potentially target the microbiome in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In this report, we present meeting

  20. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322801

  1. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Steck

    Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.

  2. The association of depression and anxiety with glycemic control among Mexican Americans with diabetes living near the U.S.-Mexico border

    OpenAIRE

    Kendzor, Darla E; Chen, Minxing; Reininger, Belinda M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Stewart, Diana W.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; Rentfro, Anne R.; Wetter, David W.; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes is alarmingly high among Mexican American adults residing near the U.S.-Mexico border. Depression is also common among Mexican Americans with diabetes, and may have a negative influence on diabetes management. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the associations of depression and anxiety with the behavioral management of diabetes and glycemic control among Mexican American adults living near the border. Methods The characteristics of Me...

  3. A meta-analysis and genome-wide association study of platelet count and mean platelet volume in african americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Qayyum

    Full Text Available Several genetic variants associated with platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV were recently reported in people of European ancestry. In this meta-analysis of 7 genome-wide association studies (GWAS enrolling African Americans, our aim was to identify novel genetic variants associated with platelet count and MPV. For all cohorts, GWAS analysis was performed using additive models after adjusting for age, sex, and population stratification. For both platelet phenotypes, meta-analyses were conducted using inverse-variance weighted fixed-effect models. Platelet aggregation assays in whole blood were performed in the participants of the GeneSTAR cohort. Genetic variants in ten independent regions were associated with platelet count (N = 16,388 with p<5×10(-8 of which 5 have not been associated with platelet count in previous GWAS. The novel genetic variants associated with platelet count were in the following regions (the most significant SNP, closest gene, and p-value: 6p22 (rs12526480, LRRC16A, p = 9.1×10(-9, 7q11 (rs13236689, CD36, p = 2.8×10(-9, 10q21 (rs7896518, JMJD1C, p = 2.3×10(-12, 11q13 (rs477895, BAD, p = 4.9×10(-8, and 20q13 (rs151361, SLMO2, p = 9.4×10(-9. Three of these loci (10q21, 11q13, and 20q13 were replicated in European Americans (N = 14,909 and one (11q13 in Hispanic Americans (N = 3,462. For MPV (N = 4,531, genetic variants in 3 regions were significant at p<5×10(-8, two of which were also associated with platelet count. Previously reported regions that were also significant in this study were 6p21, 6q23, 7q22, 12q24, and 19p13 for platelet count and 7q22, 17q11, and 19p13 for MPV. The most significant SNP in 1 region was also associated with ADP-induced maximal platelet aggregation in whole blood (12q24. Thus through a meta-analysis of GWAS enrolling African Americans, we have identified 5 novel regions associated with platelet count of which 3 were replicated in other ethnic

  4. A Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for the American Medical Informatics Association: An AMIA Board of Directors Approved White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hurdle, John F; Adams, Samantha; Brokel, Jane; Chang, Betty; Embi, Peter; Petersen, Carolyn; Terrazas, Enrique; Winkelstein, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The AMIA Board of Directors has decided to periodically publish AMIA’s Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for its members in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. The Code also will be available on the AMIA Web site at www.amia.org as it continues to evolve in response to feedback from the AMIA membership. The AMIA Board acknowledges the continuing work and dedication of the AMIA Ethics Committee. AMIA is the copyright holder of this work.

  5. What Elements of the 2013 American Nurses Association Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Standards are Reflected in State Legislation?

    OpenAIRE

    Powell-Cope, Gail; Rugs, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Many professional organizations have endorsed and provided guidance on the implementation of safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) programs. In 2013, the American Nurses Association published the interprofessional standards of SPHM. Eleven states have passed laws to implement statewide SPHM programs. This article describes the evaluation of the quality of SPHM legislation against the ANA standards. Information gleaned from this analysis could be used to strengthen existing legislation, cr...

  6. Is There a Free-Market Economist in the House? The Policy Views of American Economic Association Members

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Daniel B.; Stern, Charlotta

    2006-01-01

    People often suppose or imply that free-market economists constitute a significant portion of all economists. We surveyed American Economic Association members and asked their views on 18 specific forms of government activism. We find that about 8 percent of AEA members can be considered supporters of free-market principles, and that less than 3 percent may be called strong supporters. The data is broken down by voting behavior (Democratic or Republican). Even the average Republican AEA membe...

  7. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Wendy D.; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California’s voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked i...

  8. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute

    OpenAIRE

    DeBon, M.; Klesges, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). DESIGN: Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; ti...

  9. Associations between dietary habits and body mass index with gut microbiota composition and fecal water genotoxicity: an observational study in African American and Caucasian American volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rashmi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans (AA suffer from an increased incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC. Environmental exposures including dietary habits likely contribute to a high burden of CRC, however, data on the dietary habits of AA is sparse. Diet might change the composition and the activities of the intestinal microbiota, in turn affecting fecal genotoxicity/mutagenicity that is thought to be associated with carcinogenesis. Methods We assessed dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire and by food records in 52 AA and 46 CA residents of the Eastern Shore of MD. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA based methods and fecal genotoxicity measured using the Comet assay. Results AA reported an increased intake of heterocyclic amines and a decreased dietary intake of vitamins including vitamin D (p Conclusion Dietary habits of African Americans, including increased HCA intake and decreased vitamin D intake might at least partially contribute to CRC through modifications of gut microbiota composition that result in changes of the intestinal milieu.

  10. A sustainable dietetics bridging program: development and implementation in Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordly, Daphne; Guy, Jennifer; Barry, Paula; Garus, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A provincial focus on immigration and improved foreign credential recognition has led to an investigation of best practices and subsequent recommendations for the development and implementation of a sustainable university-based bridging program for internationally educated dietitians in Atlantic Canada. Data were collected from various sources and used to inform program decisions and direction. An advisory framework was established through a core group representing dietetics education and regulation and internationalization. Subsequently, a key stakeholder group was formed. As a result of this collaboration and research, a dietetics bridging framework was developed and a program pilot tested. Lessons learned may inform similar endeavours and highlight the importance of collaborative leadership and collaboration among multiple stakeholders, and of creatively addressing program sustainability issues while keeping learners (internationally educated dietitians) at the centre. PMID:24897016

  11. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  12. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Shriner, Daniel; Chen, Brian H;

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. ...

  13. The Next Generation of Dietitians: Implementing Dietetics Education and Practice in Integrative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Leigh E; Evans, Randall G; Noland, Diana; Barkley, Rachel; Sullivan, Debra K; Drisko, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine is a quickly expanding field of health care that emphasizes nutrition as a key component. Dietitians and nutritionists have an opportunity to meet workforce demands by practicing dietetics and integrative medicine (DIM). The purpose of this article is to describe a DIM education program and practicum. We report the results of an interprofessional nutrition education and practicum program between the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC) Department of Dietetics and Nutrition and KU Integrative Medicine. This partnered program provides training that builds on the strong foundation of the Nutrition Care Process and adds graduate-level educational and practicum experiences in foundational integrative medicine knowledge, including nutritional approaches from a systems biology perspective, nutrigenomics, and biochemistry as the core knowledge to understand the root cause of a chronic disorder and to choose appropriate nutritional tools for interventions. This interprofessional KUMC program provides a dietetic internship, master's degree, and graduate certificate in DIM and fulfills a need for dietitians and nutritionists who seek careers practicing in an integrative medicine setting. The program fulfills expanding workforce needs to provide quality health care for patients with chronic illnesses.

  14. The Next Generation of Dietitians: Implementing Dietetics Education and Practice in Integrative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Leigh E; Evans, Randall G; Noland, Diana; Barkley, Rachel; Sullivan, Debra K; Drisko, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine is a quickly expanding field of health care that emphasizes nutrition as a key component. Dietitians and nutritionists have an opportunity to meet workforce demands by practicing dietetics and integrative medicine (DIM). The purpose of this article is to describe a DIM education program and practicum. We report the results of an interprofessional nutrition education and practicum program between the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC) Department of Dietetics and Nutrition and KU Integrative Medicine. This partnered program provides training that builds on the strong foundation of the Nutrition Care Process and adds graduate-level educational and practicum experiences in foundational integrative medicine knowledge, including nutritional approaches from a systems biology perspective, nutrigenomics, and biochemistry as the core knowledge to understand the root cause of a chronic disorder and to choose appropriate nutritional tools for interventions. This interprofessional KUMC program provides a dietetic internship, master's degree, and graduate certificate in DIM and fulfills a need for dietitians and nutritionists who seek careers practicing in an integrative medicine setting. The program fulfills expanding workforce needs to provide quality health care for patients with chronic illnesses. PMID:25961884

  15. Criteria for acceptance to preprofessional dietetics programs vs desired qualities of professionals: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K K

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine the literature and compare and contrast (a) qualities preferred in preprofessional dietetics students by directors of internships and approved preprofessional practice programs (AP4s), (b) characteristics needed to succeed in a scientific field, (c) traits emphasized by dietetics training programs compared with those most valued by employers, (d) skills needed by high-level managerial dietitians and those in business and communications, and (e) qualities dietitians have aspired to develop for increased competitiveness in the marketplace. Even though the revised Standards of Education have been in place since 1988, recent evaluation of criteria for internship and AP4 admission has shown traditional emphasis on academic performance and the importance of work experience. Success in scientific pursuits has been linked with more than innate intelligence; a drive for success and enthusiasm for learning are also involved. Internships foster mostly technical learning, so development of skills in human and conceptual areas are somewhat lacking. These skills, which have been identified as valuable to employers, need greater development or more consistent identification in the selection and training process. Perhaps serious consideration should be given to applicants for preprofessional programs who have shown leadership qualities through extracurricular activities or who have given themselves the opportunity to develop and improve these skills. Such students might hasten the metamorphosis of dietetics practitioners toward improved levels of compensation and professional fulfillment.

  16. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Paschke, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied.These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes in this area...

  17. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of thyroid Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Paschke, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied.These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes in this area...

  18. Summary recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, The Computer-based Patient Record Institute, The Medical Library Association, The Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, The American Health Information Management Association, and The American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-11-01

    Clinical software systems are becoming ubiquitous. A growing literature documents how these systems can improve health care delivery, but concerns about patient safety must now be formally addressed. In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called for discussions on regulation of software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. These recommendations were revised and approved by the American Medical informatics Association Public Policy Committee and Board. Other organizations reviewed, modified, and approved the recommendations, and the Boards of Directors of most of the organizations in the consortium endorsed the guidelines. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risk and four classes of monitoring and regulatory action that can be applied on the basis of the risk level. The consortium recommends that most clinical software systems be supervised locally and that developers of health care information systems adopt a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively; therefore, the FDA should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on systems that pose high clinical risk and provide limited opportunity for competent human intervention. PMID:9382409

  19. Summary recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, The Computer-based Patient Record Institute, The Medical Library Association, The Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, The American Health Information Management Association, and The American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-11-01

    Clinical software systems are becoming ubiquitous. A growing literature documents how these systems can improve health care delivery, but concerns about patient safety must now be formally addressed. In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called for discussions on regulation of software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. These recommendations were revised and approved by the American Medical informatics Association Public Policy Committee and Board. Other organizations reviewed, modified, and approved the recommendations, and the Boards of Directors of most of the organizations in the consortium endorsed the guidelines. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risk and four classes of monitoring and regulatory action that can be applied on the basis of the risk level. The consortium recommends that most clinical software systems be supervised locally and that developers of health care information systems adopt a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively; therefore, the FDA should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on systems that pose high clinical risk and provide limited opportunity for competent human intervention.

  20. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  1. Association of Acculturative Stress, Islamic Practices, and Internalizing Symptoms among Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Pham, Andy V.; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Yosai, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first-…

  2. American Indian University Students' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Associated with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…

  3. Longitudinal Association between Childhood Impulsivity and Bulimic Symptoms in African American Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal…

  4. The future of sleep technology: report from an American Association of Sleep Technologists summit meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rita; Trimble, Melinda

    2014-05-15

    The American Association of Sleep Technologists (AAST) Board of Directors hosted a Sleep Technology Summit on September 21, 2013 with the goals of identifying changes in the delivery of diagnostic and treatment services to sleep disorders patients, predicting the impact on sleep technologists, identifying new roles for sleep technologists, and determining appropriate education to prepare technologists for the future. A carefully chosen panel of speakers focused on the business skills necessary to provide care cost effectively and the clinical skills that will be essential for the technologist of the future to help care for patients with sleep disorders. A group of selected leaders, educators, and industry professionals reviewed the current state of affairs and examined opportunities to sustain the profession and define the role of the sleep technologist of the future. Facilitated group discussions of these critical topics followed each session. There was a clear consensus that regulatory and economic pressures are changing the way sleep disorders patients are diagnosed and treated. Private insurers are requiring pre-authorization for laboratory sleep studies and are incentivizing home sleep testing for most patients suspected of obstructive sleep apnea. Reimbursement for home testing will be lower than for laboratory testing, and further reductions in overall reimbursement are anticipated. These factors will almost certainly reduce the need for technologists to perform laboratory diagnostic studies and pressure sleep centers to reduce payrolls. Remaining laboratory patients will have more complicated sleep disorders, have more comorbidity, and require a higher level of care than most of the patients currently tested in sleep centers. Testing these patients will require technologists with a higher level of training, experience, and sophistication. A second area of consensus was that the focus in medicine is changing from diagnosis to outcomes. New models of

  5. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  6. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-03-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair.

  7. Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Eva; Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J; Moons, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Although different guidelines on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) care advocate for lifetime cardiac follow-up, a critical appraisal of the guideline implementation is lacking. We investigated the implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 guidelines for ACHD follow-up by investigating the type of health care professional, care setting, and frequency of outpatient visits in young adults with CHD. Furthermore, correlates for care in line with the recommendations or untraceability were investigated. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 306 patients with CHD who had a documented outpatient visit at pediatric cardiology before age 18 years. In all, 210 patients (68.6%) were in cardiac follow-up; 20 (6.5%) withdrew from follow-up and 76 (24.9%) were untraceable. Overall, 198 patients were followed up in tertiary care, 1/4 (n = 52) of which were seen at a formalized ACHD care program and 3/4 (n = 146) remained at pediatric cardiology. Of those followed in formalized ACHD and pediatric cardiology care, the recommended frequency was implemented in 94.2% and 89%, respectively (p = 0.412). No predictors for the implementation of the guidelines were identified. Risk factors for becoming untraceable were none or lower number of heart surgeries, health insurance issues, and nonwhite ethnicity. In conclusion, a significant number of adults continue to be cared for by pediatric cardiologists, indicating that transfer to adult-oriented care was not standard practice. Frequency of follow-up for most patients was in line with the ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines. A considerable proportion of young adults were untraceable in the system, which makes them vulnerable for discontinuation of care.

  8. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  9. The use and perceptions of concept mapping as a learning tool by dietetic internship students and preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Taylor, Kimberly A; Erickson, Dawn; Connell, Carol Lawson

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking and problem solving skills are currently emphasis areas in the education of allied health professionals. Use of concept maps to teach these skills have been utilized primarily in nursing and medical education, but little has been published about their use in dietetics education. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of concept mapping as a learning tool for nutrition assessment among dietetic interns and its acceptability by internship preceptors. Nineteen dietetic interns and 31 preceptors participated in a quasi-experimental pre-/post-design in which the concept mapping strategy was taught as a replacement for the traditional nutrition care plan. The pre-concept map mean score was significantly lower than the post-concept mean score (28.35 vs. 117.96; p=0.001) based on the Student t-test, thus indicating improved critical thinking skills as evidenced through concept mapping. Overall students' perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching-learning method were more positive than the preceptors' perceptions. In conclusion, internship preceptors and dietetic interns perceived concept mapping as effective in assisting interns to engage in critical thinking, to problem solve, and understand relationships among medical nutrition therapy concepts. However, preceptors had more negative attitudes toward concept mapping than the dietetic interns related to time and effort to complete and evaluate the concept map.

  10. Associations between Trans Fatty Acid Consumption and Colon Cancer among Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study I

    OpenAIRE

    Vinikoor, Lisa C.; Satia, Jessie A.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Millikan, Robert C.; Martin, Christopher F.; Ibrahim, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in incidence and mortality rates of colon cancer exist between Whites and African Americans. Prior studies examined the association between trans fatty acid consumption and colorectal cancer, but none assessed this possible relationship within a large study population of African Americans and Whites. Using data from a population-based case-control study in North Carolina, we investigated this association with attention to possible racial differences. Cases and matched controls wer...

  11. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes identified by the transethnic meta-analysis study: assessment in American Indians and evidence for a new signal in LPP

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Anup K; Muller, Yunhua Li; McLean, Nellie A.; Abdussamad, Maryam; Piaggi, Paolo; Kobes, Sayuko; Weil, E. Jennifer; Jeffrey M Curtis; Nelson, Robert G.; Knowler, William C.; Hanson, Robert L.; Baier, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis A recent genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis identified seven new loci associated with type 2 diabetes. We assessed the replication of the seven lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated these loci for additional signals in American Indians. Methods Seven SNPs were genotyped in 7,710 individuals from a longitudinally studied American Indian population, and associations with type 2 diabetes, BMI and related phenotypes were assessed. Previous genome-wide asso...

  12. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Saroja eVoruganti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased serum uric acid (SUA is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257 and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9 were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p <1.3×10-7. The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2%, 36.2%, and 38.2 %, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3-7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight and waist circumference (p < 1.4 x 10-3 and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status. The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p<1.9×10-6 for joint linkage/association was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6 on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors.

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin C. The Panel concludes that an Average Requirement (AR) can be derived from indicators of vitamin C status, as well as a Population...... Reference Intake (PRI) assuming a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 %. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin C intake were also considered but data were found to be insufficient to establish DRVs. For healthy adults, the AR is determined from the quantity of vitamin C that balances...... assessment. For children and adolescents, the ARs for vitamin C are extrapolated from the ARs for adults taking into account differences in reference body weight, and PRIs are derived, ranging from 20 mg/day for 1 to 3 year-old children, to 100 and 90 mg/day for boys and girls aged 15-17 years, respectively...

  14. American Geriatrics Society/Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs curricular milestones for graduating geriatric fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan M; Harper, G Michael; Fernandez, Helen; Sauvigne, Karen; Leipzig, Rosanne M

    2014-05-01

    This article describes the curricular milestones for geriatric fellows and the process used to develop them. The curricular milestones were developed to determine what every graduating geriatric fellow should be able to demonstrate to ensure that they will be able to practice effectively and safely in all care settings and with different older adult populations. Three major domains were identified: Caring for the Elderly Patient, Systems-Based Care for Elder Patients, and Geriatric Syndromes. Six hundred thirty-five geriatricians each reviewed and commented on one domain. These geriatricians represented important stakeholder groups: geriatric fellowship program directors; Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs (ADGAP) members, who are primarily geriatric program and fellowship directors; the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and ADGAP Education Committee; the AGS Teacher's Section; Geriatric Academic Career Award awardees; and through the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Board of Family Medicine, board-certified geriatricians who spend more than 50% of their time in clinical practice. The AGS and ADGAP boards approved the final set of 76 Geriatric Curricular Milestones, which were posted on the Portal of Geriatric Online Education in December 2012. These curricular milestones are intended to assist geriatric fellowship directors as they develop curricula and assessments to inform program director reporting to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the Next Accreditation System, which begins in July 2014. PMID:24749808

  15. The potential for enhancing the power of genetic association studies in African Americans through the reuse of existing genotype data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the feasibility of reusing existing control data obtained in genetic association studies in order to reduce costs for new studies. We discuss controlling for the population differences between cases and controls that are implicit in studies utilizing external control data. We give theoretical calculations of the statistical power of a test due to Bourgain et al (Am J Human Genet 2003, applied to the problem of dealing with case-control differences in genetic ancestry related to population isolation or population admixture. Theoretical results show that there may exist bounds for the non-centrality parameter for a test of association that places limits on study power even if sample sizes can grow arbitrarily large. We apply this method to data from a multi-center, geographically-diverse, genome-wide association study of breast cancer in African-American women. Our analysis of these data shows that admixture proportions differ by center with the average fraction of European admixture ranging from approximately 20% for participants from study sites in the Eastern United States to 25% for participants from West Coast sites. However, these differences in average admixture fraction between sites are largely counterbalanced by considerable diversity in individual admixture proportion within each study site. Our results suggest that statistical correction for admixture differences is feasible for future studies of African-Americans, utilizing the existing controls from the African-American Breast Cancer study, even if case ascertainment for the future studies is not balanced over the same centers or regions that supplied the controls for the current study.

  16. Continuing Professional Education for the Dietitian: A Critical Analysis of the Professional Development 2001 Model from an Adult Education Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Susan S. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Professional Development 2001 has been proposed by the Commission on Dietetic Registration as a new system for recredentialing dietetic practitioners to better ensure professional development. Changes include self-directed learning and reflective inquiry, new, unfamiliar concepts to this profession. To date, neither the Commission on Dietetic Registration nor the American Dietetic Association have offered a systematic review of these concepts and their implications for practice. As practit...

  17. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidulescu Aurelian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA, modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT, known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p 3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p 3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p  Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.

  18. Factors Associated with Depression Among Mexican Americans Living in U.S.-Mexico Border and Non-Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A

    2016-08-01

    Factors associated with CES-D depression among Mexican Americans living on and off the U.S.-Mexico border are examined. Data are from two studies of Mexican American adults. The Border Survey conducted face-to-face interviews in urban U.S.-Mexico border counties of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N = 1307). The non-border HABLAS survey conducted face-to-face interviews in Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and Miami (N = 1288). Both surveys used a multistage cluster sample design with response rates of 67 and 76 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that border residence and higher perceived neighborhood collective efficacy were protective for depression among men. Among men, lower education, unemployment, increased weekly drinking, and poor health status were associated with depression. Among women, alcohol-related problems and poorer health status were also associated with depression. Further examinations of how neighborhood perceptions vary by gender and how these perceptions influence the likelihood of depression are warranted. PMID:26137982

  19. Optimizing resources for the surgical care of children: an American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Adam B; Dasgupta, Roshni; Chen, Li Ern; Blakely, Martin L; Islam, Saleem; Downard, Cynthia D; Rangel, Shawn J; St Peter, Shawn D; Calkins, Casey M; Arca, Marjorie J; Barnhart, Douglas C; Saito, Jacqueline M; Oldham, Keith T; Abdullah, Fizan

    2014-05-01

    The United States' healthcare system is facing unprecedented pressures: the healthcare cost curve is not sustainable while the bar of standards and expectations for the quality of care continues to rise. Systems committed to the surgical treatment of children will likely require changes and reorganization. Regardless of these mounting pressures, hospitals must remain focused on providing the best possible care to each child at every encounter. Available clinical expertise and hospital resources should be optimized to match the complexity of the treated condition. Although precise criteria are lacking, there is a growing consensus that the optimal combination of clinical experience and hospital resources must be defined, and efforts toward this goal have been supported by the Regents of the American College of Surgeons, the members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) Board of Directors. The topic of optimizing outcomes and the discussion of the concepts involved have unfortunately become divisive. Our goals, therefore, are 1) to provide a review of the literature that can provide context for the discussion of regionalization, volume, and optimal resources and promote mutual understanding of these important terms, 2) to review the evidence that has been published to date in pediatric surgery associated with regionalization, volume, and resource, 3) to focus on a specific resource (anesthesia), and the association that this may have with outcomes, and 4) to provide a framework for future research and policy efforts.

  20. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat.

  1. COMPETITIVE BALANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL: THE GI BILL, GRANT-IN-AID AND THE COLLEGE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Salaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies three historical events, listed in the title, representing key changes in the business structure of American college football and then tests to see whether these events are associated with changes in competitive balance. The analysis shows that balance has been relatively stable despite these alterations. The significant effects that are uncovered are confined to single conferences suggesting these events are not tied to widespread changes in balance throughout the sport. Additionally, the margin of victory ratio, a metric accounting for game closeness is introduced. Based on this measure, game uncertainty in individual conferences has improved over time.

  2. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat. PMID:26232829

  3. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  4. Bibliometric analysis of nutrition and dietetics research activity in Arab countries using ISI Web of Science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2014-01-01

    Reducing nutrition-related health problems in Arab countries requires an understanding of the performance of Arab countries in the field of nutrition and dietetics research. Assessment of research activity from a particular country or region could be achieved through bibliometric analysis. This study was carried out to investigate research activity in "nutrition and dietetics" in Arab countries. Original and review articles published from Arab countries in "nutrition and dietetics" Web of Science category up until 2012 were retrieved and analyzed using the ISI Web of Science database. The total number of documents published in "nutrition and dietetics" category from Arab countries was 2062. This constitutes 1% of worldwide research activity in the field. Annual research productivity showed a significant increase after 2005. Approximately 60% of published documents originated from three Arab countries, particularly Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia. However, Kuwait has the highest research productivity per million inhabitants. Main research areas of published documents were in "Food Science/Technology" and "Chemistry" which constituted 75% of published documents compared with 25% for worldwide documents in nutrition and dietetics. A total of 329 (15.96%) nutrition - related diabetes or obesity or cancer documents were published from Arab countries compared with 21% for worldwide published documents. Interest in nutrition and dietetics research is relatively recent in Arab countries. Focus of nutrition research is mainly toward food technology and chemistry with lesser activity toward nutrition-related health research. International cooperation in nutrition research will definitely help Arab researchers in implementing nutrition research that will lead to better national policies regarding nutrition.

  5. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ASSOCIAZIONE MEDICI ENDOCRINOLOGI MEDICAL GUIDELINES FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID NODULES--2016 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Garber, Jeffrey R; Duick, Daniel S; Harrell, R Mack; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Paschke, Ralf; Valcavi, Roberto; Vitti, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    malignant or suspicious nodules. The present document updates previous guidelines released in 2006 and 2010 by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME). PMID:27167915

  6. Daily stress and emotional well-being among Asian American adolescents: same-day, lagged, and chronic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M

    2014-02-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; M age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when considering same-day reports. More daily stress was associated with lower same-day happiness and higher distress and anxiety. At the same time, well-being was associated with same-day stress, although the specific patterns were not as consistent and varied somewhat by stress domain. With a 1-day lag between daily experiences, stress was not associated with next-day well-being, but daily distress was associated with more next-day family stress. Females and first-generation adolescents were particularly vulnerable to daily stress and well-being processes. Sustained effects were also found in that chronic experiences of school stress over the 14-day period were associated with higher reports of depression and anxiety. PMID:23815704

  7. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Petrovics

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA and Caucasian American (CA CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients. Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies.

  8. The business of ethics: gender, medicine, and the professional codification of the American Physiotherapy Association, 1918-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2005-07-01

    The history of codes of ethics in health care has almost exclusively been told as a story of how medical doctors developed their own professional principles of conduct. Yet telling the history of medical ethics solely from the physicians' perspective neglects not only the numerous allied health care workers who developed their own codes of ethics in tandem with the medical profession, but also the role that gender played in the writing of such professional creeds. By focusing on the predominantly female organization of the American Physiotherapy Association (APA) and its 1935 "Code of Ethics and Discipline," I demonstrate how these women used their creed to at once curry favor from and challenge the authority of the medical profession. Through their Code, APA therapists engaged in a dynamic dialogue with the male physicians of the American Medical Association (AMA) in the name of professional survival. I conclude that, contrary to historians and philosophers who contend that professional women have historically operated under a gender-specific ethic of care, the physiotherapists avoided rhetoric construed as feminine and instead created a "business-like" creed in which they spoke solely about their relationship with physicians and remained silent on the matter of patient care.

  9. The business of ethics: gender, medicine, and the professional codification of the American Physiotherapy Association, 1918-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2005-07-01

    The history of codes of ethics in health care has almost exclusively been told as a story of how medical doctors developed their own professional principles of conduct. Yet telling the history of medical ethics solely from the physicians' perspective neglects not only the numerous allied health care workers who developed their own codes of ethics in tandem with the medical profession, but also the role that gender played in the writing of such professional creeds. By focusing on the predominantly female organization of the American Physiotherapy Association (APA) and its 1935 "Code of Ethics and Discipline," I demonstrate how these women used their creed to at once curry favor from and challenge the authority of the medical profession. Through their Code, APA therapists engaged in a dynamic dialogue with the male physicians of the American Medical Association (AMA) in the name of professional survival. I conclude that, contrary to historians and philosophers who contend that professional women have historically operated under a gender-specific ethic of care, the physiotherapists avoided rhetoric construed as feminine and instead created a "business-like" creed in which they spoke solely about their relationship with physicians and remained silent on the matter of patient care. PMID:15917259

  10. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen R; Hagberg, Nancy; Isasi, Carmen R; Kelly, Aaron S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pate, Russell R; Pratt, Charlotte; Shay, Christina M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Urbina, Elaine; Van Horn, Linda V; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-09-20

    This document provides a pediatric-focused companion to "Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association's Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond," focused on cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction in adults and children. The principles detailed in the document reflect the American Heart Association's new dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course. The primary focus is on adult cardiovascular health and disease prevention, but critical to achievement of this goal is maintenance of ideal cardiovascular health from birth through childhood to young adulthood and beyond. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and metrics that define cardiovascular health in children for the clinical or research setting, and a balanced and critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the cardiovascular health construct in children and adolescents is provided. Specifically, this document discusses 2 important factors: the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health in all children and the improvement of cardiovascular health metric scores in children currently classified as having poor or intermediate cardiovascular health. Other topics include the current status of cardiovascular health in US children, opportunities for the refinement of health metrics, improvement of health metric scores, and possibilities for promoting ideal cardiovascular health. Importantly, concerns about the suitability of using single thresholds to identify elevated cardiovascular risk throughout the childhood years and the limits of our current knowledge are noted, and suggestions for future directions and research are provided.

  11. The Effect of Public and Private Decisions on University Governance on the Transnational Relations of American-Associated Universities in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bertelsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of public and private decisions on university governance on how historic and current American-associated universities in the Middle East have and continue to connect as transnational actors with a multitude of public, private and civil society actors in American society. These universities are the classic missionary universities in Beirut and Cairo (the American University of Beirut, Lebanese American University and the American University in Cairo as well as the many branch campuses and new universities with American accreditation or partnership which have appeared especially in the Gulf States. The ability of these universities to engage with actors in American society and the Middle Eastern host society is explained by their model of governance highlighting public and private decisions on primarily owner-ship structure and non- or for-profit status. Affiliated, non-profit status explains academic reputation, while proprietary, for-profit status is detrimental. Academic reputation is the basis of the relationships these universities maintain with American private, public and civil society actors.

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF as an ingredient for food supplements, infant and follow-on formulae, dietetic food for special medical purposes and sports nutrition, and for a variety....... The toxicological information provided by the applicant included information from an in vitro genotoxicity study, a single dose study, a four week and a thirteen week oral repeated dose study in rats. The Panel notes that the estimated intake of "lactoferrin" for infants up to the age of one year of approximately...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and ski...

  14. Most Americans Do Not Believe That There Is An Association Between Health Care Prices And Quality Of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Schleifer, David; Hagelskamp, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Many organizations are developing health care price information tools for consumers. However, consumers may avoid low-price care if they perceive price to be associated with quality. We conducted a nationally representative survey to examine whether consumers perceive that price and quality are associated and whether the way in which questions are framed affects consumers’ responses. Most Americans (58–71 percent, depending on question framing) did not think that price and quality are associated, but a substantial minority did perceive an association (21–24 percent) or were unsure if there was one (8–16 percent). Responses to questions framed in terms of high price and high quality differed from responses to questions framed in terms of low price and low quality. People who had compared prices were more likely than those who have not compared prices to perceive that price and quality were associated. We explore implications of these findings, including how behavioral economics can inform approaches to helping consumers use price and quality information. PMID:27044965

  15. Most Americans Do Not Believe That There Is An Association Between Health Care Prices And Quality Of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Schleifer, David; Hagelskamp, Carolin

    2016-04-01

    Many organizations are developing health care price information tools for consumers. However, consumers may avoid low-price care if they perceive price to be associated with quality. We conducted a nationally representative survey to examine whether consumers perceive that price and quality are associated and whether the way in which questions are framed affects consumers' responses. Most Americans (58-71 percent, depending on question framing) did not think that price and quality are associated, but a substantial minority did perceive an association (21-24 percent) or were unsure whether there was one (8-16 percent). Responses to questions framed in terms of high price and high quality differed from responses to questions framed in terms of low price and low quality. People who had compared prices were more likely than those who had not compared prices to perceive that price and quality were associated. We explore implications of these findings, including how behavioral economics can inform approaches to helping consumers use price and quality information.

  16. Urban African American Pre-Adolescent Social Problem Solving Skills: Family Influences and Association with Exposure to Situations of Sexual Possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Traube, Dorian E.; Chasse, Kelly Taber; McKay, Mary M.; Bhorade, Anjali M.; PAIKOFF, ROBERTA; Young, Stacie D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in unsupervised peer situations of sexual possibility. Findings revealed that children with more exposure to sexual possibility sit...

  17. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  18. Looking Back at One Hundred Years of the Association of American Colleges and Universities: An Interview with Presidents John W. Chandler, Paula P. Brownlee, and Carol Geary Schneider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritelli, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an interview with two former and the current president of the Association of American Colleges and Universities: John W. Chandler, Paula P. Brownlee, and Carol Geary Schneider. John W. Chandler was president of the association from 1985 to 1990, Paula P. Brownlee was president from 1990 to 1998, and Carol Geary…

  19. Non-Linear Associations between Stature and Mate Choice Characteristics for American Men and their Spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Mills, Melinda; Pollet, Thomas V.; Barrett, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although male height is positively associated with many aspects of mate quality, average height men attain higher reproductive success in US populations. We hypothesize that this is because the advantages associated with taller stature accrue mainly from not being short, rather than from

  20. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Shriner, Daniel; Chen, Brian H; Li, Jiang; Chen, Wei-Min; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Jiankang; Bielinski, Suzette J; Yanek, Lisa R; Nalls, Michael A; Comeau, Mary E; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Jensen, Richard A; Evans, Daniel S; Sun, Yan V; An, Ping; Patel, Sanjay R; Lu, Yingchang; Long, Jirong; Armstrong, Loren L; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Yang, Lingyao; Snively, Beverly M; Palmer, Nicholette D; Mudgal, Poorva; Langefeld, Carl D; Keene, Keith L; Freedman, Barry I; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nayak, Uma; Raffel, Leslie J; Goodarzi, Mark O; Chen, Y-D Ida; Taylor, Herman A; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Couper, David; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Doumatey, Ayo; Chen, Guanjie; Mathias, Rasika A; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Singleton, Andrew B; Zonderman, Alan B; Igo, Robert P; Sedor, John R; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Siscovick, David S; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Liu, Yongmei; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Zhao, Wei; Bielak, Lawrence F; Kraja, Aldi; Province, Michael A; Bottinger, Erwin P; Gottesman, Omri; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J; Lowe, William L; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Crawford, Dana C; Grundberg, Elin; Rich, Stephen S; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Loos, Ruth J F; Borecki, Ingrid B; Peyser, Patricia A; Cummings, Steven R; Psaty, Bruce M; Fornage, Myriam; Iyengar, Sudha K; Evans, Michele K; Becker, Diane M; Kao, W H Linda; Wilson, James G; Rotter, Jerome I; Sale, Michèle M; Liu, Simin; Rotimi, Charles N; Bowden, Donald W

    2014-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1) and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2) at genome-wide significance (4.15 × 10(-94)liability scale in African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies. PMID:25102180

  1. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  2. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

  3. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  4. Chronic Cocaine Use and Its Association with Myocardial Steatosis Evaluated by 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shenghan; Gerstenblith, Gary; Li, Ji; Zhu, Hong; Bluemke, David A.; Liu, Chia-Ying; Zimmerman, Stefan L.; Chen, Shaoguang; Lai, Hong; Treisman, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cardiac steatosis is a manifestation of ectopic fat deposition and is associated with obesity. The impact of chronic cocaine use on obesity measures and on the relationship between obesity measures and cardiac steatosis is not well-characterized. The objectives of this study were to compare obesity measures in chronic cocaine users and non-users, and to explore which factors, in addition to obesity measures, are associated with myocardial triglyceride in African Americans (AAs), using noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods Between June 2004 and January 2014, 180 healthy AA adults without HIV infection, hypertension and diabetes were enrolled in an observational proton MRS and imaging study investigating factors associated with cardiac steatosis. Results Among these 180 participants, 80 were chronic cocaine users, and 100 were non-users. The median age (with IQR) was 42 (34-47) years. Obesity measures trended higher in cocaine users than non-users. The median myocardial triglyceride was 0.6% (IQR:0.4-1.1%). Among the factors investigated, years of cocaine use, leptin and visceral fat were independently associated with myocardial triglyceride. BMI and visceral fat, which were significantly associated with myocardial triglyceride in non-cocaine users, were not associated with myocardial triglycerides content in cocaine users. Conclusions This study shows (1) cocaine users may have more fat than nonusers and (2) myocardial triglyceride is independently associated with duration of cocaine use, leptin, and visceral fat in all subjects, while leptin and HDL-cholesterol, but not visceral fat or BMI, in cocaine users, suggesting that chronic cocaine use may modify the relationships between obesity measures and myocardial triglyceride. PMID:25325298

  5. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  6. Association Among Subtypes of Bullying Status and Sexually-Risky Behaviors of Urban African American Adolescents in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-10-01

    Bullying is found to be associated with various negative psychosocial outcomes. However, few studies have explored the association between bullying involvement and sexually-risky behaviors. Youth were recruited from three high schools, one youth church group, two community youth programs, and four public venues. Six hundred-and-thirty-eight urban African American adolescents (aged 12-22) in Chicago completed a self-report questionnaire. Major findings indicated that males were more likely than females to have sex with someone in exchange for drugs. Bullying perpetration, victimization, and perpetration-victimization were negatively associated with having sex with a condom. Older youth, and those identified as perpetrators and perpetrator-victims were more likely to have impregnated someone or been pregnant. Stress and coping framework should be considered. Bullying prevention should provide youth with several healthy coping strategies for reducing sexually-risky behaviors. Community-based and school-based violence prevention programs need to consider sexual risk outcomes associated with involvement in bullying. PMID:26914838

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Drug Use and Unsafe Sex among Young African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph

    2013-09-01

    This study prospectively examined associations among multiple theoretically informed risk (e.g., depression, sexual sensation seeking, and risky peers norms) and protective factors (e.g., social support, STI knowledge, and refusal to have sex self efficacy) on unsafe sex among 715 African American adolescent females aged 15-21 who participated in an STI/HIV prevention intervention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess associations between baseline characteristics and sexual risk over a 12-month follow up period. Overall risk in this population was high: at baseline, nearly a third of women reported sex under the influence of alcohol or substances; ≥ 2 partners for vaginal sex, and casual sex partners in the 60 days prior to baseline, and nearly 75% of those reporting vaginal sex used condoms inconsistently. In multivariable analysis, when risk and protective factors were simultaneously considered, higher levels of sexual sensation seeking were associated with having multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use. Greater perception of risky peer norms was associated with a higher risk of having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In addition, higher sex refusal self-efficacy was protective against having multiple; casual; and concurrent sex partners. Incorporating these salient factors into prevention programs may be critical to the development of targeted interventions for this population. PMID:23935234

  8. Intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening among African-American males in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickey SL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina L Dickey,1 Eileen Cormier,1 James Whyte IV,1 Penny A Ralston2 1College of Nursing, 2Center on Better Health and Life for Underserved Populations, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening (PCS among African-American (AA males of ≥40 years from a nationally representative data set in the US. The theory of planned behavior was utilized as the theoretical framework. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional secondary analysis employed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. The sample consisted of 377 AA males. The primary outcome variables were two PCS tests, the digital rectal exam (DRE and the prostate-specific antigen test. Logistic regression models were developed to test for associations between the PCS tests and the factors of interest. Results: The factors of age, education, and access to a health care facility were associated with AA males receiving the DRE. The age group of 40–49 years was least likely to receive the DRE when compared to the age group of ≥70 years. Similarly AA males without a college degree were also least likely to receive the DRE when compared to AA males with a college degree. AA males with access to health care were more likely than those without access to receive the DRE. Age <70 years along with church attendance was associated with AA males receiving the prostate-specific antigen test. Conclusion: Differences were present for significant associations among intrapersonal and community variables and the two PCS exams. A culturally sensitive approach is necessary for understanding factors associated with PCS among AA males, which is central to designing and appropriately targeting public health interventions to decrease the health disparity of prostate cancer among this high-risk population. Keywords: prostate cancer screening

  9. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively. PMID:23572690

  10. Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphramor Lucy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.

  11. Defining Research Priorities for Nutrition and Mental Health: Insights from Dietetics Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andreamatteo, Carla; Davison, Karen M; Vanderkooy, Pat

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, a national initiative aimed at defining a research agenda for nutrition and mental health among diverse stakeholders was completed and included insights from more than 300 registered dietitians. This study explores the data from dietitians based on their years of practice, mental health experiences, and community of practice in relationship to identified mental health and nutrition research priorities. Analysis of numerical data (n = 299) and content analysis of open-ended responses (n = 269) revealed that respondents desired research for specific mental health conditions (MHCs), emotional eating, food addiction, populations with special needs, and people encountering major life transitions (e.g., recovery from abuse, refugees). Findings from the quantitative and textual data suggested that dietitians want research aimed at addressing the concerns of those in the community, fostering consumer nutrition knowledge and skill acquisition, and developing services that will impact quality of life. Subgroup analysis indicated that dietitians: (i) in early years of practice want information about specific MHCs; (ii) living in smaller towns and rural areas want data about the cost benefits of dietetics practice in mental health; and (iii) who also had additional stakeholder roles (e.g., service provider) selected priorities that address gaps in mental health services. This study highlights opportunities to tailor nutrition and mental health research that advance dietetics practice. PMID:26567627

  12. A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

    2009-01-01

    This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

  13. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

  14. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:23790412

  15. Post Graduate Programme in Dietetics & Food Service Management (MSCDFSM) Programme of IGNOU: Access through the Lucknow Regional Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorothy, J. S.; Kumar, Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) which was established initially as a Single mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI) in the year 1985 opened its campus to face-to-face education in the year 2008 and thus now is a Dual mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI). The Post Graduate Programme (Master of Science) in Dietetics and Food…

  16. Association of TCF7L2 Gene Polymorphisms with Reduced Acute Insulin Response in Hispanic Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Nicholette D.; Lehtinen, Allison B.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Campbell, Joel K; Haffner, Steven M.; Norris, Jill M.; Bergman, Richard N.; Goodarzi, Mark O; Jerome I Rotter; Donald W Bowden

    2007-01-01

    Context: Genetic variation at the transcription factor 7-like 2 locus has been linked to type 2 diabetes in predominantly European-derived populations. The biological basis of these associations remains to be determined.

  17. Relative dental maturity and associated skeletal maturity in prehistoric native Americans of the Ohio valley area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciulli, Paul W

    2007-04-01

    Estimation of age-at-death of subadults in prehistoric skeletal samples based on modern reference standards rests on a number of assumptions of which many are untestable. If these assumptions are not met error of unknown magnitude and direction will be introduced to the subadult age estimates. This situation suggests that an independent estimate or estimates of age-related features, free of most of the assumptions made when using modern reference standards may be useful supplements in evaluating the age of subadults in prehistoric samples. The present study provides an internally consistent, population-specific measure of maturity for prehistoric Ohio valley Native Americans based on the seriation of dental development that may be used as a supplement to age-estimation. The developing dentition of 581 subadults from eight Ohio valley prehistoric-protohistoric groups was seriated within and among individuals resulting in a sequence of tooth development and a sequence of individuals from least to most mature. Dental maturity stages or sorting categories were then defined based on exclusive, easily observable, and highly repeatable tooth-formation stages. Tooth eruption (into occlusion), bone lengths, and fusion of skeletal elements are summarized by dental maturity stage. This procedure provides maturity estimates for skeletal features ordered by dental maturity stages derived from the same sample thus making explicit the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity.

  18. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Christina T. L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Michael A Nalls; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a G...

  19. Social Factors in Childhood and Adulthood Associated with Adult Obesity in African American and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Milda R.; Kalycia Trishana Watson; Hyo Jung Tak

    2012-01-01

    Background. Few studies have examined how individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood influence the likelihood of adult obesity. We used a longitudinal cohort to examine these associations. Methods. Our cohort consisted of children born in Baltimore, MD, USA with followup as adults from ages 27 to 33. We used logistic regression to examine the multivariate association between individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood and adult obesity, (body mass index ...

  20. Gender and the association of smoking with sleep quantity and quality in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Alem; Weir, Nargues A; Gillum, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and gender are known risk factors for sleep disorders. Studies of samples from Norway and Japan have suggested stronger associations between smoking and disrupted sleep in women; therefore, we examined, gender differences in the association in the U.S. population. We analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the associations between smoking and self-reported measures of sleep disorders (i.e., snoring, short sleep, long sleep, poor sleep, and health care provider diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing) using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as measures of association. We also assessed whether the associations varied by gender using a gender x smoking interaction term. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of self-reported snoring (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.56-2.56), short sleep (OR 1.68; 95% CI = 1.35-2.10) and poor sleep (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.09-1.74). A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount smoked and sleep symptoms. In multivariate analyses, no significant gender x smoking interaction was observed for snoring, short sleep or poor sleep. Current smoking was independently associated with increased odds of snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep in women and men among U.S. adults.

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  2. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  3. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4. 0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly. (author)

  4. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  5. Dietary patterns are associated with incident stroke and contribute to excess risk of stroke in Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Newby, PK; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L; Kissela, Brett M; Shikany, James M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Black Americans and residents of the Southeastern United States, are at increased risk of stroke. Diet is one of many potential factors proposed that might explain these racial and regional disparities. Methods Between 2003–2007, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study enrolled 30,239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis and foods from food frequency data. Incident strokes were adjudicated using medical records by a team of physicians. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of stroke. Results Over 5.7 years, 490 incident strokes were observed. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, greater adherence to the Plant-based pattern was associated with lower stroke risk (HR=0.71; 95% CI=0.56–0.91; ptrend=0.005). This association was attenuated after addition of income, education, total energy intake, smoking, and sedentary behavior. Participants with a higher adherence to the Southern pattern experienced a 39% increased risk of stroke (HR=1.39; 95% CI=1.05, 1.84), with a significant (p = 0.009) trend across quartiles. Including Southern pattern in the model mediated the black-white risk of stroke by 63%. Conclusions These data suggest that adherence to a Southern style diet may increase the risk of stroke while adherence to a more plant-based diet may reduce stroke risk. Given the consistency of finding a dietary impact on stroke risk across studies, discussing nutrition patterns during risk screening may be an important step in reducing stroke. PMID:24159061

  6. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  7. Transferability and fine mapping of type 2 diabetes loci in African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Saxena, Richa; Li, Jiang; Palmer, Nicholette D; Dimitrov, Latchezar; Xu, Jianzhao; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Zmuda, Joseph M; Siscovick, David S; Patel, Sanjay R; Crook, Errol D; Sims, Mario; Chen, Yii-Der I; Bertoni, Alain G; Li, Mingyao; Grant, Struan F A; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B; Psaty, Bruce M; Pankow, James S; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; Bowden, Donald W

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) disproportionally affects African Americans (AfA) but, to date, genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are primarily from European and Asian populations. We examined the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and locus transferability of 40 reported T2D loci in six AfA GWAS consisting of 2,806 T2D case subjects with or without end-stage renal disease and 4,265 control subjects from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study. Our results revealed that seven index SNPs at the TCF7L2, KLF14, KCNQ1, ADCY5, CDKAL1, JAZF1, and GCKR loci were significantly associated with T2D (P KLF14, and HMGA2 loci as well as suggestive signals in KCNQ1 after correction for the effective number of SNPs at each locus. Of these loci, the regional best SNPs were in differential linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the index and adjacent SNPs. Our findings suggest that some loci discovered in prior reports affect T2D susceptibility in AfA with similar effect sizes. The reduced and differential LD pattern in AfA compared with European and Asian populations may facilitate fine mapping of causal variants at loci shared across populations. PMID:23193183

  8. Increasing Stages of Social Activism and Responsiveness to the National Agenda: How Women Experience Membership in the American Association of University Women

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marilyn Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The problem investigated in this study was how individuals participate in the local units of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and particularly how their participation relates to the program and policy initiatives of the national association. The purpose was to understand and describe how individuals experience branch membership, how they respond to the current program and policy initiatives of the association, and to examine some of the differences between members with rega...

  9. Association of Plasma Vitamin D Levels with Adiposity in Hispanic and African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Kendra A.; Engelman, Corinne D; Langefeld, Carl D.; Hairston, Kristen G.; Haffner, Steven M.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Norris, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Previous studies have suggested vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased obesity; however, the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) and measures of adiposity has not been well characterized in minority populations.

  10. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-fat dairy products may be beneficial for health, but few studies have specifically focused on yogurt. We examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better dietary patterns, diet quality, and metabolic profile. This cross-sectional study included the adults (n=6526) participating in ...

  11. Risk of Dementia Associated with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine in a Latin American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara J. Chacón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between total homocysteine (tHcy and dementia risk remains controversial, as the association varies among populations and dementia subtypes. We studied a Venezuelan population that has high prevalence of both elevated tHcy and dementia. We tested the hypotheses that (1 elevated tHcy is associated with increased dementia risk, (2 the risk is greater for vascular dementia (VaD than for Alzheimer's disease (AD, and (3 a history of stroke may partly explain this association. 2100 participants (≥55 years old of the Maracaibo Aging Study underwent standardized neurological, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular assessments. Elevated tHcy was significantly associated with dementia, primarily VaD. When history of stroke and other confounding factors were taken into account, elevated tHcy remained a significant risk factor in older (>66 years, but not in younger (55–66 years subjects. Ongoing studies of this population may provide insight into the mechanism by which tHcy increases risk for dementia.

  12. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... pieces of cinder. In the Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001), paragraph number 12 is... Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001). A reassessment of the inventory during tribal... group identity with the human remains and associated funerary objects. In the Federal Register (66...

  13. Evaluation of candidate nephropathy susceptibility genes in a genome-wide association study of African American diabetic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholette D Palmer

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D-associated end-stage kidney disease (ESKD is a complex disorder resulting from the combined influence of genetic and environmental factors. This study contains a comprehensive genetic analysis of putative nephropathy loci in 965 African American (AA cases with T2D-ESKD and 1029 AA population-based controls extending prior findings. Analysis was based on 4,341 directly genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 22 nephropathy candidate genes. After admixture adjustment and correction for multiple comparisons, 37 SNPs across eight loci were significantly associated (1.6E-05association at MYH9 (P(emp = 0.00026-0.043 while marginally improving significance of other APOL1 SNPs (rs136161, rs713753, and rs767855; P(emp = 0.0060-0.037; association at other loci was markedly reduced except for CHN2 (chimerin; rs17157914, P(emp= 0.029. In addition, SNPs in other candidate loci (FRMD3 and TRPC6 trended toward association with T2D-ESKD (P(emp<0.05. These results suggest that risk contributed by putative nephropathy genes is shared across populations of African and European ancestry.

  14. Association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and paraoxonase with birth outcome in Mexican-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G Harley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that maternal organophosphorus (OP pesticide exposure is associated with poorer fetal growth, but findings are inconsistent. We explored whether paraoxonase (PON1, a key enzyme involved in detoxification of OPs, could be an effect modifier in this association. METHODS: The study population included 470 pregnant women enrolled in the CHAMACOS Study, a longitudinal cohort study of mothers and children living in an agricultural region of California. We analyzed urine samples collected from mothers twice during pregnancy for dialkyl phosphate (DAP metabolites of OP pesticides. We analyzed maternal and fetal (cord blood samples for PON1 genotype (PON1(192 and PON1(-108 and enzyme activity (paraoxonase and arylesterase. Infant birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age were obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Infants' PON1 genotype and activity were associated with birth outcome, but mothers' were not. Infants with the susceptible PON1(-108TT genotype had shorter gestational age (β = -0.5 weeks, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: -0.9, 0.0 and smaller head circumference (β = -0.4 cm, 95% CI: -0.7, 0.0 than those with the PON1(-108CC genotype. Infants' arylesterase and paraoxonase activity were positively associated with gestational age. There was some evidence of effect modification with DAPs: maternal DAP concentrations were associated with shorter gestational age only among infants of the susceptible PON1(-108TT genotype (p-value(interaction = 0.09. However, maternal DAP concentrations were associated with larger birth weight (p-value(interaction = 0.06 and head circumference (p-value(interaction<0.01 in infants with non-susceptible genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Infants whose PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels suggested that they might be more susceptible to the effects of OP pesticide exposure had decreased fetal growth and length of gestation. PON1 may be another factor

  15. The Association of Form of Gambling with Problem Gambling Among American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    A random telephone survey was conducted with 2274 U.S. residents aged 14-21. Analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the specific gambling games played and the extent of problem gambling symptoms. The forms of gambling that were most associated with gambling problems were card games, casino gambling, “other” gambling on routine activities, and betting on games of skill such as basketball, pool, or golf. The form of gambling which made the largest contribution to gambling pr...

  16. Green tea intake is associated with urinary estrogen profiles in Japanese-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrman Barbara J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scope Intake of green tea may reduce the risk of breast cancer; polyphenols in this drink can influence enzymes that metabolize estrogens, known causal factors in breast cancer etiology. Methods and results We examined the associations of green tea intake ( Conclusions Findings suggest that intake of green tea may modify estrogen metabolism or conjugation and in this way may influence breast cancer risk.

  17. American Visceral Leishmaniasis: Factors Associated with Lethality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Madalosso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify factors associated with death in visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases. Patients and Methodology. We evaluated prognostic factors for death from VL in São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. A prognostic study nested in a clinical cohort was carried out by data analysis of 376 medical files. A comparison between VL fatal cases and survivors was performed for clinical, laboratory, and biological features. Association between variables and death was assessed by univariate analysis, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to determine adjusted odds ratio for death, controlling confounding factors. Results. Data analysis identified 53 fatal cases out of 376 patients, between 1999 and 2005 in São Paulo state. Lethality was 14.1% (53/376, being higher in patients older than fifty years. The main causes of death were sepsis, bleeding, liver failure, and cardiotoxicity due to treatment. Variables significantly associated with death were severe anemia, bleeding, heart failure, jaundice, diarrhea, fever for more than sixty days, age older than fifty years, and antibiotic use. Conclusion. Educational health measures are needed for the general population and continuing education programs for health professionals working in the affected areas with the purpose of identifying and treating early cases, thus preventing the disease evolution towards death.

  18. Association of the C8orf13-BLK Region with Systemic Sclerosis in North-American and European Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourh, Pravitt; Agarwal, Sandeep K; Martin, Ezequiel; Divecha, Dipal; Rueda, Blanca; Bunting, Haley; Assassi, Shervin; Paz, Gene; Shete, Sanjay; McNearney, Terry; Draeger, Hilda; Reveille, John D; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Simeon, Carmen P.; Rodriguez, Luis; Vicente, Esther; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Mayes, Maureen D.; Tann, Filemon K.; Martin, Javier; Arnett, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Genetic studies in the systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease that clinically manifests with dermal and internal organ fibrosis and small vessel vasculopathy, have identified multiple susceptibility genes including HLA-class II, PTPN22, IRF5, and STAT4 which have also been associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These data suggest that there are common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. The current report sought to determine if polymorphisms in the C8orf13-BLK region (chromosome 8p23.1-B lymphoid tyrosine kinase), which is associated with SLE, are associated also with SSc. Methods Two variants in the C8orf13-BLK region (rs13277113 & rs2736340) were tested for association with 1050 SSc cases and 694 controls of North Americans of European descent and replicated in a second series 589 SSc cases and 722 controls from Spain. Results The “T” allele at rs2736340 variant was associated with SSc in both the U.S. and Spanish case-control series (P=6.8×10−5, OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.1–1.4). The “A” allele at rs13277113 variant was associated with SSc in the U.S. series only (P=3.6×10−4, OR 1.32, 95%CI 1.1–1.6) and was significant in the combined analyses of the two series (P=2.0×10−3; OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.1–1.3). Both variants demonstrated an association with the anti-centromere antibody (P=2.2×10−6 and P=5.5×10−4, respectively) and limited SSc (P=3.3×10−5 and P=2.9×10−3, respectively) in the combined analysis. Peripheral blood gene expression profiles suggest that B-cell receptor and NFκB signaling are dysregulated based on the risk haplotype of these variants. Conclusion We identify and replicate the association of the C8orf13-BLK region as a novel susceptibility factor for SSc, placing it in the category of common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. PMID:19796918

  19. Drugs That May Cause or Exacerbate Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert L; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Cheng, Davy; Dow, Tristan J; Ky, Bonnie; Stein, C Michael; Spencer, Anne P; Trupp, Robin J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure is a common, costly, and debilitating syndrome that is associated with a highly complex drug regimen, a large number of comorbidities, and a large and often disparate number of healthcare providers. All of these factors conspire to increase the risk of heart failure exacerbation by direct myocardial toxicity, drug-drug interactions, or both. This scientific statement is designed to serve as a comprehensive and accessible source of drugs that may cause or exacerbate heart failure to assist healthcare providers in improving the quality of care for these patients.

  20. Potential New Associations of North American Parasitoids With the Invasive Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) for Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Aparicio, Ellen; Tatman, Daria; Smith, Michael T; Luster, Doug G

    2016-04-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is a polyphagous wood-boring insect native to Asia. Since it invaded North America in the 1990s, the beetle has been continuously targeted by quarantines and eradication programs in the United States and Canada. We examined the potential for development of new species-associations between A. glabripennis and hymenopteran parasitoids collected from cerambycids and other wood-boring insects infesting red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Results of our study showed that five groups of braconid parasitoids (Ontsira mellipes Ashmead, Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marsh, Spathius laflammei Provancher, Heterospilus spp., and Atanycolus spp.) successfully attacked early instars of A. glabripennis larvae infesting red maple logs and produced both male and female progenies. One species, O. mellipes, was continuously reared on A. glabripennis larvae inserted inside small red maple sticks for over 50 generations, and produced female-biased progeny (∼6:1 female to male ratio) at each generation. Continuous rearing of O. mellipes on A. glabripennis larvae did not significantly increase the parasitism and mean number of progeny produced per parasitized host. Together, these findings demonstrate that some North American parasitoids may be able to develop new associations with A. glabripennis and thus should be further studied under semifield or field conditions for possible use in biocontrol. PMID:26602779

  1. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1.

  2. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1.

  3. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1. PMID:26892119

  4. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1. PMID:26892120

  5. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Reiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Total white blood cell (WBC and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22 associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8. The lead SNP (rs9131 on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261 on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter

  6. Twelve Years of Acoustical Research. American School Band Directors' Association, Research Committee Reports for the 17th Annual Convention, Hot Springs, Arkansas, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Band Directors Association, Newark, OH.

    The guide, one in a series of committee reports relating to school band performance, organization, and equipment needs, discusses acoustical problems inherent to the clarinet. The report is presented in five sections. Section I summarizes findings of an American School Band Directors' Association (ASBDA) clarinet testing committee. A major finding…

  7. Lack of association between Behçet's disease and major histocompatibility complex class II antigens in an ethnically diverse North American Caucasoid patient group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S B; O'Duffy, J D

    1986-08-01

    A group of 25 North American Caucasoid patients with well defined Behcet's disease were serologically typed for HLA-DR and DQw antigens. No significant associations were seen when results were compared with a group of 73 normal Caucasoid controls tested concomitantly. PMID:3772926

  8. APOL1 renal-risk genotypes associate with longer hemodialysis survival in prevalent nondiabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijun; Langefeld, Carl D; Comeau, Mary E; Bonomo, Jason A; Rocco, Michael V; Burkart, John M; Divers, Jasmin; Palmer, Nicholette D; Hicks, Pamela J; Bowden, Donald W; Lea, Janice P; Krisher, Jenna O; Clay, Margo J; Freedman, Barry I

    2016-08-01

    Relative to European Americans, evidence supports that African Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) survive longer on dialysis. Renal-risk variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1), associated with nondiabetic nephropathy and less subclinical atherosclerosis, may contribute to dialysis outcomes. Here, APOL1 renal-risk variants were assessed for association with dialytic survival in 450 diabetic and 275 nondiabetic African American hemodialysis patients from Wake Forest and Emory School of Medicine outpatient facilities. Outcomes were provided by the ESRD Network 6-Southeastern Kidney Council Standardized Information Management System. Dates of death, receipt of a kidney transplant, and loss to follow-up were recorded. Outcomes were censored at the date of transplantation or through 1 July 2015. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were computed separately in patients with nondiabetic and diabetic ESRD, adjusting for the covariates age, gender, comorbidities, ancestry, and presence of an arteriovenous fistula or graft at dialysis initiation. In nondiabetic ESRD, patients with 2 (vs. 0/1) APOL1 renal-risk variants had significantly longer dialysis survival (hazard ratio 0.57), a pattern not observed in patients with diabetes-associated ESRD (hazard ratio 1.29). Thus, 2 APOL1 renal-risk variants are associated with longer dialysis survival in African Americans without diabetes, potentially relating to presence of renal-limited disease or less atherosclerosis. PMID:27157696

  9. A summary of the update on cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections and their management A scientific statement from the American Heart Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddour, Larry M.; Epstein, Andrew E.; Erickson, Christopher C.; Knight, Bradley P.; Levison, Matthew E.; Lockhart, Peter B.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Okum, Eric J.; Wilson, Walter R.; Beerman, Lee B.; Bolger, Ann F.; Estes, N. A. Mark; Gewitz, Michael; Newburger, Jane W.; Schron, Eleanor B.; Taubert, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this statement is to update the recommendations by the American Heart Association (AHA) for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections and their management, which were last published in 2003. Methods and Results. The AHA commissioned this scientific sta

  10. Selected Papers from the 1990 Meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association (Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, October 2-7, 1990): Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The following 11 papers, on a variety of topics, were given at the 1990 meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association: (1) "They Hang Editors Don't They?: Free Speech and Free Press Issues in the Haymarket Case, 1886" (Nathaniel Hong); (2) "G. K. Chesterton and the British Press, 1911-1933" (Dean Rapp); (3) "Trial by Newspaper in…

  11. The 2nd Convention of Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics & International Symposium on Literatures in English(June 15-16,2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to further promote literary scholarship and international academic exchange,the University of Pennsylvania-based Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics(CAAP)will collaborate with the School of Foreign Languages and School of Humanities of Central China Normal University, Foreign Literature Studies,

  12. Private Higher Education: The Job Ahead, Volume 12. 1983 Annual Meeting Talks of the American Association of Presidents of Independent Colleges and Universities (Scottsdale, Arizona, December 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Presidents of Independent Colleges and Universities, Rockford, IL.

    Trends and issues in higher education are discussed in six papers from the 1983 annual meeting of the American Association of Presidents of Independent Colleges and Universities. In "Innovation Versus Reform in Higher Education" Alston Chase reviews trends, including citizenship instruction, the general education movement, a focus on science,…

  13. Neuroantibodies (NAB) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposures are Associated with Cytokine and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Polymorphisms (SNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in cytokine and HLA genes are associated with allergies, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration (ND). Samples from 131 African-American children (71 males; 60 females) in the Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study were used to determine SNPs of IL-4, IL...

  14. Development of professional practice through problem-based learning in human nutrition and Dietetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López Ma Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces, especially in nutrition area. Student of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organizational skills, teamwork, knowledge to develop proposals for intervention. Were given to students a problem-based learning (PBL activity with collaborative learning competence for to investigate their evolutions in collaborative learning and the knowledge in nutrition education. The results suggest that the PBL provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. The effect of PBL for the experienced students' collaborative learning and education nutrition competencies is especially promising in the professional development of future nutritionists.

  15. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. PMID:1624653

  16. Correlation of the American Urological Association symptom index with self-administered versions of the Madsen-Iversen, Boyarsky and Maine Medical Assessment Program symptom indexes. Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K

    1992-11-01

    We correlated the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index with other indexes that have been used to measure symptoms for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and compared their psychometric properties. A self-administered questionnaire that allowed derivation of AUA, Maine Medical Assessment Program, Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky symptom scores was completed by 76 men with clinically defined BPH, 59 younger control subjects, and 27 men before and after prostatectomy. The scores from the 4 indexes were strongly correlated (r = 0.77 to 0.93). All 4 indexes had good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. All indexes were predictive of patient global ratings of the degree of bother from the urinary condition. The AUA index discriminated BPH patients from controls significantly better than the Maine Medical Assessment Program index, and equivalently to the Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky indexes (despite having fewer items). All 4 indexes were responsive when BPH patients underwent prostatectomy, although the AUA and Madsen-Iversen indexes were significantly more sensitive.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in African Americans Provides Insights into the Genetic Architecture of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian H.; Li, Jiang; Chen, Wei-Min; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Jiankang; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Nalls, Michael A.; Comeau, Mary E.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Evans, Daniel S.; Sun, Yan V.; An, Ping; Patel, Sanjay R.; Lu, Yingchang; Long, Jirong; Armstrong, Loren L.; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Yang, Lingyao; Snively, Beverly M.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Mudgal, Poorva; Langefeld, Carl D.; Keene, Keith L.; Freedman, Barry I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nayak, Uma; Raffel, Leslie J.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Chen, Y-D Ida; Taylor, Herman A.; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Couper, David; Pankow, James S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Doumatey, Ayo; Chen, Guanjie; Mathias, Rasika A.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Singleton, Andrew B.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Igo, Robert P.; Sedor, John R.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Siscovick, David S.; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Liu, Yongmei; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Zhao, Wei; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Kraja, Aldi; Province, Michael A.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Gottesman, Omri; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William J.; Lowe, William L.; Pacheco, Jennifer A.; Crawford, Dana C.; Grundberg, Elin; Rich, Stephen S.; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Fornage, Myriam; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Evans, Michele K.; Becker, Diane M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Wilson, James G.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sale, Michèle M.; Liu, Simin; Rotimi, Charles N.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1) and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2) at genome-wide significance (4.15×10−94association (2.2×10−23 < locus-wide P<0.05). These novel and previously identified loci yielded a sibling relative risk of 1.19, explaining 17.5% of the phenotypic variance of T2D on the liability scale in African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies. PMID:25102180

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie C Y Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1 and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2 at genome-wide significance (4.15 × 10(-94association (2.2 × 10(-23 < locus-wide P<0.05. These novel and previously identified loci yielded a sibling relative risk of 1.19, explaining 17.5% of the phenotypic variance of T2D on the liability scale in African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies.

  19. Differential effects of MYH9 and APOL1 risk variants on FRMD3 Association with Diabetic ESRD in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry I Freedman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in MYH9 and APOL1 on chromosome 22 (c22 are powerfully associated with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD in African Americans (AAs. Many AAs diagnosed with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN have non-diabetic kidney disease, potentially masking detection of DN genes. Therefore, genome-wide association analyses were performed using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 in 966 AA with T2DN and 1,032 non-diabetic, non-nephropathy (NDNN controls, with and without adjustment for c22 nephropathy risk variants. No associations were seen between FRMD3 SNPs and T2DN before adjusting for c22 variants. However, logistic regression analysis revealed seven FRMD3 SNPs significantly interacting with MYH9-a finding replicated in 640 additional AA T2DN cases and 683 NDNN controls. Contrasting all 1,592 T2DN cases with all 1,671 NDNN controls, FRMD3 SNPs appeared to interact with the MYH9 E1 haplotype (e.g., rs942280 interaction p-value = 9.3E⁻⁷ additive; odds ratio [OR] 0.67. FRMD3 alleles were associated with increased risk of T2DN only in subjects lacking two MYH9 E1 risk haplotypes (rs942280 OR = 1.28, not in MYH9 E1 risk allele homozygotes (rs942280 OR = 0.80; homogeneity p-value = 4.3E⁻⁴. Effects were weaker stratifying on APOL1. FRMD3 SNPS were associated with T2DN, not type 2 diabetes per se, comparing AAs with T2DN to those with diabetes lacking nephropathy. T2DN-associated FRMD3 SNPs were detectable in AAs only after accounting for MYH9, with differential effects for APOL1. These analyses reveal a role for FRMD3 in AA T2DN susceptibility and accounting for c22 nephropathy risk variants can assist in detecting DN susceptibility genes.

  20. Residency program characteristics that are associated with pass rate of the American Board of Pediatrics certifying exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsawarungruangkit A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Amporn Atsawarungruangkit Department of Family Medicine, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Background: The US is home to almost 200 pediatrics residency programs; despite this, there is little information about the relationship between program characteristics and performance in the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP certifying exam. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between pass rate of the ABP certifying exam with the characteristics of categorical pediatrics residency programs. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the ABP website and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All programs that reported pass rates were included. The analysis, comprising univariate and multivariate linear regression, involved determining how 69 factors (eg, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment related to the pass rate. Results: Of 199 programs, 194 reported pass rates. The univariate analysis revealed 20 program characteristics with P-values <0.10. However, in the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with only three program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of US medical graduates, and average hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences. Conclusion: Unlike in previous studies, location and program size were not significantly associated with the pass rate in this multivariate analysis. The finding regarding the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions highlighted the benefits of a well-supervised training environment, while that regarding the percentage of US medical graduates indicated the necessity of high competition in residency programs. Finally, longer hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences were associated with better academic outcomes, both statistically and intuitively. Keywords: ABP, pediatrics

  1. Prevalence and dietetic management of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Infante Pina; X Badia Llach; B Ari(n)o-Armengol; V Villegas Iglesias

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in paediatric practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction with dietetic treatment.METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was first carried out. A total of 285 paediatricians included 3487 children seen during a period of one week. In a second phase an observational, prospective and multicentre study was conducted and 2069 milk-fed infants with mild gastrointestinal disorders (colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea) were included.There was a baseline visit (start of treatment) and a final visit four weeks later. The effectiveness of the various Novalac formulas, as well as the satisfaction of the parents/tutors and paediatricians with the dietetic treatment were assessed at the final visit.RESULTS: The prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders was 27.8% of all paediatrician consultations (9.2%, 7.8%, 6.1% and 4.6% in relation to colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea, respectively).The several Novalac adapted milk formulas resolved 88.4% of the mild gastrointestinal disorders. Depending on the type of disorder, differences in response rate were observed. The highest effectiveness was recorded with respect to diarrhoea (92.6%), followed by constipation (91.6%), colic (87.6%) and regurgitation (81%). Overall,91% of the paediatricians and 88.8% of the parents/tutors were satisfied or very satisfied with the Novalac adapted milk formulas.CONCLUSION: Mild gastrointestinal disorders show a high prevalence in paediatric practice. The Novalac adapted milk formulas have been shown to be effective in treating mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in the context of routine clinical practice.

  2. The Evaluation of the Internet and Computer Utilization by Nutrition and Dietetic Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yildiz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the status of computer and Internet using and the factors affecting use of internet in nutrition and dietetics students. METHODS: This study was carried out in Hacettepe University School of Health Technology, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Turkey. Applying questionnaires under observation collected the data. RESULTS: Out of 256 students, 232 contributed to the study (%90.6. Only 7.3% of the students were computer illiterate. Two thirds of the students (65.1% personally owned a computer. Those students using computer spend an average of 6.71±0.49 hours per week in front of the screen, spends an average of 5.39±0.41 hours per week in the Internet and they remain online for an average of 1.41±0.79 hours. Time spent for the Internet usage for professional development/learning is significantly higher among senior students. Students familiar with computer usage spend relatively longer times in front of the screen and on the Internet in comparison to others (p<0.01. The students who have a computer and Internet connection, spend relatively more time using the computer, connecting to the Internet and visiting nutrition related sites in comparison to both students who have a computer but no readily available Internet connection and who do not own a computer at all (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: University administration should aim at increasing the use of computers and the Internet by students for learning and professional development purposes by promoting such activities and providing training opportunities for better computer use. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 217-222

  3. Environmental factors associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new Andean focus in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, C. B.; Ferro, M. C.; Cadena, H.; Gongora, R.; Pérez, M.; Valderrama-Ardila, C. H.; Quinnell, R. J.; Alexander, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the environmental and ecological factors associated with Leishmania transmission and vector abundance in Chaparral, Tolima-Colombia. METHODS First, we compared the ecological characteristics, abundance of phlebotomies and potential reservoir hosts in the peridomestic environment (100 m radius) of randomly selected houses, between two townships with high and low cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence. Second, we examined peridomestic correlates of phlebotomine abundance in all 43 houses in the higher risk township. RESULTS The high transmission township had higher coverage of forest (23% vs. 8.4%) and shade coffee (30.7% vs. 11%), and less coffee monoculture (16.8% vs. 26.2%) and pasture (6.3% vs. 12.3%), compared to the low transmission township. Lutzomyia were more abundant in the high transmission township 2.5 vs. 0.2/trap/night. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most common species in both townships: 1021/1450 (70%) and 39/80 (49%). Numbers of potential wild mammal reservoirs were small, although four species were found to be infected with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In the high transmission township, the overall peridomiciliary capture rate of L. longiflocosa was 1.5/trap/night, and the abundance was higher in houses located nearer to forest (ρ = −0.30, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION The findings are consistent with a domestic transmission cycle with the phlebotomies dependent on dense vegetation near the house. PMID:22882595

  4. Grandmothers, fathers and depressive symptoms are associated with food insecurity among low income first-time African-American mothers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans experience household food insecurity—the limited availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways—at three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites. Thirty percent of all African American children live in food insecurity households. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with household food insecurity among a high risk postpartum population. 206 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads were recruited through WIC clinics. The six-item USDA food security scale was used to classify households as food secure, marginally food secure or food insecure. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected maternal/household characteristics and household food security status. Fifty-three percent of households were food secure, 34% were marginally food secure and 13% were food insecure. Maternal education less than college (Relative Risk Ratio = 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.22, 0.98) was inversely associated with marginal food security. Depressive symptoms (RRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16) and having the baby’s father in the household (RRR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.22, 9.82) were associated with household food insecurity, while having a grandmother in the household (RRR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) was inversely associated with experiencing household food insecurity. Findings from this study suggest that young low-income African American families with only one child are particularly susceptible to experiencing household food insecurity. Intergenerational support and transfer of knowledge may be a key protective attribute among low-income African American households. PMID:19465186

  5. Analysis of SLC16A11 Variants in 12,811 American Indians: Genotype-Obesity Interaction for Type 2 Diabetes and an Association With RNASEK Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traurig, Michael; Hanson, Robert L; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Kobes, Sayuko; Piaggi, Paolo; Cole, Shelley; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Göring, Harald; Kumar, Satish; Nelson, Robert G; Howard, Barbara V; Knowler, William C; Baier, Leslie J; Bogardus, Clifton

    2016-02-01

    Genetic variants in SLC16A11 were recently reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in Mexican and other Latin American populations. The diabetes risk haplotype had a frequency of 50% in Native Americans from Mexico but was rare in Europeans and Africans. In the current study, we analyzed SLC16A11 in 12,811 North American Indians and found that the diabetes risk haplotype, tagged by the rs75493593 A allele, was nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001, odds ratio 1.11). However, there was a strong interaction with BMI (P = 5.1 × 10(-7)) such that the diabetes association was stronger in leaner individuals. rs75493593 was also strongly associated with BMI in individuals with type 2 diabetes (P = 3.4 × 10(-15)) but not in individuals without diabetes (P = 0.77). Longitudinal analyses suggest that this is due, in part, to an association of the A allele with greater weight loss following diabetes onset (P = 0.02). Analyses of global gene expression data from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and whole blood provide evidence that rs75493593 is associated with expression of the nearby RNASEK gene, suggesting that RNASEK expression may mediate the effect of genotype on diabetes.

  6. Associations of Fast Food Restaurant Availability With Dietary Intake and Weight Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Smith, Adam E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Gore, Larry D.; Zhang, Lei; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. Methods. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ±12.6 years, 63.3% women). We estimated FFR availability using circular buffers with differing radii centered at each participant's geocoded residential location. Results. We observed no consistent associations between FFR availability and BMI or waist circumference. Greater FFR availability was associated with higher energy intake among men and women younger than 55 years, even after adjustment for individual socioeconomic status. For each standard deviation increase in 5-mile FFR availability, the energy intake increased by 138 kilocalories (confidence interval [CI] = 70.53, 204.75) for men and 58 kilocalories (CI = 8.55, 105.97) for women. We observed similar associations for the 2-mile FFR availability, especially in men. FFR availability was also unexpectedly positively associated with total fiber intake. Conclusions. FFR availability may contribute to greater energy intake in younger African Americans who are also more likely to consume fast food. PMID:21551382

  7. Analysis of SLC16A11 Variants in 12,811 American Indians: Genotype-Obesity Interaction for Type 2 Diabetes and an Association With RNASEK Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traurig, Michael; Hanson, Robert L; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Kobes, Sayuko; Piaggi, Paolo; Cole, Shelley; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Göring, Harald; Kumar, Satish; Nelson, Robert G; Howard, Barbara V; Knowler, William C; Baier, Leslie J; Bogardus, Clifton

    2016-02-01

    Genetic variants in SLC16A11 were recently reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in Mexican and other Latin American populations. The diabetes risk haplotype had a frequency of 50% in Native Americans from Mexico but was rare in Europeans and Africans. In the current study, we analyzed SLC16A11 in 12,811 North American Indians and found that the diabetes risk haplotype, tagged by the rs75493593 A allele, was nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001, odds ratio 1.11). However, there was a strong interaction with BMI (P = 5.1 × 10(-7)) such that the diabetes association was stronger in leaner individuals. rs75493593 was also strongly associated with BMI in individuals with type 2 diabetes (P = 3.4 × 10(-15)) but not in individuals without diabetes (P = 0.77). Longitudinal analyses suggest that this is due, in part, to an association of the A allele with greater weight loss following diabetes onset (P = 0.02). Analyses of global gene expression data from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and whole blood provide evidence that rs75493593 is associated with expression of the nearby RNASEK gene, suggesting that RNASEK expression may mediate the effect of genotype on diabetes. PMID:26487785

  8. Associations of the MCM6-rs3754686 proxy for milk intake in Mediterranean and American populations with cardiovascular biomarkers, disease and mortality: Mendelian randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E; Coltell, Oscar; Sorlí, Jose V; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Dashti, Hassan S; Lai, Chao Q; Miró, Leticia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emilio; Aslibekyan, Stella; Hidalgo, Bertha; Neuhouser, Marian L; Di, Chongzhi; Tucker, Katherine L; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovás, José M; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet-disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta-analytically (n ≤ 20,089) evaluated associations between a lactase persistence (LP) SNP, the minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6)-rs3754686C>T (nonpersistence>persistence), dairy intake, and CVD biomarkers in American (Hispanics, African-American and Whites) and Mediterranean populations. Moreover, we analyzed longitudinal associations with milk, CVD and mortality in PREDIMED), a randomized Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention trial (n = 7185). The MCM6-rs3754686/MCM6-rs309180 (as proxy), LP-allele (T) was strongly associated with higher milk intake, but inconsistently associated with glucose and lipids, and not associated with CVD or total mortality in the whole population. Heterogeneity analyses suggested some sex-specific associations. The T-allele was associated with higher CVD and mortality risk in women but not in men (P-sex interaction:0.005 and 0.032, respectively), mainly in the MedDiet group. However, milk intake was not associated with CVD biomarkers, CVD or mortality either generally or in sub-groups. Although MCM6-rs3754686 is a good milk intake proxy in these populations, attributing its associations with CVD and mortality in Mediterranean women to milk is unwarranted, as other factors limiting the assumption of causality in Mendelian randomization may exist. PMID:27624874

  9. Associations of the MCM6-rs3754686 proxy for milk intake in Mediterranean and American populations with cardiovascular biomarkers, disease and mortality: Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Coltell, Oscar; Sorlí, Jose V.; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Dashti, Hassan S.; Lai, Chao Q.; Miró, Leticia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emilio; Aslibekyan, Stella; Hidalgo, Bertha; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Di, Chongzhi; Tucker, Katherine L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ordovás, José M.; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet-disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta-analytically (n ≤ 20,089) evaluated associations between a lactase persistence (LP) SNP, the minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6)-rs3754686C>T (nonpersistence>persistence), dairy intake, and CVD biomarkers in American (Hispanics, African-American and Whites) and Mediterranean populations. Moreover, we analyzed longitudinal associations with milk, CVD and mortality in PREDIMED), a randomized Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention trial (n = 7185). The MCM6-rs3754686/MCM6-rs309180 (as proxy), LP-allele (T) was strongly associated with higher milk intake, but inconsistently associated with glucose and lipids, and not associated with CVD or total mortality in the whole population. Heterogeneity analyses suggested some sex-specific associations. The T-allele was associated with higher CVD and mortality risk in women but not in men (P-sex interaction:0.005 and 0.032, respectively), mainly in the MedDiet group. However, milk intake was not associated with CVD biomarkers, CVD or mortality either generally or in sub-groups. Although MCM6-rs3754686 is a good milk intake proxy in these populations, attributing its associations with CVD and mortality in Mediterranean women to milk is unwarranted, as other factors limiting the assumption of causality in Mendelian randomization may exist. PMID:27624874

  10. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  11. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans. PMID:15138246

  12. The Culture and Development Index (CDI: Measuring Values and Attitudes Associated With Development In Selected Asian and Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I. B. Gonzales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing data gathered in five waves in the period 1981–2005 for up to 97 societies (most of which are independent countries, the World Values Survey Organization (WVSO identified two orthogonal factors, Traditional/Secular-Rational Values, and Survival/Self-Expression Values, that account for up to 70 percent of cross-cultural variation worldwide. However, one weakness of the two-factor construct is that it overlooks regional or local patterns in values and attitudes that may be vitally related to development. Alternatively, the Culture and Development Index (CDI and the closely related Culture and Corruption Index (CCI are constructed for selected South and Southeast Asian, Latin American, and East Asian countries to account for cross-cultural variation in terms of a different set of orthogonal factors, some of which are strongly associated with leading measures of development and of corruption. Both CDI and CCI reveal patterns of value and attitudinal change relevant to promoting development and to mitigating corruption.

  13. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count! PMID:25269063

  14. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count!

  15. Essentials of nutrition education in medical schools: a national consensus. American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Medical students of the American Medical Student Association established the Nutrition Curriculum Project (NCP) with the goals of ensuring that adequate nutrition information be taught to medical students; ensuring that there be a framework for integration of nutrition topics at all levels of medical education; and formulating and disseminating essential information for nutrition assessment and management in clinical practice. As a first step, the NCP assembled a ten-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The advisory board consisted of medical and nutrition educators, physicians, and clinical specialists representing major U.S. professional nutrition organizations. The NCP's director co-ordinated the decision-making process through its three iterations. Final accord on 92 topics was achieved with unanimous approval of the board in 1994. These topics, organized in five major categories, are offered as a guide to the reform of nutrition education and as the basis of a satisfactory nutrition curriculum.

  16. Report of the American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project. Essentials of nutrition education in medical schools: a national consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Medical students of the American Medical Student Association established the Nutrition Curriculum Project (NCP) with the goals of ensuring that adequate nutrition information be taught to medical students; ensuring that there be a framework for integration of nutrition topics at all levels of medical education; and formulating and disseminating essential information for nutrition assessment and management in clinical practice. As a first step, the NCP assembled a ten-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The advisory board consisted of medical and nutrition educators, physicians, and clinical specialists representing major U.S. professional nutrition organizations. The NCP's director coordinated the decision-making process through its three iterations. Final accord on 92 topics was achieved with unanimous approval of the board in 1994. These topics, organized in five major categories, are offered as a guide to the reform of nutrition education and as the basis of a satisfactory nutrition curriculum.

  17. Novel predictors of sepsis outperform the American Burn Association sepsis criteria in the burn intensive care unit patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth A; Baun, Mara M; Meininger, Janet C; Murray, Clinton K; Aden, James K; Wolf, Steven E; Wade, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and American Burn Association (ABA) criteria predict sepsis in the burn patient and develop a model representing the best combination of novel clinical sepsis predictors. A retrospective, case-controlled, within-patient comparison of burn patients admitted to a single intensive care unit from January 2005 to September 2010 was made. Blood culture results were paired with documented sepsis: positive-sick, negative-sick (collectively defined as sick), and negative-not sick. Data for all predictors were collected for the 72 hours before blood culture. Variables were evaluated using regression and area under the curve (AUC) analyses. Fifty-nine subjects represented 177 culture periods. SIRS criteria were not discriminative: 98% of the subjects met criteria. ABA sepsis criteria were different on the day before (P = .004). The six best-fit variables identified for the model included heart rate > 130 beats per min, mean arterial pressure 150 mg/dl. The model was significant in predicting positive-sick and sick, with an AUC of 0.775 (P burn patient.

  18. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P young adults.

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus. The Panel considered data from balance studies, losses of phosphorus from the body and intestinal absorption for possible use in a fact......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus. The Panel considered data from balance studies, losses of phosphorus from the body and intestinal absorption for possible use...... countries, which are considerably higher than the values calculated. The AI is 160 mg/day for infants (7–11 months) and between 250 and 640 mg/day for children. For adults, the AI is 550 mg/day. Taking into consideration adaptive changes in phosphorus metabolism that occur during pregnancy and lactation...

  20. SUPPORT FOR CHEMISTRY SYMPOSIA AT THE 2011 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE MEETING FEBRUARY 17-21, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Charles Casey, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about

  1. Support for chemistry symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, February 17-21 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Charles [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about

  2. Changes in creatine kinase and cortisol in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I American football players during a season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Looney, David P; Martin, Gerard J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Vingren, Jakob L; French, Duncan N; Hatfield, Disa L; Fragala, Maren S; Spiering, Barry A; Howard, Robert L; Cortis, Cristina; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M; Fleck, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to track creatine kinase (CK) and serum cortisol over an American college football season starting with the preseason practice. A secondary purpose was to observe changes in basic clinical chemistries. Twenty-two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players (age: 20.4 ± 1.1 years, height: 188.27 ± 8.3 cm, weight: 115.8 ± 29.7 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Each of the players had participated in the summer strength and conditioning supervised program. Resting blood samples were obtained just before the start of preseason practice (T-1), 2 weeks later (T-2), and the day after game 2 (T-3), game 4 (T-4), game 6 (T-5), and game 9 (T-6) of a 12-game season. Creatine kinase, a panel of clinical chemistries, cortisol, and testosterone were assayed at each time point. No significant changes in CK concentrations were observed over the season with peak values of each range ≤1,070.0 IU·L(-1), but the largest range was observed at T-6 after game 9 (119-2,834 IU·L(-1). The analysis of covariance analysis demonstrated that the number of plays in the ninth game (T-6) explained the magnitude of the changes in CK. No changes in serum cortisol concentrations were observed yet, again large variations existed with peak values of each range ≤465.0 nmol·L(-1). Clinical chemistries showed various significant changes from T-1, but none were considered clinically relevant changes for any player over the time course of the study. In conclusion, the strength and conditioning program before preseason camp or the structure of summer camp practices and the in-season strength and conditioning appeared to mute muscle damage and the stress response of cortisol. Such data demonstrate that changes in muscle damage and adrenal cortical stress over the season are minimal, yet large individual variations can be observed. Management of these variables appears to be related to optimal strength and conditioning and sports

  3. Four Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter For More Information Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics American Association of Diabetes Educators American Diabetes Association ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  4. [FOOD PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH A HEALTY BODY WEIGHT IN CHILEAN STUDENTS OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Fernández Godoy, Eloina; Fuentes Fuentes, Jessica; Hidalgo Fernández, Andrea; Quintana Muñoz, Carol; Yunge Hidalgo, Wilma; Fehrman Rosas, Pamela; Delgado Sánchez, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: determinar los patrones de alimentación y asociar el consumo de diversos alimentos con el estado nutricional de estudiantes universitarios chilenos de Nutrición y Dietética. Material y métodos: estudio transversal. Se evaluaron 634 estudiantes de Nutrición y Dietética de la Universidad San Sebastián de las ciudades de Santiago, Concepción, Valdivia y Puerto Montt. A cada estudiante se le aplicó una encuesta alimentaria y se le realizó una evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: el 68% de los estudiantes consume desayuno diariamente, 36,1% y 37,1% consume las porciones recomendadas de frutas y verduras, el 64,9% consume bebidas azucaradas frecuentemente. Se observa una asociación entre un buen peso corporal y el consumo de verduras (≥ 2 porciones/día) OR = 0,662 (0,440-0,996), alimentos integrales OR = 0,474 (0,224-1,002) y un bajo consumo de frituras y snack dulces OR = 0,643 (0,406- 1,019) y OR = 0,545 (0,360-0,825), respectivamente. Conclusiones: los estudiantes presentan una ingesta insuficiente de alimentos saludables y un elevado consumo de alimentos poco saludables, además se observa que la ingesta de verduras y cereales integrales, así como un bajo consumo de frituras y bocadillos dulces se asocian a un estado nutricional normal en los estudiantes evaluados.

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . Scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fluoride, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI) from all sources, including non-dietary sources. Fluoride is not an essential nutrient. Therefore, no Average Requirement for the performance of essential physiological functions can be defined. Nevertheless, the Panel considered that the setting of an AI is appropriate because of the be...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary reference values for water

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of dietary reference values for water for specific age groups. Adequate Intakes (AI) have been defined derived from a combination of observed intakes in population groups with desirable osmolarity values of urine and desirable water volumes per energy unit consumed. The reference values for total water intake include water from drinking water, beverages of all kind, and from food moistur...

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on establishing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) provides guidance on the translation of nutrient based dietary advice into guidance, intended for the European population as a whole, on the contribution of different foods or food groups to an overall diet that would help to maintain good health through optimal nutrition (food-based dietary guidelines). The main focus of this Opinion is put on the scientific process of developing food-based dietary guidelines...

  8. Bibliometric analysis of nutrition and dietetics research activity in Arab countries using ISI Web of Science database

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Ansam F Sawalha; Zyoud, Sa’ed H

    2014-01-01

    Reducing nutrition-related health problems in Arab countries requires an understanding of the performance of Arab countries in the field of nutrition and dietetics research. Assessment of research activity from a particular country or region could be achieved through bibliometric analysis. This study was carried out to investigate research activity in “nutrition and dietetics” in Arab countries. Original and review articles published from Arab countries in “nutrition and dietetics” Web of Sci...

  9. American Chiropractic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Public Health Resources Practice Resource Center Public Relations Portal National Chiropractic Health Month 2016 Advocacy & Reimbursement ... Chiropractic in the Media ACA Radio Chiropractic Cares Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram LinkedIn Advocacy Regulatory Policy ...

  10. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tribute Gift Donation Estate and Planned Giving Workplace Giving Other Ways to Donate Home About the ATA Work of the ATA Leadership & Staff Governance Society Awards Society Committees Clark T. ...

  11. American Physical Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Popular Resources: - ArticleSearch at PTNow - Patient Handouts - Supervision & Teamwork Payment Coding & Billing Private Insurance Medicare Medicaid Workers' ... Ready? September 20, 2016 JAMA: Better Health Care Workplace Violence Prevention Plans Needed September 20, 2016 See ...

  12. American Therapeutic Recreation Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certify a Workshop for Credit Duplicate Transcripts Higher Education ATRA Blog Chapter Affiliates ATRA Committees ATRA Task Forces ATRA Sections International RT/TR Month Member Directory Social Networking Board Calls and Member-Only Webinars Federal Public ...

  13. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level] Creates the extension's prototype that in turn inherits Featherlight's prototype. Could be used to extend an ... in My Community Advocate Lung Diseases Lung Diseases > Asthma Lung Diseases > COPD Lung Diseases > Lung Cancer Lung ...

  14. American Gastroenterological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important research updates from CMGH on the gut microbiome in IBD and alcoholic liver disease. Read More Press Release AGA Joins Campaign for ... this guide for the best AGA science and microbiome presentations at the meeting. Read More ... Press Release In U.S., Celiac Disease Diagnosis Is Most Common Among Patients with Punjabi ...

  15. American Veterinary Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... understand and manage their pets' health. Workplace Wellness Workplace Wellness Tools Workplace wellness is good for both ... Ethics that include a broad-based statement on diversity, including gender identity. Wellness & economics take center stage ...

  16. American Massage Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help. Take this course now » Online Course Topics Business Ethics Massage for Specific Conditions Research Master the Classroom for Educators Self-care Sports Massage ... market your practice, expand your business and make informed decisions about your professional growth. ...

  17. American Osteopathic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us A A A Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside the AOA ... DO Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine practice their distinct philosophy in every medical specialty, in all 50 states. ...

  18. American Telemedicine Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our network consists of more than 10,000 industry leaders and healthcare professionals.... LEARN MORE > EVENTS We offer the #1 telehealth events in the industry, focused on innovative technology and... LEARN MORE > GET ...

  19. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    About APHA Join Renew Annual Meeting Careers Contact Us Store LOGIN What is Public Health? Generation Public Health Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Gun Violence Climate Change Environmental Health Health Equity Health Reform Tobacco Vaccines ...

  20. American Optometric Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Seniors Caring for Your Vision Children's Vision Eye & Vision Exams Contact Lenses Diet and Nutrition Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions ... Adults Seniors Caring for Your Vision Children's Vision Eye & Vision Exams Contact Lenses Diet and Nutrition Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions ...

  1. American Health Care Association

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    ... Testimony AHCA/NCAL PAC Federal Political Directors Political Events Solutions Facility Operations Affordable Care Act Clinical Emergency Preparedness Finance Health Information Technology Integrity Medicaid Medicare Patient Privacy and ...

  2. American Pharmacists Association

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    ... Status Recognition Every pharmacist's effort is needed to achieve provider status recognition. Be part of the team working toward this goal. MORE Spotlight Zika Outbreak: What Pharmacists Need to ...

  3. American Dental Association

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    ... site Partnerships and Commissions Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations Learn about the examinations used in licensing dentists and dental hygienists Commission on Dental Accreditation Explore CODA's role ...

  4. American Dental Hygienists' Association

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    ... Health Student Resources National Exam Student Advisor Resources Dental Hygiene Programs Scholarships and Grants Research Center Transforming Dental Hygiene Education Advocacy Practice Issues Direct Access Scope ...

  5. American Dental Education Association

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    ... Interest Groups ADEA Governance Documents and Publications ADEA Dental Faculty Code of Conduct ADEA Bylaws ADEAGies Foundation ... Benefits for Faculty ADEA Member Benefits for Allied Dental Programs ADEA Member Benefits for Dental Schools ADEA ...

  6. American Medical Association

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    ... Medicare & Medicaid Private Payer Reform Claims Processing & Practice Revenue HIPAA Compliance Medical Liability Reform Delivering Care Delivering ... factors to consider before adopting a peer-comparison model designed to guide physicians toward improving the value ...

  7. American Association of Suicidology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how schools and communities address the issue of suicide among young people film full izle agario AAS News & Announcements New report assesses prevalence of suicide across occupations in 17 states 07/12/2016 ...

  8. Evaluating genome-wide association study-identified breast cancer risk variants in African-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirong Long

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS, conducted mostly in European or Asian descendants, have identified approximately 67 genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Given the large differences in genetic architecture between the African-ancestry genome and genomes of Asians and Europeans, it is important to investigate these loci in African-ancestry populations. We evaluated index SNPs in all 67 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified to date in our study including up to 3,300 African-American women (1,231 cases and 2,069 controls, recruited in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS and the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS. Seven SNPs were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 with the risk of overall breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported: rs10069690 (5p15/TERT, rs999737 (14q24/RAD51L1, rs13387042 (2q35/TNP1, rs1219648 (10q26/FGFR2, rs8170 (19p13/BABAM1, rs17817449 (16q12/FTO, and rs13329835 (16q23/DYL2. A marginally significant association (P<0.10 was found for three additional SNPs: rs1045485 (2q33/CASP8, rs4849887 (2q14/INHBB, and rs4808801 (19p13/ELL. Three additional SNPs, including rs1011970 (9p21/CDKN2A/2B, rs941764 (14q32/CCDC88C, and rs17529111 (6q14/FAM46A, showed a significant association in analyses conducted by breast cancer subtype. The risk of breast cancer was elevated with an increasing number of risk variants, as measured by quintile of the genetic risk score, from 1.00 (reference, to 1.75 (1.30-2.37, 1.56 (1.15-2.11, 2.02 (1.50-2.74 and 2.63 (1.96-3.52, respectively, (P = 7.8 × 10(-10. Results from this study highlight the need for large genetic studies in AAs to identify risk variants impacting this population.

  9. Adding to the Education Debt: Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association between Racial Discrimination and Academic Performance in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-08-01

    Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage=12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States. PMID:27425564

  10. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules: Executive Summary of recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, H; Papini, E; Paschke, R;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied. These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes...

  11. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with development of subclinical coronary artery disease in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham-defined cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hong Lai,1 Elliot K Fishman,1 Gary Gerstenblith,2 Richard Moore,2 Jeffrey A Brinker,2 Jeanne C Keruly,2 Shaoguang Chen,3 Barbara Detrick,3 Shenghan Lai1–31Department of Radiology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Chronic cocaine use may lead to premature atherosclerosis, but the prevalence of and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD in asymptomatic cocaine users have not been reported. The objective of this study was to examine whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of CAD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk.Methods: In this prospective follow-up study, we investigated 169 HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham risk at baseline. The main outcome measures were incidence of subclinical CAD and development of subclinical CAD.Results: Fifty of the 169 African Americans had evidence of subclinical disease on the initial cardiac computed tomography. A second cardiac computed tomography was performed on the 119 African Americans without disease on the first scan. The total sum of person-years of follow-up was 289.6. Subclinical CAD was detected in 11 of these, yielding an overall incidence of 3.80/100 person-years (95% confidence interval 1.90–6.80. Among the factors investigated, only vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with development of subclinical CAD. The study did not find significant associations between CD4 count, HIV viral load, or antiretroviral treatment use and the incidence of subclinical CAD. This study appears to suggest that there is a threshold level of vitamin D (10 ng/mL above which the effect of vitamin D on subclinical CAD is diminished.Conclusion: The incidence of subclinical CAD in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk is high, especially in those with vitamin D deficiency. Well designed

  12. Public health implications of the Bhopal disaster report to the Program Development Board, American Public Health Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenstein, C.; Ozonoff, D.; Boden, L.; Eisen, E.; Freudenberg, N.; Greaves, I.; Kleefield, S.; Kotelchuck, D.; Kriebel, D.; Laird, F.; Lewis, S.

    1987-02-01

    The accidental release of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, in December 1984 now ranks as the worst industrial catastrophe in history. There is still no reliable estimate of the total number dead and injured. An estimated 100,000 to 200,000 people were exposed to a toxic plume of MIC that extended as far as 8 kilometers from the factory and covered and area of 40 square kilometers. The Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association (APHA) is charged with identifying those areas in which deficiencies in scientific knowledge exist in matters important to public health. In the present instance, merely defining the problem has been a formidable task, much less identifying the knowledge required to solve it. The first question is whether there is a need for APHA to concern itself with a subject that is already drawing considerable attention. APHA has recently issued position papers on some important issues that touch on the Bhopal tragedy and it would be wise to review these positions to see if they need any amendment in light of the Bhopal accident. The disaster in Bhopal has focused international public attention on occupational and environmental health, while at the same time the spectre of enormous financial liability has drawn serious attention on the part of industry to issues of health and safety. With the prevention of injury and disease as our central concern, the Bhopal Working Group undertook to identify the variety of public health problems raised by the Bhopal disaster.

  13. Meeting report: American Aging Association 40th Annual Meeting, Raleigh, North Carolina, June 3-6, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-08-01

    The focus of the 2011 American Aging Association meeting was emerging concepts in the mechanisms of aging. Many of the usual topics in aging were covered, such as dietary restriction (DR), inflammation, stress resistance, homeostasis and proteasome activity, sarcopenia, and neural degeneration. There was also discussion of newer methods, such as microRNAs and genome sequencing, that have been employed to investigate gene expression variance with aging and genetic signatures of longevity. Aging as a field continues to mature, including the following areas: Using a systems approach to tracing conserved pathways across organisms; sharpening definitions of sarcopenia, frailty, and health span; and distinguishing interventions by age tier (early-onset versus late-onset). A preconference session on late-onset intervention concluded that there are numerous benefits to deriving such interventions. Conference talks applied the biology of aging in a translational manner to intervention development. Using an individual's own stem cells to regenerate organs for transplantation and as a cell source for cellular therapies could be a powerful near-term solution to disease. Several proposed interventions were pharmaceutical, myostatin inhibition, losartan, Janus kinase (JAK) pathway inhibitors, and enalapril for frailty and sarcopenia, and metformin to promote the Nrf2 antiinflammation response. In DR, protein restriction was found to be better than general calorie restriction. Short-term fasting may be helpful in chemotherapy, surgery, and acute stress, simultaneously increasing the killing of cancer cells by chemotherapy, while improving the survival of normal cells. Immune system interventions remain elusive, although statins may help to improve cellular senescence promoted bacterial infection. Engineered enzymes may be useful in lysosomal catabolism. Dietary restriction mimetics, most promisingly involving target of rapamycin (TOR; TORC1 inhibition and rapamycin), may be more

  14. Comparison of the American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus and the outcomes of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Latika; Satyakala, R; Rani, Reddi

    2009-01-01

    Two to five percent of pregnancies are complicated by diabetes, of which 90% are classified as gestational diabetes mellitus.The aims and objectives of this study were to analyse the screening and diagnostic procedure for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA) in comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and to study the outcome of GDM diagnosed by both the criteria. This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, JIPMER between August 2006 and July 2008. Three-hundred-and-fifty antenatal cases of gestational age ≥24 weeks attending the outpatient department, with any one of the risk factors for GDM, were included in the study. A seventy-five gram oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed on each subject. Results were interpreted using both ADA and WHO criteria. Antenatal complications of GDM, mode of delivery, intrapartum or postnatal maternal and neonatal complications in cases diagnosed with GDM by either criterion were noted. The data collected were analysed using the SPSS software program. The prevalence of GDM was 4% by ADA criteria versus 19.4% by WHO criteria. The diagnostic pick-up rate was approximately five times more with WHO than with ADA criteria. In total, 43% (ADA) and 29% (WHO) of GDM cases had antenatal complications. Seventy-four percent of mothers with macrosomic babies were identified by WHO criteria whereas only 26% of mothers with macrosomic babies were diagnosed by ADA criteria. ADA criteria identify more severe cases of GDM but mild cases diagnosed by WHO are missed. The GTT by WHO criteria was abnormal in a greater percentage of women with adverse outcomes especially macrosomia, than the GTT using ADA criteria.

  15. Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the american heart association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Appel, Lawrence J; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Bisognano, John D; Elliott, William J; Fuchs, Flavio D; Hughes, Joel W; Lackland, Daniel T; Staffileno, Beth A; Townsend, Raymond R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Many antihypertensive medications and lifestyle changes are proven to reduce blood pressure. Over the past few decades, numerous additional modalities have been evaluated in regard to their potential blood pressure-lowering abilities. However, these nondietary, nondrug treatments, collectively called alternative approaches, have generally undergone fewer and less rigorous trials. This American Heart Association scientific statement aims to summarize the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of several alternative approaches and to provide a class of recommendation for their implementation in clinical practice based on the available level of evidence from the published literature. Among behavioral therapies, Transcendental Meditation (Class IIB, Level of Evidence B), other meditation techniques (Class III, Level of Evidence C), yoga (Class III, Level of Evidence C), other relaxation therapies (Class III, Level of Evidence B), and biofeedback approaches (Class IIB, Level of Evidence B) generally had modest, mixed, or no consistent evidence demonstrating their efficacy. Between the noninvasive procedures and devices evaluated, device-guided breathing (Class IIA, Level of Evidence B) had greater support than acupuncture (Class III, Level of Evidence B). Exercise-based regimens, including aerobic (Class I, Level of Evidence A), dynamic resistance (Class IIA, Level of Evidence B), and isometric handgrip (Class IIB, Level of Evidence C) modalities, had relatively stronger supporting evidence. It is the consensus of the writing group that it is reasonable for all individuals with blood pressure levels >120/80 mm Hg to consider trials of alternative approaches as adjuvant methods to help lower blood pressure when clinically appropriate. A suggested management algorithm is provided, along with recommendations for prioritizing the use of the individual approaches in clinical practice based on their level of evidence for blood pressure lowering, risk-to-benefit ratio, potential

  16. Proposed changes to the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder: implications for young children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Roy; Nozyce, Molly

    2013-05-01

    The American Psychiatric Association has revised the diagnostic criteria for their DSM-5 manual. Important changes have been made to the diagnosis of the current (DSM-IV) category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This category includes Autistic Disorder (autism), Asperger's Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The DSM-5 deletes Asperger's Disorder and PDD-NOS as diagnostic entities. This change may have unintended consequences, including the possibility that the new diagnostic framework will adversely affect access to developmental interventions under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs, Early Intervention (for birth to 2 years olds) and preschool special education (for 3 and 4 years olds). Changing the current diagnosis of PDD-NOS to a "Social Communication Disorder" focused on language pragmatics in the DSM-5 may restrict eligibility for IDEA programs and limit the scope of services for affected children. Young children who meet current criteria for PDD-NOS require more intensive and multi-disciplinary services than would be available with a communication domain diagnosis and possible service authorization limited to speech-language therapy. Intensive behavioral interventions, inclusive group setting placements, and family support services are typically more available for children with an autism spectrum disorder than with diagnoses reflecting speech-language delay. The diagnostic distinction reflective of the higher language and social functioning between Asperger's Disorder and autism is also undermined by eliminating the former as a categorical diagnosis and subsuming it under autism. This change may adversely affect treatment planning and misinform parents about prognosis for children who meet current criteria for Asperger's Disorder. PMID:23456348

  17. American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Brazil: association with climate variables over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Toshie Kayano, Mary; Lima Carvalho, Afrânio

    2015-05-18

    A temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and other environmental parameters covering the years 2002- 2009 was used for the study of the potential association between the climate and the number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR), State of Amazonas, Brazil. The results show that CL has a marked seasonality and a strong linkage with local climate conditions. Dry and warm conditions favor the vector, while the maximum number of CL cases occurs during the following wet season. This has a clear relation to the El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the results presented here show that uncharacteristic dry conditions in the MMR follow El Niño after a lag period of 3 months, while wet conditions follow La Niña, again after a lag period of 3 months. El Niño brings dry conditions with warming of the land surface leading to increased growth of trees and bushes as indicated by rising NDVI values, eventually producing increased numbers of CL cases, with a peak of new cases occurring 4 to 5 months later. La Niña, on the other hand, produces wet and cool weather, which is less favorable for the leishmaniasis vector and therefore results in comparatively lower number of CL cases. Since these seasonal climate changes affect the dynamics of the CL vector, and thus the number of CL cases, a close watch of the ENSO phenomenon and the weather type it brings should be useful for monitoring and control of CL in the MMR.

  18. Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Brown, Janell; Eng, Eugenia; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Zimmer, Catherine; Bowling, J Michael

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population. PMID:24812201

  19. Assessing Physical Activity as a Core Component in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A POSITION STATEMENT OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND PULMONARY REHABILITATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Brubaker, Peter H; Guazzi, Marco; Lavie, Carl J; Montoye, Alexander H K; Sanderson, Bonnie K; Savage, Patrick D

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-established major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. As such, physical activity counseling is 1 of the 10 core components of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs recommended by the American Heart Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR). In addition, the ability to perform a physical activity assessment and report outcomes is 1 of the 10 core competencies of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention professionals published by the AACVPR. Unfortunately, standardized procedures for physical activity assessment of cardiac rehabilitation patients have not been developed and published. Thus, the objective of this AACVPR statement is to provide an overview of physical activity assessment concepts and procedures and to provide a recommended approach for performing a standardized assessment of physical activity in all comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programs following the core components recommendations. PMID:27307067

  20. Asociación de sida y leishmaniosis tegumentaria americana en Argentina American tegumentary leishmaniasis associated with AIDS in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor D. Romero

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones a pequeños municipios y áreas rurales de personas infectadas con HIV contribuye a la diseminación progresiva del sida y a la asociación con otras infecciones prevalentes en áreas endémicas, como las parasitosis. Esta asociación significa un importante desafío para la salud pública, ya que frecuentemente ambas infecciones se potencian. En este trabajo presentamos el primer paciente autóctono con sida asociado a leishmaniosis mucocutánea procedente de la zona de Orán, donde a mediados de los 80 se desarrolló un brote epidémico de leishmaniosis que a la fecha supera más de 2000 casos confirmados parasitológicamente en nuestro Instituto. Recientemente informamos la existencia de 2 especies (Leishmania (V. braziliensis y L. (L. amasonensis como las causantes de leishmaniosis tegumentaria americana en la zona. Queremos llamar la atención de los profesionales de la salud sobre la posibilidad de coinfección HIV-Leishmania, recomendando que en pacientes de áreas endémicas con antecedentes de úlceras cutáneas indoloras o incluso cicatrizales, se investigue, entre otras enfermedades, la leishmaniosis.Migration of HIV infected individuals from cities to small towns and rural areas spreads AIDS among non urban population, superimposing HIV with other endemic or epidemic infections as parasitoses. This situation is a big challenge to public health because in most cases the association between these infections worsens both prognoses. We present here the first case in Argentina of AIDS associated to a mucocutaneous form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The patient was from Orán, an area where in the middle eighties, an epidemic outbreak took place. By now more than 2000 cases have been parasitologically confirmed in our Institute and the causing species were identified as Leishmania (V. braziliensis and L. (L. amasonensis. Considering the existence of co-infection of HIV and Leishmania, it is recommended that in