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Sample records for american cutaneous leishmaniasis

  1. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  2. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

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    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  3. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: presentation and problems of patient management

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    Jeffrey D. Chulay

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.

  4. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

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    Enk, C D; Gardlo, K; Hochberg, M; Ingber, A; Ruzicka, T

    2003-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa, Leishmania, which resides in macrophages. The parasite is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis approaches 2 million new cases per year with 90% of the cases occurring in the "Old World", while the "New World" accounts for the rest. Infection may be restricted to the skin with development of characteristic ulcers, or may affect the mucous membranes in its mucocutaneous form. The clinical diagnosis is verified by the presence of amastigotes in slit-skin smears. Therapeutic modalities include systemic treatments such as the pentavalent antimony compound sodium stibogluconate, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole or itraconazole, as well as topical paromomycin sulphate, local heat, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or photodynamic therapy. An effective vaccine is not available.

  5. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: presentation and problems of patient management

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    Jeffrey D. Chulay

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.Relatamos nossa experiência em 60 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana diagnosticada e tratada entre 1977 e 1982. Cinqüenta e cinco pacientes foram infectados no Panamá, 4 no Brasil, e 1 na Colômbia. Entre 35 pacientes com uma exposição de 3 semanas no Panamá, a média do período de incubação foi 33 dias (limite sobre 4 e 81 dias. O diagnóstico foi feito, em média, 93 dias depois do início das lesões de pele, devido a demora do paciente em procurar o serviço médico (31 dias, a demora do médico em considerar o diagnóstico (45 dias, e a demora do laboratório em confirmar o diagnóstico (17 dias. Quarenta e quatro pacientes (73% desenvolveram úlceras típicas de leishmaniose cutânea. Porém, 16 pacientes (27% tiveram lesões de pele at

  6. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

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    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  7. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Pontal of Paranapanema - SP, Brazil: ecological and entomological aspects

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    ALESSI, Claudia Álvares Calvo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; José Roberto ALVES; CORBETT, Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) occurs in epidemic outbreaks and in sporadic cases with small annual variation in the Pontal of Paranapanema, SP. There is little research on the sandfly fauna of this region. The last outbreaks were related to the Movement of the Landless Workers (MST) and with the ecological tourism in preserved forest of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD). AIM: identification of the sandfly fauna within the PEMD, mainly anthropophilic species already incrimi...

  8. Chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in the lesions of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Nilka Luisa Diaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL presents distinct active clinical forms with different grades of severity, known as localised (LCL, intermediate (ICL and diffuse (DCL cutaneous leishmaniasis. LCL and DCL are associated with a polarised T-helper (Th1 and Th2 immune response, respectively, whereas ICL, or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is associated with an exacerbated immune response and a mixed cytokine expression profile. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in cellular migration and are critical in the inflammatory response. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of the chemokines CXCL10, CCL4, CCL8, CCL11 and CXCL8 and the chemokine receptors CCR3, CXCR3, CCR5 and CCR7 in the lesions of patients with different clinical forms of ACL using immunohistochemistry. LCL patients exhibited a high density of CXCL10+, CCL4+ and CCL8+ cells, indicating an important role for these chemokines in the local Th1 immune response and the migration of CXCR3+ cells. LCL patients showed a higher density of CCR7+ cells than ICL or DCL patients, suggesting major dendritic cell (DC migration to lymph nodes. Furthermore, DCL was associated with low expression levels of Th1-associated chemokines and CCL11+ epidermal DCs, which contribute to the recruitment of CCR3+ cells. Our findings also suggest an important role for epidermal cells in the induction of skin immune responses through the production of chemokines, such as CXCL10, by keratinocytes.

  9. Interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: a systematic review update.

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    Ludovic Reveiz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is an important public health problem in the Americas. A Cochrane review published in 2009 analyzed 38 randomized controlled trials (RCT. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: All studies were extracted from PubMed, Embase, Lilacs (2009 to July, 2012 respectively, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (6-2012 and references of identified publications. RCTs' risk of bias was assessed. RESULTS: We identified 1865 references of interest; we finally included 10 new RCTs. The risk of bias scored low or unclear for most domains. Miltefosine was not significantly different from meglumine antimoniate in the complete cure rate at 6 months (4 RCT; 584 participants; ITT; RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.85 to 1.47; I2 78%. However a significant difference in the rate of complete cure favoring miltefosine at 6 months was found in L. panamensis and L. guyanensis (2 RCTs, 206 participants; ITT; RR: 1.22; 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.46; I2 0%. One RCT found that meglumine antimoniate was superior to pentamidine in the rate of complete cure for L. braziliensis (80 participants, ITT; RR: 2.21; 95%CI: 1.41 to 3.49, while another RCT assessing L. guyanensis did not find any significant difference. Although meta-analysis of three studies found a significant difference in the rate of complete cure at 3 months favoring imiquimod versus placebo (134 participants; ITT; RR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12 to 1.88; I2 0%, no significant differences were found at 6 and 12 months. Thermotherapy and nitric oxide were not superior to meglumine antimoniate. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are varied and should be decided according to the context. Since mucosal disease is the more neglected form of leishmaniasis a multicentric trial should be urgently considered.

  10. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

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    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  11. Epidemiologic characterization of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of eastern Venezuela.

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    Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E; De Sousa, L; Garcia, A; Sanchez, J; Zerpa, J; Gonzalez, R; O'Daly, J A

    1998-05-01

    The status of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated from 1985 to 1991 to provide an epidemiologic characterization of the disease in Bergantin, a rural community in the northeastern part of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. The study revealed the presence of the infection during the period analyzed, with an average incidence of 50.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants and this number has increased 1.5 times during the last two years. Three villages where clinical cases had been recorded were selected for a comparison of their prevalence data. These villages comprise the human population in the high and low altitude limits of Bergantin. Immunologic assessment of the inhabitants used two different antigen preparations to examine responses to parasites associated with the cutaneous and visceral forms of the disease. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was used in a sample of 276 individuals (46.3% of the inhabitants) and resulted in an overall positivity of 16.7%. The percentage of LST positivity varied with age and sex, yet analysis of this response and the prevalence for each village reflected the specific characteristics of these localities. La Montaña, situated at 800 meters above sea level, had the highest prevalence (800 cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and the most positive LST response (21.2%) in comparison with the two other villages situated at a lower altitude (300 meters above sea level).

  12. Changing epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil: a disease of the urban-rural interface.

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    Oliveira, Carlos C G; Lacerda, Henio G; Martins, Daniella R M; Barbosa, James D A; Monteiro, Gloria R; Queiroz, Jose W; Sousa, Jacira M A; Ximenes, Maria F F M; Jeronimo, Selma M B

    2004-04-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was first reported from the south-western region of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in 1987. São Miguel municipality and adjacent areas have accounted for 90% of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the region since then. A population survey conducted in São Miguel and adjacent areas was undertaken to identify individuals with a history of ACL. The incidence of ACL, distribution by age and gender, clinical characteristics, family clustering, relationship to animals, association with skin test responses, and development of mucosal lesions were determined. Males and females were equally likely to be infected by Leishmania. Thirty-eight percent of the individuals tested were found to be Montenegro skin test positive. No difference in the Montenegro skin test was observed with gender, but the response increased with age. Among the 140 ACL cases treated in a 4-year period in São Miguel, five (3.6%) developed mucosal involvement. Sandflies capable of transmitting Leishmania were captured inside households and in the areas surrounding them. The high density of sandfly species potentially able to transmit Leishmania species and the age distribution of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis suggest that transmission of the parasite occurred inside or in close proximity to houses.

  13. Evaluation of the histopathological classifications of American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

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    A. L. Bittencourt

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the reliability of histopathological classifications of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis the authors compared the histopathological patterns of two biopsies taken simultaneously from the same patient, and classified the material according to Ridley et al. (1980, to Magalhães et al. (1986a, and to a more simplified classification with only three patterns. District histopathological aspects, were observed in different lesions or even in the same lesion. The authors concluded that histopathological patterns do not represent a stage of tegumentary leishmaniasis, thus they can not be correlated with prognosis and therapeutical response as suggested in the literature.

  14. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

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    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  15. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Léa Cristina Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth Jamieson; Michaela Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino Carvalho; Jenefer Mary Blackwell

    2014-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-b...

  16. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Mayrink, Wilson; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Deus, Rosangela Barbosa de; Pinheiro, Melina Barros; Guimarães, Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés; Andrade, Hélida Monteiro de; Costa, Carlos Alberto da; Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto da

    2010-02-01

    For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac) as well as to phenol (PhVac). The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p leishmaniasis.

  17. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein

    2017-01-01

    The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis). The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major. PMID:28210511

  18. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  19. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Wilson Mayrink

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac as well as to phenol (PhVac. The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05. The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05. The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  20. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo, 1993 to 2005].

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    Condino, Maria Lúcia Fadel; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Holcman, Márcia Moreira; Salum, Maria Rafaela Braga; Silva, Diogo Correa da; Novaes Júnior, René Antonio

    2008-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired epidemic characteristics on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo beginning in the 1990s. From secondary data, a descriptive study of the disease in the four municipalities making up this region over the period from 1993 to 2005 was conducted. The frequency of phlebotomine capture in the probable transmission locations was analyzed. 689 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified, with single and grouped cases, thus determining that the spatial distribution was heterogenous. There was synchronism and cyclicity of disease manifestation, at intervals of six to eight years. All ages were affected, with slight predominance among males, without association with any specific occupation. Among the 2,758 phlebotomines captured, Nyssomyia intermedia predominated (80.4%) inside homes and in areas surrounding them. The disease presented a transmission profile inside homes and in areas surrounding them, between the urban fringe and forests, and inside forests. In such cases, transmission would be more related to enzootic foci.

  1. AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS WITH UNUSUAL CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND RESPONSE TO TREATMENT

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    Andrea Claudia Bekner Silva FERNANDES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations and prognosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL can be influenced by the immune response of the patient and the species of the parasite. A case of atypical clinical presentation of CL, with development of non-characteristic lesions, poor response to therapy, and a long time to resolution is reported. Confirmatory laboratory tests included parasite detection, indirect immunofluorescence, Montenegro skin test, polymerase chain reaction, and parasite identification by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The parasite was identified as Leishmaniabraziliensis. The lesion was unresponsive to three complete courses of N-methylglucamine antimoniate intramuscular, and to treatment with pentamidine. The patient did not tolerate amphotericin B. The lesion finally receded after treatment with intravenous N-methylglucamine antimoniate. It is essential to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis and the appropriate treatment, which can include the use a second choice drug or a different route of administration.

  2. Immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy and chemotherapy for American cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment Imunoterapia, imunoquimioterapia e quimioterapia no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana

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    Wilson Mayrink

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The first choice of treatment for American cutaneous leishmaniasis is the pentavalent antimonial drug. Although it has been shown that this treatment is mostly effective and indicated, some disadvantages should be taken into account such as side effects, long term treatment inconveniences and counter-indication for patients suffering from cardiopathy, nephropathy; yet, aging, pregnancy and other conditions. With the advent of the vaccine anti-American cutaneous leishmaniasis as a prophylactic measure, studies on therapy using the vaccine associated or not with other drugs have been performed by many investigators and it is currently among the alternative treatments and prevention measures for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. In conclusion, the association between antimony and vaccine (immunochemotherapy showed the same cure rate when compared with the standard treatment (100% and it was also able to reduce the salt volume in 17.9% and treatment length from 87 to 62 days, decreasing side effects.O tratamento de primeira escolha para leishmaniose tegumentar americana é o antimonial pentavalente. Embora este tratamento seja na maioria das vezes efetivo e indicado, devem ser consideradas as desvantagens tais como efeitos colaterais, longa duração do tratamento e contra-indicação para cardiopatas, nefropatas, idosos, grávidas e outras condições. Com o advento da vacina antileishmaniose tegumentar americana para fins profiláticos e terapêuticos, associando-a ou não a outros fármacos, muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas, sendo a vacina a principal entre os atuais recursos no tratamento e prevenção da leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em conclusão, a associação do antimônio com a vacina (imunoquimioterapia apresentou o mesmo índice de cura em relação ao tratamento padrão (100%, e ainda reduziu o volume do sal em 17,9% e o tempo de cura significativamente, de 87 para 62 dias; conseqüentemente, reduzindo os efeitos colaterais.

  3. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  4. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

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    DA Cerino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  5. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Cheryl Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N. intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector’s population and the contact between man and vectors.

  6. Environmental factors associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new Andean focus in Colombia

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    Ocampo, C. B.; Ferro, M. C.; Cadena, H.; Gongora, R.; Pérez, M.; Valderrama-Ardila, C. H.; Quinnell, R. J.; Alexander, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the environmental and ecological factors associated with Leishmania transmission and vector abundance in Chaparral, Tolima-Colombia. METHODS First, we compared the ecological characteristics, abundance of phlebotomies and potential reservoir hosts in the peridomestic environment (100 m radius) of randomly selected houses, between two townships with high and low cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence. Second, we examined peridomestic correlates of phlebotomine abundance in all 43 houses in the higher risk township. RESULTS The high transmission township had higher coverage of forest (23% vs. 8.4%) and shade coffee (30.7% vs. 11%), and less coffee monoculture (16.8% vs. 26.2%) and pasture (6.3% vs. 12.3%), compared to the low transmission township. Lutzomyia were more abundant in the high transmission township 2.5 vs. 0.2/trap/night. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most common species in both townships: 1021/1450 (70%) and 39/80 (49%). Numbers of potential wild mammal reservoirs were small, although four species were found to be infected with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In the high transmission township, the overall peridomiciliary capture rate of L. longiflocosa was 1.5/trap/night, and the abundance was higher in houses located nearer to forest (ρ = −0.30, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION The findings are consistent with a domestic transmission cycle with the phlebotomies dependent on dense vegetation near the house. PMID:22882595

  7. Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Omidian M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multidermatomal zosteriform CL. It was resistant to conventional treatment but responded well to a combination of meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, and cryotherapy.

  8. American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Brazil: association with climate variables over time.

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    Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Toshie Kayano, Mary; Lima Carvalho, Afrânio

    2015-05-18

    A temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and other environmental parameters covering the years 2002- 2009 was used for the study of the potential association between the climate and the number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR), State of Amazonas, Brazil. The results show that CL has a marked seasonality and a strong linkage with local climate conditions. Dry and warm conditions favor the vector, while the maximum number of CL cases occurs during the following wet season. This has a clear relation to the El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the results presented here show that uncharacteristic dry conditions in the MMR follow El Niño after a lag period of 3 months, while wet conditions follow La Niña, again after a lag period of 3 months. El Niño brings dry conditions with warming of the land surface leading to increased growth of trees and bushes as indicated by rising NDVI values, eventually producing increased numbers of CL cases, with a peak of new cases occurring 4 to 5 months later. La Niña, on the other hand, produces wet and cool weather, which is less favorable for the leishmaniasis vector and therefore results in comparatively lower number of CL cases. Since these seasonal climate changes affect the dynamics of the CL vector, and thus the number of CL cases, a close watch of the ENSO phenomenon and the weather type it brings should be useful for monitoring and control of CL in the MMR.

  9. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

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    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  10. [Management of cutaneous leishmaniasis in adults and children].

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    Minodier, P; Noël, G; Blanc, P; Uters, M; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2005-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis can present a variety of clinical features and courses. The causative Leishmania species is an important prognostic factor in immunocompetent patients. Local treatment modalities including topical paromomycin, cryotherapy, localized controlled heat, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or intralesional meglumine antimoniate can be effective against Leishmania major or Leishmania tropica. Oral fluconazole may be a second-line treatment. Parenteral antimonials are useful for persistent or recurrent Old World leishmaniasis. For New World leishmaniasis, parenteral antimonials represent the first-line treatment in all forms except those caused by Leishmania guyanensis in which pentamidine is preferable. Liposomal amphotericin B appears to be effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis but further study will be needed. Results using oral Miltefosine are promising against Indian kala-azar (Leishmania donovani) but disappointing against South American leishmaniasis.

  11. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in horses from endemic areas in the north-central mesoregion of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovello Filho, D; Jorge, F A; Lonardoni, M V C; Teodoro, U; Silveira, T G V

    2008-04-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease in the north-west of Paraná state, Brazil, where it occurs in humans and dogs. Few studies have been undertaken on the occurrence of the disease in other domestic animals and horses. In this study we investigated the infection of horses by Leishmania in ACL-endemic rural areas. Direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed. Fifty-five horses from rural areas in the municipalities of Doutor Camargo, Ourizona, São Jorge do Ivaí, Ivatuba and Santa Fé (Agua do O) were analysed. DAT-detected antibody titres varied from 10 to 640, and 42 (76.3%) animals presented titres > or =20. PCR analyses led to the detection of Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in the blood samples of three (7.1%) of 42 animals. The presence of anti-L. (V.) braziliensis antibodies and Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in horses from endemic areas suggests their participation in the ACL transmission cycle.

  12. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Léa Cristina Castellucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA, northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  13. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  14. [Epidemiological characteristics of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia. III. Phlebotomine fauna].

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    Vexenat, J A; Barretto, A C; Cuba, C C; Marsden, P D

    1986-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in Três Braços, an endemic area of american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, Brazil. Thirty spécies of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 specimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyia whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% of flies in the peridomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yuilli. Lu. whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers. Lu. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil was not encountered in the Três Braços region where the parasite causing human infections is usually L.b. braziliensis. Although we have not encountered a natural infection with leishmanial promastigotes in 1,832 females of the various species examined, we discuss the probability that Lu. whitmani is the vector of L.b. braziliensis in the region maintaining transmission in dogs and man.

  15. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  16. Treatment Approaches for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Sema Aytekin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection caused by numerous different species of Leishmania protozoa. In our country, CL is due frequently to L. major and L. tropica. Its clinical presentation is extremely diverse. Treatment of CL aims to prevent mucosal invasion, to accelerate the healing of skin lesions, and avoid disfiguring scar. Local and physical treatment modalities including topical paromomycin, cryotherapy, localized controlled heat, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or pentavalant antimonals can be effective against. Intralesional antimonals are still the drug of choice may patients. WHO recommends an injection of drug under edges of the lesions and the entire lesion until the surface has blanched. Parenteral antimonials are useful for large, persistent or recurrent lesions. Combinations with other drugs such as allopurinol, pentoxifylline must be used for antimony unresponsive lesions.

  17. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate.

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    Jairo E Perez-Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known.In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated.Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4% and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-0,548 and r = (-0,726; respectively.A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial derivatives is discussable.

  18. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known. Methods In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated. Results Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4%) and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-)0,548 and r = (-)0,726; respectively). Conclusion A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial

  19. Spatial analysis of areas likely to harbor American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Isabela Pereira de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil according to the favorability of occurrence. The Vista-SAGA Geo-environmental Analysis System (Sistema de Análise Geoambiental Vista-SAGA was used to create a database (theme maps and perform environmental analyses, signatures and combinations. The degrees of likelihood were obtained by evaluating soil use and plant cover; soil type and geomorphology (geo-environmental factors; and altitude and slope (topographic factors. The factors used in the analyses were selected based on results from the literature and according to the technical feasibility of their inclusion in the databases. Weights and grades were attributed to the factors and their categories, respectively, according to their relevance to the life cycle of parasites from genus Leishmania and parasite vectors. Based on the results of the environmental analyses, areas were classified and grouped to represent the spatial distribution of favorability. Areas were classified as very unfavorable, unfavorable, somewhat favorable, favorable and very favorable for ACL occurrence. The results of the signature analyses showed that the municipality included 6.81% very favorable areas, 65.14% favorable areas, 17.98% somewhat favorable areas, 2.39% unfavorable areas and 0.07% very unfavorable areas for ACL occurrence. The signature analyses of the results and theme maps were able to locate and characterize the ecosystem profiles in terms of risk of ACL occurrence, indicating that rural, peri-urban and urban areas of the municipality of Seropédica may be classified as favorable for the occurrence of this disease. The results of the present study may be used to support management decisions made by authorities responsible for ACL control and prevention in Seropédica. In addition, geoprocessing was found to be a low-cost alternative for data

  20. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana associada à AIDS: relato de quatro casos American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with HIV/AIDS: report of four clinical cases

    OpenAIRE

    Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio; Cristina Paula Salaro; Paula Resende; Carmen Déa Ribeiro de Paula

    2002-01-01

    A co-infecção leishmaniose tegumentar americana e AIDS é de relato recente na literatura, observando-se diversidade quanto ao comportamento clínico e imunológico destes pacientes. Relatamos quatro casos acompanhados no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, com diagnóstico de infecção por parasitas do gênero Leishmania e pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, ilustrando diferentes apresentações clínicas, evoluções e respostas terapêuticas.The co-infection American cutaneous leishmaniasis and AID...

  1. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Carlos Frederico Loiola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

  2. The case of diagnosis of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye

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    V. G. Savelyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Article presents the current data on the clinical and epidemiological issue of leishmaniasis. Methods and results. Leishmaniasis is endemic disease in 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Probability of importation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in our country is practically zero, but, given the rarity of this disease, we present own clinical observation of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye. At the beginning of the third millennium has greatly increased the urgency of tropical parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. According to WHO, the world's 14 million people are infected each year there is about 2 million new cases and about 350 million live in areas at risk. Leishmaniasis - a group of vector-borne protozoal disease in humans and animals characterized by lesions of the internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis or the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is the vector mosquitoes. We present their own clinical observations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis imported. Patient S., 41 years was hospitalized in Zaporozhye Regional Clinical Hospital infectious on 07.17.2013, with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis. From the history of the disease is known that for the first time in February 2013 the patient have got relative to blade area redness and bump that appeared above the skin, and had a magnitude of 2,3 mm brownish-red. To the doctor the patient has not addressed. After 1,5-2 months bump grew and he began to stand out ichor, which dries and formed a crust on top of the hump. Further small ulcers that did not bring discomfort and pain to the patient appeared. However, every month ulcer increased. In July, after vacation at sea, rose weeping sores and perifocal inflammation appeared. Ulcer size reached 2 cm in diameter. The patient first applied to the dermatologist at the beginning of July 2013. Dermatologist excluded secondary syphilis and tuberculosis skin and sent to an

  3. Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Multiplex PCR

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    M Heiat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, more than 14 million people are reported to be infected with Leishmaniasis all over the world. In Iran, this disease is seen in the form of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, of which the cutaneous form is more wide spread. In recent years, cutaneous leishmaniaisis is diagnosed by PCR utilizing specific primers in order to amplify different parasite genes including ribosomal RNA genes, kinetoplast DNA or tandem repeating sequences. The aim of this research was to detect early stage cutaneous leishmaniasis using Multiplex-PCR technique. Methods: In this study, 67 samples were prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted with phenolchloroform. Each specimen was analyzed using two different pairs of PCR primers. The sensitivity of each PCR was optimized on pure Leishmania DNA prior to use for diagnosis. Two standard parasites L. major and L. tropica were used as positive control. Results: DNA amplification fragments were two 115 bp and 683 bp for AB and UL primers, respectively. The sensitivity of two primers was not equal for detection of L. major and L. tropica. The sensivity of PCR with AB primer was 35 cells, while that for UL primer was 40 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PCR is a sensitive diagnostic assay for cutaneous leishmaniasis and could be employed as the new standard for routine diagnosis when species identification is not required. However, the ability to identify species is especially important in prognosis of the disease and in deciding appropriate therapy, especially in regions where more than one type of species and disease are seen by clinicians.

  4. Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Correia Dalmo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated orally with a mefloquine dose of 4.2mg/kg/day for six days in the Teaching Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Three weeks later a new series was repeated. No patient was cured.

  5. An analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in counties located along road and railway corridors in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

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    Vicente Silva Goncalves Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is increasing in Latin America, especially in Brazil, where 256,587 cases were confirmed in the last decade. Methods This study used a Bayesian model to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of ACL cases between 2000 and 2009 in 61 counties of State of Maranhão located along the three main road and railway corridors. Results During the study period, 13,818 cases of ACL were recorded. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of ACL in the ten study years. The recorded incidence rate ranged from 7.36 to 241.45 per 100,000 inhabitants. The relative risk increased in 77% of the counties, decreased in 18% and was maintained in only five counties. Conclusions Although there was a decreased incidence of the disease, ACL was present in all of the examined municipalities, thus maintaining the risk of contracting this illness.

  6. Moonlight and blood-feeding behaviour of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae, vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Nataly A Souza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and L. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, two important vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, occur in sympatry in the locality of Posse county, Petrópolis municipality, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated the influence of the lunar cycle on the frequency of specimens of the two species caught while attempting to bite the collectors and in CDC light traps. Analysis of the numbers of sand flies captured in different lunar phases for two consecutive years in the peridomestic site and forest shows that there is a significant positive correlation between moonlight intensity and the numbers of L. intermedia and L. whitmani females collected while blood-feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for the CDC traps.

  7. Leishmaniose cutânea com desfecho fatal durante tratamento com antimonial pentavalente American cutaneous leishmaniasis with fatal outcome during pentavalent antimoniate treatment

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    Meiri Vanderlei Nogueira de Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 58 anos, hipertensa e diabética, com diagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, tratada com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina (15mg SbV/kg/dia, acompanhada pelo serviço de atenção básica em saúde e que evoluiu para óbito no 18º dia de tratamento.The authors report a case of a 58 years-old, hypertensive, diabetic female patient, with the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, undergoing treatment with Nmethyl glucamine antimoniate (15mg SbV/Kg/day. She was followed up by the basic health care service, but has died on the 18th treatment day.

  8. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis in municipalities in the northwestern region of Paraná State: use of remote sensing for analysis of vegetation types and places with disease occurrence].

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    Arraes, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Veit, Renata Tonon; Bernal, Marcos Vinícius Zandonadi; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Nanni, Marcos Rafael

    2008-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic disease in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil, is transmitted by phlebotomines to man and animals like dogs, armadillos, opossums and wild rodents. This disease has been occurring in places where forests have been felled and on the banks of rivers and lakes with arboreal vegetation, where man comes into contact with infected insects. This disease is a public health problem because of the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks throughout Paraná. Because of the importance of finding out about endemic areas, this study used epidemiological file data on patients attended between 1999 and 2004. These data were correlated with areas of forest felling that were identified by means of satellite remote sensing techniques and products. The results showed that the occurrences of cases in the municipalities of this region coincided with the presumed likely areas for patient infection.

  9. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  10. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identification of the parasite species.

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    Graça, Grazielle Cardoso da; Volpini, Angela Cristina; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Oliveira Neto, Manoel Paes de; Hueb, Marcia; Porrozzi, Renato; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-08-01

    In this study, PCR assays targeting different Leishmania heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) regions, producing fragments ranging in size from 230-390 bp were developed and evaluated to determine their potential as a tool for the specific molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A total of 70 Leishmania strains were analysed, including seven reference strains (RS) and 63 previously typed strains. Analysis of the RS indicated a specific region of 234 bp in the hsp70 gene as a valid target that was highly sensitive for detection of Leishmania species DNA with capacity of distinguishing all analyzed species, after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). This PCR assay was compared with other PCR targets used for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: hsp70 (1400-bp region), internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd). A good agreement among the methods was observed concerning the Leishmania species identification. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for molecular diagnosis, we compared the PCR targets hsp70-234 bp, ITS1, G6pd and mkDNA using a panel of 99 DNA samples from tissue fragments collected from patients with confirmed CL. Both PCR-hsp70-234 bp and PCR-ITS1 detected Leishmania DNA in more than 70% of the samples. However, using hsp70-234 bp PCR-RFLP, identification of all of the Leishmania species associated with CL in Brazil can be achieved employing a simpler and cheaper electrophoresis protocol.

  11. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identificatio nof the parasite species

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    Grazielle Cardoso da Graça

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, PCR assays targeting different Leishmania heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70 regions, producing fragments ranging in size from 230-390 bp were developed and evaluated to determine their potential as a tool for the specific molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. A total of 70 Leishmania strains were analysed, including seven reference strains (RS and 63 previously typed strains. Analysis of the RS indicated a specific region of 234 bp in the hsp70 gene as a valid target that was highly sensitive for detection of Leishmania species DNA with capacity of distinguishing all analyzed species, after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism (PCR-RFLP. This PCR assay was compared with other PCR targets used for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: hsp70 (1400-bp region, internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd. A good agreement among the methods was observed concerning the Leishmania species identification. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for molecular diagnosis, we compared the PCR targets hsp70-234 bp, ITS1, G6pd and mkDNA using a panel of 99 DNA samples from tissue fragments collected from patients with confirmed CL. Both PCR-hsp70-234 bp and PCR-ITS1 detected Leishmania DNA in more than 70% of the samples. However, using hsp70-234 bp PCR-RFLP, identification of all of the Leishmania species associated with CL in Brazil can be achieved employing a simpler and cheaper electrophoresis protocol.

  12. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

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    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood.

  13. Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mauricio Baum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Methods Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8% were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Results Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9% reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%, bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. Conclusions These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

  14. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Colla-Jacques, Fernanda Elisa; Casanova, Cláudio; Prado, Angelo Pires do

    2010-03-01

    Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  15. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Fernanda Elisa Colla-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is een tropische ziekte veroorzaakt door een parasiet die wordt overgebracht door de zandvlieg. Pieter-Paul van Thiel beschrijft de besmetting van militairen tijdens drie missies in Afghanistan, en jungletrainingen in Suriname en Belize. Bij een missie in Noord-Afghanistan in 2005 raak

  17. Concomitant early mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Viviane S; Cafe, Virginia; Costa, Jackson; Oliveira, Fabiano; Bafica, Andre; Rosato, Andrea; de Freitas, Luiz A R; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2006-08-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is often clinically silent until reaching a highly advanced state. In this prospective study, 6 of 220 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed with mucosal involvement by otorhinolaryngological examination (a rate similar to the reported rate of late ML). Detection of early ML may represent an important strategy in preventing severe mucosal destruction in human leishmaniasis.

  18. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – Dermoscopic Findings And Cryotherapy

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    Dobrev Hristo P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year-old male patient who, three months after a holiday in Southern Greece, found a small ‘pimple’ on his back, which gradually got as big as a small walnut, the central part becoming ulcerated and scabby. Dermatological examination found an erythematous-to-livid nodular lesion on the right shoulder; it was 16 mm in diameter with central ulceration, covered with brownish crust which discharged pus-like secretion upon pressure. Microscope examination of Romanowsky-Giemsa stained lesion material detected amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica. The culture investigation and serological tests for leishmaniasis were negative. Dermoscopy of the lesion found the following features: erythema, hyperkeratosis, central ulceration covered with brownish crust, “yellow tears-like” structures and “white starburst-like” patterns, and various vascular structures (including dotted vessels, comma-shaped vessels, hairpin- and glomerular-like vessels. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and underwent four cryotherapy sessions every other week with excellent therapeutic results - complete resolution of infiltrate with subsequent gentle hypopigmented scarring. In conclusion, dermoscopy is an easily accessible non-invasive method which can be useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for single skin lesions.

  19. El Conjuro: una práctica de cuidado cultural para la Leishmaniasis Cutánea Americana en Florián, Santander (Colombia The Pray: a cultural care practice for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Florian, Santander (Colombia

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    Celmira Laza Vásquez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: La Leishmaniasis Cutánea Americana (LAC es una patología cutánea tropical endémica en Colombia, que en las últimas décadas ha recibido especial atención de los servicios nacionales de salud en cuanto al registro, atención básica y prevención entre otros, mejorando la epidemiología local y regional de esta dolencia en el país. Sin embargo, en el Departamento de Santander aún persiste un escaso conocimiento de las prácticas utilizadas por la población rural afectada en el cuidado cultural o genérico de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Describir las prácticas de cuidado, factores que determinan su uso y creencias culturales para la curación de la Leishmaniasis Cutánea Americana en la población rural del municipio de Florián-Santander (Colombia. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo descriptivo realizado en zona rural durante marzo de 2008, con la participaron pobladores y conjuradores de Florián Santander. La información se recolectó mediante entrevistas semi-estructuradas individuales, para realizar el posterior análisis de contenido. Resultados y conclusión: el Conjuro realizado por un Conjurador emergió como la práctica central de cuidado cultural, alrededor de la cual se realizan cuidados complementarios que incrementen la eficacia. La modesta situación socioeconómica, la deficiencia en infraestructura vial, la escasez de los medios de transporte, así como las creencias entorno al tratamiento médico con Glucantime®, se identificaron como los factores que ayudan a consolidar el Conjuro en la población rural como la práctica más utilizada para "sanar el encono".Justification: The American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is an endemic tropical cutaneous pathology in Colombia that during the last decade has received special attention from the national health services regarding the registry, basic attention and prevention among others, improving the local and regional epidemiology of this ailment in the country

  20. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "Floresta Nacional do Tapajós", Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B(45) medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi.

  1. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

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    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional mice

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    Enio Cardillo Vieira

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis was much more severe in conventional than in gnotobiotic mice as revealed by macro and microscopic examination. An inoculum of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis was used.

  3. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. Faber; J. Wonders; A.J. Jensema; E. Chocholova; P.A. Kager

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the differe

  5. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  6. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report

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    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: immune responses in protection and pathogenesis.

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    Scott, Phillip; Novais, Fernanda O

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major public health problem and causes a range of diseases from self-healing infections to chronic disfiguring disease. Currently, there is no vaccine for leishmaniasis, and drug therapy is often ineffective. Since the discovery of CD4(+) T helper 1 (TH1) cells and TH2 cells 30 years ago, studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice have answered basic immunological questions concerning the development and maintenance of CD4(+) T cell subsets. However, new strategies for controlling the human disease have not been forthcoming. Nevertheless, advances in our knowledge of the cells that participate in protection against Leishmania infection and the cells that mediate increased pathology have highlighted new approaches for vaccine development and immunotherapy. In this Review, we discuss the early events associated with infection, the CD4(+) T cells that mediate protective immunity and the pathological role that CD8(+) T cells can have in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  8. Histopathology of human American cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after treatment Histopatologia de leishmaniose tegumentar americana humana, antes e após o tratamento

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    A.C.C. Botelho

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis is still inadequate, and a number of drugs and therapeutic programs are being tested. Besides treatment, the ultimate goal is an effective cure, and histopathological analyses of the lesion cicatrices constitute an important measure of treatment success, or otherwise, in this respect. In this paper, we describe histopathological patterns in cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in 32 patients from the municipality of Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, before and after treatment with the following therapeutic methodos: l leishvacin + glucantime; 2 leishvacin + BCG associated with glucantime; 3 glucantime; 4 leishvacin + BCG. Lesion fragments were collected from all patients by biopsy prior to, and approximately 30 days after, each treatment which resulted in a clinical diagnosis of cure. Following the analysis of slides, the preparations were described from a histopathological point of view and grouped taking into account the prevalence or significance of the characteristic elements. This process resulted in the following classification: 1. exsudative reaction (ER; 2. exsudative giant cell reaction (EGCR; 3. exsudative productive reaction (EPR; 4. exsudative productive giant cell reaction (EPGCR; 5. exsudative productive necrotic reaction (EPNR; 6. necrotic exsudative reaction (NER; 7. productive exsudative reaction (PER, 8. productive giant cell reaction (PGCR; 9. productive exsudative giant cell reaction (PEGCR; 10. productive exsudative giant cell granulomatous reaction (PEGCGR; 11. productive reaction (PR and 12. productive cicatricial (cure reaction (PCR. After this analysis, it was noted that clinical cure did not always coincide with histopathological cure.A quimioterapia para a leishmaniose não é satisfatória e existem hoje, várias drogas e esquemas terapêuticos em teste. Além do tratamento ideal, busca-se um critério de cura efetivo, onde a análise da histopatologia da

  9. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

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    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  10. FLI1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castellucci, L; Jamieson, SE; Miller, EN; de Almeida, LF; J. Oliveira; Magalhães, A.; Guimarães, LH; LESSA, M.; E. Lago; Jesus,AR de; Carvalho, EM; Blackwell, JM

    2011-01-01

    Mapping murine genes controlling cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) identified Fli1 as a candidate influencing resistance to L. major and enhanced wound healing. We examine FLI1 as a gene controlling CL and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) caused by L. braziliensis in humans. Intron 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging promoter and enhancer elements were analysed in 168 nuclear families (250 CL; 87 ML cases) and replicated in 157 families (402 CL; 39 ML cases). Robust case-pseudocontrol logistic reg...

  11. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fátima Horta; Bárbara Pinheiro Mendes; Eric Henrique Roma; Fátima Soares Motta Noronha; Juan Pereira Macêdo; Luciana Souza Oliveira; Myrian Morato Duarte; Leda Quercia Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects millions of people around the world. Several species of Leishmania infect mouse strains, and murine models closely reproduce the cutaneous lesions caused by the parasite in humans. Mouse models have enabled studies on the pathogenesis and effector mechanisms of host resistance to infection. Here, we review the role of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) in the control of parasites by macrophages, which are both the host c...

  12. Geographical distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Baton Luke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a re-emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is important to understand both the vector and disease distribution to help design control strategies. As an initial step in applying geographic information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS tools to map disease-risk, the objectives of the present work were to: (i produce a single database of species distributions of the sand fly vectors in the state of São Paulo, (ii create combined distributional maps of both the incidence of ACL and its sand fly vectors, and (iii thereby provide individual municipalities with a source of reference material for work carried out in their area. Results A database containing 910 individual records of sand fly occurrence in the state of São Paulo, from 37 different sources, was compiled. These records date from between 1943 to 2009, and describe the presence of at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species in 183/645 (28.4% municipalities. For the remaining 462 (71.6% municipalities, we were unable to locate records of any of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species (Nyssomyia intermedia, N. neivai, N. whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri, P. pessoai and Migonemyia migonei. The distribution of each of the six incriminated or suspected vector species of ACL in the state of São Paulo were individually mapped and overlaid on the incidence of ACL for the period 1993 to 1995 and 1998 to 2007. Overall, the maps reveal that the six sand fly vector species analyzed have unique and heterogeneous, although often overlapping, distributions. Several sand fly species - Nyssomyia intermedia and N. neivai - are highly localized, while the other sand fly species - N. whitmani, M. migonei, P. fischeri and P. pessoai - are much more broadly distributed. ACL has been reported in 160/183 (87.4% of the municipalities with records for at least one of the six incriminated or

  13. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: histórico, epidemiologia e perspectivas de controle American cutaneous leishmaniasis: history, epidemiology and prospects for control

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    Sergio de Almeida Basano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA é uma doença causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, transmitida ao homem pela picada de mosquitos flebotomíneos (Ordem Diptera; Família Psychodidae; Sub-Família Phlebotominae. No Brasil existem atualmente 6 espécies de Leishmania responsáveis pela doença humana, e mais de 200 espécies de flebotomíneos implicados em sua transmissão. Trata-se de uma doença que acompanha o homem desde tempos remotos e que tem apresentado, nos últimos 20 anos, um aumento do número de casos e ampliação de sua ocorrência geográfica, sendo encontrada atualmente em todos os Estados brasileiros, sob diferentes perfis epidemiológicos. Estima-se que, entre 1985 e 2003, ocorreram 523.975 casos autóctones, a sua maior parte nas regiões Nordeste e Norte do Brasil. Neste estudo, são discutidos aspectos relacionados ao tratamento e ao controle dessa doença, assim como também as dificuldades para a implementação dessas medidas. São apontadas alternativas que passam pela estruturação dos serviços de saúde, com respeito ao diagnóstico, no desenvolvimento de drogas de aplicação tópica ou por via oral, no desenvolvimento de vacinas, no controle diferenciado de vetores e no aprofundamento de estudos relacionados à biologia celular do parasita.American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of phlebotomines mosquitos (Order Diptera: Family Psychodidae: Sub-Family Phlebotominae and caused by protozoa from the genus Leishmania (ROSS 1903. In Brazil, there are six different species of Leishmania and more than 200 different species of phlebotomines. It's a disease that has been afflicting human beings for many centuries, and in Brazil, in the past two decades, there has been an important increase in the number of cases and also in its geographical distribution. Presently, ACL cases are registered in all Brazilian states under three different epidemiological

  14. Epidemiological study on acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco

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    Kholoud Kahime

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: ZCL and ACL are still major health problems in Morocco. We highlight the spatiotemporal change of cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence through the country during the last ten years and we underline the correlation between ZCL incidence and the percentage of rural population in Morocco.

  15. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  16. Geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakila, Ashraf; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Salim, Azra; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is found in all the four provinces of Pakistan; these are NWFP, Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. In Balochistan the areas from where the patients came are Uthal, Quetta and Ormara. The highest number of patients came from Quetta and least from Ormara. The patients included in this study were from the Mangopir and Chakewara, areas of Karachi. The infection is endemic in this country and the recent epidemics in the Dadu District and Nawabshah indicate its importance in the locality. The sand fly vector is found in all four provinces of Pakistan that are listed here. It is quite obvious that presence of leishmaniasis indicates the presence of sand flies and cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common.

  17. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an agricultural settlement, endemic area for leishmaniasis

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    A.F. Brilhante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis has several species of Leishmania as agents, and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals as hosts and different species of phlebotomines as vectors. A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a dog coming from an agricultural settlement is described. This is the first report of parasitism in a dog by Le. (Viannia braziliensis in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Attention is called to the importance of including this protozoonosis in the differential diagnosis of dermopathies in dogs as also the need to assess the importance of the domestic dog as a possible reservoir of Le. braziliensis.

  18. Eight cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas.

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    Trainor, K E; Porter, B F; Logan, K S; Hoffman, R J; Snowden, K F

    2010-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by intracellular Leishmania protozoa that are transmitted by sandflies. The disease occurs in 3 forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in cats in Europe and South America and in 1 cat from Texas. Leishmania mexicana is endemic in Texas and has been reported to cause cutaneous lesions in humans. This article describes the pathology of 8 biopsy cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis presented to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory over a 3.5-year period. The median age of the cats was 3 years; each was presented with nodular, ulcerative lesions on the pinnae and less commonly on the muzzle and periorbital skin. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse histiocytic dermatitis with numerous amastigotes (2-4 μm) within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within round, clear, intracellular vacuoles. In areas of necrosis, organisms were also free within the interstitium. The overlying epidermis was hyperkeratotic, hyperplastic, and often ulcerated. The organisms were not argyrophilic (Gomori methenamine silver), reacted poorly with periodic acid-Schiff reagent, and were inconsistently basophilic with Giemsa. Although not readily visible histologically, kinetoplasts were evident in amastigotes in cytologic preparations. The lesions were similar to those described for cutaneous L. mexicana infection in humans. In 5 of the 8 cats, Leishmania mexicana DNA was amplified from paraffin-embedded tissue by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced.

  19. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in France: towards the end of injectable therapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, P A; Morizot, G

    2003-01-01

    Today no drug likely to be efficient on the majority of human-infecting species, well tolerated, and easy to administer is available for the treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. But recent progress has been made. Efficient against visceral leishmaniasis, orally administered miltefosine may supplant pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired in the New World. Right now, the reference treatment is still parenteral pentavalent antimonials 20 mg Sbv/kg/d for a duration that may probably be reduced from 20 to 10 days. The benefit/risk ratio of pentamidine still compares well with that of pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of lesions due to species belonging to the L. panamensis/L. guyanensis/L. shawi group. Pentamidine, which is easier to handle than antimonials, remains the reference treatment for cases from areas where these species predominate. Oral fluconazole is an improvement, readily available for cases from L. major foci. If its efficacy is confirmed in other foci and against other species, mechanisms will have to be implemented to make this therapeutic improvement affordable to poor patients in endemic countries. The development of an efficient and well tolerated topical treatment is still warranted. A new formulation of aminosidine is currently under evaluation. One can hope that the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis will soon become simpler, both for patients and doctors. For the benefits of this simplification to be rapidly affordable to all patients, the pharmaceutical and clinical research outlay must be maintained.

  20. LeishMan recommendations for treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in travelers, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Johannes; Buffet, Pierre; Visser, Leo; Harms, Gundel; Bailey, Mark S; Caumes, Eric; Clerinx, Jan; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Morizot, Gloria; Hatz, Christoph; Dorlo, Thomas P C; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in travelers is still controversial. Over the last decade, national and international consortia have published recommendations for treating CL in travelers. These guidelines harmonize many issues, but there are some

  1. Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina

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    Oscar D Salomón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and vector domestication are currently proposed as factors that contributed to the recent increase of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Is likely also urban transmission? Oran is the main city in the Argentinean hyper-endemic area of ACL, and human cases in urban residences are usually reported. In order to assess the spatial distribution of risk, phlebotomine traps were located in different environments of Oran. A total of 7,787 sand flies were captured: Lutzomyia neivai (98.1%, Lutzomyia migonei (1.2%, Lutzomyia cortelezzii (0.7%, and one Lutzomyia shannoni. During the season of transmission (April-May a single sand fly was obtained in one out of five urban sites, while a trap in a peri-urban pigsty captured up to 2,985 Lu. neivai/night. Captures performed in the other season of vector activity (September-October revealed that small-scale changes in the pigsty environment resulted in noticeable changes in the abundance of Lu. neivai. In addition, in a new neighbourhood, on the fringe of the city, 1,073 Lu. neivai/site were captured in the forested edge but one in the yard of the houses. Therefore, in this urban ACL focus the human-vector effective contact risk is still associated with peri-urban vegetation and ecotone modifications despite the urban residence of the cases.

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Maria Fátima Horta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects millions of people around the world. Several species of Leishmania infect mouse strains, and murine models closely reproduce the cutaneous lesions caused by the parasite in humans. Mouse models have enabled studies on the pathogenesis and effector mechanisms of host resistance to infection. Here, we review the role of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and peroxynitrite (ONOO− in the control of parasites by macrophages, which are both the host cells and the effector cells. We also discuss the role of neutrophil-derived oxygen and nitrogen reactive species during infection with Leishmania. We emphasize the role of these cells in the outcome of leishmaniasis early after infection, before the adaptive Th-cell immune response.

  3. Epidemiological study on acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kholoud Kahime; Samia Boussaa; Haddou Nhammi; Ali Boumezzough

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica, and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major in Morocco. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of ZCL and ACL cases reported during the last ten years in Morocco (2004–2013). Epidemiological data were analyzed by using Pearson's correlation method as well as Tukey test and digital maps were produced for incidence repartition calculated by using ArcMap GIS version 10. Results: A total of 41 656 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified between 2004 and 2013 in Morocco. The mean incidence was 139 cases/100 000 population/10 years and it was significantly higher in 2010. In the spatial context, ACL form was the most common in Morocco, while ZCL was the most important in terms of the number of reported cases. For both forms, the highest incidence occurred in females and children (0–14 years). When analyzed according to the number of cases in each province, Errachidia (8 728 cases) and Azilal (3 523 cases) were the most affected by ZCL and ACL, respectively, while the highest incidence was noted in Zagora (231 cases/100 000 pop-ulation/10 years) and in Chichaoua (97 cases/100 000 population/10 years), for ZCL and ACL, respectively. Maps of incidence repartition were performed to identify the risk area of ZCL and ACL. Conclusions: ZCL and ACL are still major health problems in Morocco. We highlight the spatiotemporal change of cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence through the country during the last ten years and we underline the correlation between ZCL incidence and the percentage of rural population in Morocco.

  4. Spitz Nevus on the Earlobe Mimicking Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    İbrahim Özmen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spitz nevus is a benign, usually acquired melanocytic tumor which is seen especially in children and adolescents. It usually appears as a pink or light-brown, smooth-surfaced, well-circumscribed and asymptomatic papulonodular lesion. A large group of dermatologic disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Herein we present a case of Spitz nevus with a two month history of a nodular lesion on the earlobe which mimicks cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.

  5. Thermoterapy effective and safer than miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

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    Liliana López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine are the drugs of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis; however, their toxicity, treatment duration, (treatment adherence problems, cost, and decreased parasite sensitivity make the search for alternative treatments of American cutaneous leishmaniasis necessary. Based on the results found in a controlled, open, randomized, phase III clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of miltefosine was compared to that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Adult patients from the Colombian army participated in the study; they received either 50 mg of miltefosine three times per day for 28 days by the oral route (n = 145 or a thermotherapy (Thermomed® application of 50 °C for 30 seconds over the lesion and surrounding area (n = 149. Both groups were comparable with respect to their sociodemographic, clinical, and parasitological characteristics. The efficacy of miltefosine by protocol and by intention to treat was 70% (85/122 patients and 69% (85/145 patients, respectively. The adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal for miltefosine and pain at the lesion site after treatment for thermotherapy. No statistically significant difference was found in the efficacy analysis (intention to treat and protocol between the two treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00471705.

  6. Searching for cutaneous leishmaniasis in tribals from Kerala, India

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    S M Simi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, indigenous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are mainly confined to the northwestern region. But now, more and more case reports are coming in from other parts of India. In January 2009, a 26-year-old lady residing in a forest area in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala State presented with bluish red nodules on her upper extremities, of six months duration, which was clinically more in favor of cutaneous leishmaniasis. She had never gone out of the district of Thiruvananthapuram in her life. Aim : To investigate whether the patient hails from a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Setting and Design : An epidemiological investigation in the form of a survey was carried out in March 2009 by a multidisciplinary team among 63 persons residing in the Mele Aamala and Aayiramkala forest tribal settlements in Kuttichal Panchayat of Thiruvananthapuram district. Material and Methods : History taking and clinical examination of 38 persons in the area with special consideration to skin lesions was undertaken. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the skin lesions was done. Breeding places of sand fly and possible reservoirs of Leishmania were also simultaneously investigated. Statistical analysis used : The data obtained was tabulated as frequency and percentage. Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical significance of differences in distributions. Results : Out of the 38 persons examined, active lesions were found in 12 persons and six had healed lesions. Tissue samples were obtained from seven out of the 12 suspected cases. Four of them showed Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in tissue smears. Out of the cultures taken from three patients, one showed promastigote forms in Novy McNeal Nicolle (NNN medium. Histopathological study was done in five patients and two patients had LD bodies, one had epithelioid cell granuloma and the other two had mixed infiltrate with predominantly macrophages. All

  7. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  8. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  9. Leishmaniasis recidivans in Ethiopia: cutaneous and mucocutaneous features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassoni, Federica; Daba, Frehiwot; Naafs, Bernard; Morrone, Aldo

    2017-01-30

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Ethiopia. An unusual clinical form of this disease is leishmaniasis recidivans (LR), a prolonged, relapsing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling tuberculosis of the skin that may persist for many years with a chronic and relapsing course. This rare variant has been shown to be caused by Leishmania tropica species in the Old World and by Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania panamensis, and Leishmania guyanensis in the New World, as reported in various studies. To our knowledge, there are no reports from Ethiopia, and mucocutaneous involvement of LR has not been described to date. This was a retrospective analysis of the patients seen at the Italian Dermatological Center in Mekelle on the Tigrean highlands over a three-year period (2008-2011). Seven patients with typical clinical features of LR were seen. Two of them presented with signs of mucosal involvement. To date, Leishmania aethiopica is shown to be the only species causing CL that is endemic in the Ethiopian highlands. Therefore, it had to be assumed that the lesions in these patients were caused by this species. The aims of this communication are to report, for the first time, the presence of LR, most likely due to Leishmania aethiopica, in Ethiopia, and to report mucosal involvement in this rare clinical form of CL.

  10. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Litoral Norte Paulista, período 1993 a 2005 American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo, 1993 to 2005

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    Maria Lúcia Fadel Condino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana adquiriu caráter epidêmico no Litoral Norte Paulista, desde a década de 1990. A partir de dados secundários, realizou-se estudo descritivo da doença no período de 1993 a 2005 nos quatro municípios que compõem a região e analisou-se a freqüência dos flebotomíneos capturados nos locais prováveis de transmissão. Foram notificados 689 casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar, com casos isolados e agrupados, determinando uma distribuição espacial heterogênea, com sincronismo na manifestação e ciclicidade, em intervalo de seis a oito anos. Todas as faixas etárias foram acometidas, com ligeiro predomínio do sexo masculino, sem associação com uma ocupação. Capturou-se 2.758 flebotomíneos e a espécie Nyssomyia intermedia predominou (80,4%, no peri e intradomicílio. A doença apresentou perfil de transmissão peri e intradomiciliar, entre o periurbano e a mata, e no interior da mata. Neste caso, a transmissão estaria mais relacionada com os focos enzoóticos.American cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired epidemic characteristics on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo beginning in the 1990s. From secondary data, a descriptive study of the disease in the four municipalities making up this region over the period from 1993 to 2005 was conducted. The frequency of phlebotomine capture in the probable transmission locations was analyzed. 689 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified, with single and grouped cases, thus determining that the spatial distribution was heterogenous. There was synchronism and cyclicity of disease manifestation, at intervals of six to eight years. All ages were affected, with slight predominance among males, without association with any specific occupation. Among the 2,758 phlebotomines captured, Nyssomyia intermedia predominated (80.4% inside homes and in areas surrounding them. The disease presented a transmission profile inside homes and

  11. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  12. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: potential vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the area associated with the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric System in Western Amazonian Brazil

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    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the Santo Antônio hydroelectric system in State of Rondônia, Western Amazonian Brazil. METHODS: Fourteen sampling sites were surveyed to obtain data on the potential vectors of Leishmania spp. in the area. Sand flies were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the months of January/February (rainy season, May/June (dry season, and September/October (intermediary season using light traps arranged in three vertical strata (0.5, 1, and 20m. RESULTS : A total of 7,575 individuals belonging to 62 species/subspecies were collected. The five most frequently collected sand flies were Psychodopygus davisi (Root (36.67%, Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira (8.51%, Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha (6.14%, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira (5.74%, and Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira (5.25%. These species have been implicated in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region and described as potential vectors of this disease in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Additional surveillance is needed, especially in areas where these five species of sand fly are found.

  13. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

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    Maurício Luiz Vilela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO, an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements.

  14. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em centro de treinamento militar localizado na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis in military training unit localized in Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Sinval P. Brandão-Filho

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorreu em 1996 em unidade de treinamento militar situada na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, com o registro de 26 casos humanos. Um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado através da realização de levantamento entomológico e da aplicação do Teste de Montenegro. Lutzomyia choti apresentou predominância de 89,9% dos flebótomos identificados. De 545 homens que participaram de treinamentos no período, 24,1% (incluindo os casos clínicos foram positivo para o Teste de Montenegro.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been occurred in military training unit localized in 'Zona da Mata' of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where were registered 26 human cases. An epidemiological survey was carried out by entomological investigation and Montenegro skin test (MST. Lutzomyia choti presents predominance (89.9% in sandflies identified. Out of 545 men who realized training activities were 24.12% positive to MST.

  15. [Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; França-Silva, João Carlos; da Silva, Jaime Costa; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; de Paula, Kenia Maria; Gonçalves, Caroline Macedo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Between January and December 2000, systematic monthly capture of phlebotomine sandflies was undertaken by means of light traps of CDC type in Brejo do Mutambal, an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Varzelândia, State of Minas Gerais. Nineteen phlebotomine species were captured, totaling 6,756 specimens. The species correlated with ACL transmission were captured in low numbers, as follows: Lutzomyia intermedia (5.1%), L. migonei (0.4%) and L. whitmani (0.1%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species captured (34.8%), thus also suggesting a risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. The proportion of sandflies captured in areas surrounding homes was 91.7 % while 8.3% were captured inside homes. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall) on phlebotomine population dynamics was evaluated.

  16. Wound healing genes and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castellucci, Léa; Jamieson, Sarra E; Almeida, Lucas; Oliveira, Joyce; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Lessa, Marcus; Fakiola, Michaela; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de; Miller, E. Nancy; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania braziliensis causes cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis. In the mouse, Fli1 was identified as a gene influencing enhanced wound healing and resistance to CL caused by L. major. Polymorphism at FLI1 is associated with CL caused by L. braziliensis in humans, with an inverse association observed for ML disease. Here we extend the analysis to look at other wound healing genes, including CTGF, TGFB1, TGFBR1/2, SMADS 2/3/4/7 and FLII, all functionally linked along with FLI1 in ...

  17. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  18. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

    2013-02-27

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.

  19. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BYLeishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANTONIO, Liliane de Fátima; LYRA, Janine Pontes de Miranda; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases. PMID:26603237

  20. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Marcelo Rosandiski LYRA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL are caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L. infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L. infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement. We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.

  1. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmaniose recidiva cútis

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    Ciro Martins Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because of the challenges imposed by treatment.Paciente do sexo masculino, 18 anos. Dois anos após tratamento insuficiente para leishmaniose tegumentar americana, apresentou, na mesma localização, lesão formada por cicatriz atrófica central e nódulos verrucosos na periferia. Era imunocompetente, hígido e negava qualquer trauma local. O diagnóstico de leishmaniose recidiva cutis foi feito através de cultura do aspirado da lesão. Realizou tratamento com N-metilglucamina (20mgSbV/kg/dia associado à pentoxifilina (1200mg/dia durante 30 dias alcançando cura clínica. Os casos semelhantes requerem atenção diferenciada pela dificuldade ao tratamento.

  2. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from the infe......Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  3. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  4. Aspectos eco-epidemiológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Município de Campinas Eco-epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Antônio Ângelo Corte

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorrido no período de fevereiro de 1993 a setembro de 1994, nos Distritos de Sousas e Joaquim Egídio, Município de Campinas, SP. Ocorreram 25 casos, sete na área rural, nove na área peri-urbana e nove na urbana. Verifica-se uma mobilidade da ocorrência dos casos em direção rural-urbana. Em relação ao sexo, houve predomínio do masculino (60% sobre o feminino (40%, com 44% dos casos concentrados na faixa etária de 11 e trinta anos. Quanto à ocupação, 48% correspondem a estudantes, empregadas domésticas e donas-de-casa. Em 92% dos casos, a doença manifestou-se com lesão única, predominantemente localizadas nos membros inferiores e superiores. O surgimento desses casos na área está provavelmente associado à expansão urbana ocorrida nas décadas de 70-80 e acelerada mais recentemente.The authors describe an outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis from February 1993 to September 1994 in the districts of Sousas and Joaquim Egídio, Campinas, São Paulo State. Out of a total of 25 cases, seven occurred in the countryside, nine in the periurban area, and nine in the urban area. The authors observed a shift in the occurrence of leishmaniasis cases from rural to urban areas. Cases in males predominated over females (60%/40%. Some 44% of the cases occurred in individuals ranging from 11 to 30 years of age. Some 48% of cases occurred in students, domestic workers, and housewives. In 90% of the cases, the disease presented as a single lesion, located predominantly on the upper and lower limbs. The appearance of cases in the region is probably related to the expansion of urban areas occurring in the 1970s and 1980s, a trend which intensified further more recently.

  5. First Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Infection in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.A.M. van Thiel; T. van Gool; P.A. Kager; A. Bart

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective

  6. Diabetes melutus associated with pentamidine isethionate in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Jackson Mauricio Lopes Costa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a male patient from Bacabal, MA with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL, for at least nine years, with 168 lesions on his body. These were tumour-like nodules with some ulceratmi. He usedpentavalent antimonial (glucantime® and an association of gamma interferon plus glucantime with improvement of the lesions but relapsed later. Recently, pentamidine isethionate (pentacarinat® was given a dosage of 4mg/kg/weight/day on alternate days for 20 applications. After 3 months a similar course of 10 application was given 2 times. Later he developed diabetic signs with weight loss of 10kg, polydypsia, polyuria and xerostomia. The lower limbs lesions showed signs of activity. Blood glucose levels normalised and remain like this at moment. Attention is drawn to the fact that pentamidine isethionate should be used as a therapy option with care, obeyng rigorous laboratory controls including a glucose tolerance test.

  7. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: The Truth about the 'Flesh-Eating Disease' in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon-Shem, Karina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2016-06-01

    Recent news headlines claimed that corpses thrown into Syrian streets are causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) outbreaks. However, leishmaniasis is only transmitted by blood-feeding sandflies, not through human remains. High CL prevalence in Syria may instead be attributed to the absence of disease control programs due to the disruption of health services.

  8. Comparison of Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Lesions Caused by either Burn Injuries or Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhzari; Rezvan; Zolhavarieh; Moafi

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. Characterization of inflammatory responses produced in cutaneous Leishmaniasis has not yet been completed. The current study aims to assess and compare pro-inflammatory cytokines between burning injuries and Leishmania infection. Methods the specific primers were designed for 10 proinflammatory genes including CCL4, CCL3,...

  9. First case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ricardo V P F; Kent, Alida D; Adams, Emily R; van der Veer, Charlotte; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Mans, Dennis R A; de Vries, Henry J C; Schallig, Henk D F H; Lai A Fat, Rudy F M

    2012-05-01

    The main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname is Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. This case report presents a patient infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a species never reported before in Suriname. This finding has clinical implications, because L. braziliensis has a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a more extensive and destructive form of CL that requires different treatment. Clinicians should be aware that chronic cutaneous ulcers in patients from the Guyana region could be caused by L. braziliensis.

  10. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; DEMARCHI, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last...

  11. Comparison of Three Methods for Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    P Habibi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the infectious parasitic diseases of highest incidence in the world. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL has long been reported in Shiraz, Southern Iran. There is a need to find a sensitive and specific method for treatment and control of the disease.Methods: We have compared the sensitivity of the conventional methods microscopy and cultiva­tion of lesion scrapes against PCR amplification of parasite kinetoplast DNA from these sam­ples. The samples (n=219 were obtained from the patients clinically suspected of CL. The smears were stained with Giemsa for microscopy and cultured in Novy-Nicolle-McNeal (NNN blood agar for promastigote growth. For PCR, the dry smears were scraped off the slides and DNA was extracted.Results: The positive rates from 219 specimens were 76.71%, 50.68%, and 93.61% for micros­copy, cultivation, and PCR, respectively. The highest correlation was found between PCR and micros­copy method (P= 0.014. In PCR assay, 95.61%, 3.9%, and 0.49% of the samples were identi­fied as Leishmania major, L. tropica, and dermatropic L. infantum, respectively.Conclusion: The PCR method appears to be the most sensitive for the diagnosis of CL and is valu­able for identifying the other species of Leishmania with confusing dermatropic signs.

  12. Development of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Machado, Gustavo U.; Dantas, Marina L.; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers. PMID:22162702

  13. Development of cutaneous leishmaniasis after leishmania skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R; Carvalho, Augusto M; Machado, Gustavo U; Dantas, Marina L; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers.

  14. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana canina em municípios do norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Canine American cutaneous leishmaniasis in municipalities of northern Paraná State, Brazil

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    Paulo Donizeti Zanzarini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA é endêmica no norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, afetando tanto o homem como os cães. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a ocorrência da doença na população canina em áreas endêmicas de LTA. No período de setembro de 1999 a julho de 2002, foram investigados cães em sete localidades rurais de cinco municípios onde ocorreram casos humanos autóctones da doença, utilizando métodos parasitológicos e sorológicos. Dos 67 cães estudados, 14 (20,9% tinham lesões sugestivas de LTA, dos quais 3 (21,4% estavam infectados por Leishmania sp. Trinta e sete (55,2% cães apresentaram imunofluorescência indireta positiva para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Os resultados mostram a ocorrência simultânea de leishmaniose humana e canina e indicam a necessidade de estudos adicionais para esclarecer o papel do cão no ciclo de transmissão do parasito nessas áreas.American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease in northern Paraná State, where it affects humans and dogs. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of the canine disease in ACL endemic areas. From September 1999 to July 2002, dogs were investigated in 7 rural areas of 5 municipalities where autochthonous human cases of ACL had been reported. Parasitological and serological methods were used. Fourteen of 67 dogs studied (20.9% had lesions suggestive of ACL, of which 3 (21.4% were infected with Leishmania sp. Indirect immunofluorescence for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis was positive in 37 (55.2% of 67 dogs. The results showed that human and canine ACL occur simultaneously and indicate the need for additional studies to elucidate the role of dogs in the ACL transmission cycle in the area studied.

  15. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Pontal of Paranapanema - SP, Brazil: ecological and entomological aspects Leishmaniose cutânea americana no Pontal do Paranapanema, SP, Brasil: aspectos ecológicos e entomológicos

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    Claudia Álvares Calvo Alessi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL occurs in epidemic outbreaks and in sporadic cases with small annual variation in the Pontal of Paranapanema, SP. There is little research on the sandfly fauna of this region. The last outbreaks were related to the Movement of the Landless Workers (MST and with the ecological tourism in preserved forest of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD. AIM: identification of the sandfly fauna within the PEMD, mainly anthropophilic species already incriminated as vectors of ACL, as well as their seasonality, hourly frequency and data of the behavior. M&M: The captures were undertaken with CDC light and Shannon traps from 6:00 pm to 10:00 pm, monthly from May 2000 to December 2001. The temperature and relative humidity data were registered at hourly intervals. RESULTS: The captured species were: Brumptomyia brumpti, Nyssomyia neivai, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri and Pintomyia pessoai. The P. pessoai predominated (34.39% and N. neivai was less found (0.74%, only being captured in CDC traps. Shannon trap captured more sandflies (63.01% than the CDC traps (36.99%. Despite the environmental degradation anthropophilic species, indicates favorable bioecological conditions for persistence of vectors and potential transmission of leishmaniasis.LCA ocorre em surtos epidêmicos e casos esporádicos com pequena variação anual no Pontal do Paranapanema, SP. Há pouca pesquisa sobre a fauna flebotomínea na região. Os últimos surtos estão relacionados ao MST e turismo ecológico na floresta do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD. OBJETIVO: identificar a fauna flebotomínea no PEMD, principalmente as espécies antropofílicas já incriminadas como vetores da LCA, também, sua sazonalidade, horários e dados de comportamento. M&M: As capturas foram feitas com armadilhas CDC e Shannon das 18 às 22h, mensalmente de maio de 2000 a dezembro de 2001. Dados de temperatura e umidade relativa foram registrados com

  16. Co-existence of cutaneous leishmaniasis with pleural effusion: a case report from Iran.

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    Hossein Mortazavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a 12-year-old Afghan boy with chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis on the face and verrucous lesions on the body and pleural effusion suspected of having co-existent tuberculosis has been presented. The cutaneous lesions were appeared for five years before his admission. Leishman-Donovan bodies were seen in H&E (Hematoxylin and eosin slide of skin lesion specimens. The pathogenic species was proved to be Leishmania tropica using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. Purified Protein Derivative (PPD and Leishmanin Skin Test (LST were strongly positive. The patient was treated with systemic and intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime for cutaneous leishmaniasis and then with anti-tuberculosis drugs for pleural effusion. Afterwards, pleural effusion was disappeared and cutaneous leishmaniasis cured.

  17. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: apresentação pouco comum American tegumentary leishmaniasis: an unusual presentation

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    Antonio Carlos Martins Guedes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se caso de leishmaniose tegumentar americana com lesões proeminentes na face. Os critérios diagnósticos incluíram dados clínicos e epidemiológicos, intradermorreação de Montenegro, identificação de Leishmania pela reação em cadeia da polimerase e resposta clínica ao tratamento. A importância do relato se deve ao fato de se tratar de caso incomum de leishmaniose tegumentar americana.We report the case of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis and prominent lesions on the face. Diagnostic criteria included clinical and epidemiological data, Montenegro's skin test, identification of Leishmania by means of polymerase chain reaction and clinical response to treatment. Our report is important to call attention to an unusual presentation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  18. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.

  19. Spatially Correlated Time Series and Ecological Niche Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan

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    Oyelola A. Adegboye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most common vector-borne disease and a very important protozoan infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common types of leishmaniasis infectious diseases with up to 1.2 million occurrences of new cases each year worldwide. A dynamic transmission multivariate time series model was applied to the data to account for overdispersion and evaluate the effects of three environmental layers as well as seasonality in the data. Furthermore, ecological niche modeling was used to study the geographically suitable conditions for cutaneous leishmaniasis using temperature, precipitation and altitude as environmental layers, together with the leishmaniasis presence data. A retrospective analysis of the cutaneous leishmaniasis spatial data in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2009 indicates a steady increase from 2003 to 2007, a small decrease in 2008, and then another increase in 2009. An upward trend and regularly repeating patterns of highs and lows were observed related to the months of the year, which suggests seasonality effect in the data. Two peaks were observed in the disease occurrence—January to March and September to December—which coincide with the cold period. Ecological niche modelling indicates that precipitation has the greatest contribution to the potential distribution of leishmaniasis.

  20. Zinc Sulphate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: an in Vitro and Animal Study

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    Najim Rafid A

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc sulphate both in vitro and in an animal model against both strains of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis. The in vitro sensitivities of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of both Leishmania major and L. tropica to zinc sulphate was determined, the LD50 calculated and compared to the standard treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis pentavalent antimony compounds. The results show that the two forms of both strains were sensitive to zinc sulphate and their respective LD50 were lower compared to the pentavalent antimony compound. Furthermore the sensitivities of the forms of both strains were tested using a simple slide method and compared to results of the standard method. To confirm this result, zinc sulphate was administered orally to mice infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis both therapeutically and prophylactically. Results showed that oral zinc sulphate was effective in both treatment and prophylaxis for cutaneous leishmaniasis. These results encourage the use of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.

  1. Clinical Manifestations and Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan

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    Abaseen Khan Afghan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL.

  2. Forecasting temporal dynamics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil.

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    Joseph A Lewnard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. SIGNIFICANCE: These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets.

  3. Successful Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica with Liposomal Amphothericin B in an Immunocompromised Traveler Returning from Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Zanger, Philipp; Kötter, Ina; Raible, Armin; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Schönian, Gabriele; Kremsner, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica is rarely encountered outside disease-endemic areas and there have been no clinical trials evaluating its pharmacotherapy. We describe the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. aethiopica using liposomal amphothericin B in an immunocompromised traveler returning from Eritrea.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahador Sarkari; Asgari Qasem; Mohammad Reza Shafaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods: The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection.Results:Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents’ attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions: In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants’ contribution in control program of CL in this area.

  5. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Johan van Griensven; Endalamaw Gadisa; Abraham Aseffa; Asrat Hailu; Abate Mulugeta Beshah; Ermias Diro

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania aethiopica is the etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia and can cause severe and complicated cases such as diffuse CL (DCL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis or extensive CL, requiring systemic treatment. Despite the substantial burden, evidence-based treatment guidelines are lacking. We conducted a systematic review of clinical studies reporting on treatment outcomes of CL due to L aethiopica in order to help identify potentially efficacious medications on CL th...

  6. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis after visceral disease in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, Leonardo; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Marinacci, Ginevra; Manfredi, Roberto; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Passarini, Beatrice; Orioli, Roberto; Varoli, Ornella; Chiodo, Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is emerging as a common and serious opportunistic disease for patients with HIV infection. Almost all cases of HIV-Leishmania coinfection have been described in Mediterranean countries and they occur with various clinical presentations, ranging from typical visceral forms to asymptomatic or atypical cases, including cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been the mainstays of antileishmanial therapy for half a century and new lipid formulations of amphotericin B seem reliable, but the most effective treatment remains unknown. We describe a patient who was HIV infected and an intravenous drug user, with an unusual disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, after an initial visceral disease and after a 13-month maintenance treatment with liposomal amphotericin. The severe concurrent immunosuppression probably played an essential role in leading to this atypical cutaneous form, characterized by diffuse, nonulcerated, nonscabby maculopapular lesions.

  7. Detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by PCR in Fasa district in 2012

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    Mehdi Sharafi

    2013-09-01

    Material & Methods: Slit biopsies were collected from 138 suspected cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis who were presented, consecutively, in Fasa district from April 2011 to February 2012. After the microscopy, the entire smear was then scraped off the slide surface for DNA extraction and PCR assay. Results: All 138 investigated smears were reported positive by microscopy and nested PCR assay. In PCR, One of the smears had the 750-bp band, indicative of L. tropica and the rest had the 560-bp band indicative of L. major. Conclusion: In conclusion, the cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Fasa district is predominantly Rural Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The PCR-based assay used in the present study appears to be a suitable and powerful tool for the characterization of Leishmanial species.

  8. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  9. Epidemiology, pathology and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in taif region of saudi arabia.

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    Wajihullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an annoying and disfiguring disease affecting around 1,500,000 individuals globally. There are endemic pockets of this disease in Taif region. In some patients, lesion often weeps and leads to scar formation. The study was conducted to see the efficacy of fluconazole and itraconazole in the patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the effect of these drugs on liver enzymes and kidney markers.Positivity of Leishmania was recorded by microscopic examinations of smears. Specific diagnosis for Leishmania major and L. tropica was made with the help of nested polymerase chain reaction. Fluconazole was given at the rate of 200mg/day while itraconazole was given at 150mg/day for six weeks. AST, ALT, creatinine and urea were estimated during medication.Leishmania major and L. tropica were the species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Taif region. 81% patients had single lesions, mostly on face followed by hands and legs. 15% of the lesions had bacterial contamination. In terms of efficacy, fluconazole gave slightly better results compared to itraconazole. After 6 weeks of medications, slightly elevated values were recorded for liver enzymes and creatinine.Transmission of leishmaniasis in Taif region is probably because of poor coverage of residual insecticides spraying at hiding places in pile-ups of rocks and abandoned houses from where sand flies visit nearby houses and cattle sheds during night. Fluconazole and itraconazole may be used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with good recovery rate and fewer side effects.

  10. Differential Expression of the Eicosanoid Pathway in Patients With Localized or Mucosal Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Costa, Jaqueline; Andrade, Bruno B; Khouri, Ricardo; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Malta-Santos, Hayna; da Silva Santos, Claire; Brodyskn, Cláudia I; Costa, Jackson M; Barral, Aldina; Bozza, Patrícia T; Boaventura, Viviane; Borges, Valeria M

    2016-04-01

    Unfettered inflammation is thought to play critical role in the development of different clinical forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Eicosanoids are potent mediators of inflammation and tightly associated with modulation of immune responses. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, we addressed whether targets from the eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway, assessed by multiplexed expression assays in lesion biopsy and plasma specimens, could highlight a distinct biosignature in patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Differences in immunopathogenesis between MCL and LCL may result from an imbalance between prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which may serve as targets for future host-directed therapies.

  11. Identification of Leishmania tropica from micro-foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kenyan Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwuor, Samwel; Muia, Alfred; Magiri, Charles; Maes, Ilse; Kirigi, George; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Wasunna, Monique; Mbuchi, Margaret; Auwera, Gert Van der

    2012-07-01

    We performed diagnosis and species identification of parasites in lesion samples from suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in four villages, three of which are in a known Leishmania tropica endemic region in Kenya. Samples were analyzed both by microscopy and PCR for Leishmania, and typed by an assay using four ribosomal DNA-based species-identification PCRs. The lesions were demonstrated to be caused by L. tropica, which confirms the re-emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from this species after a period of reduced incidence in the endemic zone. Our report highlights the importance of an intervention and sustained Leishmania control program.

  12. Knowledge,attitude,and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis,Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahador; Sarkari; Asgari; Qasem; Mohammad; Reza; Shafaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess knowledge,attitudes,and practices(KAP)of inhabitants of an endemic area it)Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis(CI).Methods:the study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province,south of Iran,one of the most important foci of CL in this province.Sample size(237 residents)was calculated based on population.House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge,attitudes,and practices of the inhabitants.The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL.A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection.Results:Mean age of participants was 39 and more titan half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40.Males constituted 172(72.5%)of subjects.Most of the respondents(84.3%)were literate.The majority of the study poulation(83%)had heard about SalaJc(local name for CL)and most of these respondents(91%)were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion.Nearly two-third of the participants(63.5%)stated the bite of mosquito(not specifically sandflies)for CL transmission.The respondents’attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since Only 48%believed that CL can be treated by medicine.A noticeable proportion of respondents(21%)believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL.A small proportion of respondents(14%)stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease.More than two-third(69%)of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures.Conclusions:In this study,insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature,vector,transmission mode and preventive measures of CL,highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL.This would improve inhabitants’contribution in control program of CL in this area.

  13. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from...

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania tropica) in a German tourist after travel to Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Fleischmann, Erna; Pratlong, Francine; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Löscher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We report on a German tourist returning from vacations in Southern Greece with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presenting as multiple erythematosquamous lesions caused by Leishmania tropica (zymodeme MON-57). In spite of its endemicity, only few data are available on the incidence and current distribution of CL in Greece, which may allow for an assessment of the risk for travelers.

  15. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.A.M. van Thiel; J.E. Zeegelaar; T. van Gool; W.R. Faber; P.A. Kager

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data wer

  17. Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Campeche state of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Ostria, A; Sosa-Cabrera, T; Rivas-Sanchez, B; Ruiz-Tuyu, R; Mendoza-Gonzalez, A R; Favila-Castillo, L

    1997-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out in 169 individuals in a rural area of the Campeche state of México. Fifty showed cutaneous lesions suggestive of leishmaniasis, 70% were parasite positive and 96% skin test positive. An overall 40% positivity to skin test with Montenegro's antigen was found. Most of the affected individuals were males from 11 to 30 years-old. Antibodies were determined by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA) and by Western blot. Two antigen preparations were used, one from a Leishmania mexicana strain which produced localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and the other from a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). In the general population from the area of study 19% gave positive IFA tests with DCL antigen and 20% with LCL antigen while for the patients 67% gave positive IFA tests with DCL and 71% with LCL. By Western blot analysis most of the patients recognized more antigens in the DCL than in the LCL strain. In the DCL strain 78% of patients recognized a 105 kDa, 34% a 139 kDa, 28% a 117 kDa and 26% a 205 kDa MW antigen. In the LCL strain 40% of patients recognized a 205 kDa and 22% a 175 kDa antigens.

  18. Seroepidemiological Studies of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Campeche State of México

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    Monroy-Ostria Amalia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out on 169 individuals in a rural area of the Campeche state of México. Fifty showed cutaneous lesions suggestive of leishmaniasis, 70% were parasite positive and 96% skin test positive. An overall 40% positivity to skin test with Montenegro's antigen was found. Most of the affected individuals were males from 11 to 30 years-old. Antibodies were determined by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA and by Western blot. Two antigen preparations were used, one from a Leishmania mexicana strain which produced localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and the other from a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL. In the general population from the area of study 19% gave positive IFA tests with DCL antigen and 20% with LCL antigen while for the patients 67% gave positive IFA tests with DCL and 71% with LCL. By Western blot analysis most of the patients recognized more antigens in the DCL than in the LCL strain. In the DCL strain 78% of patients recognized a 105 kDa, 34% a 139 kDa, 28% a 117 kDa and 26% a 205 kDa MW antigen. In the LCL strain 40% of patients recognized a 205 kDa and 22% a 175 kDa antigens

  19. Concurrent cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a kidney transplant patient

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    Gontijo Célia MF

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of leishmaniasis co-infection have been described in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients as well as those who have undergone organ transplants, to our knowledge, the present report is the first documented case of simultaneous cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a transplant patient. The patient had been using immunosuppressive drugs since receiving a transplanted kidney. The first clinical signs of leishmaniasis included fever, thoracic pain, hepatosplenomegaly, leucopenia and anemia. The cutaneous disease was revealed by the presence of amastigotes in the skin biopsy. After three months, the patient presented fever with conjunctive hyperemia, intense ocular pain and low visual acuity. Parasites isolated from iliac crest, aqueous humor and vitreous body were examined using a range of molecular techniques. The same strain of L. (V. braziliensis was responsible for the different clinical manifestations. The immunosuppressive drugs probably contributed to the dissemination of Leishmania.

  20. Diabetes melutus associated with pentamidine isethionate in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Jackson Mauricio Lopes Costa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a male patient from Bacabal, MA with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL, for at least nine years, with 168 lesions on his body. These were tumour-like nodules with some ulceratmi. He usedpentavalent antimonial (glucantime® and an association of gamma interferon plus glucantime with improvement of the lesions but relapsed later. Recently, pentamidine isethionate (pentacarinat® was given a dosage of 4mg/kg/weight/day on alternate days for 20 applications. After 3 months a similar course of 10 application was given 2 times. Later he developed diabetic signs with weight loss of 10kg, polydypsia, polyuria and xerostomia. The lower limbs lesions showed signs of activity. Blood glucose levels normalised and remain like this at moment. Attention is drawn to the fact that pentamidine isethionate should be used as a therapy option with care, obeyng rigorous laboratory controls including a glucose tolerance test.Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente procedente de Bacabal, MA, portador de leishmaniose cutânea difusa (LCD há 9 anos, apresentando um total de 168 lesões distribuídas pelo corpo, de caráter nódulo tumoral e algumas ulceradas, tendo sido submetido a tratamentos anteriores á base de antimonial pentavalente (gluc antime® e associação interferom gamma+glucantime® com melhora e posterior recidiva das lesões. Recentemente quando da utilização do medicamento isotianato de pentamidina (pentacarinat® na dose de 4mg/kg/peso/dia, aplicados 1M em dias alternados em 3 séries de 20, 10, 10 aplicações com intervalos entre as séries de 3 meses. Na evolução do tratamento desenvolveu um quadro de perda de peso 10kg, polidpsia, poliúria, xerostomia, lesões de membros inferiores com sinais de atividade. Glicemia em jejum 420mg/dl, presença de glicose e corpos cetônicos na urina. Instituída insulinoterapia houve melhora do quadro e retorno dos níveis glicêmicos permanecendo estãvel até o presente

  1. Oral manifestations in the American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

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    Daniel Cesar Silva da Costa

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - MCL including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing.Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities.A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test and non parametric (Mann-Whitney tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant.The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9% have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites.Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL.

  2. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Galvis Ovallos; Yanis Ricardo Espinosa Silva; Nelson Fernandez; Reynaldo Gutierrez; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Claudia Magaly Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light t...

  3. A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, India

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    Neenu Kaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in India is mainly confined to the deserts of Rajasthan; some cases have been reported from the dry north-western half of the Indo-Gangetic plain, including Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Varanasi. Aims: To highlight a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, previously a non-endemic area. This report presents the clinico-epidemiological and investigative results of 120 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis detected between November 2012 and October 2013. Methods: The clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made using criteria proposed by Bari and Rahman. It was further confirmed by the demonstration of Leishman-Donovan bodies in Leishman stained slit skin smears and skin biopsy specimens, and/or by a satisfactory response to intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate given weekly for 4 weeks. Serial clinical photographs were taken before giving injections and at the end of the 6 th week. Results: There were 67 females and 53 males with an age range of 8 months to 80 years. The most frequently affected site was the face. Lesions were most commonly of the nodulo-ulcerative type. The number of lesions ranged from 1 to 4. Farmers (28.1%, homemakers (27.2% and students (27.2% were significantly over-represented among the occupations (P < 0.001. Skin smears and biopsies were positive for Leishman-Donovan bodies in 50.8% and 44.2% cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division which deserves urgent attention from the public health angle. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to establish the identity of the vector and the strain of Leishmania involved.

  4. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk.

  5. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Areas of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, in the Municipality of Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I-Index of Abundance by Location and Type of Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, V R; Azevedo, A C R; Alves, J R C; Guimarães, A E; Aguiar, G M

    2015-09-01

    The description of the first and autochthonous case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brought the interest of this study. Sand flies were captured over a 3-yr period. Using manual suction tubes, sand flies were collected from the inner and outer walls of homes, in the living spaces of domestic animals, and in Shannon light traps, which were set up outside homes and in the forest. CDC light traps were installed inside homes, around the exterior of the houses, and along the divide and within the forest. A total of 102,937 sand flies were collected, representing 23 species--three from the genus Brumptomyia and 20 from the genus Lutzomyia. Of these, six species, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia fischeri, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia whitmani, and Lutzomyia pessoai have already been recorded as being naturally infected by Leishmania braziliensis, and one species, Lutzomyia ayrozai, by Leishmania naiffi. Lu. intermedia is the vector of Le. braziliensis in the study area, particularly inside the homes and on the exterior of the houses. Lu. fischeri can also act as vector of Le. braziliensis in domestic environments and particularly in the wild. The third-ranked Lu. migonei was the most abundant in kennels, suggesting its canine affinity. Lu. whitmani, ranked fourth, still has characteristics indicative of the wild, but with a significant number located on the edge of the forest, suggesting a selection process of adaptation to the anthropic environment.

  6. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  7. Effect of deltamethrin spraying on the sandfly populations in a focus of American cutaneous leismaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Alda Lima Falcão; Alberto Rocha Falcão; Claudio Teixeira Pinto; Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo; Aloísio Falqueto

    1991-01-01

    The effect of deltamethrin of the sandfly population in a focus of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Viana, Espírito Santo State is desvribed. The phlebotomine population density was determined inside and outside houses during a one year period in a treated and untreated area. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of sandflies inside houses in the treated area compared with both the untreated area and the same area before sparying. Despite having a residual action for 12 ...

  8. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic.

  9. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: estudo clínico, epidemiológico e laboratorial realizado no Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis: clinical, epidemiological and laboratory studies conducted at a university teaching hospital in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Dias Negrão Murback

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana é zoonose de manifestações clínicas variadas, em expansão no Brasil, sendo o estado de Mato Grosso do Sul importante área endêmica. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar clínica, epidemiológica e laboratorialmente pacientes com Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana , atendidos no Hospital Universitário Maria Aparecida Pedrossian, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (HU/UFMS. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional do tipo transversal com abordagem descritiva e analítica. Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, dados de pacientes suspeitos de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana , atendidos no HU/UFMS de 1998 a 2008, e encaminhados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia/UFMS para complementação diagnóstica. Para a inclusão neste estudo foram considerados critérios clínicos e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e sete pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Houve predominância de homens de 45 a 59 anos, com a forma cutânea, lesão única, ulcerada, em áreas expostas do corpo e com duração menor que seis meses. O comprometimento de mucosas foi crescente com o aumento da idade e maior em pacientes que procuraram atendimento tardiamente. Intradermorreação de Montenegro foi o exame de maior sensibilidade e o encontro do parasito mostrou-se mais difícil em lesões antigas. CONCLUSÃO: Suspeição diagnóstica precoce é de extrema importância para diagnóstico preciso. Associação de exame parasitológico e imunológico torna mais seguro o diagnóstico laboratorial.BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide variety of clinical manifestations that is expanding throughout Brazil, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul constituting a significant endemic area. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients were recruited among those attending the Maria Aparecida Pedrossian Teaching

  10. Study of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: the role of domestic animals

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a locality (Las Rosas, Cojedes State, venezuela previously non-endemic, 12.9% of humans, 7% of dogs and 21.4% of donkeys (Equus asinus had lesions with paraites. The agent in the three hosts was identified as Leishmania braziliensis, subspecies braziliensis at least in man and donkey. The probable vector was Lutzomyia panamensis. No infection was found in a small sample of wild mammals examined. The outbreak was apparently linked with the importation of donkeys with ulcers, from endemic areas. The Authors call attention to the fact that not only in the foci of "uta", but also in areas of the other forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, dogs are frequently found infected. They emphasize the necessity of searching for the infection in donkeys and of performing hemocultures and xenodiagnosis with sandflies in human, canine and equine cases, to verify their possible role as sources of infection, and not merely as dead ends in the epidemiological chain of the disease.Durante um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar em Las Rosas, localidade previamente não endêmica do Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, 12,9% dos habitantes, 7% dos cães e 21,4% dos asnos (Equus asinus apresentavam lesões com parasitos. O agente etiológico nos tres hospedeiros foi identificado como Leishmania braziliensis, sendo da subespécie braziliensis pelo menos em pessoas e asnos. O transmissor provável foi Lutzomyia panamensis. Não comprovamos a infecção numa pequena amostra de mamíferos silvestres examinados. O surto esteve aparentemente relacionado com a importação de asnos com úlceras de áreas endêmicas. Chamamos a atenção para o fato de que não é apenas nos fócos de "uta", mas também nos de outras formas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana que os cães estão freqüentemente parasitados. Enfatizamos a necessidade de se procurar a infecção em asnos e de se proceder a hemoculturas e a xenodiagnósticos com

  11. Clinical and Epidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombian Children: Considerations for Local Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor M.; Cossio, Alexandra; Martinez, Javier D.; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2013-01-01

    Treatment alternatives have seldom been evaluated in children with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We examine the clinical/epidemiological profile of children with CL considering international guidelines for local treatment. Descriptive analyses were conducted using International Center for Medical Research and Training (CIDEIM) case reports of parasitologically diagnosed patients ≤ 14 years of age from 2004 to 2010. Eligibility for local treatment based on World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization (WHO/PAHO) criteria was determined. Among 380 children, 90% presented lesions of < 3 months duration, 54% presented single lesions < 30 mm in diameter, and 45% were ≤ 5 years old. Lesions on the head and neck were more frequent among children 0–5 years, and lesions below the head/neck were more frequent among 11- to 14-year-old children (P = 0.004). Using PAHO and WHO criteria, 26% and 53% of children, respectively, were eligible for local treatment. Recommended local treatments for New World CL have potential but limited applicability in children. Individual risk–benefit assessment and effectiveness data in children may increase eligibility. PMID:23798581

  12. Molecular diagnosis of Leishmania mexicana in a cutaneous leishmaniasis case in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Diaz, Yssete O; Lopez-Moreno, Carmina Y; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G; Lopez-Moreno, Hector S

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has been considered endemic in Sinaloa, Mexico, since 1994. Despite that Leishmania mexicana is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in other regions of Mexico, the species causing CL in patients from Sinaloa state has not been previously established, although Leishmania braziliensis has been found in the neighboring southern state, Nayarit. L. braziliensis is also associated with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a more complicated clinical variant. Due to the implications on individual and public health, the objective of this report was to identify the Leishmania species present in Sinaloa, Mexico. Using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, we identified L. mexicana in a CL patient from Sinaloa and confirmed the extended distribution of this parasite in Mexico.

  13. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: cassia fistula fruit gel- intralesional glucantime Vs. placebo gel- intralesional glucantime combination

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    Jaffary F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Iran and especially Isfahan province is considered as an endemic area for this disease. Regarding the previous report of positive effects of Cassia fistula boiled extract in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of combination therapy with intralesional meglumine antimoniate and Cassia fistula fruit gel compared to placebo in this disease."n"nMethods: 140 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis referring to Skin Disease and Leishmaniasis Research Center of Isfahan (SDLRC were randomly allocated in two groups. One group received intralesional meglumine antimoniate injection and Cassia fistula fruit gel and the second group were treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate and placebo gel. Improvement was defined as complete cure, partial cure and treatment failure. "n"nResults: At 12 week, 47 patients treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate and topical Cassia fistula fruit gel achieved complete cure (67.1% compared to 29(41.4% patients in placebo treated group. There was significant difference in cure rate between two treatment groups of this study (p<0.001. Nine patients (19% in each group

  14. Leishmania tropica in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) in a focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Jaffe, Charles L; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Warburg, Alon; King, Roni; Svobodova, Milena; Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania tropica, has recently emerged in urban and rural foci of central and northern Israel, and constitutes a major public health concern. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the suspected natural reservoir, were trapped in the cutaneous leishmaniasis urban focus of Maale Adumim in central Israel and evaluated for L. tropica infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology. Real-time PCR on blood and computerized western blot serology analysis was positive for L. tropica in 58% and 80%, respectively, of the hyraxes tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 region indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans and hyraxes from the same habitat. The high rates of infection and exposure to L. tropica among hyraxes supports their involvement in the transmission cycle of this parasite, and their potential role as a reservoir for human disease.

  15. Sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in central Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda López; Lisardo Osorio; Gilberto Alvarez; Jaime Rojas; Fernando Jiménez; Carmen Gómez; Cristina Ferro

    1996-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, 15 other species of the genus Lutzomyia, and one species of Brumptomyia were collected in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a river canyon 450 m above sea-level, in Rio Claro, Antioquia, Colombia. The presence of Lu. longipalpis is associated with the destruction of the primary forest and the development of new farmland and rural settlement in this region. The composition of species identified a different habitat for Lu. longipalpis in Colombia. Lu. yuilli ...

  16. A Novel Field Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Leishmania and is generally transmitted by the bite of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia or Phlebotomus, The disease has significant global impact...because it is highly sensitive, fast, inexpensive and able to work at most ambient temperatures . Furthermore, RPA does not require refrigeration of...genus Lutzomyia or Phlebotomus, The disease has significant global impact, producing 10-20 million cases of leishmaniasis worldwide. Cutaneous

  17. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, G, Andres M.; Baldeviano, Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Paul C F Graf; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Article Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time ...

  18. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  19. Sandfly Surveillance within an Emerging Epidemic Focus ofCutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran

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    MR Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major has become a hot topic in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the study area. "n "nMethods: Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors and outdoors fixed places in the selected villages, using 30 sticky paper traps from the beginning to the end of the active season of 2006 in Kerman Province, south of Iran. The flies were mounted and identified. Some blood fed and gravid female sand flies of rodent burrows and indoors were dissected and examined microscopically for natural promastigote infection of Leishmania parasite during August to September. "n "nResults: In total, 2439 specimens comprising 8 species (3 Phlebotomus and 5 Sergentomyia were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi and represented 87.1% of sand flies from indoors and 57.2% from outdoors. The activity of the species extended from April to end October. There are two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in August. Natural promastigote infection was found in P. papatasi (12.7%. "n "nConclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a probable vector among gerbils and to humans with a high percentage of promastigote infection in this new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Bahraman area which until recently was unknown as an endemic area seems now to represent a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Iran.

  20. Molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen.

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    Mohammed A K Mahdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1 gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person-to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL.

  1. Use of hematological parameters in evaluation of treatment efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Bilal Sula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we investigated the role of hematological parameters, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width in the evaluation of treatment efficacy in adult patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: The study group included 45 adult patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and treated as inpatients in the dermatology clinic between 2011 and 2014. A group of 45 healthy adults served as a control group. Results: Pre- and post-treatment white blood cell count, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly reduced among the patient group relative to the control group. Platelet distribution width, red cell distribution width, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio were significantly elevated among the patients compared to the healthy subjects. Pre-treatment white blood cell, lymphocyte and platelet counts were significantly elevated compared to post-treatment counts among the patient cohort. Treatment was associated with reduced eosinophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio relative to pre-treatment status. Conclusion: Routine hematological testing results such as platelet/lymphocyte ratio, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, red cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume may be clinically significant markers of the inflammatory state useful in the evaluation of early treatment efficacy among patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 167-172

  2. Estudo clínico, epidemiológico e terapêutico de 402 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, DF, Brasil Clinical, epidemiological and therapeuthic study of 402 patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis attended at University Hospital of Brasilia, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Querido Name

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana é doença em expansão no Brasil. A região Centro-Oeste é hoje a terceira em incidência e a primeira em crescimento da doença. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, quanto a aspectos clinicoepidemiológicos e resposta ao tratamento com antimonial pentavalente. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo série de casos de 402 pacientes, segundo sexo, idade, ocupação, procedência, formas clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico, tratamento com antimonial pentavalente e efeitos colaterais, no período de 1/1/1994 a 28/2/2003. O acompanhamento foi de um ano pós-tratamento. RESULTADOS: Predomínio de homens, lavradores, de 20 a 39 anos, com a forma cutânea. A eficácia do antimonial foi maior em pacientes com forma cutânea tratados até seis meses depois do início dos sintomas, e em pacientes do sexo feminino (diferenças estatisticamente significativas na análise multivariada. O mesmo ocorreu para pacientes com forma mucocutânea, mas sem diferença estatística significante. Alterações eletrocardiográficas foram mais freqüentes no grupo tratado com 20mg SbV/kg/dia por 30 dias em relação ao tratado por 20 dias. Eosinofilia ocorreu em 17,5% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Tratamento precoce, sexo feminino e a forma cutânea apresentaram índices mais elevados de cura. Alterações do eletrocardiograma aumentaram com o tempo de tratamento com antimoniais. A eosinofilia como efeito colateral ao uso do antimonial merece maior investigação.BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with high prevalence and incidence in Brazil. The Brazilian Central-Western Region currently holds the third largest incidence and the first growth rate of this disease in the country. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical, epidemiological and treatment features of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis seen at the University Hospital of Bras

  3. Isolation of bacteria causing secondary bacterial infection in the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Ziaie Hengameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. Secondary bacterial infection is one of the complications of the disease that can increase the tissue destruction and the resulting scar. Objective: To effectively determine the incidence of real secondary bacteria infection in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we designed the current study. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Centre, Isfahan, Iran. In this study, 854 patients with confirmed CL were enrolled. Samples were taken from all the patients. Sterile swaps were achieved for the ulcer exudates and scraping was used for nonulcerated lesions. All the samples were transferred to tryptic soy broth medium. After 24 h of incubation in 37°C, they were transferred to eosin methylene blue agar (EBM and blood agar. Laboratory tests were used to determine the species of bacteria. All of the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi-square. Results: Among 854 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis, 177 patients (20.7% had positive cultures for secondary bacterial infection. Bacteria isolated from the lesions were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus - 123 cases (69.4%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus - 41 cases (23.1%, E. coil - 7 cases (3.9%, Proteus - 3 cases (1.7% and Klebsiella - 3 cases (1.7%. Conclusions: The incidence of secondary bacterial infection in lesions of CL was 20.7%. The most common isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus . The incidence of secondary bacterial infection was significantly more in the ulcerated lesions as compared with nonulcerated lesions ( P = 0.00001.

  4. Epidemiological features, clinical manifestation and laboratory findings of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Genaveh County, Bushehr Province, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kasiri; Hossein Najafi; Masoud Lotfi; Elnaz Kasiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the epidemiological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Genaveh County, Southern Iran.Methods:This descriptive study was conducted during 2004-2008. A questionnaire was completed for each case regarding age, gender, place of residence, the number and location of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions etc. Suspected active lesions were scraped with a sterile blade and the samples smeared onto glass slides, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa and examined under a light microscope for the presence of amastigotes.Results:Totally, 135 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis came to the health centers. The highest number of patients catching cutaneous leishmaniasis was found in 2006 (n=54). Most cases (56.3%) occurred during winter. The most highly infected age group was 1 to 10 years .The hands were the most affected parts of the body. About 54% of the patients had one lesion. The most cases (53.3%) occurred in rural areas.Concluions:It is important for the health authorities to take powerful actions to control cutaneous leishmaniasis. Meanwhile, It is significant to prepare quick treatment of cases.

  5. Some Ecological Characteristics of Phlebotomine sandflies in a Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Chabahar, Iran

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    Hamid Kassiri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the main health problems in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine species composition, sex ratio and relative abundance of sandfliesas vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Chabahar, Iran. Sandflies were caught using sticky traps. Traps were installed in 21 rural and urban areas.Results: A total of 17859 sandflieswere caught. Species caught including Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, P. salehi Mesghali, P. sergenti Parrot, P. alexandri Sinton, P. kazeruni Theodor and Mesghali, P. bergeroti Parrot, P. mesghali Seyedi-Rashti and Nadim, P. elaenorae Sinton, Sergentomyia clydei Sinton, S. sintoni Pringle, S. tiberiadis Adler, Theodor and Lourie, S. baghdadis Adler and Theodor , S. hodgsoni Sinton, S. dentate Sinton, S. africana Newstead, S. dreyfussi Theodor and Mesghali, S. mervynae Pringle, S. iranica Lewis and Mesghali and S. christophersi Sinton. Seven species, including P. elaenorae, P. kazeruni, S. hodgsoni, S. dreyfussi, S. mervynae, S. iranica and S. christophersi are reported for the first time in Chabahar.Conclusion: P. papatasi and P. salehi respectively play the role of primary and secondary vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chabahar city, due to their high abundance, presence in all the monthly activities, presence in all areas affected with oriental sore and finding leptomonad infection in them.

  6. Reactivation of cutaneous and mucocutaneous tegumentary leishmaniasis in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an emerging problem?

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    Regina Maia de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic condition that is frequent in patients living in tropical areas exposed to leishmaniasis. RA therapy involves immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate (MTX, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and prednisone. We report an unusual presentation of cutaneous (CL or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML in RA patients from an endemic area of leishmaniasis. A 51-year-old woman noted a cutaneous ulcer on her left ankle during MTX and prednisone RA therapy. Initially diagnosed as a venous stasis ulcer, the aspirate of the injury revealed the presence of Leishmania DNA. A 73-year-old woman presenting non-ulcerated, infiltrated and painful erythematous nodules inside her nostrils while receiving MTX, anti-TNF mAb, and prednisone for RA, had also the aspirate of injuries showing the presence of Leishmania DNA. Both patients healed after the therapy with liposomal amphotericin. The RA therapy has changed to low-dose prednisone, without further reactivation episodes. Both cases suggest that CL or ML can reactivate after administration of an immunosuppressant for RA treatment. Therefore, immunosuppressive treatments for RA should be carefully prescribed in patients from endemic areas or with a history of CL and ML.

  7. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution, abundance and diversity of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae: Psychodidae, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama

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    Anayansi Valderrama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Panama, species of the genus Lutzomyia are vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. There is no recent ecological information that may be used to develop tools for the control of this disease. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the composition, distribution and diversity of Lutzomyia species that serve as vectors of ACL. Sandfly sampling was conducted in forests, fragmented forests and rural environments, in locations with records of ACL. Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia trapidoi were the most widely distributed and prevalent species. Analysis of each sampling point showed that the species abundance and diversity were greatest at points located in the fragmented forest landscape. However, when the samples were grouped according to the landscape characteristics of the locations, there was a greater diversity of species in the rural environment locations. The Kruskal Wallis analysis of species abundance found that Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi were associated with fragmented environments, while Lu. panamensis, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor and Lutzomyia ylephiletor were associated with forested environments. Therefore, we suggest that human activity influences the distribution, composition and diversity of the vector species responsible for leishmaniasis in Panama.

  8. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  9. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  10. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Eyelids: A Case Series with Molecular Identification and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Iraj; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Handjani, Farhad; Hatam, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan disease which is endemic in Iran. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The eyelid is rarely involved possibly because the movement of the lids impedes the sand fly from biting the skin in this region. Here, we report 6 rare cases of eyelid CL. The patients were diagnosed by skin scraping, culture, and PCR from the lesions. Skin scraping examination showed Leishmania spp. amastigotes in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Culture examination was positive for Leishmania spp. PCR was positive for Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica. The lesions were disguised as basal cell carcinoma, chalazion, hordeolum, and impetigo. The patients were treated with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (20 mg/kg/day) for at least 3 weeks. They showed a dramatic response, and the lesions almost completely disappeared. We emphasized the importance of clinical and diagnostic features of lesions, characterized the phylogenetic relationship of isolated parasites, and reviewed the literature on ocular leishmaniasis. PMID:28095664

  11. Interferon-¿- and tumour necrosis factor-a-producing cells in humans who are immune to cutaneous leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Theander, T G; Hviid, L

    1999-01-01

    living in an area without the disease. The production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-10 was investigated in culture supernatants, and the cellular sources of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were identified. Cells from individuals with a history of cutaneous...... leishmaniasis produced significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha than cells from individuals without a history of the disease. Similar levels of IL-10 were found in the two groups. Flow cytometric analysis revealed high numbers of CD3+ cells producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and only a few CD3......+ cells containing IL-10, in the PBMC cultures from the individuals with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Interferon-gamma and TNF-alpha were predominantly produced by CD4+ T cells rather than CD8+ T cells. The results suggest that cellular immunity against cutaneous leishmaniasis is mediated...

  12. [Production of transmission foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: the case of Pau da Fome, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Hélia; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de; Barcellos, Christovam

    2010-08-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of one of the main foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, examining its territorial configuration and the relations with spatial organization processes. An analytical model was applied to the process of occupation and organization of urban space on a local scale, considering the new functions acquired by the spatial elements expressed by different work relations, land use, and land value. The study employed geoprocessing techniques and classification of images obtained by remote sensing, localization of households, and cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, associated with qualitative data on the historical process of land occupation and use. The analysis detected areas with distinct conditions of vulnerability and showed that changes in these conditions allowed production of the epidemic in a given time period and its subsequent reduction. The study contributes to monitoring of the disease at the local level and application of effective measures for cutaneous leishmaniasis surveillance and control.

  13. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

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    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  14. Identification of Leishmania Species Using PCR Assay on Giemsa-Stained Slides Prepared From Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients

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    Farnaz Kheirandish

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that are created by intracellular parasites of Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered as one of the health problems in some provinces of Iran.Methods: In this study, a total of 178 Giemsa-stained slides from confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were examined. The slides were prepared from the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis that referred to health centers and infected during the epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poldokhtar city, Lorestan Province, Iran in 2006.Genomic DNA from each slide was extracted. After DNA extraction, ITS-PCR was used.Results: Out of 178 slides, 129 (72.47% samples had a band in the range of 485 bp and 49 (27.53% samples 626 bp that matched L. tropica and L. major standard samples, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that Leishmania DNA could be efficiently ex­tracted and amplified even from old Giemsa-stained microscopic slides that were stored more than 6 yr. In this study was shown that both L. tropica and L. major species exist in Lorestan Province.

  15. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

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    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  16. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

    1992-07-01

    An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama.

  17. An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran

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    Mahin Farahmand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection which has a high incidence rate in Iran. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, and Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL, are endemic in various parts of Iran with a high incidence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reappraisal of the diagnosis and epidemiology of CL in Iran, by different clinical, parasitological and molecular assays among patients suspected of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology, at the Pasteur Institute of Iran during 2006-2009. Two hundred samples from patients with ulcerative skin lesions were collected, clinical analyses were applied, data questionnaire was completed and samples were examined for CL by using both direct microscopic and culture methods. Moreover, PCR assay was applied for detection of Leishmania species in CL isolates resulting from parasitological assay. Clinical observation revealed that the majority (58% of lesions was single; double lesions were observed in 22% of patients, and only 20% of CL had multiple lesions. Out of 200 patients, Leishman body was observed in 77 samples (38.5% by direct smear and 40% by cultivation assay. Most patients (21.3% had a travel history to the Isfahan province, one of the most important endemic areas of CL located in center of Iran. PCR assay by kDNA indicated 32 and 18 out of 50 isolates respectively had similar patterns with standard L. major and L. tropica. In conclusion, clinical manifestations and an appropriate diagnostic assay with a parallel molecular characterization of CL may lead to a screening evaluation of disease, prognosis, treatment and control strategies.

  18. Expansion of gd T cells in patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis with and without glucantime therapy

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    Haideh Darabi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of gd T cells in patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis, with or without glucantime therapy, was investigated. Twenty patients with local cutaneous leishmaniasis including glucantime-treated (n=10 and untreated (n=10 patients were selected. The controls were healthy individuals (n=10 living in endemic areas. Whole blood was obtained and the T cell subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Significantly more gd CD3+ T cells were observed in untreated patients (15.9% ± 5.9, when compared with glucantime-treated patients (4.6% ± 1.4 and controls (5.3% ± 2.3. On the other hand, when the percentages of ab CD3+ T-cells were analyzed different results were obtained. A significant increase in ab T cells was seen in glucantime-treated patients (62.4% ± 7.6, when compared to the untreated patients (55.7% ± 5.5 and controls (55.1% ± 9.6. The percentage of total CD3+ T cells was statistically greater in both glucantime-treated (68.8% ± 7.4 and untreated patients (73.4% ± 5.9 when compared to the controls (61% ± 10.3. These results are consistent with previous results on the expansion of gdT cells during the course of cutaneous leishmaniasis. They also indicate that glucantime therapy can reverse the expansion of gdT cells and as a result increase the percentages of ab CD3+ T cells.

  19. Efficacy of thermotherapy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.

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    Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias

    Full Text Available The efficacy of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis presents diverse results with low statistical power.To evaluate the efficacy of thermotherapy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis.A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials in 12 databases based on the implementation of a research protocol with inclusion and exclusion criteria and an assessment of methodological quality. The reproducibility and completeness were guaranteed in the information search and extraction. Heterogeneity, sensitivity and publication bias were assessed by graphical methods (Galbraith, L'Abblé, funnel plot, Egger plot, and influence plot and analytical methods (DerSimonian-Laird, Begg and Egger. Random-effects forest plots were constructed, and a cumulative meta-analysis was performed.Eight studies were included with 622 patients who underwent thermotherapy, with an efficacy of 73.2% (95% confidence interval (CI = 69.6-76.7%, and with 667 patients who underwent systemic treatment, with an efficacy of 70.6% (95% CI=67.1-74.1%. Heterogeneity between studies, good sensitivity for the combined measure, and no publication bias were observed. The relative risk for comparison of the efficacy of treatment was 1.02 (95%CI=0.91, 1.15, showing that the effectiveness of thermotherapy is equal to that of pentavalent antimonial drugs.Due to its efficacy, greater safety and lower cost, thermotherapy should be the first treatment option for cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas where the prevalence of the mucocutaneous form is low and in patients with contraindications to systemic treatment, such as kidney, liver and heart diseases, as well as in pregnant women, infants, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  20. Use of Oral Miltefosine for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Canadian Soldiers Returning from Afghanistan

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    Yoav Keynan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica, and is endemic to several Asian and Middle-Eastern countries where the rates of infection can be substantial. CL is one of the most common vector-transmitted parasitic infections in Afghanistan. Six cases of CL in Canadian soldiers returning from Afghanistan are reported in the present study. Their lesions did not improve with fluconazole therapy, and the organism demonstrated in vitro resistance. Oral miltefosine seemed effective.

  1. Identification of the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Chichaoua province, Morocco

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    Rhajaoui M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Morocco is caused by three species, Leishmania major, L. tropica and L. infantum. CL has been known in Chichaoua province since 2000. Using DNA extracted from microscopic slides and parasite cultures, collected in the years 2006 and 2009, we identified for the first time L. tropica as the causative agent of CL in this region. Species identification was achieved by performing the ITS1-PCR-RFLP approach. By using this method it was possible to identify parasites in Giemsa stained slides containing less than five parasites per oil-immersion field even they were conserved for up to four months.

  2. Spatial correlation between Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) and incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, I; Kaabi, B; Béjaoui, M; Derbali, M; Zhioua, E

    2009-03-01

    The geographical distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), was assessed during September 2006 through a transect from the north to the south of Tunisia using CDC light traps. P. papatasi was found to be abundant in the arid and Saharan bioclimatic zones and rare in the humid, subhumid, and semiarid bioclimatic zones. Similarly, the highest incidence of ZCL was observed in the arid and Saharan bioclimatic zones and the lowest in the humid, subhumid, and semiarid bioclimatic zones. Our overall findings confirm the close spatial association between the abundance of P. papatasi and the incidence of ZCL.

  3. Sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis in a Cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in central Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Y; Osorio, L; Alvarez, G; Rojas, J; Jiménez, F; Gómez, C; Ferro, C

    1996-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, 15 other species of the genus Lutzomyia, and one species of Brumptomyia were collected in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a river canyon 450 m above sea-level, in Rio Claro, Antioquia, Colombia. The presence of Lu. longipalpis is associated with the destruction of the primary forest and the development of new farmland and rural settlement in this region. The composition of species identified a different habitat for Lu. longipalpis in Colombia. Lu. yuilli and Lu. longipalpis were predominant (68.26%) followed by Lu. trapidoi, Lu. hartmani, Lu. triramula, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi.

  4. Sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in central Colombia

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    Yolanda López

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis, 15 other species of the genus Lutzomyia, and one species of Brumptomyia were collected in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a river canyon 450 m above sea-level, in Rio Claro, Antioquia, Colombia. The presence of Lu. longipalpis is associated with the destruction of the primary forest and the development of new farmland and rural settlement in this region. The composition of species identified a different habitat for Lu. longipalpis in Colombia. Lu. yuilli and Lu. longipalpis were predominant (68.26% followed by Lu. trapidoi, Lu. hartmani, Lu. triramula, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi.

  5. Geographical Distribution of Leishmania Species of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    M Akhoundi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to know the identity of Leishmania species responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Fars Province, southern Iran.Methods: Five counties of Shiraz, Firouz Abad, Ghir-Karzin, Farashband and Larestan were pros­pected. Forty-four patients exhibiting cutaneous lesions were selected. Samples collected on skin lesions were examined both microscopically (after Giemsa staining and molecularly (after PCR-RFLP.Results: On the 44 examined patients, 39 exhibit Leishmania sp. by microscopical examination, all confirmed by PCR. For five patients with negative microscopical examination, PCR was positive for three of them. Among these 42 positive samples, 3 (7% were infected by L. tropica and 39 (93% by L. major.Conclusions: Leishmania major is the most prevalent species in prospected area and L. tropica occurs in Shiraz and Ghir-Karzin counties.

  6. Sporotrichosis in Iran: A mini review of reported cases in patients suspected to cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    shahram mahmoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous fungal infection with global distribution. It is a rare fungal infection with nine reported cases in Iran, including eight humans and one animal, within the past 30 years. Among the human cases, seven were of the fixed cutaneous type of sporotrichosis and one had sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous. The reported patients were within the age range of 23-60 years, and six of them were female. The most frequent sites of infection were forearms and hands, as well as the face and legs. In addition, the majority of the cases had previously been suspected of leishmaniasis and received treatment. Sporotrichosis is not a well-known condition in Iran and is often misdiagnosed and erroneously treated for other cutaneous parasitic or bacterial infections with similar clinical manifestations. Therefore, sporotrichosis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of nodular-ulcerative skin lesions.

  7. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Neyshabur, Iran from 2010 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Salehi; Abdolmajid Ghasemian; Mojgan Masoumi; Farshad Nojoomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Neyshabur, Northeastern Iran from 2010 to 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 543 samples from patients aging from 9 months to 74 years were included in Neyshabur, Iran. The sampling of lesions was done using sterile syringes. The slides were stained with Giemsa. The leishman bodies were observed under light microscopy. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence of CL was among 21–30 years (P = 0.007) and a range of 51–60 years (P = 0.156), respectively. The overall incidence of CL from 2010–2014 was 32.2% (n = 175). The CL incidence showed a decline from 2010–2014, but was not significant from 47/129 (36.4%) cases in 2010 to 18/56 (32.1%) cases in 2014. The CL rate was 101/295 (34.2%) in males and 74/248 (29.8%) in females (P = 0.275). The highest and lowest incidence rates of CL in 2014 have been occurred in July and June with 17 (36.9%) and 8 (19.0%) positive cases, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of CL in Neyshabur showed a declining trend during 2010–2014. The most susceptible age for leishmaniasis infection was 21–30 years. Leishmaniasis infection rate was not significantly different between men and women.

  8. ITS1 PCR-RFLP Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania in Clinical Samples and Strains from Cases of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in States of the Mexican Southeast

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    Amalia Monroy-Ostria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis includes a spectrum of clinical forms localized cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis which can be caused by different strains of Leishmania belonging to the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes which may coexist in the same endemic area. We evaluated the PCR-RFLP assay of the ITS1 genes for direct identification of Leishmania species in 163 clinical samples and 21 Mexican isolates of Leishmania. In relation to the Mexican isolates of Leishmania 52% displayed a pattern similar to the L. (L. mexicana, 5% showed a mixed pattern compatible with L. (L. mexicana and L. (V. braziliensis, eight with L. (L. amazonensis and L. (L. mexicana, and one to L. (V. braziliensis. Most of the clinical samples, 109/116 (94%, gave a pattern similar to that of the L. mexicana, two clinical samples gave similar patterns to that of Leishmania braziliensis, and 5 samples gave patterns that suggest a coinfection of L. (L. mexicana and L. (V. braziliensis or L. (L. mexicana and L. (L. amazonensis. The ITS1 PCR-RFLP assay is a multipurpose tool for diagnosis of Leishmania from clinical samples and enables determination of the infecting species of New World Leishmania in the field in relatively short time and low cost.

  9. The microbiological signature of human cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions exhibits restricted bacterial diversity compared to healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Vanessa R; de Queiroz, Artur TL; Sanabani, Sabri S; de Oliveira, Camila I; Carvalho, Edgar M; Costa, Jackson ML; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most common form of cutaneous leishmaniasis characterised by single or multiple painless chronic ulcers, which commonly presents with secondary bacterial infection. Previous culture-based studies have found staphylococci, streptococci, and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in LCL lesions, but there have been no comparisons to normal skin. In addition, this approach has strong bias for determining bacterial composition. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacterial communities in LCL lesions differ from those found on healthy skin (HS). Using a high throughput amplicon sequencing approach, which allows for better populational evaluation due to greater depth coverage and the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline, we compared the microbiological signature of LCL lesions with that of contralateral HS from the same individuals.Streptococcus, Staphylococcus,Fusobacterium and other strict or facultative anaerobic bacteria composed the LCL microbiome. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria found in HS, including environmental bacteria, were significantly decreased in LCL lesions (p < 0.01). This paper presents the first comprehensive microbiome identification from LCL lesions with next generation sequence methodology and shows a marked reduction of bacterial diversity in the lesions. PMID:27074253

  10. Photochemistry-based immune modulation in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilov, Oleg E.; Kosaka, Sachiko; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2009-06-01

    The destruction of infectious pathogens by photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality. We demonstrated the efficacy of PDT for the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis in our previous studies. However, much remains to be done for the improvement of PDT regimens. The modulation of the immune response by photochemistry is an exciting but under-explored area of PDT research. The goal of this study is to understand the mechanisms of the augmentation of the host immune response after PDT of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We found that PDT with phenoxiazine analogues was capable for induction of Th1 immune response due to stimulation of IL- 12 production by dendritic cells. Single PDT treatment facilitated fast healing of the CL lesions due to effective parasite eradication and augmentation of the immune system. Comparative study with different photosensitizers (PS) (porphyrins, pehnoxiazines) demonstrated different immunomodulating properties of PDT depending on chemical class of PS. Knowing the particular profiles and immunomodulating properties of the pertinent PSs allows us to select the optimal PS with regards to both the photodestructive and immunostimulating potential.

  11. Utility of Western Blot Analysis for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Marzieh ASHRAFMANSOURI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease with a relatively wide distribution in different areas of the world, including Iran. The parasite is mainly diagnosed microscopically, but serological approaches might be useful for diagnosis as well.  This study aimed to assess the efficacy of an immunoblotting system for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.Methods: Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL patients and 50 sera samples from healthy controls along with 50 sera sample from non-CL patients were collected. Native strain of Leishmania major was cultured in Schnei­der medium and soluble Leishmania antigens were prepared from amastigotes-like parasites. All of sera samples were evaluated by an immunoblot­ting system.Results: Components of 14 to 135 kDa were detectable by the sera of CL pa­tients. From 61 sera of CL patients, 59 cases (96.7% detected a 63 kDa subunit and 51 cases (83.6% recognized a 32-35 kDa component. Among all subunits, the 63 kDa band showed the highest sensitivity (96.7% and a 75 kDa band had the highest (98% specificity.Conclusion: Immunoblotting has a satisfactory performance in diagnosis of CL and this test can be used, as an aid, for proper diagnosis of CL.

  12. Is the Dog a Possible Reservoir for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suriname?

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    Alida Kent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction. Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two or nasal lesion (one. Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600, and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800. All other animals (n=42 were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle.

  13. Is the dog a possible reservoir for cutaneous leishmaniasis in suriname?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test) and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction). Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two) or nasal lesion (one). Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600), and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800). All other animals (n = 42) were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle.

  14. Topical Simvastatin as Host-Directed Therapy against Severity of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Suraj P.; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Hurdayal, Ramona; Guler, Reto; Brombacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that statins mediate protection against intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes in mice. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of simvastatin as a topical or systemic host-directed drug therapy in controlling inflammatory responses in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (LV39). In an ear infection model, topical application of simvastatin directly on established lesions significantly reduced severity of the disease reflected by ear lesion size and ulceration. The host protective effect was further accompanied by decreased parasite burden in the ear and draining lymph nodes in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Pre-treatment of these mice on a low-fat cholesterol diet and systemic simvastatin also reduced footpad swelling, as well as parasite burdens and ulceration/necrosis in the more robust footpad infection model, demonstrating the prophylactic potential of simvastatin for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mechanistically, following L. major infection, simvastatin-treated primary macrophages responded with significantly reduced cholesterol levels and increased production of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, simvastatin-treated macrophages displayed enhanced phagosome maturation, as revealed by increased LAMP-3 expression in fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analysis. These findings demonstrate that simvastatin treatment enhances host protection against L. major by increasing macrophage phagosome maturation and killing effector functions. PMID:27632901

  15. Effect of deltamethrin spraying on the sandfly populations in a focus of American cutaneous leismaniasis

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    Alda Lima Falcão

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of deltamethrin of the sandfly population in a focus of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Viana, Espírito Santo State is desvribed. The phlebotomine population density was determined inside and outside houses during a one year period in a treated and untreated area. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of sandflies inside houses in the treated area compared with both the untreated area and the same area before sparying. Despite having a residual action for 12 months after spraying the insecticide was ineffective outside houses. It is concluded therefore that deltamethrin is an efficient insecticide for reducing the number of phlebotomine sandflies inside houses.

  16. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  17. The Immunology of a Healing Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated with Localized Heat or Systemic Antimonial Therapy.

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    Ines Lakhal-Naouar

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of systemic antimonial (sodium stibogluconate, Pentostam, SSG treatment versus local heat therapy (Thermomed for cutaneous leishmaniasis was studied previously and showed similar healing rates. We hypothesized that different curative immune responses might develop with systemic and local treatment modalities.We studied the peripheral blood immune cells in a cohort of 54 cutaneous Leishmania major subjects treated with SSG or TM. Multiparameter flow cytometry, lymphoproliferative assays and cytokine production were analyzed in order to investigate the differences in the immune responses of subjects before, on and after treatment.Healing cutaneous leishmaniasis lead to a significant decline in circulating T cells and NKT-like cells, accompanied by an expansion in NK cells, regardless of treatment modality. Functional changes involved decreased antigen specific CD4+ T cell proliferation (hyporesponsiveness seen with CD8+ T cell depletion. Moreover, the healing (or healed state was characterized by fewer circulating regulatory T cells, reduced IFN-γ production and an overall contraction in polyfunctional CD4+ T cells.Healing from cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a dynamic process that alters circulating lymphocyte populations and subsets of T, NK and NKT-like cells. Immunology of healing, through local or systemic treatments, culminated in similar changes in frequency, quality, and antigen specific responsiveness with immunomodulation possibly via a CD8+ T cell dependent mechanism. Understanding the evolving immunologic changes during healing of human leishmaniasis informs protective immune mechanisms.

  18. Characterization of the local and systemic immune responses in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Veress, B; Permin, H

    1999-01-01

    In this study skin biopsies and peripheral blood samples were obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Samples were obtained at diagnosis and during healing when the lesions had regressed to half the original size. At diagnosis most of the cells expressed HLA...

  19. Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis along the Nile River north of Khartoum (Sudan) in the aftermath of an epidemic in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadaro, A Y; Ghalib, H W; Ali, M S

    1993-01-01

    Based on a pilot clinical study of the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) among school children in villages on both banks of the Nile River north of Khartoum, Sudan in the aftermath of a 1985 epidemic, we studied a random sample (303 individuals) from one of these villages to determine...

  20. Unusual presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis in clinical practice and potential challenges in diagnosis:a comprehensive analysis of literature reviews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Gyoh SK

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is regarded as a re-emerging disease due to its increase in spread and rate of transmission over the past decade due to a proportionate increase in global human movements. This study was therefore carried out to review epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and treatment with in-depth discussion on some of the rare clinical presentations of the disease capable of influencing its control. The study was based on literature review on clinical and laboratory features of cutaneous leishmaniasis from original research articles, review articles, short communications, letters to editor and case reports on the disease for the past10 years (April 2000to April 2010). The results were analysed using simple descriptive methods. The rarest presentations of leishmaniasis encountered were peritibial ulcerations, hard painful nipple in a male, swollen upper lip, dermatofibro sarcoma protuberans, sternal proliferative growth, turban tumour, post operative granuloma, chalazion-like0.00%, and cutaneous sterile pyogranuloma with asymmetrical alopecia0.00% each. Others include infected sebaceous cysts0.45%, syphilis 0.19%, yaws0.13%, thrombotic ulcerations0.40%, mycetoma 0.90%, sarcoidosis0.67%, painless nasal solitary nodule0.00%, tuberculous lymphadenopathy0.25% and unilateral erythema nodosum0.28%. Physicians practicing in cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic, but most especially in the non-endemic areas should bear in mind that the disease may not be that rare in the context of the present global village phenomenon; and that, the next case could just be that of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the clinical picture of the patient notwithstanding.

  1. Study on effects of cantharidin on cutaneous leishmaniasis, its mechanism and optimization of the therapeutic modes

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    Fatemeh Maleki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the major problems in many countries. Leishmania is flagellated protozoa and causative agent of leishmaniasis which is the most important health problem in many countries especially in developing country. Leishmania major causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. CL is endemic in some part of Iran. Pentavalent antimony compounds are main therapy of CL, they have some side effects due to their toxicity, and also relapse is possible. Cantharidin is terpenoid and vesicant compound that can be found in Meloidae and Oedomeridae family beetles. It was used as treatment to cancer and Wart. It is also apoptosis inducer in various cancer cells. In this study, the effect of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 µg/ml cantharidin on the L. major promastigotes, non-infected macrophages and infected macrophages with parasite amastigotes was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyle tetrazolium bromide MTT assay and flow cytometer in vitro. The Effect of cantharidin as 0.5, 0.05 and 0.1% ointment surveyed on the Leishmania lesions in BALB/C as well as. Parasite load as determined by Real Time PCR, and IFN-γ and IL-4 was involved by ELISA. Results showed that the highest cytotoxicity (56.14% in promastigotes was in a group that treated with 50 µg/ml cantharidin after 48h. The rate in non-infected macrophages and infected macrophages was 13.05 % and 30.17% respectively. Maximum cytotoxicity rate in promastigotes treated with 50 µg/ml cantharidin after 72 h was determined 66.48%, 48.52% in non- infected macrophages and 62.24% in infected macrophages after 48h by flow cytometry. Group treated with 0.05% cantharidin had lowest rate of ulcer growth. Ulcer size was increased in group treated with 0.5% cantharidin. IFN-γ value in group treated with cantharidin was less than it in untreated (control group, but IL -4 didn’t change. Cantharidin through blister formation induces inflammatory reaction and neutrophils and macrophages infiltration

  2. [Necessity to adopt and disseminate therapeutic schemes for the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Paraná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, U; Spinoza, R P; La Salvia Filho, V; Guilherme, A L; Lima, A P; Junqueira, G M; Misuta, N M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; de Lima, E M

    1991-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis has shown an endemic character in areas of North-North-west Paraná State, which were populated in 40's, where residual forests persist with intense modifications. The infection has been found mainly in males, but was found also in females and children and in many individuals of a same family. 513 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis notified to SUCAM by clinical diagnosis were investigated. Treatment was begun with Glucantime at State Health Centers or at SUCAM. Of 513 treated patients 260 (50.67%) were considered clinically cured. The remaining 253 (49.33%) abandoned treatment. The quantity of Glucantime supplied to the patients varied from 10 vials to more than 200, with or without intervals during the treatment. Two hundred and seventeen (85.46%) patients among 260 received from 10 to 75 vials. The occurrence of leishmaniasis in 163 (31.75%) women and in 34 (6.62%) children, of both sexes, up to 10 years old, suggests domiciliary transmission. It's not known if the 253 (49.33%) individuals who abandoned the treatment recovered. This high number shows the necessity of better knowledge of the consequences that can occur due to incomplete treatment.

  3. Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Andean region of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flórez, Mauricio; Ocampo, Clara Beatriz; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Colombia and map high-risk municipalities. The study area was the Colombian Andean region, comprising 715 rural and urban municipalities. We used 10 years of CL surveillance: 2000-2009. We used spatial-temporal analysis - conditional autoregressive Poisson random effects modelling - in a Bayesian framework to model the dependence of municipality-level incidence on land use, climate, elevation and population density. Bivariable spatial analysis identified rainforests, forests and secondary vegetation, temperature, and annual precipitation as positively associated with CL incidence. By contrast, livestock agroecosystems and temperature seasonality were negatively associated. Multivariable analysis identified land use - rainforests and agro-livestock - and climate - temperature, rainfall and temperature seasonality - as best predictors of CL. We conclude that climate and land use can be used to identify areas at high risk of CL and that this approach is potentially applicable elsewhere in Latin America. PMID:27355214

  4. Nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Chichaoua, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2006-02-01

    The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  5. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Clinical and Histological Presentation: Report of Four Cases

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    Hamideh Moravvej

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL usually causes a single, self-healing and uncomplicated lesion mainly on the exposed area of body. This report presents four cases of OWCL from Iran that misdiagnosed with sarcoidosis, lymphoma, and acne agminata. Two out of four patients showed a history of purplish red plaques for at least 5 years who misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis because of histological and clinical characteristics. The other one presented with flesh-colored nodules disseminated all over his skin that was misdiagnosed as lymphoma for ten years. The last patient was misdiagnosed as acne agminata due to tuberculoid reactions in examination of the lesion biopsy. All the patients responded to the treatment with meglumine antimonate.

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia:Epidemiological trends from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarek Tawfik Amin; Hamdan Ibrahim Al-Mohammed; Feroze Kaliyadan; Balghonaim Salah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study epidemiological trends related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Al Hassa, an endemic area in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This retrospective study included the spatial/temporal analysis of the reported cases of CL using the available surveillance database for the disease at the regional Vector Control Unit, from 2000 to 2010. Results: The incidence of CL was declining at a stable rate especially during the last 3 years of the study (2008-2010). An interesting finding was the percentage of expatriates affected was increasing over the last 10 years compared to that of the Saudis. Conclusions:A definite declining trend in the incidence of CL was observed in Al Hassa. Further studies are warranted to assess whether special public health measures are needed for better control of CL in expatriate populations in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; Messouli, Mohammed; Makhlouf, Baghdad; EI Laamrani, Abderahmane; Boumezzough, Ali

    2013-08-20

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence.

  8. Serial study of the immune response of an individual with exacerbated simple cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, S N; Frankenburg, S; Gross, A; Jonas, F; Vardy, D

    1994-01-01

    The immunological responses of a patient with exacerbated cutaneous leishmaniasis, measured during the course of the disease, are described. Except for skin lesions the patient was healthy and showed no signs of immunosuppression. Three immunological parameters were measured: specific lymphocyte proliferation (LPA), monocyte effector activity (MEA), and antibody levels. LPA was positive early in the course of the disease, became negative as the lesions enlarged, and was positive again as the lesions healed 28 weeks after initiation of the study. In the MEA test, in which the mononuclear cells of the patient were incubated in the presence of Leishmania major promastigotes in a 3-day assay, the number of amastigotes per 100 monocytes remained constant until week 28 and then decreased significantly. Antibody levels remained elevated until week 28 and then decreased to background levels. The results indicate that the cell-mediated immune response parallels the course of the disease while circulating antibodies show an inverse relationship.

  9. Methodology of clinical trials aimed at assessing interventions for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Piero Olliaro

    Full Text Available The current evidence-base for recommendations on the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is generally weak. Systematic reviews have pointed to a general lack of standardization of methods for the conduct and analysis of clinical trials of CL, compounded with poor overall quality of several trials. For CL, there is a specific need for methodologies which can be applied generally, while allowing the flexibility needed to cover the diverse forms of the disease. This paper intends to provide clinical investigators with guidance for the design, conduct, analysis and report of clinical trials of treatments for CL, including the definition of measurable, reproducible and clinically-meaningful outcomes. Having unified criteria will help strengthen evidence, optimize investments, and enhance the capacity for high-quality trials. The limited resources available for CL have to be concentrated in clinical studies of excellence that meet international quality standards.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  11. Unusual presentation of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major:Case reports of four Iranian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajjaran H; Mohebali M; Akhavan AA; Taheri A; Barikbin B; Soheila Nassiri S

    2013-01-01

    We report four disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis(DCL) cases referred to leishmaniasis laboratory at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with multiple nodular, ulcerative and crusted lesions extended on the face, trunk, and extremities. None of the patients had any complication and historical involvement in their immunological system conditions that suggest as the criteria for DCL. Direct smears of ulcers were positive for Leishmania parasite. The parasite was isolated from the active lesions and identified as Leishmania major (L. major) using PCR-RFLP assay and sequencing analysis.

  12. Serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a peptide sequence from gene B protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gaafar, A; Ismail, A

    1996-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a 28 amino acid sequence of the repetitive element of gene B protein (GBP) from Leishmania major was developed for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was compared to ELISAs using crude amastigote and promastigote antigens from...... samples from healthy Sudanese individuals living in an area endemic for malaria but free of leish-maniasis were negative in all the assays. Significantly higher levels of antibodies were found in the patients who had suffered from the disease for more than eight weeks than in patients with a shorter...

  13. Identification of Species Causing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by PCR in Chahbahar, Iran

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    Hosein Soleimanpoor (MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chabahar is in Southern Iran located near the Iran-Pakistan border. Since leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in this region, this study aimed to diagnose the disease and identify different species of Leishmania parasite in the patients referred to the central laboratory. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012 on patients referred to the central laboratory in the city of Chabahar. The sampling of lesions, slide preparation, culture and PCR specific for kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, extracted from the media and slides, were performed. The data collected by a questionnaire were analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: The resulted bands from the 48 tested cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates were compared with the standard strains of Leishmania tropica, L. infantum and L. major. All 48 investigated bands were in the 620bp region, which is related to L. major. Conclusion: Since PCR has high sensitivity and specificity, it is recommended to use kDNA (present in a unique organelle called kinetoplast for the routine diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  14. Epidemiological characteristics of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Settat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Amarir; Faiza, Sebti; Hajiba, Fellah; Francine, Pratlong; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Bouchra, El Mansouri; Asmae, Hmamouch; Bouchra, Delouane; Khalid, Habbari; Abderrahim, Sadak; Ibrahim, Abassi; Mohamed, Rhajaoui

    2015-10-01

    A new emerging focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL) caused by Leishmania tropica was identified within the province of Settat. This study was performed in order to analyze the reasons of the extension of CL in this area, and to describe the clinico-epidemiological characteristic of this emerging focus during 2007-2012. A total of 553 suspected cases of CL were diagnosed in laboratory of Settat, controlled and confirmed in reference national laboratory of leishmaniasis in Rabat. Leishmania parasite is found in 356 cases. Most of them (33.89%) were recorded in localities of Ouled Ghalem (110 cases) and Laamarcha (102 cases) of El Borouj sector. The lesions were typically small, dry and mostly located on the face and extremities. Majority of infection (25%) was recorded among children under 11 years old, and female (72%). Strains of L. tropica were identified by PCR ITS1 from positive slides and zymodeme MON-102 was typed using isoenzyme technique on starch gel electrophoresis.

  15. Assessing the effect of zooprophylaxis on zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission: a system dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabi, Belhassen; Ahmed, Sami Ben-hadj

    2013-12-01

    Capturing or diverting the disease carrying vector from humans can reduce the transmission of vector borne diseases such as leishmaniasis. The use of animals that act as dead-end hosts to relieve the vector (sandfly) bites on humans is called zooprophylaxis. However, as the number of blood meal providers especially domestic animals increases, the sandflies enhanced availability of blood meals will improve its number and survival, thereby countering the impact of diverting bites from humans. Thus, the transmission model exhibits the structure of a feedback loop characterizing complex dynamic systems. In order to rigorously assess the effect of zooprophylaxis, we propose a system dynamic model for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission with 3 blood-meal hosts: domestic animals, humans, and a reservoir (rodents). In this context, a simulation study of the proposed model with a follow-up period of 1000 days was performed. We explored how perturbations in the parameters characterizing the transmission, essentially the vector biting rates and the size of the domestic animal population, affect the zooprophylaxis outcome. The results show that the basic reproductive number R0 and the disease incidence in humans are decreasing function of the relative size of the domestic animal population. The speed of this decrease depends also on the vector biting rates of the different mammal species. The key factors influencing the magnitude of zooprophylaxis are: the sizes of the vector, rodent, and domestic animal populations, as well as, the biting rates which incorporate relative attraction and accessibility of the vectors to the mammalian populations.

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran:Results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Norouzinezhad; Fatemeh Ghaffari; Abbas Norouzinejad; Farzad Kaveh; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous leish-maniasis (CL) in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Iran between 2011 and 2013. Sampling, pre-paring, developing, and fixing of suspicious skin lesions were completed in healthcare centers in 31 Iranian provinces as well as in the Academic Reference Laboratory and the National Reference Laboratory. The information was then analyzed at the Ministry of Health's Information Management Center of Contagious Diseases. Results: Over a three-year period, the number of people identified with CL was 56 546. The highest incidence was reported in 2011 (27.5 per 100 000). Wet CL accounted for 43.7% of cases while 43.3% resulted from sporotrichoid leishmaniasis. The results showed that there was a higher incidence of CL due to Leishmania major (50.2%) than to Leishmania tropica. The results of this study found that the highest incidence of CL had happened respectively in Ilam, Fars and, Khorasan Razavi Provinces between 2011 and 2013. Conclusions: Although the incidence of the disease is declining, CL is still a public health concern and disease control protocols need to be established. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the vectors, reservoirs, and disease species as well as to develop appropriate disease control strategies.

  17. The potential economic value of a cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine in seven endemic countries in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Hotez, Peter J; Kruchten, Stephanie D; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-07

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Markov decision analytic computer model to evaluate the potential economic value of a preventative CL vaccine in seven countries in Latin America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. The results indicated that even a vaccine with a relatively short duration of protection and modest efficacy could be recommended for use in targeted locations, as it could prevent a substantial number of cases at low-cost and potentially even result in cost savings. If the population in the seven countries were vaccinated using a vaccine that provides at least 10 years of protection, an estimated 41,000-144,784 CL cases could be averted, each at a cost less than the cost of current recommended treatments. Further, even a vaccine providing as little as five years duration of protection with as little as 50% efficacy remains cost-effective compared with chemotherapy; additional scenarios resembling epidemic settings such as the one that occurred in Chaparral, Colombia in 2004 demonstrate important economic benefits.

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran: Results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Norouzinezhad; Fatemeh Ghaffari; Abbas Norouzinejad; Farzad Kaveh; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) in Iran.Methods: This study was conducted in Iran between 2011 and 2013. Sampling, preparing, developing, and fixing of suspicious skin lesions were completed in healthcare centers in 31 Iranian provinces as well as in the Academic Reference Laboratory and the National Reference Laboratory. The information was then analyzed at the Ministry of Health’s Information Management Center of Contagious Diseases.Results: Over a three-year period, the number of people identified with CL was 56 546.The highest incidence was reported in 2011(27.5 per 100 000). Wet CL accounted for 43.7% of cases while 43.3% resulted from sporotrichoid leishmaniasis. The results showed that there was a higher incidence of CL due to Leishmania major(50.2%) than to Leishmania tropica. The results of this study found that the highest incidence of CL had happened respectively in Ilam, Fars and, Khorasan Razavi Provinces between 2011 and 2013.Conclusions: Although the incidence of the disease is declining, CL is still a public health concern and disease control protocols need to be established. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the vectors, reservoirs, and disease species as well as to develop appropriate disease control strategies.

  19. Epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama. III. Endemic persistence of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1976-01-01

    Endemic persistence of cutaneous leishmaniasis is described in El Aguacate, a community established in the forest of central Panama about 75 years ago. Physiographic pecularities partially isolate El Aguacate from other villages in the region. Some of the original forest environment has been preserved and man-biting species of phlebotomine sandflies were abundant as was the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni, the principal reservoir host of Leishmania braziliensis in Panama. The inhabitants, as well as their dogs, were examined for natural leishmaniasis in 1969 and 1973. Mammals and phlebotomine sandflies were collected from 1968 to 1973 in a search for reservoir hosts and potential vectors of the disease. Similar studies were undertaken in two nearby villages during 1968 and 1969. L. braziliensis has persisted for many years in El Aguacate, and infection is acquired during childhood. Dogs also were found naturally infected, and the two-toed sloth showed yearly infection rates up to 47.8%. Parasites were demonstrated from a night monkey, Aotus trivirgatus.

  20. Decreased effect of glucantime in cutaneous leishmaniasis complicated with secondary bacterial infection

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    G Sadeghian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucantime is regarded as the first-line treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL; however, failure to treatment is a problem in many cases. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of glucantime in CL complicated with secondary bacterial infection compared to uncomplicated lesions. Methods: This experimental study was performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. A total of 161 patients enrolled in the study had CL confirmed by positive smear of lesions. All the patients were treated with systemic glucantime for 3 weeks and followed for 2 months. Response to treatment was defined as loss of infiltration, reepithelization, and negative smear. Depending on the results of bacterial cultures, the lesions were divided into two groups and the efficacy of glucantime was compared. Results: A total of 123 patients (76.4% were negative, and 38 patients (23.6% were positive for secondary bacterial infection. In groups with negative bacterial culture response to treatment was 65% (80 patients and in the other positive group, it was 31.6% (12 patients, with a difference (χ2 = 13.77, P < 0.01. Conclusion: Therapeutic effect of glucantime showed a decrease in CL lesions with secondary bacterial infection. Therefore, in the cases of unresponsiveness to treatment, the lesions should be evaluated for bacterial infection, before repeating the treatment.

  1. Unresponsiveness to Glucantime treatment in Iranian cutaneous leishmaniasis due to drug-resistant Leishmania tropica parasites.

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    Ramtin Hadighi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent circumstantial evidence suggests that an increasing number of Iranian patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis are unresponsive to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime, the first line of treatment in Iran. This study was designed to determine whether the clinical responses (healing, or non-healing were correlated with the susceptibility of Leishmania parasites to Glucantime. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro susceptibility testing was first performed on 185 isolated parasites in the intracellular mouse peritoneal macrophage model. A strong correlation between the clinical outcome and the in vitro effective concentration 50% (EC50 values was observed. Parasites derived from patients with non-healing lesions had EC50 values at least 4-fold higher than parasites derived from lesions of healing patients. A selection of these strains was typed at the molecular level by pulsed-field gels and by sequencing the pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1 gene. These techniques indicated that 28 out of 31 selected strains were Leishmania tropica and that three were Leishmania major. The L. major isolates were part of a distinct pulsed-field group, and the L. tropica isolates could be classified in three related additional pulsed-field groups. For each pulsed-field karyotype, we selected sensitive and resistant parasites in which we transfected the firefly luciferase marker to assess further the in vitro susceptibility of field isolates in the monocyte cell line THP1. These determinations confirmed unequivocally that patients with non-healing lesions were infected with L. tropica parasites resistant to Glucantime. Additional characterization of the resistant isolates showed that resistance is stable and can be reversed by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of proven resistant parasites contributing to treatment failure for cutaneous leishmaniasis and shows that

  2. Cruel disease, cruel medicine: self-treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with harmful chemical substances in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie

    2012-09-01

    Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs.

  3. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    intracellular amastigotes are usually abundant. Diagnosis The different parasitologic techniques for confirming Leishmania infection are variously...effective, depending on whether the syndrome under examination is oligoparasitic or polyparasitic. A confirmed parasitologic diagnosis is es- tablished by

  4. Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia

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    Vladimir Luna Tedesqui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL, is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in the Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5% corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5% to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018. The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (p<0.001 and p=0.009, respectively. The rate of reactivity in the leishmanin skin test was higher in the group with mucosal lesions (p=0.012. The cross-sectional survey showed that 40% of the families had emigrated from the Altiplano. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to undertake continuous case detection of ATL in the area, where the disease presents a high rate of mucosal cases. Increasing incidence seems to be associated with immigration and continuous deforestation to expand the crop-growing areas.

  5. CD8+ T cells as a source of IFN-γ production in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In human leishmaniasis Th1/Th2 dichotomy similar to murine model is not clearly defined and surrogate marker(s of protection is not yet known. In this study, Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ profile induced by purified CD4(+/CD8(+ T cells in response to Leishmania antigens were assessed at transcript and protein levels in 14 volunteers with a history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL and compared with 18 healthy control volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD4(+/CD8(+/CD14(+ cells were purified from peripheral blood using magnetic beads; CD4(+/CD8(+ T cells were co-cultured with autologous CD14(+ monocytes in the presence of soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA. Stimulation of either CD4(+ T cells or CD8(+ T cells of HCL volunteers with SLA induced a significantly (P<0.05 higher IFN-γ production compared with the cells of controls. Upregulation of IFN-γ gene expression in CD4(+ cells (P<0.001 and CD8(+ cells (P = 0.006 of HCL volunteers was significantly more than that of controls. Significantly (P<0.05 higher fold-expression of IFN-γ gene was seen in CD4(+ cells than in CD8(+ cells. In HCL volunteers a significantly (P = 0.014 higher number of CD4(+ cells were positive for intracellular IFN-γ production than CD8(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the volunteers have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by a strong reaction to leishmanin skin test and IFN-γ production. The dominant IFN-γ response was the result of expansion of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. The results suggested that immune response in protected individuals with a history of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL due to L. major is mediated not only through the expansion of antigen-specific IFN-γ producing CD4(+ Th1 cells, but also through IFN-γ producing CD8(+ T cells.

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by members of Leishmania braziliensis complex in Nayarit, State of Mexico

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    Gustavo Sanchez-Tejeda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was carried out in the northern Mexican state, Nayarit. Fourteen patients with possible cutaneous leishmaniasis skin lesions gave positive Montenegro skin tests. Biopsies were taken from the skin ulcer and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers for the Leishmania mexicana complex; however all biopsies were not amplified. PCR carried out with specific primers for the L. braziliensis complex resulted in the amplification of all patient DNA. DNA from 12 out of 14 biopsies gave positive amplification with primers species specific for L. (Viannia braziliensis and hybridized with a species specific L. (V. braziliensis probe. These results demonstrate the presence in Nayarit of at least two members of the L. braziliensis complex. Most of the cutaneous lesions were caused by L. (V. braziliensis and two by another species belonging to the L. braziliensis complex. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of L. (V. braziliensis in Nayarit. The main risk factor associated with the contraction of this disease in Nayarit is attributed to working on coffee plantations.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by members of Leishmania braziliensis complex in Nayarit, State of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Tejeda, G; Rodríguez, N; Parra, C I; Hernandez-Montes, O; Barker, D C; Monroy-Ostria, A

    2001-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out in the northern Mexican state, Nayarit. Fourteen patients with possible cutaneous leishmaniasis skin lesions gave positive Montenegro skin tests. Biopsies were taken from the skin ulcer and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers for the Leishmania mexicana complex; however all biopsies were not amplified. PCR carried out with specific primers for the L. braziliensis complex resulted in the amplification of all patient DNA. DNA from 12 out of 14 biopsies gave positive amplification with primers species specific for L. (Viannia) braziliensis and hybridized with a species specific L. (V.) braziliensis probe. These results demonstrate the presence in Nayarit of at least two members of the L. braziliensis complex. Most of the cutaneous lesions were caused by L. (V.) braziliensis and two by another species belonging to the L. braziliensis complex. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of L. (V.) braziliensis in Nayarit. The main risk factor associated with the contraction of this disease in Nayarit is attributed to working on coffee plantations.

  8. Use of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a comparison with the conventional scraping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Omidifar, Navid; Lohrasb, Mohamad Hosein

    2012-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Iran. Scraping smears are widely used and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is now attracting more attention. Both methods were performed on the clinically suspected cases in our study. Smears were stained using Giemsa. We compared the sensitivity, specificity and some other aspects of these two methods. Of our 400 patients, 346 had specimens that were positive for leishman body, and of these 328 were detected using both methods. However, 42 cases were confirmed positive by FNA cytology and 18 as a result of scraping smears. There was a significant difference between the two methods in the detection of leishman body and microgranuloma, slide background and patient comfort. The sensitivity of FNA cytology was greater even though the specificity was the same. Our study confirmed the advantages of FNA cytology as a reliable method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. Biological and chemical studies of Pera benensis, a Bolivian plant used in folk medicine as a treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, A; Angelo, A; Muñoz, V; Roblot, F; Hocquemiller, R; Cavé, A

    1992-09-01

    The stem barks of Pera benensis are employed by the Chimane Indians in the Bolivian Amazonia as treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan Leishmania braziliensis. The chloroform extracts containing quinones were found active against the promastigote forms of Leishmania and the epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi at 10 micrograms ml-1. The activity guided fractionation of the extract by chromatography afforded active compounds. Their structures were elucidated, by spectral and chemical studies, as known naphthoquinones, plumbagin, 3,3'-biplumbagin, 8-8'-biplumbagin, and triterpene, lupeol. The activity in vitro of each compound was evaluated against 5 strains of Leishmania (promastigote), 6 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (epimastigote) and the intracellular form (amastigote) of Leishmania amazonensis. The baseline drugs used were Glucantime and pentamidine (Leishmania spp.), nifurtimox and benznidazole (T. cruzi). Plumbagin was the most active compound in vitro. This study has demonstrated that Pera benensis, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine, is an efficient treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  10. A 3D assessment tool for accurate volume measurement for monitoring the evolution of cutaneous leishmaniasis wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Castañeda, Benjamin; Valencia, Braulio; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment and outcome metrics are serious weaknesses identified on the systematic reviews of cutaneous Leishmaniasis wounds. Methods with high accuracy and low-variability are required to standarize study outcomes in clinical trials. This work presents a precise, complete and noncontact 3D assessment tool for monitoring the evolution of cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) wounds based on a 3D laser scanner and computer vision algorithms. A 3D mesh of the wound is obtained by a commercial 3D laser scanner. Then, a semi-automatic segmentation using active contours is performed to separate the ulcer from the healthy skin. Finally, metrics of volume, area, perimeter and depth are obtained from the mesh. Traditional manual 3D and 3D measurements are obtained as a gold standard. Experiments applied to phantoms and real CL wounds suggest that the proposed 3D assessment tool provides higher accuracy (error 3D assessment tool provides high accuracy metrics which deserve more formal prospective study.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan.

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    Ayesha Akram

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis make the disease a public health concern in Punjab, Pakistan. The knowledge of how the population perceives the disease and its vector is essential in order to design an effective management strategy, but such studies are rare in Pakistan.The present study was based on a cross-sectional self-administered survey comprising 250 household samples collected from five localities including Bhawalpur, Multan, Jhang, Faisalabad and Lahore. The results revealed that the respondents had a poor knowledge of the vector and disease. Few of the respondents were aware about the identification of sand flies, their breeding place, biting time, transmission of leishmaniasis and control measures. Skin infection and sandflies as the main disease symptom and vector of the disease, respectively, were known to some of the respondents. Some believed that summer was the main peak incidence of the disease and it could be transmitted from man to man via contact. However, most of the respondents believed that the disease could be cured. Admission to hospitals, cleanliness and use of bed nets were the treatment measures for the disease in suspected patients, whereas some thought that the use of bed nets could be helpful in preventing leishmaniasis infection.Poor knowledge of the disease and its vector in the study population emphasize the need to initiate health education and awareness campaigns to minimize the risks of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.

  12. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi and L. gomezi (Diptera:Psychodidae), Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northcentral Venezuela.

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    Feliciangeli, M D

    1997-03-01

    The comparative hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz) and L. gomezi (Nitzulescu), vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Miranda State, Venezuela, was studied between November and March during 1991-1994 using a Shannon trap with a fluorescent light. Female abundance of L. ovallesi increased from 1800 to 2000 hours, plateaued from 2000 to 2400 hours, then decreased progressively. L. gomezi always exhibited maximum activity between 1900 and 2000 hours, then declined abruptly. The importance of these activity patterns in Leishmania transmission is discussed.

  13. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and model...

  14. Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolated from human cases with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto-Lara, S B; Cardenas-Maruffo, M F; Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F

    1998-04-01

    Seventy-five isolates from the State of Campeche, Mexico, an area endemic for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), were characterized by isoenzyme markers (glucose phosphate isomerase, mannose phospate isomerase, nucleoside hydrolase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Seventy (93.3%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and 5 (6.7%) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. This is the first report of authochthonus human LCL caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

  15. Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Laboratory studies of host-seeking olfactory behaviour in sandflies have largely been restricted to the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In comparison, almost nothing is known about the chemical ecology of related species, which transmit American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), due in part to difficulties in raising these insects in the laboratory. Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease. Methods This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of the ACL vector Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (=Lutzomyia neivai) using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The primary aim was to determine whether field-collected female N. neivai would respond to host odours in the laboratory, thereby eliminating the need to maintain colonies of these insects for behavioural experiments. Responses to two key host odour components, 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid, and a commercially-available mosquito lure (BG-Lure™) were assessed and compared relative to an air control. We also tested whether trials could be conducted outside of the normal evening activity period of N. neivai without impacting on fly behaviour, and whether the same flies could be used to assess baseline responses to air without affecting responses to octenol, thereby reducing the number of flies required for experiments. Results Octenol was found to both activate host-seeking behaviour and attract female N. neivai in the wind tunnel, while lactic acid elicited weaker responses of activation and attractiveness under identical conditions. The BG-Lure did not activate or attract N. neivai under test conditions. Further experiments showed that sandfly behaviour in the wind tunnel was not affected by time of day, such that experiments need not be restricted to nocturnal hours. Moreover, using the same flies to measure both baseline responses to air and attraction to test compounds did not affect

  16. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement “La Cabaña”, in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011. The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n = 654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n = 7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n = 3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n = 2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n = 1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168–3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in “La Cabaña”. PMID:25917717

  17. Morbidity, surveillance and epidemiology of scorpion sting, cutaneous leishmaniasis and pediculosis capitis in Bandar-mahshahr County, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Mohammad-Hossein Feizhaddad; Mohammad Abdehpanah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study epidemiologic features of scorpion stings, patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and pediculosis capitis cases inBandar-mahshahrCounty,SouthwesternIran, during2008-2009.Methods:A descriptive study was conducted on the referred individuals with stung scorpions, pediculosis capitis and cutaneous leishmaniasis attending health centers fromBandar-mahshahrCounty in2008.The patients' medical records with epidemiologic and demographic data were collected.UsingSPSS, we have attempted to summarize statistics, namely frequencies and percentages.Results:A total of135 scorpion stings patients were studied.Of these,34.8% were female and65.2% male.Most of theScorpion stings were recorded in the21-30 year age group(37.8%).A total of82 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied in this assignment that all cases have been reported from urban health centers.Considering number of wounds on the body the maximum of the patients(37.6%) had only one lesion.In this study, 12 referred patients from the health centers were studied for pediculosis capitis.According to obtained information one of the patients was male and11 patients were female.Conclusions:Some important measures, such aseducation, health promotion and public participation should be implemented for preventing of these diseases.

  18. Polarity-sensitive nanocarrier for oral delivery of Sb(V and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Lanza JS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Juliane S Lanza,1 Flaviana R Fernandes,1 José D Corrêa-Júnior,2 José MC Vilela,3 Rogério Magalhães-Paniago,4 Lucas AM Ferreira,5 Margareth S Andrade,3 Cynthia Demicheli,6 Maria N Melo,7 Frédéric Frézard1 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, 2Department of Morphology, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, 3Innovation and Technology Center SENAI FIEMG – Campus CETEC, 4Department of Physics, Instituto de Ciências Exatas (ICEX, 5Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, 6Department of Chemistry, Instituto de Ciências Exatas (ICEX, 7Department of Parasitology, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Abstract: There is a great need for orally active drugs for the treatment of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Amphiphilic Sb(V complexes, such as 1:3 Sb–N-octanoyl-N-methylglucamide complex (SbL8, are promising drug candidates. It has been previously reported that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water and that this simple dispersion exhibits antileishmanial activity when given by oral route to a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. The main objective of the present work was to interfere in the structural organization of these nanoassemblies so as to investigate their influence on the oral bioavailability of Sb, and ultimately, optimize an oral formulation of SbL8 for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The structural organization of SbL8 nanoassemblies was manipulated through addition of propylene glycol (PG to the aqueous dispersion of SbL8. The presence of 50% (v/v PG resulted in the loss of hydrophobic microenvironment, as evidenced by fluorescence probing. However, nanostructures were still present, as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. A

  19. An outbreak of suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana: lessons learnt and preparation for future outbreaks

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    Daniel Boakye

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has previously been reported in West Africa, but more recently, sporadic reports of CL have increased. Leishmania major has been identified from Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, and Burkina Faso. Three zymodemes (MON-26, MON-117, and MON-74, the most frequent have been found. The geographic range of leishmaniasis is limited by the sand fly vector, its feeding preferences, and its capacity to support internal development of specific species of Leishmania. The risk of acquiring CL has been reported to increase considerably with human activity and epidemics of CL have been associated with deforestation, road construction, wars, or other activities where humans intrude the habitat of the vector. In the Ho Municipality in the Volta Region of Ghana, a localised outbreak of skin ulcers, possibly CL, was noted in 2003 without any such documented activity. This outbreak was consistent with CL as evidenced using various methods including parasite identification, albeit, in a small number of patients with ulcers.This paper reports the outbreak in Ghana. The report does not address a single planned study but rather a compilation of data from a number of ad-hoc investigations in response to the outbreak plus observations and findings made by the authors. It acknowledges that a number of the observations need to be further clarified. What is the detailed epidemiology of the disease? What sparked the epidemic? Can it happen again? What was the causative agent of the disease, L. major or some other Leishmania spp.? What were the main vectors and animal reservoirs? What are the consequences for surveillance of the disease and the prevention of its reoccurrence when the communities see a self-healing disease and may not think it is important?

  20. Courtship behaviour of Phlebotomus papatasi the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Chelbi Ifhem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is an Old World vector of Leishmania major, the etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study describes the courtship behaviour of P. papatasi and compares it with that of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the New World vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Understanding the details of courtship behaviour in P. papatasi may help us to understand the role of sex pheromones in this important vector. Results P. papatasi courtship was found to start with the female touching the male, leading him to begin abdomen bending and wing flapping. Following a period of leg rubbing and facing, the male flaps his wings while approaching the female. The female then briefly flaps her wings in response, to indicate that she is willing to mate, thereby signaling the male to begin copulation. Male P. papatasi did not engage in parading behaviour, which is performed by male L. longipalpis to mark out individual territories during lekking (the establishment and maintenance of mating aggregations, or wing-flap during copulation, believed to function in the production of audio signals important to mate recognition. In P. papatasi the only predictor of mating success for males was previous copulation attempts and for females stationary wing-flapping. By contrast, male L. longipalpis mating success is predicted by male approach-flapping and semi-circling behaviour and for females stationary wing-flapping. Conclusions The results show that there are important differences between the mating behaviours of P. papatasi and L. longipalpis. Abdomen bending, which does not occur in L. longipalpis, may act in the release of sex pheromone from an as yet unidentified site in the male abdomen. In male L. longipalpis wing-flapping is believed to be associated with distribution of male pheromone. These different behaviours are likely to signify significant differences in how pheromone is used, an observation that is consistent

  1. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica: A Systematic Review.

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    van Griensven, Johan; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Aseffa, Abraham; Hailu, Asrat; Beshah, Abate Mulugeta; Diro, Ermias

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania aethiopica is the etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia and can cause severe and complicated cases such as diffuse CL (DCL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis or extensive CL, requiring systemic treatment. Despite the substantial burden, evidence-based treatment guidelines are lacking. We conducted a systematic review of clinical studies reporting on treatment outcomes of CL due to L aethiopica in order to help identify potentially efficacious medications on CL that can be taken forward for clinical trials. We identified a total of 24 records reporting on 506 treatment episodes of CL presumably due to L aethiopica. The most commonly used drugs were antimonials (n = 201), pentamidine (n = 150) and cryotherapy (n = 103). There were 20 case reports/series, with an overall poor study quality. We only identified two small and/or poor quality randomized controlled trials conducted a long time ago. There were two prospective non-randomized studies reporting on cryotherapy, antimonials and pentamidine. With cryotherapy, cure rates were 60-80%, and 69-85% with antimonials. Pentamidine appeared effective against complicated CL, also in cases non-responsive to antimonials. However, all studies suffered from methodological limitations. Data on miltefosine, paromomycin and liposomal amphotericin B are extremely scarce. Only a few studies are available on DCL. The only potentially effective treatment options for DCL seem to be antimonials with paromomycin in combination or pentamidine, but none have been properly evaluated. In conclusion, the evidence-base for treatment of complicated CL due to L aethiopica is extremely limited. While antimonials remain the most available CL treatment in Ethiopia, their efficacy and safety in CL should be better defined. Most importantly, alternative first line treatments (such as miltefosine or paromomycin) should be explored. High quality trials on CL due to L aethiopica are urgently needed, exploring group

  2. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica: A Systematic Review.

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    Johan van Griensven

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania aethiopica is the etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ethiopia and can cause severe and complicated cases such as diffuse CL (DCL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis or extensive CL, requiring systemic treatment. Despite the substantial burden, evidence-based treatment guidelines are lacking. We conducted a systematic review of clinical studies reporting on treatment outcomes of CL due to L aethiopica in order to help identify potentially efficacious medications on CL that can be taken forward for clinical trials. We identified a total of 24 records reporting on 506 treatment episodes of CL presumably due to L aethiopica. The most commonly used drugs were antimonials (n = 201, pentamidine (n = 150 and cryotherapy (n = 103. There were 20 case reports/series, with an overall poor study quality. We only identified two small and/or poor quality randomized controlled trials conducted a long time ago. There were two prospective non-randomized studies reporting on cryotherapy, antimonials and pentamidine. With cryotherapy, cure rates were 60-80%, and 69-85% with antimonials. Pentamidine appeared effective against complicated CL, also in cases non-responsive to antimonials. However, all studies suffered from methodological limitations. Data on miltefosine, paromomycin and liposomal amphotericin B are extremely scarce. Only a few studies are available on DCL. The only potentially effective treatment options for DCL seem to be antimonials with paromomycin in combination or pentamidine, but none have been properly evaluated. In conclusion, the evidence-base for treatment of complicated CL due to L aethiopica is extremely limited. While antimonials remain the most available CL treatment in Ethiopia, their efficacy and safety in CL should be better defined. Most importantly, alternative first line treatments (such as miltefosine or paromomycin should be explored. High quality trials on CL due to L aethiopica are urgently needed, exploring

  3. Effect of Echinacea purpurea on Control of Leishmania major Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mice

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    MS Sadati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and is endemic in some areas of Iran. Echinacea purpurea is a native plant from North America which is one of the most important medical herbs known with immuno-stimulant properties. This study was performed to determine the effect of alcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea on prophylaxis and treatment of Leishmania cutaneous lesions. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2009, eighteen mice were divided into 3 groups. Group one received Echinacea purpurea extract (200 mg/ml in their water, for 2 weeks before parasite injection, while group two were first injected with parasite amastigotes, followed by administration of Echinacea purpurea extract for 2 weeks. Group three was the control group, which received parasites, but not the extract. The size of Leishmania lesions in the tail base, right and left foot were measured with vernier caliper. The lesion areas were calculated and the collected data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean of lesion size in each group of mice were compared and analyzed. No significant differences in the lesions size were found between the three mice groups. Therefore, Echinacea purpurea extract was not effective against Leishmania major based on the findings of this study. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Echinacea extract is not effective in treatment or prophylaxis of leishmaniasis in mice. Yet, further studies are needed to determine the effects of other extracts of this plant.

  4. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Hydro Alcoholic Essence of Artemisia sieberi

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    A Doroodgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the prevalence of leishmaniasis in Iran and many side effects associated with pentavalent antimony compounds use in its treatment, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of Artemisia sieberi essence on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis on BALB/c mice."nMethods: This experimental research was performed to determine the effect of various concentrations of  Artemisia essence in BALB/c mice previously infected with active Leishmania major promastigote. A total of 50 infected BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups (30 mice were used in the experimental condi­tions and the others were assigned as the control groups. The experimental groups received 1%, 3% and 5% of Ar­temisia, respectively. One of the control groups received ethanol 80% and the other received no treatment. The drug was administered by dropping the liquid on the top lesions, three times daily for maximum of 30 d. Every 10 days the ulcers diameter were measured and sampled for amastigote in all groups. Ulcers diameter changes were deter­mined by statistical tests."nResults: After 30 days, diameter of CL lesions increased in 1%, 3% and 5% Artemisia concentrations and the control groups. Ulcers got bigger with the more concentration. Treatments could not reduce the diameter or caused small lesions. In addition, the mice direct smears in microscopic studies were positive."nConclusion: To find the effective concentration and the mechanism of the effectiveness of the drug, further investi­gations with less concentrates of A. sieberi essence are recommended.

  5. Prevalência da infecção canina em áreas endêmicas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, do município de Paracambi, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período entre 1992 e 1993 Prevalence of canine infection from endemic areas of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paracambi District, Rio de Janeiro State, between 1992 and 1993

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    Ginelza Peres Lima dos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available No município de Paracambi, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi realizado um inquérito epidemiológico sobre a leishmaniose tegumentar americana na população canina residente em áreas endêmicas rural e semiurbana. Foram cadastrados 179 cães e 138 (77,1% foram examinados, segundo seus aspectos clínicos e desenvolvimento de hipersensibilidade tardia ao antígeno Imunoleish® e respostas sorológicas à reação de imunofluorescência indireta e ao ensaio imunoenzimático. Dos 9 (6,5.% animais portadores de lesões/cicatrizes suspeitas, 66,7% foram causadas por Leishmania sp; 44,4% produziram infecção em hamsters e apresentaram crescimento em meio de cultura, compatíveis com o comportamento de Leishmania do complexo braziliensis. A caracterização molecular (análises isoenzimáticas e do perfil de restrição do KDNA identificou 2 amostras como similares à Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. A prevalência da infecção canina observada através do teste cutâneo, RIFI e ELISA foi, respectivamente, 10,1%, 16,7% e 27,8%. A presença das formas clínica/subclínica da LTA na população canina associada à infecção humana sugere que o cão pode atuar como possível fonte de infecção, assim como na disseminação da doença.In the district of Paracambi, State of Rio de Janeiro an epidemiological survey for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in canine population was carried out in endemic localities. A total of 179 dogs was registered and 138 (77.1% examined for their clinical aspects, development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS with Imunoleish® antigen and serological responses by indirect immunofluorescent reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 9 (6.5% dogs with active cutaneous lesions or suspect scars, 66.7% were caused by Leishmania sp; 44.4% produced infection in hamsters and showed growth in culture media, which was considered to be compatible with the species of Leishmania braziliensis complex. The molecular

  6. Detection and genotyping of cutaneous leishmaniasis species in the southeast of Iran: restriction enzyme analysis (RFLP

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    Khalili M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease which causes skin sores. There is no effective laboratory screening tests for leishmaniasis. Some diagnostic techniques exist that allow parasite detection and species identification by special culture and microscopy, biochemical (Isoenzymes, immunologic (immunoassays, and molecular (PCR approaches. Specific major objectives of this study was to genotyping of Leishmania species in Bam and Shiraz city."n"n Methods: A total of 83 samples of Leishmania were collected from patients clinically suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The geographic distributions of the samples were 55 samples from Bam and 28 from Shiraz city. For this propose samples of skin and bloods were blotted on filter paper. Genomic DNA extracted with a Genomic DNA extraction kit (AccuPrep, BIONEER. Aliquots of extracted DNA were kept at -20°C. region of ITS1 amplified with the published Leishmania-specific primers. 15-20mL of these amplicons, containing the amplified ITS1 region, was digested for 2h with HaeIII."n"n Results: All 55 samples from Bam were considered as L. tropica and the positive samples from Shiraz considered as L. tropica and just one sample was L. major which was belonged to

  7. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

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    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  8. SAND FLY SPECIES COMPOSITION (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE: PHLEBOTOMINAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CANTAGALO , AN AREA WITH SPORADIC CASES OF HUMAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

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    Quezia Nunes PERES-DIAS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The municipality of Cantagalo is an area with sustained transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. Monthly sand fly collections were performed for three years (June 2012 - May 2015 using a CDC light trap. A total of 3,310 specimens belonging to 12 species were trapped: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Micropygomyia quinquefer, Brumptomyia brumpti, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Sciopemyia sordellii, and Evandromyia edwardsi. The last seven species have not been previously recorded in this area. The highest abundance of species occurred between October and March. October was the month with the highest number of captured sand flies, one month before the peak in the summer rainfall. In October the highest number of Ny. intermedia, Ny. whitmani and Mg. migonei, were also collected, the three epidemiologically most important species. The high abundance of species with epidemiological importance for ACL transmission might explain the sporadic occurrence of the disease in the area.

  9. Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Early and Late Lesions of Patients with Leishmania major induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    A Khamesipour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease, which imposes massive human distress and financial costs to the endemic countries. Better understanding of host immune response to the parasite leads to helpful strategies for disease control. Interleukin (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β are important immune regulatory cytokines, which appear to develop non-healing forms of leishmaniasis. However, there is little information about the function of IL-10 and TGF-β in old world cutaneous leismaniasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of IL-10 and TGF-β in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major infection.Methods: Biopsies were obtained from lesions of twenty proven cases of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis. IL-10 and TGF-β positive cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining of frozen sections and compared between two groups of patients with early and late lesions.Results: The mean percentage of IL-10 positive cells were significantly (P= 0.035 higher in late lesions (0.51±0.24 than early ones (0.15±0.07. Similar results were obtained for TGF-β with mean percentages of 0.16±0.05 and 0.53±0.28 in early and late lesions respectively (P= 0.008.Conclusion: IL-10 and TGF-β are present in lesions of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of long lasting disease forms.

  10. Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Early and Late Lesions of Patients with Leishmania major Induced Cutane­ous Leishmaniasis

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    A Khamesipour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease, which imposes massive human distress and financial costs to the endemic countries. Better understanding of host immune response to the parasite leads to helpful strategies for disease control. Interleukin (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β are important immune regulatory cytokines, which appear to develop non-healing forms of leishmaniasis. However, there is little information about the function of IL-10 and TGF-β in old world cutaneous leismaniasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of IL-10 and TGF-β in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major infection. Methods: Biopsies were obtained from lesions of twenty proven cases of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis. IL-10 and TGF-β positive cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining of frozen sections and compared between two groups of patients with early and late lesions. Results: The mean percentage of IL-10 positive cells were significantly (P= 0.035 higher in late lesions (0.51±0.24 than early ones (0.15±0.07. Similar results were obtained for TGF-β with mean percentages of 0.16±0.05 and 0.53±0.28 in early and late lesions respectively (P= 0.008. Conclusion: IL-10 and TGF-β are present in lesions of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of long lasting disease forms.

  11. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and the effects of war.

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    Hayani, Kinan; Dandashli, Anwar; Weisshaar, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide disease caused by an infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania transmitted via sand flies. It is endemic in many of the poorest countries of all continents. "Aleppo boil" is one of the recognised names given to this disease in the medical literature. Although CL used to be well-controlled and well-documented in Syria, its incidence has dramatically increased since the beginning of the war; however, there is lack of documentation. Here, we present the past and current epidemiological situation of the disease in Syria. We also draw attention to gross and highly unusual clinical variants of CL presented to the Department of Dermatology in Aleppo covering the important differential clinical diagnoses, since this disease is already known to mimic other conditions. Diagnostic procedures and treatment as well as prevention are summarised. Due to the increased ability to travel, and especially the flight of Syrians to neighbouring countries, as well as to Europe, CL may become a new threat in formerly unaffected regions. Through this account, we hope to give weight to the aspiration that CL does not remain a neglected and often clinically overlooked tropical dermatosis.

  12. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010

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    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy B.; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge H.; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (∼ 70%; P < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries. PMID:26078320

  13. Clinical and Immunological Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis before and after Different Treatments.

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    O'Daly, José A; Spinetti, Humberto M; Gleason, Joe; Rodríguez, María B

    2013-01-01

    Amastigotes from L. (L.)amazonensis (La), L. (L.)venezuelensis (Lv), L. (V.)brasiliensis (Lb), and L. (L.)chagasi (Lch) were cultured in a free cells liquid culture medium. Patients (n = 87) from a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) hyperendemic region receiving different treatments were followed up from January 1994 to August 2000. Time for remission of lesions were spontaneous remission (SR) 7 weeks; Glucantime (Glu) chemotherapy 9 weeks; immunotherapy with La, Lv, Lb, and Lch amastigotes Tosyl-Lysil Chloromethyl-ketone (TLCK) treated and Nonidet P-40(NP-40) extracted (VT) 7 weeks. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response with leishmanine intradermic reaction (IDR) was higher in CL patients than healthy controls (P P P < 0.001), with a diagnostic value from 1.50 to 1.84. Immunoblottings antigenic bands frequency as well as Integral Optical Density (IOD) Area Densitometry decreased with sera from SR, after Glu or VT treatments in CL volunteers. Intracellular parasitism is due to normal antibodies recognizing parasite antigens after inoculation by vector. VT vaccine induced mainly cellular immunity, for remission of lesions and protection from CL infection.

  14. Clinical and Immunological Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis before and after Different Treatments

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    José A. O'Daly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amastigotes from L. (L.amazonensis (La, L. (L.venezuelensis (Lv, L. (V.brasiliensis (Lb, and L. (L.chagasi (Lch were cultured in a free cells liquid culture medium. Patients (n=87 from a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL hyperendemic region receiving different treatments were followed up from January 1994 to August 2000. Time for remission of lesions were spontaneous remission (SR 7 weeks; Glucantime (Glu chemotherapy 9 weeks; immunotherapy with La, Lv, Lb, and Lch amastigotes Tosyl-Lysil Chloromethyl-ketone (TLCK treated and Nonidet P-40(NP-40 extracted (VT 7 weeks. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH response with leishmanine intradermic reaction (IDR was higher in CL patients than healthy controls (P<0.05 and increased in active secondary versus primary infection (P<0.001 with diagnostic value 1.74 for active infection and 1.81 postclinical remission. Antibodies to amastigotes characterized by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA decreased in sera postclinical remission versus active infections (P<0.001, with a diagnostic value from 1.50 to 1.84. Immunoblottings antigenic bands frequency as well as Integral Optical Density (IOD Area Densitometry decreased with sera from SR, after Glu or VT treatments in CL volunteers. Intracellular parasitism is due to normal antibodies recognizing parasite antigens after inoculation by vector. VT vaccine induced mainly cellular immunity, for remission of lesions and protection from CL infection.

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area of South Rajasthan: A Prospective Study

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    Balai, Manisha; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Ankita; Mittal, Asit; Singh, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) usually occurs in areas with hot and dry climate. In India, the desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the plains of Northwestern frontier are endemic for this disorder. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to describe clinicoepidemiological profile of the cases of CL from South Rajasthan, which is a nonendemic area of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: During a period of 4 years (2010–2014), a total of 23 patients with CL were diagnosed. All the suspected cases of CL were interrogated in detail regarding visit to areas where CL is known to occur. This was followed by clinical examination, relevant investigations, and treatment. All except one patient were treated with azole antifungals. In one patient, CO2 laser ablation was done. Results: There were 12 (52.17%) males and 11 (47.83%) females with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Duration of disease ranged from 7 days to 10 months. Face (15; 65.22%) and extremities (12; 52.17%) were involved in majority of the patients. Common morphologies were noduloulcerative lesions and crusted plaques. Tissue smear for Leishmania donovani bodies was positive in all except one patient. Conclusion: The present report highlights occurrence of CL in nonendemic area. Further epidemiological studies are required for identification of vector and strain of Leishmania involved. PMID:27688441

  16. Sensitive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by lesion swab sampling coupled to qPCR

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    ADAMS, EMILY R.; GOMEZ, MARIA ADELAIDA; SCHESKE, LAURA; RIOS, RUBY; MARQUEZ, RICARDO; COSSIO, ALEXANDRA; ALBERTINI, AUDREY; SCHALLIG, HENK; SARAVIA, NANCY GORE

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Variation in clinical accuracy of molecular diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is commonly observed depending on the sample source, the method of DNA recovery and the molecular test. Few attempts have been made to compare these variables. Two swab and aspirate samples from lesions of patients with suspected CL (n = 105) were evaluated alongside standard diagnosis by microscopic detection of amastigotes or culture of parasites from lesion material. Three DNA extraction methods were compared: Qiagen on swab and aspirate specimens, Isohelix on swabs and Boil/Spin of lesion aspirates. Recovery of Leishmania DNA was evaluated for each sample type by real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of parasitic 18S rDNA, and the diagnostic accuracy of the molecular method determined. Swab sampling combined with Qiagen DNA extraction was the most efficient recovery method for Leishmania DNA, and was the most sensitive (98%; 95% CI: 91–100%) and specific (84%; 95% CI: 64–95%) approach. Aspirated material was less sensitive at 80% (95% CI: 70–88%) and 61% (95% CI: 50–72%) when coupled to Qiagen or Boil-Spin DNA extraction, respectively. Swab sampling of lesions was painless, simple to perform and coupled with standardized DNA extraction enhances the feasibility of molecular diagnosis of CL. PMID:25111885

  17. Phlebotominae of epidemiological importance in cutaneous leishmaniasis in northwestern Argentina: risk maps and ecological niche models.

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    Quintana, M; Salomón, O; Guerra, R; De Grosso, M Lizarralde; Fuenzalida, A

    2013-03-01

    In Argentina, 58.2% out of the 8126 Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) incident cases accumulated from 1954 to 2006 were reported in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy. The aim of this study was to develop an exploratory risk map and a potential distribution map of the vector, in order to offer recommendations for CL prevention. A total of 12 079 Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) belonging to the species Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto), Lu. migonei (França), Lu. cortelezzii (Brèthes), Lu. shannoni (Dyar), Lu. quinquefer (Dyar) and Brumptomyia spp. (França & Parrot) were captured. Potential distribution models were created for two species, Lu. neivai (incriminated vector of Leishmania braziliensis) and Lu. migonei, associated with domestic animals in Argentina and that in turn could be involved as a link between zoonotic transmission cycles and anthropozoonotic. The Maximum Entropy Modeling System (MaxEnt) was used. The Jackknife test was performed, and the 'rainfall of the driest month' was the variable that best generalized the models. Accuracy was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) and validated by the Cohen's kappa index. This approximation provides a new analytical resource of high potential for the prevention of the disease, in order to allocate resources properly and to develop the most suitable strategies for action.

  18. In-vitro and In-vivo Activities of Phenolic Compounds A gainst Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Lianet Monzote

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds (PCs are well-known phytochemicals found in plants that have been studied for their pharmacological properties. In particular, the potentialities of PCs as anti-leishmanial agents have been reported. In the present study, we evaluated 10 PCs for in-vitro anti-leishmanial activity and two PCs, p-coumaric acid (CA and gentisic acid (GA against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis. Five doses of each pure compound were administrated every 4 days at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route and disease progression was compared with animals treated with glucantime (GTM. All tested compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes growing, with IC50 values between 4.4 and 25.5 µM. Treated animals with GA showed a significant reduction (p 0.05 parasite burden as control and GTM treated animals. The present findings established that CA and GA have significant anti-leishmanial effects. Further experiments on formulation design, mechanism of action and probably anti-inflammatory / immune-modulator activity of GA could be encouraged.

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update

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    Rastogi V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

  20. Genetic micro-heterogeneity of Leishmania major in emerging foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Hanene; Sghaier, Rabiaa M; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Bali, Aymen; Schweynoch, Carola; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Mkannez, Ghada; Chlif, Sadok; Belhaj-Hamida, Nabil; Dellagi, Koussay; Schönian, Gabriele; Laouini, Dhafer

    2016-09-01

    Tunisia is endemic for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) major. ZCL displays a wide clinical polymorphism, with severe forms present more frequently in emerging foci where naive populations are dominant. In this study, we applied the multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) using ten highly informative and discriminative markers to investigate the genetic structure of 35 Tunisian Leishmania (L.) major isolates collected from patients living in five different foci of Central Tunisia (two old and three emerging foci). Phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances showed that nine of the ten tested loci were homogeneous in all isolates with homozygous alleles, whereas one locus (71AT) had a 58/64-bp bi-allelic profile with an allele linked to emerging foci. Promastigote-stage parasites with the 58-bp allele tend to be more resistant to in vitro complement lysis. These results, which stress the geographical dependence of the genetic micro-heterogeneity, may improve our understanding of the ZCL epidemiology and clinical outcome.

  1. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees

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    Sezen Koçarslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. Materials and Methods: At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients′ medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Results: Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years, consisting of 32 males (59.3% and 22 females (40.7%, were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%. The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%. Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. Conclusion: CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  2. Comparison of diagnostic methods in cutaneous Leishmaniasis (histopathology compared to skin smears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazozai, Sanaullah; Iqbal, Javeid; Bukhari, Ishrat; Bashir, Sajid

    2010-10-01

    Present study is carried out to compare laboratory diagnostic methods of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) for the outdoor patients of Bolan Medical College Complex Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan. From November 2005 to December 2007, three hundred cases of CL patients were selected without restriction of age and sex. The lesions were divided into two groups. Early with duration less than 2 months and late duration between 2 to 4 months and were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers and scarring (in case of relapses). Skin smears were taken on first visit of the patients, followed by skin biopsy for histopathological examination. Result showed that out of 300 cases 163 (54.33%) were positive smears for Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies and 137 (45.67%) were negative smears for LD bodies.. While histological examination of all 300 cases showed that only 83 (27.66%) cases were negative for (LD) bodies and no granuloma seen, except with evidence of acute and chronic inflammation. Further analysis of histological observations of positive cases (72.34%) revealed that 91(30.33%) cases had LD bodies,, 78 (26%) cases had only necrotic sloughs showing polymorph neutrophilic infiltration, and 48(16%) cases were having granulomas composed of, epithelioid cells Langhan's type of giant cells and lymphocytes. It is therefore concluded that histopathological examination as compared to skin smears method is more sensitive method for diagnosis of CL.

  3. Prevalence and epidemiologic profile of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad-Hossein Feiz-Haddad; Hamid Kassiri; Niusha Kasiri; Assiae Panahandeh; Masoud Lotfi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cutaneous leishmaniasis prevalence in Shadegan County, Iran, during 2007–2009. Methods: This is a descriptive research which concentrates on the 100 patients who we referred to the Shadegan Health Center. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical exam and microscopic observation of the parasites in the lesion site. The patients’ data were recorded. The statistics have examined the various epidemiological aspects of the disease by considering descriptive indices such as gender, age, occupation, month and seasonal distribution, number and site of the lesions. Information analysis was performed usingSPSS software. Results: Overall, 100 cases consisting of 32 females (32%) and 68 males (68%) were examined for the presence of active ulcers. Most of the infection was in age group 11–20 years (31%) and the lowest in 31–40 years group (7%). Most of the active ulcers were on the feet (42%). The majority (47%) had one lesion. Most of the cases (42%) had occurred during 2007. All cases were observed in the rural areas. Conclusions: This study showed that the male sex and people under 20 years of age are mostly at risk. Therefore, education for groups at risk is very important.

  4. An ecosystem approach to human health and the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tumaco, Colombia

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    Carlos A. Rojas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during 1996-1997 in 20 villages of Tumaco, Colombia, to evaluate the effectiveness of personal protective measures against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. The intervention was effective, but the high costs of the preventive measures and the lack of a more holistic approach hampered the intervention's sustainability. This paper analyzes the results using an ecosystem approach to human health. Using this approach, we found that CL has been present in the study area for a long time and affects farmers and those living closest to the forest. The forest constitutes the habitat for insect vectors (sandflies and parasite reservoirs (wild mammals. Four spatial scales were identified in this ecosystem: residential, village, regional, and global. From the ecosystem perspective, three interventions are proposed to prevent CL in the 20 villages: improve housing construction, organize village housing in clusters, and make diagnosis and treatment of CL more accessible. The design and implementation of these interventions require active involvement by people with the disease (village inhabitants and decision-makers (local authorities.

  5. Response to Heterologous Leishmanins in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nigeria: Discovery of a New Focus

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    Agwale Simon M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was undertaken to preliminary illustrate the leishmanin skin test (LST positivity to distinct antigen preparations (derived from promastigote of either Leishmania major or L. amazonensis, or pooled L. mexicana, L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL patients and healthy subjects living in two endemic foci in Nigeria. The study was designed to provide insights into whether cross-species leishmanin, such as that prepared from New World Leishmania could be useful to detect cases of Old World leishmanial infection and to compare the results with LST using L. major-derived leishmanin. The overall LST positivity in individuals from Keana tested with the cross-species leishmanin was 28.7% (27/94, while the positivity rate in the subjects from Kanana tested with the same leishmanin was 54.5% (6/11. Lower positivity values were obtained when L. major (12.5%; 11/88 or L. amazonensis (15.8%; 9/57 was tested as antigen in grossly comparable populations. Moreover, the pooled leishmanin identified most of the subjects (13/14; 92.9% with active or healed CL, and the maximum reaction sizes were found among positive subjects in this group. No healthy controls (10 total showed specific DTH response. The LST was useful for assessing the prevalence of subclinical infection and for measuring CL transmission over time. We report for the first time the occurrence of CL in Kanana village of Langtang South local government area of Plateau State

  6. [The laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paraná State, southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, T G; Arraes, S M; Bertolini, D A; Teodoro, U; Lonardoni, M V; Roberto, A C; Ramos, M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; Ishikawa, E; Shaw, J

    1999-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1997 a total of 1418 patients were examined at the Clinical Analysis Teaching and Research Laboratory of Maringá State University (LEPAC/UEM) for cutaneous leishmaniasis by direct examination of stained smears made from the lesions, the Montenegro skin test and the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Nine hundred and fifty five patients (67.3%) were positive for at least one of the three tests and of these 804 (84.2%) were considered to have contracted the disease in Paraná State; 665 (69.6%) were between 15 and 49 years old; 658 (68.9%) were males; 523 (54.8%) sought medical advice during the first three months of their infections and 74 (7.7%) had mucosal lesions. Of the 83 counties of Paraná State, where the patients had most probably acquired their infections, 44.7% were from the counties of São Jorge do Ivaí (10.2%), Doutor Camargo (9.8%), Terra Boa (7.3%), Maringá (7.3%), Jussara (6.0%) and Cianorte (4.5%). Seventy seven strains of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were isolated and 63.6% of these strains belong to serodema 1.

  7. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Alcoholic Extract of Berberis vulgaris

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    Jalalianfard A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of Berberis vulgaris extract on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL on Balb/c mice, a study was undertaken over a 12 months period. Forty Balb/c mice were divided into 2 main groups A and B. Each main group in turn was divided into 5 sub groups of 4 mice and each sub group were inoculated subcutaneously by 0.1ml liquid phase culture containing promastigotes of Leishmania major. After 2-3 weeks, nodules and ulcers appeared on 37 of 40 inoculated mice. Ethanol extract of the stem and leaves as well as roots of Berberis vulgaris in different concentrations, were used topically on CL lesions of 4 sub groups A and B, respectively. Ethanol alone was used on the lesions of control mice. The surface area of lesions were measured before and 1-2 weeks after treatment. Direct Geimsa stained smear prepared 20 days after treatment. The results showed that after 2 weeks, a statistically significant decrease of ulcer size of treated mice observed, while in the control group the lesion growth continued. The examinations showed that using higher concentration of the extract caused more decrease in surface area of CL lesions on day 15 and negative direct smear on day 20. Alcoholic extract of B.vulgaris root was more effective than leaves and stem extract. Alcoholic extract of B vulgaris might be further used in animal model.

  8. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname: a study performed in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meide, Wendy F; Jensema, Annigje J; Akrum, Ralph A E; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Lai A Fat, Rudy F M; Lambregts, Lisa; Schallig, Henk D F H; van der Paardt, Marije; Faber, William R

    2008-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a widespread disease in Suriname caused by Leishmania Viannia guyanensis. It is argued that other Leishmania species are also responsible for CL and that the incidence is increasing. This study aimed to identify the species causing the disease and to estimate the annual detection rate of CL in Suriname in 2006. In Paramaribo, 152 patients were registered, of whom 33 were tested in two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Twenty-seven patients were infected with L. (V.) guyanensis (complex), one with L. (V.) lainsoni, and one with L. (Leishmania) amazonensis. In the hinterland, 162 CL suspected patients were registered by questionnaires; of these, 24 of 27 tested positive by PCR-RFLP (88.9%; 95% CI, 77.1-100%). With extrapolation of collected data, a detection rate was calculated of 5.32 to 6.13 CL patients per 1,000 inhabitants for the hinterland and 0.64 to 0.74 patients per 1,000 inhabitants for the whole country.

  9. Role for Lyt-2+ T cells in resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis in immunized mice

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    Farrell, J.P.; Muller, I.; Louis, J.A.

    1989-03-15

    The role of Lyt-2+ T cells in immunologic resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed by comparing infection patterns in resistant C57BL/6 mice and susceptible BALB/c mice induced to heal their infections after sub-lethal irradiation or i.v. immunization, with similar mice treated in vivo with anti-Lyt-2 antibodies. Administration of anti-Lyt-2 mAb resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of lymphoid cells expressing the Lyt-2+ phenotype. Such treatment led to enhanced disease in both resistant C57BL/6 and irradiated BALB/c mice, as assessed by lesion size, but did not affect the capacity of these mice to ultimately resolve their infections. In contrast, anti-Lyt-2 treatment totally blocked the induction of resistance in i.v. immunized mice. These results suggest, that Lyt-2+ T cells may play a role in immunity to a Leishmania major infection and that their relative importance to resistance may depend on how resistance is induced.

  10. NRAMP1 gene polymorphisms and cutaneous leishmaniasis: An evaluation on host susceptibility and treatment outcome

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    Marzieh Fattahi-Dolatabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Association between polymorphisms in the natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1 gene and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has been demonstrated worldwide; however, the reported results were inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the association of NRAMP1 variants with susceptibility to CL infection and patients′ response to treatment in Isfahan province of Iran. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 150 patients with CL and 136 healthy controls. The CL patients were treated with intralesional injection of meglumine antimoniate. The polymorphic variants at NRAMP1 (A318V and D543N were analyzed using PCR-RFLP. The chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test were used to compare frequencies of alleles and genotypes of polymorphisms between patient and healthy control populations. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the D543N (rs17235409 polymorphism between the CL patients and healthy controls (p=0.008. However, no significant association was detected for A318V (rs201565523 polymorphism between groups (p=0.26. In addition, there was a lack of association between D543N and A318V genotypes with response to treatment (p=0.54 and p=0.31, respectively. Interpretation & conclusion: The results indicated that genetic variations of D543N (rs17235409 might be associated with susceptibility to CL infection. These data may be used for detection of sensitive individuals and prevention of CL in endemic areas.

  11. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Lucas, Carmen M; Núñez, Jorge H; Edgel, Kimberly A; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M; Baldeviano, G Christian; Arrasco, Juan C; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-08-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2-36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (~70%; P < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries.

  12. Comparison of pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-healing and healing cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafi, M; Rezvan, H; Sherkat, R; Taleban, R; Asilian, A; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, S; Nilforoushzadeh, M A; Jaffary, F; Mansourian, M; Sokhanvari, F; Ansari, N

    2017-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) heals spontaneously within several weeks or months, but, in rare cases, CL-active lesions last for many years. In this study, we assessed cell-mediated immunity in non-healing CL through the measurement of three pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-17a and CXCL-11. For this, 32 patients afflicted with healing or non-healing CL were recruited in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of every patient were treated with three antigens: purified protein derivative (PPD), soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Cytokine quantification was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results of our study showed that neither cytokine produced in the presence of a PPD stimulator (as an irrelevant antigen) significantly differed between the healing and non-healing groups (P-value ≥0.05 for all of them). However, IFN-γ, CXCL-11 and IL-17a levels produced in the presence of PHA or SLA were significantly higher within the healing than in the non-healing group (P-value <0.01 for all of them). It seems that appropriate levels of IFN-γ, as well as IL-17a and CXCL-11, contribute to the control of Leishmania infection.

  13. The role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdayal, Ramona; Brombacher, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Murine models of Leishmania major infection in the 1980s revealed two distinct, counter-regulatory populations of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells, delineated Th1 and Th2, and their archetypal cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13, which promoted resistance/susceptibility to infection, respectively. However, the introduction of global cytokine-deficient mice in the 1990s revealed pleiotropic immune-regulatory mechanisms of IL-4 and IL-13 that either controlled or exacerbated disease. This undermined the basic premise that IL-4/IL-13 played paramount roles in facilitating a non-healing Th2 response to Leishmania infection and instead suggested that both IL-4 and IL-13-dependent and IL-4/IL-13-independent factors orchestrate disease outcome. The recent characterization of cell-type specific IL-4Rα deficient mice was initiated to help reconcile these observations and dissect the cell-specific effects of IL-4/IL-13 during infection. In this review, we summarize original and recent findings with regard to the role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Using the information discerned from various studies and our conditional IL-4Rα gene-deficient mice, we particularly discuss the double-edged sword IL-4 (and in some Leishmania disease models IL-13) in driving a susceptible Th2 response, their immune cell targets that support healing or non-healing responses and their novel role in mediating a Th1 response during disease.

  14. Spontaneous regional heading of extensive skin lesions in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL

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    Jackson M.L. Costa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, with longstanding evolution and presenting with diffuse infiltrated lesions rich in amastigotes in the absence of mucosal involvement. In situ characterization with monoclonal antibodies revealed Leishmania amazonensis. Large regional lesions have presented spontaneous healing without specific therapy. Considering that DCL presents with a defect in the cellular immune response, thisfact demonstrate that this patient may develop a regional cellular immune response enough to destroy the parasites and to produce clearing of some lesions.Os autores relatam um caso de leishmaniose cutânea difusa, com longa evolução epresençade lesões infiltradas difusas ricas em amastigotas havendo ausência de envolvimento mucoso. A caracterização in situ com anticorpos monocbnais revelou Leishmania amazonensis. Durante a evolução de sua doença, extensas lesões regionais apresentaram cicatrizaçâo espontânea, Considerando que a LCD apresenta-se com um déficit na resposta imune celular, este fato demonstra que o paciente pode ter desenvolvido uma resposta imune celular regional capaz de destruir os parasitas e produzir cicatrizaçâo de algumas lesões.

  15. Use of Recombinant Antigens for Sensitive Serodiagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Caused by Different Leishmania Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Camila Massae; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Guderian, Jeffrey; Reed, Steven G.; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Campos, Marliane Batista; de Souza Encarnação, Helia Valeria; Guerra, Jorge; de Mesquita, Tirza Gabrielle Ramos; Pinheiro, Suzana Kanawati; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; de Assis Souza, Marina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) (also known as cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL]) is caused by various species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The diagnosis is achieved on a clinical, epidemiological, and pathological basis, supported by positive parasitological exams and demonstration of leishmanin delayed-type hypersensitivity. Serological assays are not routinely used in the diagnosis because many are considered to have low sensitivity and the particular Leishmania species causing the disease can lead to variable performance. In the present study, we generated recombinant versions of two highly conserved Leishmania proteins, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis-derived Lb8E and Lb6H, and evaluated both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Recombinant Lb6H (rLb6H) had better performance and reacted with 100.0% of the ATL and 89.4% of the VL samples. These reactions with rLb6H were highly specific (98.5%) when compared against those for samples from healthy control individuals. We then assessed rLb6H against sera from ATL patients infected with different species of Leishmania prevalent in Brazil [Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, L. (Viannia) braziliensis, and L. (V.) guyanensis] and samples from patients with other infectious diseases. In analyses of 500 sera, ELISA using rLb6H detected all 219 ATL samples (sensitivity of 100.0%) with an overall specificity of 93.9% (considering healthy individuals and other infectious diseases patients). Only a minority of samples from Chagas disease patients possessed antibodies against rLb6H, and all of these responses were low (with a highest reactivity index of 2.2). Taken together, our data support further evaluation of rLb6H and the potential for its routine use in the serological diagnosis of ATL. PMID:27927927

  16. Linfocitos T citotóxicos CD8+ en la leishmaniasis cutánea CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes in cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Joselín Hernández-Ruiz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar la bibliografía relacionada con la participación de los linfocitos T CD8+ en la reacción inmunitaria a especies de Leishmania causantes de leishmaniasis cutánea. En esta enfermedad se ha resaltado la intervención de macrófagos, células dendríticas, NK y células T CD4+; sin embargo, es poco lo que se conoce de las células T CD8+. Los trabajos en modelos murinos señalan que la participación de las células CD8+ sucede a través de la producción de IFN-gamma, aunque su capacidad citotóxica puede desempeñar una función importante, como lo demuestran los hallazgos en seres humanos. La forma como se activan las células citotóxicas CD8+ es un enigma. Es posible que las células dendríticas realicen esa labor a través de mecanismos que incluyen transpresentación de antígenos. Comprender la contribución de este subtipo celular en la respuesta inmunitaria a Leishmania aportará novedosos conocimientos sobre la fisiopatogenia de la leishmaniasis, lo cual hará posible desarrollar nuevos enfoques terapéuticos para esta parasitosis.OBJECTIVE: Review of the literature on the role of CD8+ T cell in the immune response against Leishmania species that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The role of macrophages, dendritic cells, CD4 T cells and NK cells has been extensively analyzed in leishmaniasis, yet very little knowledge has been gained on CD8+ T cells in this disease. Murine models of leishmaniasis suggest that CD8+ T cells participate through IFNg production, yet their cytotoxic capacity may also play a crucial role, as has been found in human disease. It is an enigma what mechanisms underlie the CD8+ T cell activation. It is possible that dendritic cells activate CD8+ T cells through mechanisms that include antigen traspresentation. A better understanding of CD8+ T cells in the immune response against Leishmania will undoubtedly provide new insights into the physiopathogenesis of the disease that could lead to new

  17. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report

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    Jacinto Convit

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe mucocutaneous (MCL and diffuse (DCL forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy .

  18. Testing Experimental Compounds against American Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Imidazoles Although ketoconazole and its acid hydrolysate were reported effective against Trypanosoma cruzi in vivo and in vitro, and against amastigotes...these imidazoles against leishmania (27) and Trypanosoma cruzi (29). Therefore, it was suggested that Jrugs which selectively change hemoflagellate...against T. cruzi in vitro and in vivo (3,4), and -X’. " K’V8- -8- against amastigotes and promastigc es of Leishmania species in vitro (4), our tests

  19. Molecular characterization of leishmania infection from naturally infected sand flies caught in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (eastern iran.

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    Mohammad Akhoundi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is a serious and increasing problem affecting many rural areas of 17 out of 31 provinces in Iran. Little is known about sand fly fauna and leishmaniases in Eastern Iran and no study has been carried out in Sarbisheh County. The aim of this study was to determine sand flies composition and probable Leishmania infection to find the probable vectors of leishmaniasis in Sarbisheh district.Sand flies were caught using both sticky papers and CDC light traps in August 2010. They were identified morphologically and analyzed for Leishmania infection by amplification of ITS-rDNA.Totally, 842 specimens were caught and 8 species recorded. They belonged to the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia: P. (Phlebotomus papatasi, P. (Paraphlebotomus sergenti, P. (Pa. caucasicus, P. (Pa. mongolensis, P. (Pa. jacusieli, S. (Sergentomyia dentata, S. (Se. sintoni and S. (Sintonius clydei. All collected females were processed for Leishmania DNA detection by PCR amplifying of Internal Transcribed Spacer1 (partial sequence, 5.8S (complete sequence and ITS2 (partial sequence fragments. Thirteen females were positive for Leishmania DNA. The sequencing of the 430 bp amplicons indicated that 9 P. papatasi and 3 females belonging to the Caucasicus group carried L. major DNA whereas one P. sergenti carried L. tropica DNA.Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are, like in several places, the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniases in this emerging or unknown focus of cutaneous leishmaniases.

  20. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: a comparison with direct microscopy of smears and sections from lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gaafar, A; El-Hassan, A M

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed by microscopi......We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed......%, respectively. The PCR should be considered as a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis; it has the added advantage of identification of the species of Leishmania causing the lesion....

  1. Comparison of Th1 and Th2 responses in non-healing and healing patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Mohajery, Masoud; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar; Nahrevanian, Hossein; Yazdanpanah, Seyyed Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many regions of Iran, including the city of Mashhad. In recent years, some cases have not responded to Glucantime, the usual treatment for this disease. The cellular immune response caused by T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells has an important role in protection against leishmaniasis, and activation of the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response causes progression of the disease. By analyzing these responses we hope to find a more effective treatment than that currently in use for leishmaniasis patients. Methods: The cellular immune responses in 60 cases of non-healing and healing cutaneous leishmaniasis, and individuals in a control group, were analyzed by measuring cytokines released by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) when stimulated with Leishmania major antigens by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Subjects from the healing group secreted more interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (p<0.05) and less interleukins -4, -5, -10 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) (p<0.005) and -18 (IL-18) (p=0.003) than the non-healing group. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that secretion of cytokines that activate Th2 response including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in non-healing subjects was higher than healing subjects and secretion of cytokines that activate Th1 response including IL-12 and IFN-γ in healing subjects was higher relative to the non-healing subjects. In this study it has been shown that the level of IL-18 progresses disease in non-healing patients when the level of IL-12 gets decreased. PMID:26989708

  2. Molecular detection of Leishmania in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus atXakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Rugani, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been reported since 2001 in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve located in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In order to study the presence of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies, six entomological collections were carried out from July 2008 through July 2009, using 40 light traps placed in peridomicile areas of 20 randomly selected houses. From October 2011 through August 2012, another six collections were carried out with 20 light traps distributed among four trails (five traps per trail) selected for a previous study of wild and synanthropic hosts of Leishmania. A total of 4,760 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to ten genera and twenty-three species. Single female specimens or pools with up to ten specimens of the same locality, species and date, for Leishmania detection by molecular methods. Species identification of parasites was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSU rRNA target. The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in eleven samples from peridomicile areas: Lu. longipalpis (two), Nyssomyia intermedia (four), Lu. renei (two), Lu. ischnacantha, Micropygomyia goiana and Evandromyia lenti (one pool of each specie). The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in twelve samples from among the trails: Martinsmyia minasensis (six), Ny. intermedia (three), Mi. peresi (two) and Ev. lenti (one). The presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in Lu. longipalpis and Leishmania braziliensis DNA in Ny. intermediasupport the epidemiological importance of these species of sand flies in the cycle of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. The results also found other species associated with Leishmania DNA, such as Mt. minasensis and Ev. lenti, which may participate in a wild and/or synanthropic cycle of Leishmania transmission in the studied area.

  3. Sensitivity of an immunoenzymatic test for detection of ant-L. brasiliensis antibodies compared to other tests used for the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis Sensibilidade de teste imunoenzimático anti-L. braziliensis em relação a outros testes utilizados no diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana

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    Maíra Peres Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is frequently based on clinical and epidemiological data associated with the results of laboratory tests. Some laboratory methods are currently being applied for the diagnosis of ACL, among them the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIFR, the Montenegro skin test (MST, histopathological examination, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The performance of these methods varies in a considerable proportion of patients. After the standardization of an immunoenzymatic test (ELISA for the detection of IgG in the serum of patients with ACL using a crude Leishmania braziliensis antigen, the results obtained were compared to those of other tests routinely used for the diagnosis. The tests revealed the following sensitivity, when analyzed separately: 85% for ELISA IgG, 81% for PCR, 64.4% for MST, 58.1% for IIFR, and 34% for the presence of parasites in the biopsy. ELISA was positive in 75% of patients with ACL presenting a negative MST, in 84.8% of ACL patients with negative skin or mucous biopsies for the presence of the parasite, and in 100% of cases with a negative PCR. Thus, ELISA presented a higher sensitivity than the other tests and was useful as a complementary method for the diagnosis of ACL.O diagnóstico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA é feito com base nos dados clínicos e epidemiológicos e é confirmado por meio de diferentes métodos laboratoriais. Dentre estes, são utilizados, com desempenhos variáveis, a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI, a reação intradérmica de Montenegro (IRM, a pesquisa de Leishmania em material de biópsia de pele ou mucosa e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de teste imunoenzimático (ELISA como método alternativo de diagnóstico da LTA, comparando seus resultados com os obtidos por outros métodos tradicionais de diagnóstico dessa doença. Foi utilizado teste

  4. A urbanização da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no município de Campinas - São Paulo (SP e região: magnitude do problema e desafios Urbanization of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Campinas - Sao Paulo (SP and region: problems and challenges

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    Lúcia Mensato Rebello da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - A leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocupa o segundo lugar entre as protozoonoses por vetores no Brasil. OBJETIVOS - Descrever a distribuição da doença na macrorregião de Campinas-SP e identificar as principais dificuldades em sua prevenção. MÉTODOS - A área estudada abrange 42 municípios. Os dados foram coletados no Sistema Nacional de Agravos e de Notificação do Grupo de Vigilância Epidemiológica, de 1998 a 2004, da Superintendência de Controle de Endemias, do Centro de Zoonoses e foi feita revisão da literatura. RESULTADOS - Foram registrados 458 casos, de caráter endêmico e com maior ocorrência em Campinas e Jundiaí. A doença predominava na área urbana (57%, no sexo masculino (62% e acometia todas as faixas etárias. As espécies vetoras encontradas foram Lutzomyia intermedia sl, L. neivai, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. fisheri, e L. pessoai. CONCLUSÕES - A leishmaniose tegumentar está distribuída amplamente na região (81% dos municípios estudados e predominava na área urbana (57%. As dificuldades encontradas em seu controle foram a crescente adaptação do vetor ao peridomicílio, a multiplicidade dos fatores envolvidos na transmissão e a resposta insuficiente às medidas de controle atuais. O acompanhamento do ambiente e da doença, o diagnóstico e o tratamento precoces, a notificação compulsória e o seguimento dos casos, além de investimento em pesquisas, campanhas e ações diretas junto aos pacientes são importantes para o controle da doença.BACKGROUND - American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is ranked second among vector-transmitted zoonoses in Brazil. OBJECTIVES - This paper aims at verifying the distribution of this disease in Campinas-SP and surrounding region and to identify the main difficulties for preventive actions to this illness. METHODS - The Campinas area encloses 42 counties. Data from 1998 to 2004 were collected from the National System of Injuries and Notification in Campinas

  5. Leishmania braziliensis: isolation of carbohydrate-containing antigen and possibility of its use in the immunodiagnosis of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Leishmania braziliensis: isolamento de antígeno contendo carboidrato e a possibilidade de sua aplicação no imunodiagnóstico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana

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    T. G. V. Silveira

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania braziliensis is a causative agent of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. The 034-JCG strain, isolated from a patient from the northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, was cultivated in Blood Agar Base medium, lyophilized and submitted to phenol-water extraction. The extract was treated with RNase I. The carbohydrate containing-antigen (Ag-CHO was immunogenic to rabbits and showed at least a fraction with some negative charge at pH 8.2. This antigen showed cross-reactivity with the phenol-water extract of the growth medium used for the culture of promastigotes and with the surface antigens of promastigotes. Its composition is: 24.3% of total sugars, from which 11.2% of galactose, 7.5% of mannose and 5.6% of ribose. Protein content was 5.4% and phosphate 18.5%. The antigenic activity was maintained after: repeated freezing-thawing; lyophilization; heating at 100ºC for 30 minutes; treatment with RNase, trichloroacetic acid and sodium metaperiodate. The precipitin line obtained is Periodic Acid Schiff positive. The application of the Ag-CHO in counterimmunoelectrophoresis reaction for the immunodiagnosis of ACL showed 60% sensitivity, and no cross-reaction with the five sera of Chagas' disease patients tested. The use of this antigen in a more sensitive technique, with more samples of sera, may improve these results.A Leishmania braziliensis é um dos agentes causadores da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA. A cepa 034-JCG, isolada de paciente da região norte do estado do Paraná, Brasil, foi cultivada em meio Blood Agar Base, liofilizada e submetida a extração com fenol-água e o extrato obtido foi tratado com RNase I. O antígeno contendo carboidrato (Ag-CHO mostrou-se imunogênico para coelhos e apresentou pelo menos uma fração com poucas cargas negativas em pH 8,2. Este antígeno apresenta reação cruzada com extrato fenólico do meio de cultura usado para o cultivo de promastigotas e com antígenos de superfície de

  6. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Eneide Aparecida Sabaini Venazzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL. For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6% presented positive parasite direct search (PD, 81 (51.9% had positive Montenegro skin test (MST, and 90 (57.7% presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity, in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482 and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455, and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133. The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Roberto, Andréa Claudia Bekner Silva; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6%) presented positive parasite direct search (PD), 81 (51.9%) had positive Montenegro skin test (MST), and 90 (57.7%) presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity), in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482) and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455), and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133). The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  8. Phase 1 study of an inactivated vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis in normal volunteers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzochi, K B; Marzochi, M A; Silva, A F; Grativol, N; Duarte, R; Confort, E M; Modabber, F

    1998-01-01

    A Phase 1 double-blind placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate a vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis in 61 healthy male volunteers. Side effects and the immune response to the vaccine were evaluated, with 1- and 2- dose schemes, with intervals of 7 or 21 days, each dose containing 1440 mg of protein N antigen of a single strain of Leishmania amazonensis (PH8) diluted in merthiolated saline (1:10,000). Merthiolated saline and an inert substance were used as placebos. No significant clinical alterations were found following the respective injections in the vaccinated individuals as compared to the placebos, except for local pain, which was associated significantly with injection of the vaccine. The laboratory alterations we observed bore no association with the clinical findings and were unimportant. We observed no differences between the groups with regard to seroconversion of the Montenegro skin test. However, the group that received a single dose of the vaccine and the one that received two doses with a 21-day interval displayed cutaneous induration significantly larger than in the control group, with 100%, 100%, and 66% conversion in the skin test, respectively. We concluded that the vaccine does not present any major side effect that would contraindicate its use in healthy individuals.

  9. Identification of species of leishmania isolated from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kermanshah; using RAPD-PCR technique

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    Yazdan Hamzavi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Annually many numbers of pationts with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL have been reported in Kermanshah province- IRAN. The study aimed to identify species of Leishmania isolated from patients with CT in Kermanshah. Seven isolates of Leishmania obtained from patients with CL, without any travelling to other provinces, were cultured in NNN medium. After mass production of leptomonads in RPMI 1640 medium DNA was purified and the species were diagnosed using RAPD-PCR technique. The study of electrophoretic fingerprints of the product of RAPD-PCR in seven isolates showed that Leshmania major was the causative agent of CL patients in Kermanshah province. More studies in this field recommended.

  10. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Denise Fuenzalida; María Gabriela Quintana; Oscar Daniel Salomón; Mercedes Sara Lizarralde de Grosso

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97%) and Lutzomyia migonei (3%) were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in bo...

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bam: A Comparative Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Earthquake Years (1999-2008

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    I Sharifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The recent devastating earthquake of December 26 in Bam, 2003 created various risk factors; caused a sharp increase in incidence of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL cases and reached to an epidemic proportion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of ACL cases five years before the earthquake compared to the cases occurred five years after the earthquake (1999-2008."nMethods: Status of disease was assessed retrospectively for the five years before the earthquake and prospectively for the five years after the earthquake. Identification was confirmed by smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR."nResults: The mean annual incidence of ACL for the period from 1999 to 2003 was 1.9 per 1000 comparing to post earthquake period, which was 7.6 per 1000. Most of the infection was in individuals of <20 years, more frequently in females before the earthquake, whilst in contrast, there was a progressive rise in the number of cases, significantly in male individuals of >20 years (P< 0.0001 in post earthquake era. The anatomical distribution of lesions considerably changed during the two periods. Most of the cases were limited to three zones within the city prior to the earthquake, whereas it was spread throughout different zones after the earthquake. PCR indicated that the CL was due to Leishmania tropica in the city."nConclusion: The results strongly suggest that in natural disasters such as earthquakes various precipitating factors in favor of disease will be created, which in turn provide a suitable condition for propagation of the vector and the transmis­sion of the parasite.

  12. Molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus of bushehr city, southwestern iran.

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    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL represents the most frequent vector borne parasitoses in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological features of CL including human infection and the reservoir host in the city of Bushehr, Bushehr Province, Iran during 2010-2011.Studies on human infection was carried out on 2962 school children aged 7-14 years old from 60 primary schools and among 400 households with a total population of 1568 in four infected districts of the city in December 2010. Serosity materials from patients on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. Rodents were caught by Sherman traps and examined for identification of the parasite.Prevalence of scars and ulcers among the inhabitants were 5.86% and 0.12% respectively. Molecular study indicated the presence of two coexisting species: Leishmania major and L. tropica among patients. The scar rate was 1.24% but no ulcers were seen among the students. Nineteen rodents were caught and identified as Tatera indica (47.4% and Rattus norvegicus (52.6%. Specimens from 7 T. indica and 9 R. norvegicus were examined by two techniques, microscopic examination and nested-PCR. Out of 7 T. indica, 14.3% were infected with L. major and 42.9% with L. turanica by nested-PCR. Out of 9 R. norvegicus 22.2% were infected with L. turanica and 11.1% with L. gerbilli.Based on this survey L. major and L. tropica are the causative agents of the disease among patients and T. indica plays a predominant role in the dissemination of L. major in the city.

  13. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.

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    Aviad Moncaz

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania.

  14. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan: Clinical Diversity and Species-Level Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazma Habib; Bari, Arfan ul; Hashim, Rizwan; Khan, Inamullah; Muneer, Akhtar; Shah, Akram; Wahid, Sobia; Yardley, Vanessa; O'Neil, Brighid; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study primarily aimed to identify the causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan and to distinguish any species-specific variation in clinical manifestation of CL. Diagnostic performance of different techniques for identifying CL was assessed. Isolates of Leishmania spp. were detected by in vitro culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from dried filter papers and microscopic examination of direct lesion smears from patients visiting three major primary care hospitals in Peshawar. A total of 125 CL patients were evaluated. Many acquired the disease from Peshawar and the neighboring tribal area of Khyber Agency. Military personnel acquired CL while deployed in north and south Waziristan. Leishmania tropica was identified as the predominant infecting organism in this study (89.2%) followed by Leishmania major (6.8%) and, unexpectedly, Leishmania infantum (4.1%). These were the first reported cases of CL caused by L. infantum in Pakistan. PCR diagnosis targeting kinetoplast DNA was the most sensitive diagnostic method, identifying 86.5% of all samples found positive by any other method. Other methods were as follows: ribosomal DNA PCR (78.4%), internal transcribed spacer 2 region PCR (70.3%), culture (67.1%), and microscopy (60.5%). Clinical examination reported 14 atypical forms of CL. Atypical lesions were not significantly associated with the infecting Leishmania species, nor with “dry” or “wet” appearance of lesions. Findings from this study provide a platform for species typing of CL patients in Pakistan, utilizing a combination of in vitro culture and molecular diagnostics. Moreover, the clinical diversity described herein can benefit clinicians in devising differential diagnosis of the disease. PMID:27601518

  15. Comparative genomics of Tunisian Leishmania major isolates causing human cutaneous leishmaniasis with contrasting clinical severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouila, Amel; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Atri, Chiraz; Bali, Aymen; Attia, Hanene; Sghaier, Rabiaa M; Mkannez, Ghada; Dickens, Nicholas J; Laouini, Dhafer

    2017-06-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) major parasites affects urban and suburban areas in the center and south of Tunisia where the disease is endemo-epidemic. Several cases were reported in human patients for which infection due to L. major induced lesions with a broad range of severity. However, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying this diversity. Our hypothesis is that parasite genomic variability could, in addition to the host immunological background, contribute to the intra-species clinical variability observed in patients and explain the lesion size differences observed in the experimental model. Based on several epidemiological, in vivo and in vitro experiments, we focused on two clinical isolates showing contrasted severity in patients and BALB/c experimental mice model. We used DNA-seq as a high-throughput technology to facilitate the identification of genetic variants with discriminating potential between both isolates. Our results demonstrate that various levels of heterogeneity could be found between both L. major isolates in terms of chromosome or gene copy number variation (CNV), and that the intra-species divergence could surprisingly be related to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Insertion/Deletion (InDels) events. Interestingly, we particularly focused here on genes affected by both types of variants and correlated them with the observed gene CNV. Whether these differences are sufficient to explain the severity in patients is obviously still open to debate, but we do believe that additional layers of -omic information is needed to complement the genomic screen in order to draw a more complete map of severity determinants.

  16. Characterization of Neutrophil Function in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Jacilara; Davis, Richard; Carneiro, Pedro Paulo; Giudice, Angela; Muniz, Aline C.; Wilson, Mary E.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Bacellar, Olívia

    2016-01-01

    Infection with different Leishmania spp. protozoa can lead to a variety of clinical syndromes associated in many cases with inflammatory responses in the skin. Although macrophages harbor the majority of parasites throughout chronic infection, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of infection. Whether neutrophils promote parasite clearance or exacerbate disease in murine models varies depending on the susceptible or resistant status of the host. Based on the hypothesis that neutrophils contribute to a systemic inflammatory state in humans with symptomatic L. braziliensis infection, we evaluated the phenotype of neutrophils from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during the course of L. braziliensis infection. After in vitro infection with L. braziliensis, CL patient neutrophils produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCL9, chemokines associated with recruitment of neutrophils and Th1-type cells, than neutrophils from control healthy subjects (HS). Despite this, CL patient and HS neutrophils were equally capable of phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. There was no difference between the degree of activation of neutrophils from CL versus healthy subjects, assessed by CD66b and CD62L expression using flow cytometry. Of interest, these studies revealed that both parasite-infected and bystander neutrophils became activated during incubation with L. braziliensis. The enhanced ROS and chemokine production in neutrophils from CL patients reverted to baseline after treatment of disease. These data suggest that the circulating neutrophils during CL are not necessarily more microbicidal, but they have a more pro-inflammatory profile after parasite restimulation than neutrophils from healthy subjects. PMID:27167379

  17. An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-jabal Al-gharbi, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Manal Z M; El-Mabrouk, Khamis; Ewis, Ashraf A

    2013-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed.

  18. Community knowledge, attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225 (57.4%) of the participants were males and 167 (42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265 (67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127 (32.4%) responded that they did not know CL. Based on the scoring results, 265 (67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215 (54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL. Approximately, 215 (54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net. Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized com-munity awareness creation through various means.

  19. Characterization of Neutrophil Function in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis.

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    Jacilara Conceição

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Infection with different Leishmania spp. protozoa can lead to a variety of clinical syndromes associated in many cases with inflammatory responses in the skin. Although macrophages harbor the majority of parasites throughout chronic infection, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of infection. Whether neutrophils promote parasite clearance or exacerbate disease in murine models varies depending on the susceptible or resistant status of the host. Based on the hypothesis that neutrophils contribute to a systemic inflammatory state in humans with symptomatic L. braziliensis infection, we evaluated the phenotype of neutrophils from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL during the course of L. braziliensis infection. After in vitro infection with L. braziliensis, CL patient neutrophils produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS and higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCL9, chemokines associated with recruitment of neutrophils and Th1-type cells, than neutrophils from control healthy subjects (HS. Despite this, CL patient and HS neutrophils were equally capable of phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. There was no difference between the degree of activation of neutrophils from CL versus healthy subjects, assessed by CD66b and CD62L expression using flow cytometry. Of interest, these studies revealed that both parasite-infected and bystander neutrophils became activated during incubation with L. braziliensis. The enhanced ROS and chemokine production in neutrophils from CL patients reverted to baseline after treatment of disease. These data suggest that the circulating neutrophils during CL are not necessarily more microbicidal, but they have a more pro-inflammatory profile after parasite restimulation than neutrophils from healthy subjects.

  20. Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, west of iran from 1990 to 2012.

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    Yazdan Hamzavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explain the trend of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 1991-2012.In this analytical-descriptive study, all of the patients suspected to CL in Kermanshah Province were studied. Smears were prepared from most of them, stained with Giemsa, and examined microscopically for Leishman bodies. A few of the patients were diagnosed according to physician diagnosis and response to glucantime. Questionnaires were completed for all of them. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and Spearman and Kendall tests.From 1991 to 2012, 1684 cases of CL were recorded. In the years 2011-12 the frequency of CL in the province reached to 7.4/100,000, which showed a remarkable increase in the frequency of new cases CL in the province. In the years 2011-12 about 47% of total cases of CL in the province, was seen in Ghasr-e-Shirin district,which the frequency of CL in this district reached to 264.5/100,000. Frequency of CL in males and females was 57% and 43% respectively. The most cases of CL were seen in housewives (32.1% and age groups of 20 to 29 years old (19.9%. In addition, the most cases of disease were seen in winter (41.8% and fall (28.9%.CL is increasing remarkably in warm climates of the province, and Ghasr-e-Shirin must be of particular interest, as the most infected district in the province.

  1. Nuancing stigma through ethnography: the case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname.

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    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie; van der Geest, Sjaak; Schallig, Henk D F H

    2016-02-01

    Health-related stigma and its dramatic consequences for those stigmatized have long been a crucial concern for public health authorities globally. However, before concluding that stigma spoils the lives of people with a particular disease or disability and is a major obstacle to obtaining/providing adequate health care, it is necessary to first determine whether there is actual stigmatization related to the condition concerned. The purpose of this article is to nuance the concept of stigma through a detailed ethnographic exploration of the experiences and views of patients and others affected by the parasitic skin disease cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname, South America. Qualitative data on the perceptions, treatment and illness experiences of CL in Suriname was collected in 2009 and 2010 among 205 CL patients at the Dermatology Service in the capital city Paramaribo, and among 321 people in different rural hinterland villages. The exploration reveals the complex and sometimes confusing statements of patients and observers of social reactions to the disease. The authors conclude that--in contrast to other societies--CL is not generally a stigmatized disease in Suriname (though this is not to deny that stigmatization may occur occasionally). Over the past decades, the concepts of stigma and stigmatization have been abundantly theorized. But when theory drifts away from ethnographic evidence, it may turn into imprecise popular speech. In this article, we warn against inflation of the term stigma and show, through an in-depth qualitative description of reactions to symptoms of CL in Suriname, why negative reactions may not necessarily entail stigma.

  2. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test reaction in different variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Giti Sadeghian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease which has different clinical forms. The aim of this study is to compare the response to leishmanin skin test (LST in three forms of CL including plaque type, lupoid type, and sporotrichoid type. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The patients enrolled in this study had three clinical forms of CL confirmed by positive smear of their lesions and then LST was performed for them. Results were categorized as negative (0-5 mm induration, positive (6-14 mm, and strongly positive (≥15 mm. The data were documented in the patients′ files and analyzed with SPSS windows software version 16 (Inc.Chicago, USA. Results: 200 patients were enrolled in the study. In the group with plaque type, 86% had a positive LST, 13.3% were negative, and 0.7% were strongly positive. In the lupoid group, these figures were 45.8%, 8.4%, 45.8%, respectively. In the sporotrichoid group, LST was positive in 27.3%, negative in 72.7%, and none of the patients had a strongly positive reaction ( P < 0.05. Discussion: The most of the positive LST were belong to plaque and lupoid groups, the most of strongly positive were belong to lupoid, and the most of negative LST were related with sporotrichoid type. Conclusion: It can be suggested that lupoid and sporotrichoid types of CL are parts of a continuous spectrum of the disease with an enhanced cellular immunity in lupoid form and a decreased state in sporotrichoid type.

  3. Ecological Niche Modeling of main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezaei, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), caused by Leishmania major, is a common zoonotic vector-borne disease in Iran. Close contact with infected reservoir hosts increases the probability of transmission of Leishmania parasite infections to susceptible humans. Four gerbil species (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) serve as the main reservoir hosts for ZCL in different endemic foci of Iran. These species include Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Meriones hurrianae and Tatera indica; while notable infection has been reported in Nesokia indica as well. The purpose of this study is to model the distribution of these reservoirs to identify the risk areas of ZCL. A data bank was developed including all published data during the period of 1970-2015. Maximum entropy model was used to find the most appropriate ecological niches for each species. The areas under curve obtained were 0.961, 0.927, 0.922, 0.997 and 0.899, instead of 1, for training test in R. opimus, M. libycus, T. indica, M. hurrianae and N. indica, respectively. The environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation was slope for R. opimus and N. indica, annual mean temperature for M. libycus, and seasonal precipitation for T. indica and M. hurrianae. Summation of presence probabilities for three main species, i.e., R. opimus, M. libycus and T. indica revealed favorable ecological niches in wide areas of 16 provinces. This is the first study to predict the distribution of ZCL reservoir hosts in Iran. Climatology and topography variables had high contributions toward the prediction of potential distribution of the main reservoir species; therefore, as climate changes, the models should be updated periodically with novel data, and the results should be used in disease-monitoring programs.

  4. IFNG +874T/A polymorphism is not associated with American tegumentary leishmaniasis susceptibility but can influence Leishmania induced IFN-γ production

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    Sampaio Elizabeth P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon-gamma is a key cytokine in the protective responses against intracellular pathogens. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located in the first intron of the human IFN-γ gene can putatively influence the secretion of cytokine with an impact on infection outcome as demonstrated for tuberculosis and other complex diseases. Our aim was to investigate the putative association of IFNG+874T/A SNP with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and also the influence of this SNP in the secretion of IFN-γ in vitro. Methods Brazilian ATL patients (78 cutaneous, CL, and 58 mucosal leishmaniasis, ML and 609 healthy volunteers were evaluated. The genotype of +874 region in the IFN-γ gene was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutational System (ARMS-PCR. Leishmania-induced IFN-γ production on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. Results There are no differences between +874T/A SNP frequency in cases and controls or in ML versus CL patients. Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases exhibiting AA genotype produced lower levels of IFN-γ than TA/TT genotypes. In mucosal cases, high and low IFN-γ producers were clearly demonstrated but no differences in the cytokine production was observed among the IFNG +874T or A carriers. Conclusion Our results suggest that +874T/A polymorphism was not associated with either susceptibility or severity to leishmaniasis. Despite this, IFNG +874T/A SNP could be involved in the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis by influencing the amount of cytokine released by CL patients, although it could not prevent disease development. On the other hand, it is possible that in ML cases, other potential polymorphic regulatory genes such as TNF-α and IL-10 are also involved thus interfering with IFN-γ secretion.

  5. The efficacy of hydro alcoholic extract of Seidlitzia rosmarinus on experimental zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in murine model

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    Maryam Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic infectious diseases in the world. Since last century, many efforts have been made to control and treat the disease, but appropriate vaccines, pesticides and medicines are not available or even eligible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Seidlitzia rosmarinus on the lesions of experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: The population study was 60 Ballb/c mice which divided to 6 groups, all infected with Leishmania major [MRHO/75/IR]. Soon after the ulcer started to appear in the early stage, a dose of provided herbal extract with 5, 10 and 15% concentration applied on each lesion. The surface area of the lesions measured during an interval of 10 days. Direct Giemsa stained smears prepared two and four weeks after treatment. Results: Increasing the mean size of the lesions was statistically significant compared to those in control group (p>0.001. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL developed in all of the mice including the control group that received Eucerine alone. Survival rate in group receiving 15% S. rosmarinus extracts showed significantly higher  compared to mice in control group (p

  6. Identification of Leishmania Species Isolated from Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR

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    H Hajjaran

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to isolate of Leishmania spp from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and characterized them by RAPD-PCR technique. Eighty- seven Leishmania isolates from 112 samples were collected from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL patients who referred to Mashhad Health Centers from August 2002 to May 2004. Desirable samples (87 isolates were characterized by RAPD-PCR method using four selected oligoprimers. Electrophoresis patterns from each isolate were compared with reference strains of L. major, L. tropica and L. infantum. The results showed that 94.2% and 5.8% of isolates were similar to L.tropica and L.major reference strain, respectively. Four isolates that were determined by RAPD-PCR as L.major, could produce ulcer at the base tail of BALB/c mice, 4 - 12 weeks after inoculation but none of L. tropica isolates produced any lesions at the site of injection in the animals. The results indicate that L. tropica species are dominant in the studied areas of Mashhad city and RAPD-PCR technique is a suitable tool for Leishmania characterization in epidemiological studies.

  7. Inhibition by Dications of in vitro growth of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica: causative agents of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Rosypal, Alexa C; Werbovetz, Karl A; Salem, Manar; Stephens, Chad E; Kumar, Arvind; Boykin, David W; Hall, James E; Tidwell, Richard R

    2008-06-01

    Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica. Pentamidine and related dications exhibit broad spectrum antiprotozoal activity. Based on the previously reported efficacy of these compounds against related organisms, 18 structural analogs of pentamidine were evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity, using pentamidine as the standard reference drug for comparison. Furan analogs and reversed amidine compounds were examined for activity against L. major and L. tropica promastigotes. The most active compounds against both Leishmania species were in the reversed amidine series. DB745 and DB746 exhibited the highest activity against L. major and DB745 was the most active compound against L. tropica. Both of these compounds exhibited 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) below 1 nM for L. major. Ten reversed amidines were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth in an axenic amastigote model. Nine of 10 reversed amidine analogs were active at concentrations below 1 nM. These results justify further study of dicationic compounds as potential new agents for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  8. Atypical Manifestations of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Region Endemic for Leishmania braziliensis: Clinical, Immunological and Parasitological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Queiroz, Adriano; Silva, Juliana A.; Silva, Silvana C.; Magalhães, Viviane; Lago, Ednaldo L.; Machado, Paulo Roberto L.; Bacellar, Olívia; Wilson, Mary E.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has become progressively more frequent in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. Herein we characterize clinical presentation, antimony response, cytokine production and parasite strains prevailing in ACL. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2005 and 2012, 51 ACL (cases) and 51 temporally matched cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) subjects (controls) were enrolled and followed over time in Corte de Pedra. Clinical and therapeutic data were recorded for all subjects. Cytokine secretion by patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with soluble parasite antigen in vitro, and genotypes in a 600 base-pair locus in chromosome 28 (CHR28/425451) of the infecting L. (V.) braziliensis were compared between the two groups. ACL presented significantly more lesions in head and neck, and higher rate of antimony failure than CL. Cytosine–Adenine substitutions at CHR28/425451 positions 254 and 321 were highly associated with ACL (p<0.0001). In vitro stimulated ACL PBMCs produced lower levels of IFN-γ (p = 0.0002) and TNF (p <0.0001), and higher levels of IL-10 (p = 0.0006) and IL-17 (p = 0.0008) than CL PBMCs. Conclusions/Significance ACL found in Northeast Brazil is caused by distinct genotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis and presents a cytokine profile that departs from that in classical CL patients. We think that differences in antigenic contents among parasites may be in part responsible for the variation in cytokine responses and possibly immunopathology between CL and ACL. PMID:27906988

  9. Clinicoepidemiologic pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis and molecular characterization of its causative agent in Hajjah governorate, northwest of Yemen.

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    Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Khatri, Mishri Lal; Mukred, Abdualdaim M; Kassem, Hala A; El Sawaf, Bahira M; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-11-01

    The clinicoepidemiologic profile of 143 cases (93 males and 50 females) with cutaneous leishmaniasis from 18 villages of Hajjah governorate, Yemen was studied. Dry-type lesions were seen in 98.6% and wet-type lesions in 1.4% of patients. Lesions were localized in all cases with different morphological patterns. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slit smears revealed amastigotes in 74.1% of patients with dry-type lesions and 0% in patients with wet-type lesions. The burden of the parasites in the lesions was high indicating active transmission of the disease. Most cases were from villages with moderate altitude range (8001-1600m). All age groups were affected, but most cases were seen in ages from 5 to 15 years. Leishmania species identification was done for all cases by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The biopsic material was scraped from both Giemsa-stained and methanol-fixed smears. The molecular characterization of Leishmania species revealed Leishmania tropica as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hajjah, Yemen. The risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease and recommendations for improving case detection were discussed.

  10. Profile and geographical distribution of reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Northwestern Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najoua Haouas; Omar Amer; Asma Ishankyty; Adnan Alazmi; Ibrahim Ishankyty

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the profile and geographical distribution of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the province of Hail, Saudi Arabia from 2010 to 2013. Methods:Human data were collected from the dermatology service of both King Khaled and General Hail hospitals. Results: A total of 483 confirmed CL cases were investigated. Cutaneous leishmaniasis follows a seasonal distribution related to the activity of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. Both saudi and non saudi patients were almost equally infected. The number of reported cases of CL in men was higher than that in females. The frequency of CL was asoociated with age and increased in teenager and adult group. By analyzing the geographical distribution, the majority of Hail districts were affected with this disease. However it is more prevalent in Hail city. Conclusions: The lack of data concerning the parasite, the sand fly fauna and the existing transmission cycles in Hail province make difficult to interpret the reported results and to follow up the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease.

  11. Development of an acquisition protocol and a segmentation algortihm for wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in digital images

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    Diaz, Kristians; Castañeda, Benjamín; Miranda, César; Lavarello, Roberto; Llanos, Alejandro

    2010-03-01

    We developed a protocol for the acquisition of digital images and an algorithm for a color-based automatic segmentation of cutaneous lesions of Leishmaniasis. The protocol for image acquisition provides control over the working environment to manipulate brightness, lighting and undesirable shadows on the injury using indirect lighting. Also, this protocol was used to accurately calculate the area of the lesion expressed in mm2 even in curved surfaces by combining the information from two consecutive images. Different color spaces were analyzed and compared using ROC curves in order to determine the color layer with the highest contrast between the background and the wound. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: (1) Location of the wound determined by threshold and mathematical morphology techniques to the H layer of the HSV color space, (2) Determination of the boundaries of the wound by analyzing the color characteristics in the YIQ space based on masks (for the wound and the background) estimated from the first stage, and (3) Refinement of the calculations obtained on the previous stages by using the discrete dynamic contours algorithm. The segmented regions obtained with the algorithm were compared with manual segmentations made by a medical specialist. Broadly speaking, our results support that color provides useful information during segmentation and measurement of wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Results from ten images showed 99% specificity, 89% sensitivity, and 98% accuracy.

  12. Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme, Achillea millefolium (Yarrow and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice

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    M.A. Nilforoushzadeh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. Many investigations are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for leishmaniasis. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of herbal extracts of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme and Achillea millefolium (Yarrow, propolis hydroalcoholic extract and systemic glucantime against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice. Methods: A total of 45 mice were randomised into five groups each including nine mice. They were treated with pure ethanol 70°, systemic glucantime, Achillea millefolium hydroalcoholic extract, Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract and propolis hydroalcoholic extract for six weeks. The statistical tests including student t-test were used for analysis. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, ver 13.00. Results: Mean of ulcer size reduction were –17.66, –22.57, 43.29, 36.09 and 43.77% for the alcohol, glucantime, yarrow, thyme and propolis groups, respectively. The results were suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts were significantly more effective in reduction of ulcer size as compared with glucantime (p = 0.006, 0.002 and 0.008, respectively. Interpretation & conclusion: Our results are suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis extracts are effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Regarding these results, we suggest that efficacy of these extracts alone or in combination are evaluated against human cutaneous leishmaniasis as a randomized clinical trial.

  13. Long-term efficacy of single-dose radiofrequency-induced heat therapy vs. intralesional antimonials for cutaneous leishmaniasis in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, R.A.; Prasad, N.; Khandelwal, K.; Aara, N.; Mehta, R.D.; Ghiya, B.C.; Salotra, P.; Wei, L.; Peters, S.; Satoskar, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency-induced heat therapy (RFHT) has been found to be safe and effective against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the short term, but its long-term efficacy is unclear. Objectives To compare the long-term efficacy of RFHT vs. intralesional sodium stibogluconate (SSG) injections i

  14. A Comparison between the Effects of Glucantime, Topical Trichloroacetic Acid 50% plus Glucantime, and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser plus Glucantime on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions

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    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Pentavalent antimonial drugs have been the first line of therapy in cutaneous leishmaniasis for many years. However, the cure rate of these agents is still not favorable. This study was carried out to compare the efficacies of intralesional glucantime with topical trichloroacetic acid 50% (TCA 50% + glucantime and fractional carbon dioxide laser + glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods. A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into three groups of 30 to be treated with intralesional injection of glucantime, a combination of topical TCA 50% and glucantime, or a combination of fractional laser and glucantime. The overall clinical improvement and changes in sizes of lesions and scars were assessed and compared among three groups. Results. The mean duration of treatment was 6.1±2.1 weeks in all patients (range: 2–12 weeks and 6.8±1.7, 5.2±1.0, and 6.3±3.0 weeks in glucantime, topical TCA plus glucantime, and fractional laser plus glucantime groups, respectively (P=0.011. Complete improvement was observed in 10 (38.5%, 27 (90%, and 20 (87% patients of glucantime, glucantime + TCA, and glucantime + laser groups, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Compared to glucantime alone, the combination of intralesional glucantime and TCA 50% or fractional CO2 laser had significantly higher and faster cure rate in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  15. Comparison of the immune profile of nonhealing cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients with those with active lesions and those who have recovered from infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajdary, S; Alimohammadian, M H; Eslami, M B

    2000-01-01

    Th1-type cellular immune responses play a critical role in protection against infection with Leishmania parasites, whereas activation of Th2-type cells results in progressive disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is often a self-healing disease; however, persistent nonhealing...

  16. Dichotomy of the T cell response to Leishmania antigens in patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis; absence or scarcity of Th1 activity is associated with severe infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Kharazmi, A; Ismail, A

    1995-01-01

    The T cell response was studied in 25 patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major with severe (n = 10) and mild (n = 15) disease manifestations. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the patients were activated by sonicates of Leishmania promastigotes (LMP...

  17. Dichotomy of the human T cell response to Leishmania antigens. I. Th1-like response to Leishmania major promastigote antigens in individuals recovered from cutaneous leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Hey, A S; Kurtzhals, J A

    1994-01-01

    The T cell response to antigens from Leishmania major promastigotes was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), Sudanese individuals with positive DTH reaction in the leishmanin skin test but with no history...

  18. Aspectos ecológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana: 1. estudo experimental da freqüência de flebotomineos a ecótopos artificiais com referência especial a Psychodopygus intermedius Ecological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: 1. experimental study of the frequency of phlebotomine sandflies in artificial biotope with special reference to Psychodopygus intermedius

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de galinheiro como modelo experimental na observação do comportamento de Psychodopygus intermedius, desenvolvida na região do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, revelou uma estreita associação entre o flebotomíneo e biótopo artificial estudado. Sua maior densidade à margem da mata sugeriu a hipótese de estar adaptado ao efeito marginal. As investigações em ambiente florestal e extraflorestal demonstraram sua nítida preferência pelo último. Diversos aspectos discutidos explicam parcialmente a ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar nesse Estado.The use of chicken roosts as experimental models for observing the behavior of Psychodopygus intermedius in the Ribeira River Valley region of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, showed that there is a close association between the biotope studied and the phlebotomine sandfly. Its greater frequency along the edge of woods suggested the hypothesis of its adaptation to the edge effect. Investigation of forest and extraforest environments showed the fly's clear preference for the latter. Several of the aspects discussed in the paper partially explain the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in S. Paulo State.

  19. [Comparison of direct microscopy, culture and polymerase chain reaction methods for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özlem Çalışkan, Serçin; Boduç, Erengül; Ertuğ, Sema

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease especially in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey and recently shows a trend for spread to other regions of the country including the Aegean region. The diagnosis of CL is based on combined evaluation of epidemiological data with the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings. Direct microscopic examination and culture methods are mainly used in the routine diagnosis of CL, while molecular methods are mainly used for research. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Leishmania spp. in samples obtained from CL-suspected patients by using direct microscopy, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and to compare the results. A total of 55 patients who were admitted to Parasitology Laboratory of Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Aydin (located at Aegean region in Turkey), between 2012-2014 were included in the study. Smear preparations from the skin lesions of cases were fixed and stained with Giemsa, and the presence of amastigote forms were evaluated by direct microscopy. NNN medium was used for the cultivation of samples. Total genomic DNA of Leishmania from the samples were extracted with a commercial kit (NucleoSpin Tissue(®) Kit, Macherey-Nagel, Germany) and PCR was performed by using 13A and 13B primers to amplify the 116 base pair fragment of Leishmania spp. specific kinetoplast DNA. Amastigotes were observed in 29 (53%) of the 55 samples by direct microscopy, promastigotes were detected among 34 (62%) samples in culture, and parasite-specific amplicons were revealed in 30 (55%) samples by PCR. All assays were positive in 24 patients while in 18 patients all of the tests yielded negative results. Thirty-seven (67%) out of 55 cases were diagnosed as CL when reactivity in at least one of these three methods were considered as positive. Accordingly the positivity rates of the methods were 78.4% (29/37) for direct microscopy, 92% (34/37) for culture and 81.1% (30/37) for PCR in CL

  20. Influence of the nutritional status in the clinical and therapeutical evolution in adults and elderly with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A G L; Brito, P D; Schubach, A O; Oliveira, R V C; Saheki, M N; Lyra, M R; Salgueiro, M M; Terceiro, B F; Pimentel, M I F; Vasconcellos, E C; Valete-Rosalino, C M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the nutritional status of adult and elderly patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL). It was conducted a longitudinal study in 68 adult and elderly patients with ATL treating at the Surveillance Leishmaniasis Laboratory at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), from 2009 to 2012. The nutritional assessment included the body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels. The clinical evolution (epithelialization and wound healing) was measured up to two years after ATL treatment. Most of the sample was composed of men (71%), adults (73%), with household income of 1-5 minimum wages (79%), and incomplete elementary school (48.5%). The predominant ATL form was cutaneous (72%), and 39% presented comorbidities, the most frequent was hypertension (30.8%). The most prevalent clinical and nutritional events were: recent decrease in food intake (23.9%); nasal obstruction (22.1%); oral ulcer (14.7%), anorexia and dysphagia (13.2% each) and odynophagia (10.3%). The total healing time was 115.00 (IR=80-230) days for skin lesions, and 120.00 (IR=104.50-223.50) days for mucous membrane lesions. Low body weight in 10%, and hypoalbuminemia in 12% of the patients have been observed. Low body weight was associated with age, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), nasal obstruction, recent decrease in food intake and hypoalbuminemia. As for serum albumin depletion, association with the ML, dyspnea, dysphagia, odynophagia, recent decrease in food intake, absence of complete healing of the skin lesions, and increased healing time for mucous membrane lesions, was observed. The ML and their events that affect the alimentary intake have been related to the impairment of the nutritional status. Additionally, serum albumin depletion negatively affected the healing of the lesions, suggesting that a nutritional intervention can increase the effectiveness of the ATL treatment.

  1. A Novel Field Deployable Point of Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    14. ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania and is generally transmitted by the bite of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia or...diseases that can be used at the POC because it is highly sensitive, fast, inexpensive and able to work at most ambient temperatures . 15. SUBJECT...INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania and is generally transmitted by the bite of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia

  2. A current perspective on leishmaniasis

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    Angela Clem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many challenges facing the successful control and eradication of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is still endemic in many poverty stricken and war torn areas. Through the use of an extensive literature review, this article examined the global disease burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Surveillance and control measures for leishmaniasis being used by the World Health Organization were also discussed in this article. Finally, potential new treatments and possible vaccines for leishmaniasis were reviewed in this article.

  3. A Current Perspective on Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Angela

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges facing the successful control and eradication of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is still endemic in many poverty stricken and war torn areas. Through the use of an extensive literature review, this article examined the global disease burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Surveillance and control measures for leishmaniasis being used by the World Health Organization were also discussed in this article. Finally, potential new treatments and possible vaccines for leishmaniasis were reviewed in this article. PMID:20606967

  4. Leishmaniose tegumentar em paciente com espondilite anquilosante utilizando adalimumabe Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis using adalimumab

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    Kirla Wagner Poti Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose é uma antropozoonose causada por espécies de Leishmania e pode apresentar-se de diversas formas clínicas, dependendo da interação parasita-hospedeiro. O fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α é uma citocina essencial para o controle de infecções, especialmente contra parasitas intracelulares como a Leishmania. A terapia anti-TNF-α tem importante papel no tratamento de doenças reumáticas, mas o uso desses antagonistas está relacionado ao aumento de infecções. Relatamos o primeiro caso de leishmaniose cutânea no Brasil em uma paciente portadora de espondilite anquilosante em uso de adalimumabe e metotrexato. Acreditamos que neste caso não houve relação entre o uso de anti-TNF-α e a leishmaniose cutânea, pois a doença estava limitada a apenas uma úlcera, que cicatrizou completamente após o tratamento. Mais estudos, entretanto, são necessários para entender melhor a possível associação entre agentes anti-TNF-α e leishmaniose.Leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis caused by species of Leishmania and can have different clinical presentations, depending on the parasite-host relationship. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α is a cytokine essential to infection control, especially against intracellular parasites such as Leishmania. Anti-TNF-α strategies have had a marked impact on the treatment of rheumatic diseases, but the clinical use of those antagonists has been accompanied by an increased report of infections. We report the first case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis treated with adalimumab and methotrexate in Brazil. We believe that, in this case, there was no association between the anti-TNF-α treatment and cutaneous leishmaniasis, because the disease was limited to only one ulcer that healed completely after treatment. More studies, however, are necessary to better understand the possible relationship between anti-TNF-α agents and leishmaniasis.

  5. Evaluation of protective effect of IL-22 and IL-12 on cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi; Fatemeh Ghaffarifar; Abdolhossein Dalimi; Zohreh Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect ofIL-22 andIL-12 on cutaneous leishmaniasisin BALB/c mice.Methods:The protective effect ofIL-22 andIL-12 on cutaneous leishmanias in BALB/c mice was evaluated by measurement ofIL-4,INF-γ, totalIgG,IgG1 andIgG2a after challenge withLeishamania major.Clinical evaluations were performed by measurement of lesion diameter, and survival rate of the mice.Results:In week27 post infection, the mortality rates for control groups were100%.While the survival rates for theIL-12,IL-12+IL-22, andIL-22(5 ng/g) groups were100%.The size of lesions decreased in the presenceIL-22(5 ng/g) of mice weight, which was statistically significant in comparison with other groups(P<0.05).Mean of totalIgG, IgG1 andIgG2a forIL-22(5 ng/g) group was more than other groups.InIL-22group(5 ng/g),INF-γ production was significantly higher than other groups andIL-4 was significantly lower than other groups.Conclusions:The results obtained indicate the effectiveness ofIL-22 and its effect onIL-12 in protection of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be uncomfortable to sleep under such a closely woven bed net when it is hot. Treatment of ... College of the American Osteopathic Association. The AOCD now oversees 32 dermatology residency programs that are currently ...

  7. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana e suas relações sócio ambientais no município de Ubatuba-SP La leishmaniose tégumentaire américaine et ses relations avec le socio-environnement à Ubatuba-SP American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its relations with the social environment in Ubatuba-SP

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    Helen da Costa Gurgel

    2011-12-01

    de cas se produit dans la région nord du Brésil, mais est encore très présente sur le Littoral nord de l'État de São Paulo, une région de forte attraction touristique. Afin de comprendre l'influence des changements socio-environnementaux dans la dynamique de la maladie, nous avons analysé la distribution spatio-temporelle des cas déclarés entre 1998 et 2006 à Ubatuba dans l’Etat de São Paulo. Le type d’utilisation des terres et la variabilité du climat, considérés comme importants pour le développement et la prolifération de l'insecte vecteur, ont aussi été analysés. Les données ont été traitées grâce aux outils et techniques de SIG et de télédétection. L'intérêt pour cette recherche est apparu en raison de l'augmentation du nombre de cas signalés à partir de 2003, année durant laquelle on a enregistré une concentration des précipitations sur les premiers mois de l’année. Le climat chaud et humide de la région contribue à la prolifération des moustiques qui transmettent la maladie. L'analyse a montré la prévalence survenue chez les individus économiquement actifs et les hommes. Il existe également une relation significative entre le type d'utilisation des terres et la localisation de la maladie, ainsi que la proximité des habitats en forêt. Le facteur social semble également important, il fait référence au coût de l’immobilier qui est généralement moins élevé dans les périphéries urbaines situées à proximités des espaces boisés, secteurs où prolifèrent les insectes vecteurs. Le déplacement de la maladie semble également être influencé par les facteurs économiques et démographiques puisque  l'implantation des logements est souvent motivée par la situation financière du futur résident.The American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL is a vetorial disease that can be acquired when anyone is bitten by an infected mosquito. The majority of the cases occur in Northern parts of Brazil, although in the

  8. Thermoterapy effective and safer than miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia Termoterapia efectiva y más segura que la miltefosina en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis cutánea en Colombia

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    Liliana López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine are the drugs of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis; however, their toxicity, treatment duration, (treatment adherence problems, cost, and decreased parasite sensitivity make the search for alternative treatments of American cutaneous leishmaniasis necessary. Based on the results found in a controlled, open, randomized, phase III clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of miltefosine was compared to that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Adult patients from the Colombian army participated in the study; they received either 50 mg of miltefosine three times per day for 28 days by the oral route (n = 145 or a thermotherapy (Thermomed® application of 50 °C for 30 seconds over the lesion and surrounding area (n = 149. Both groups were comparable with respect to their sociodemographic, clinical, and parasitological characteristics. The efficacy of miltefosine by protocol and by intention to treat was 70% (85/122 patients and 69% (85/145 patients, respectively. The adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal for miltefosine and pain at the lesion site after treatment for thermotherapy. No statistically significant difference was found in the efficacy analysis (intention to treat and protocol between the two treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00471705.En Colombia antimoniales pentavalentes y miltefosina son los medicamentos de primera elección para el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis cutánea; sin embargo, su toxicidad, duración (que lleva a problemas de adherencia, costo y la disminución de la sensibilidad de los parásitos a los mismos, hacen necesaria la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas de tratamiento para la leishmaniosis cutánea americana. A partir de resultados derivados de un ensayo clínico controlado abierto, aleatorizado, fase III, se comparó la eficacia y seguridad de la miltefosina con la de la termoterapia, para el

  9. Maxadilan-simile expression in Nyssomyia neivai, a sandfly vector in an endemic region of Brazil, and its immunogenicity in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Juliana; Casanova, Claudio; Vernal, Sebastian; Nascimento, Margarida; Rodrigues, Sandra; Lerner, Ethan A; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. OBJECTIVE We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients. METHODS cDNA and protein were extracted from the cephalic segment, including salivary glands, of Ny. neivai and analysed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and blotting assays. The results were compared with data obtained from Lu. longipalpis samples. We quantified antibodies against Max in serum samples from 41 patients with ATL (31 and 10 with the cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms, respectively) and 63 controls from the endemic northeastern region of São Paulo state, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FINDINGS Recognition of a Max-simile peptide by specific antibodies confirmed expression of a Max sequence in Ny. neivai (GenBank EF601123.1). Compared to controls, patients with ATL presented higher levels of antibodies against Max (p = 0.004); 24.4% of the patients with ATL and 3.2% of the controls presented anti-Max levels above the cutoff index (p = 0.014). The anti-Max levels were not associated with the specific clinical form of ATL, leishmanin skin test response, absence or presence of amastigotes in histopathologic exam, results of indirect immunofluorescence testing for leishmaniasis, or duration of cutaneous form disease. MAIN CONCLUSION High serum anti-Max levels did not protect patients against ATL, but confirmed previous natural exposure to Ny. neivai bites in this ATL endemic region. PMID:28177045

  10. Aspectos ecológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana: 3. Observações naturais sobre o ritmo diário de Psychodopygus intermedius em ambiente florestal e extraflorestal Ecological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: 3. Natural observations on the daily rhythm of the activity of Psychodopygus intermedius in forested and neighbouring environments

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez se determina a atividade diária de Psychodopygus intermedius em ambiente florestal residual e extraflorestal, em Pariquera-Açú, Região do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A análise final revelou ter esse flebotomíneo atividade noturna nos dois ambientes. Contudo, houve divergência quanto ao pico de atividade máxima que oscilou entre 20 e 02 horas. Persistiu também a sua predominância no ambiente extraflorestal. Por outro lado, uma acentuada preferência pelo homem parece ter influenciado sua dispersão, pois demonstrou ser ubiquitária. A importância do evento reside na possibilidade de haver uma estreita associação alimentar Ps. intermedius-Homem. Subsequente, a infecção leishmaniótica poderá ocorrer ao nível do domicílio.The daily activity of Psychodopygus intermedius was measured for the first time, within and outside of a residual forest in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. The results showed nocturnal activity in both environments, with different times of maximum activity occuring between 8 p.m. and 2 a.m. However, the most intense activity continued to take place outside the forest. A strong preference for humans seems to have contributed to Ps. intermedius' ubiquitous distribution. The importance of this fact lies in the possibility of there existing a close feeding association Ps. intermedius - Man. Hence cutaneous leishmaniasis infection may take place in the household environment.

  11. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with changing patterns in the transmission of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouque, Florence; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Between March 2000 and December 2001 a survey of the sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) of French Guiana was carried out during 14 nights of captures with CDC light-traps and Malaise traps, and resulted in the collection of 2245 individuals of 38 species. The most abundant species were Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) ininii Floch & Abonnenc, Lu.(Psychodopygus) squamiventris maripaensis Floch & Abonnenc, and Lu .(Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata Mangabeira. Half of the collected sand flies females were dissected under field conditions and five species were found harboring Leishmania-like parasites. The Leishmania (Kinetoplastidae: Trypanosomatidae) species were identified by molecular typing, and for the first time Lu. (Nys.) flaviscutellata was found harboring Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and Lu. (Tri) ininii harboring unknown Leishmania. The first record for French Guiana of Lu. (Psy.) squamiventris maripaensis harboring L. (V.) naiffi, was also reported. The patterns of diversification of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in French Guiana are discussed.

  12. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae associated with changing patterns in the transmission of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana

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    Florence Fouque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Between March 2000 and December 2001 a survey of the sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae of French Guiana was carried out during 14 nights of captures with CDC light-traps and Malaise traps, and resulted in the collection of 2245 individuals of 38 species. The most abundant species were Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia ininii Floch & Abonnenc, Lu.(Psychodopygus squamiventris maripaensis Floch & Abonnenc, and Lu .(Nyssomyia flaviscutellata Mangabeira. Half of the collected sand flies females were dissected under field conditions and five species were found harboring Leishmania-like parasites. The Leishmania (Kinetoplastidae: Trypanosomatidae species were identified by molecular typing, and for the first time Lu. (Nys. flaviscutellata was found harboring Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis and Lu. (Tri ininii harboring unknown Leishmania. The first record for French Guiana of Lu. (Psy. squamiventris maripaensis harboring L. (V. naiffi, was also reported. The patterns of diversification of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in French Guiana are discussed.

  13. Comparative proteomics study on meglumine antimoniate sensitive and resistant Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaran, H; Azarian, B; Mohebali, M; Hadighi, R; Assareh, A; Vaziri, B

    2012-02-01

    In order to define the protein expressional changes related to the process of meglumine antimoniate resistance in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), we performed a comparative proteomics analysis on sensitive and resistant strains of Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian CL patients. Cell proteins were analysed with 2-dimensional electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Image analysis of the matched maps identified 7 proteins that were either over- or down-expressed: activated protein kinase c receptor(LACK), alpha tubulin (x2), prostaglandin f2-alpha synthase, protein disulfide isomerase, vesicular transport protein and a hypothetical protein. The study shows the usefulness of proteomics in identifying proteins that may express differences between sensitive and resistant L. tropica isolates.

  14. Natural infection of North African gundi (Ctenodactylus gundi) by Leishmania tropica in the focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Southeast Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousslimi, Nadia; Ben-Ayed, Soumaya; Ben-Abda, Imène; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2012-06-01

    North African gundis (Ctenodactylus gundi) were trapped in the Leishmania (L.) tropica focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in southeast Tunisia and evaluated for Leishmania infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Species identification was performed by internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1)-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of the 7SL RNA gene. Real-time PCR on blood was positive in 6 of 13 (46.2%) tested gundis. Leishmania tropica was identified in five infected gundis and Leishmania major in one specimen. Alignments of the ITS-1 DNA sequences and 7S-HRM curves analysis indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans, a sandfly, and gundis from the same region suggesting a potential role of this rodent as reservoir host of L. tropica in southeast Tunisia.

  15. Molecular detection ofLeishmania isolated from Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran, 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koroush Azizi; Aboozar Soltani; Hamzeh Alipour

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate on patients leishmanial infections in Jask County.Methods:Impression smears were prepared from patients in2008, all, were chequed for leishmanial infection by microscopy and molecular assays. WholeDNA was extracted using Proteinase K and Phenol/Chloroform/Isoamyl alcohol method. The variable segment on minicircles of kinetoplast DNA was amplified via a Nested-PCR technique using species-specific primers(LIN R4-LIN 17 -Lin 19).Results: A total of40 smears were prepared from20patients, from which, eight samples (40%) were positive for leishman body by microscopic method, while, 18 samples (90%) were positive, molecularly. The parasite was identified asLeishmania major (L. major).Conclusions:Zoonotic or Rural cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Jask County whose pathogen is L. major. Molecular assays using specific primers are very accurate and more sensitive and specific than microscopy which is time consuming and needs master microscopists.

  16. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Ana Denise; Quintana, María Gabriela; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; de Grosso, Mercedes Sara Lizarralde

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97%) and Lutzomyia migonei (3%) were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  17. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Denise Fuenzalida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97% and Lutzomyia migonei (3% were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  18. Insecticide susceptibility status of Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus sergenti and Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus papatasi in endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco

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    Faraj Chafika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted by Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. papatasi. Vector control is mainly based on environmental management but indoor residual spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is applied in many foci of Leishmania tropica. However, the levels and distribution of sandfly susceptibility to insecticides currently used has not been studied yet. Hence, this study was undertaken to establish the susceptibility status of Ph. sergenti and Ph. papatasi to lambdacyhalothrin, DDT and malathion. Methods The insecticide susceptibility status of Ph. sergenti and Ph. papatasi was assessed during 2011, following the standard WHO technique based on discriminating dosage. A series of twenty-five susceptibility tests were carried out on wild populations of Ph. sergenti and Ph. papatasi collected by CDC light traps from seven villages in six different provinces. Knockdown rates (KDT were noted at 5 min intervals during the exposure to DDT and to lambdacyhalothrin. After one hour of exposure, sandflies were transferred to the observation tubes for 24 hours. After this period, mortality rate was calculated. Data were analyzed by Probit analysis program to determine the knockdown time 50% and 90% (KDT50 and KDT90 values. Results Study results showed that Ph.sergenti and Ph. papatasi were susceptible to all insecticides tested. Comparison of KDT values showed a clear difference between the insecticide knockdown effect in studied villages. This effect was lower in areas subject to high selective public health insecticide pressure in the framework of malaria or leishmaniasis control. Conclusion Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. papatasi are susceptible to the insecticides tested in the seven studied villages but they showed a low knockdown effect in Azilal, Chichaoua and Settat. Therefore, a study of insecticide susceptibility of these vectors in other foci of leishmaniasis is recommended and the level of their

  19. Development, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Performance of Fluconazole-Loaded Microemulsions for the Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Marcela Brito Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a resistant form of leishmaniasis that is caused by a parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. FLU-loaded microemulsions (MEs were developed by phase diagram for topical administration of fluconazole (FLU as prominent alternative to combat CL. Three MEs called F1, F2, and F3 (F1—60% 50 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (PB as aqueous phase, 10% cholesterol (CHO as oil phase, and 30% soy phosphatidylcholine/oil polyoxyl-60 hydrogenated castor oil/sodium oleate (3/8/6 (S as surfactant; F2—50% PB, 10% CHO, and 40% S; F3—40% PB, 10% CHO, and 50 % S were characterized by droplet size analysis, zeta potential analysis, X-ray diffraction, continuous flow, texture profile analysis, and in vitro bioadhesion. MEs presented pseudoplastic flow and thixotropy was dependent on surfactant concentration. Droplet size was not affected by FLU. FLU-loaded MEs improved the FLU safety profile that was evaluated using red cell haemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays with J-774 mouse macrophages. FLU-unloaded MEs did not exhibit leishmanicidal activity that was performed using MTT colourimetric assays; however, FLU-loaded MEs exhibited activity. Therefore, these MEs have potential to modulate FLU action, being a promising platform for drug delivery systems to treat CL.

  20. First report of natural infection in hedgehogs with Leishmania major, a possible reservoir of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Pérez, Míriam; Khaldi, Mourad; Riera, Cristina; Mozo-León, Denis; Ribas, Alexis; Hide, Mallorie; Barech, Ghania; Benyettou, Meryam; Seghiri, Kamel; Doudou, Souad; Fisa, Roser

    2014-07-01

    We report here the first known cases of natural infection of hedgehogs with Leishmania major. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important public health problem in the area of M'sila, a semi-arid province in Algeria's northern Sahara, where two species of hedgehog live, Atelerix algirus and Paraechinus aethiopicus. The aim of this research was to survey Leishmania infection in these hedgehogs and evaluate whether they were reservoir hosts of Leishmania in an endemic zoonotic focus of leishmaniasis. Serological and molecular methods were used to determine the presence of Leishmania in 24 hedgehogs caught directly by hand and identified at species level as 19 A. algirus and 5 P. aethiopicus. Specific anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 29.2% of individuals by Western blot and in 26.3% by ELISA. The real-time PCR performed in spleen, ear and blood samples detected Leishmania spp. DNA in 12.5% of the individuals, one A. algirus and two P. aethiopicus. Three skin and two spleen samples of these animals were found to be parasitized and were identified by molecular test as L. major. Considering our results, it is suggested that hedgehogs have a potential epidemiological role as reservoir hosts of L. major.

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'.

  2. A two years study on vectors of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Evidence for sylvatic transmission cycle in the state of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar-Téllez, E A; Ramírez-Fraire, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    1996-01-01

    Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche were studied in relation to the transmission cycle of Leishmania (Le.) mexicana. To determine how transmission of leishmaniasis occurs, we collected phlebotomine sand flies for two years. In the first year (October 1990 to November 1991) the collections were made with CDC light traps, Shannon traps and direct captures at natural shelters around the village (Libertad. In the second year (February 1993 to January 1994) the catches were performed at 8 km southeast of La Libertad in the forest. Female sand flies were examined for Leishmania. During the first year, 347 sand flies of nine species were collected, most of which were Lutzomyia deleoni (61.3%). When all nine species were considered, more females than males were captured. Low densities of anthropophillic species of sand flies around the village indicated that sylvatic transmission was taking place. For the second year. 1484 sand flies of 16 species were caught. The most common were L. olmeca olmeca (21.7%), L. cruciata (19.2%) and L. ovallesi (14.1%). Similarly, more females were caught than males. Thirty-five females of five species were found infected with flagellates believed to be Leishmania sp. The highest infection rate was found in L. olmeca olmeca (7.1%) followed by L. cruciata (4.5%) and L. ovallesi (1.1%). These data plus other evidence on the epidemiology of human cases and results from reservoir studies are discussed in relation to the sylvatic transmission cycle.

  3. Polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene in Leishmania parasites and their relation to types of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Chomar Kaung; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Kato, Hirotomo; Bhutto, Abdul M; Soomro, Farooq R; Memon, Muhamad Z; Matsumoto, Jun; Marco, Jorge D; Oshiro, Minoru; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    The exact species and/or strains of Leishmania parasites involved strongly influence the clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis, and current knowledge of those influences and relationships is inadequate. We report that cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequencing identified causal Leishmania parasites of 69 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Pakistan over a 3-year period. Of 21 cases in highland areas (Quetta city, Balochistan province), 16 (76.2%) were identified as Leishmania (L.) tropica and five (23.8%) as Leishmania (L.) major. Of 48 cases from lowland areas, cities/villages in Indus valley in Sindh and Balochistan provinces, 47 (97.9%) were identified as L. (L.) major and one (2.1%) as L. (L.) tropica. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the distribution of the two species by altitude; L. (L.) major is predominant in lowland and L. (L.) tropica at highland areas. The present result enriched our earlier finding, based on the first year's cultured parasite data, that only L. (L.) tropica was found in highland areas and only L. (L.) major in lowland areas. Among Leishmania samples analyzed, three types of cyt b polymorphism of L. (L.) major were found, including 45 (86.5%) cases of type I, six (11.5%) of type II and one (2%) of type III. We report for the first time on the presence of polymorphisms in L. (L.) major (types I, II and III) based on species identification using cyt b gene sequencing from clinical samples. Moreover, we found no correlation between clinical presentation (wet-, dry- and/or mixed-types of cutaneous lesions) and causal Leishmania parasites.

  4. Emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a border area at south-east of Iran: an epidemiological survey

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    A. Fazaeli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has been recently emerged in new foci, posing a public health problem. Increasing cases of CL have been reported during recent years from a border area between Iran and Pakistan, a previously non-endemic area. The present study was designed for epidemiological and parasitological characterization of the disease for the first time in this area.Methods: A total of 3100 individuals from the city of Mirjaveh and its four rural districts were randomly selected and surveyed from March 2005 to February 2006. Microscopic examination, in vitro culture, mouse inoculations and species-specific kDNA-PCR assay were carried out for Leishmania detection and species identification. Results: CL was endemic in an important rural district of Mirjaveh, presenting active lesions and scars in 6.6 and 9.5%, respectively. The highest rates of both active lesions and scars were found in the age group of 10 years or under with significant differences (p 0.05. The most affected location was upper limb, 39.2% of ulcers and 41.7% of scars. Inoculation of the clinical isolates on Balb/c mice, led to the development of ulcers in the animals, implying that the causative parasite is Leishmania major. The PCR amplification also generated amplicons specific to L. major.Conclusion: It can be concluded that Mirjaveh is an endemic region of cutaneous leishmaniasis as a new focus due to the recent emergence in this border area of south-east of Iran with a major contribution of L. major, as the causative parasite species.

  5. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011

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    Charles Huamaní

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7% and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  6. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O.; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country. PMID:25229217

  7. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase.

  8. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Galvis Ovallos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7% predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase.

  9. Isolated lingual leishmaniasis

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    Habibzadeh F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Fars Province, southern Iran. However, mucosal leishmaniasis is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a patient with isolated lingual leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent 40-year-old man. The lesion was totally excised. The patient was cured completely and is doing well after four years of follow-up, with no medical treatment

  10. Sensitivity and Specificity of Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Method (NASBA for Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Niazi, A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Employing advanced diagnostics for molecular identification of the Lishmania parasite is has a more sensitivity and specificity in comparison to the microscopic methods. RT- PCR is also introduced as one of the best known techniques for diagnosis of this parasite; however, the method is not widely used due to its expensive equipments and the time requested.the application of NASBA method is shown high efficient for diagnosis of live parasite. The aim of this study is comparison sensivity and specificity between NASBA isothermal amplification and RT-PCR for molecular detection of lishmania major. Material and Methods: 28 skin biopsy from Oscar of patients was prepared and total RNA was extracted. Then, the using of specific primers designed for 18srRNA region, this region was amplified using NASBA isothemal amplification. The RNA amplicons were produced in less than 90 minutes and then identified via electrophoresed agaros gel after staining with Syber Gold flourecent probes for the purpose increasing sensitivity and specificity Result: In this study, NASBA and RT-PCR method are sensitivity 81%, specificity of 51% and 100% respectively for detection of Leishmania parasites inscars Conclusion: NASBA isothermal method can be applied with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis, this method can be fed with live microorganisms and response to treatment in patients examined. Keywords: Cutaneous Leishmanisis, NASBA, 18S rRNA

  11. Demographic and spatio-temporal distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Souf oasis (Eastern South of Algeria): Results of 13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezzani, Bachir; Bouchemal, Salah

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of many dangerous parasitic diseases. It remains a serious public health problem not only in Souf oasis, but also in Algeria and all developing countries. The results of our thirteen-year study shows a recording of 4813 confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the details shows that this disease affects all municipalities and all age groups, from infants to elderly, but the most affected ones are teenagers aging (10-19) years with 1512 cases (31.41%) and infants less than 9 years old with 1237 cases (25.70%). In addition, males are more prone to this disease than females (65% and 35% respectively). Among the 18 municipalities in the Souf, the most affected were El-Oued with 1171 cases (24.33%) followed by Guemar with 997 cases (20.71%). Furthermore, more than 40.03% of all cases (1927 cases), were record just in one year in 2010. A parallel, this study shows that the original factors of the studied area, such as climatological, agricultural and environmental factors, was the reason do not apparition this epidemic for a long time, but the changes in these conditions, resulting from various human activities create new environmental conditions, which help with the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis disease. The effective fight against this disease should be based on the elimination of the vectors and reservoirs populations, by the overall improvement of sanitary conditions and hygiene, extensive research in epidemiology of leishmaniasis could also reduce the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  12. A Review of Impact of Bam Earthquake on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Status: Epidemic of Old Foci, Emergence of New Foci and Changes in Features of the Disease

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    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global findings indicate that incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has significantly in­creased during the past decade, as documented in many countries. This review was aimed to evaluate the trend of CL cases in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics during a decade after the earthquake (2003–2012 com­pared to the corresponding period before the earthquake in Bam (1993–2003.Methods: Direct smear preparations along with different intrinsic methods were used for detection and identification of the causative agents.Results: Overall, 20999 cases of CL have occurred during the last 20 years (1993–2012, 6731 cases before and 14268 cases after the earthquake (P< 0.001.Conclusions: Following a major earthquake, several risk factors could activate epidemics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in old foci and induce emerging foci in new areas.

  13. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.

  14. Effectiveness of meglumine antimoniate against L. tropica in a recently emerged focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamian, M; Bojd, M S Faroghi; Salehabadi, A; Hemmati, M; Barati, D A

    2015-06-09

    With limited options to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, constant monitoring of the rate of resistance to pentavalent antimony-based drugs is needed. This study identified the infecting Leishmania species and evaluated the results of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) therapy in a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Birjand, eastern Islamic Republic of Iran. Smears from 150 patients showed that 141 patients were infected by L. tropica and 9 by L. major. In total, 141 patients with L. tropica infection completed Glucantime® treatment and follow-up; 63.8% were treated intralesionally and 36.2% by intramuscular administration. The overall success rate after one course of therapy with Glucantime® was 96.5% (136/141), and all the failures (5/141) occurred with intramuscular injections. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the failure rates of intramuscular and intralesional injections. Children < 10 years old had a significantly higher failure rate than adults.

  15. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

  16. The sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilhéus, state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo CR de Azevedo; Maurício L. Vilela; Nataly A Souza; Claudia A Andrade-Coelho; Barbosa,André F; Antônio LS Firmo; Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1996-01-01

    The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fischeri, L. pessoai, L. shannoni and L. misionensis were identified. Lutzomyia whitmani was the predominant species. Specimens were collected indoors, at peridomestic sites, in the cocoa plantations and in ...

  17. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge.

  18. A two years study on vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis: Evidence for sylvatic transmission cycle in the State of Campeche, Mexico

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    Eduardo A Rebollar-Téllez

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche were studied in relation to the transmission cycle of Leishmania (Le. mexicana. To determine how transmission of leishmaniasis occurs, we collected phlebotomine sand flies for two years. In the first year (October 1990 to November 1991 the collections were made with CDC light traps, Shannon traps and direct captures at natural shelters around the village (<200 m of La Libertad. In the second year (February 1993 to January 1994 the catches were performed at 8 km southeast of La Libertad in the forest. Female sand flies were examined for Leishmania. During the first year, 347 sand flies of nine species were collected, most of which were Lutzomyia deleoni (61.3%. When all nine species were considered, more females than males were captured. Low densities of anthropophillic species of sand flies around the village indicated that sylvatic transmission was taking place. For the second year, 1484 sand flies of 16 species were caught. The most common were L. olmeca olmeca (21.7%, L. cruciata (19.2% and L. ovallesi (14.1%. Similarly, more females were caught than males. Thirty-five females of five species were found infected with flagellates believed to be Leishmania sp. The highest infection rate was found in L. olmeca olmeca (7.1% followed by L. cruciata (4.5% and L. ovallesi (1.1%. These data plus other evidence on the epidemiology of human cases and results from reservoir studies are discussed in relation to the sylvatic transmission cycle.

  19. Distribution and Dispersal of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus, the Northern Negev, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshan, Laor; Elbaz, Shirly; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Akad, Fouad; Afik, Ohad; Ben-Avi, Ira; Dias, Debora; Ish-Shalom, Dan; Studentsky, Liora; Zonstein, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Background Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. In recent years reported incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis increased and endemic transmission is being observed in a growing number of communities in regions previously considered free of the disease. Here we report the results of an intensive sand fly study carried out in a new endemic focus of Leishmania major. The main objective was to establish a method and to generate a data set to determine the exposure risk, sand fly populations' dynamics and evaluate the efficacy of an attempt to create "cordon sanitaire" devoid of active jird burrows around the residential area. Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were trapped in three fixed reference sites and an additional 52 varying sites. To mark sand flies in the field, sugar solutions containing different food dyes were sprayed on vegetation in five sites. The catch was counted, identified, Leishmania DNA was detected in pooled female samples and the presence of marked specimens was noted. Phlebotomus papatasi, the vector of L. major in the region was the sole Phlebotomus species in the catch. Leishmania major DNA was detected in ~10% of the pooled samples and the highest risk of transmission was in September. Only a few specimens were collected in the residential area while sand fly numbers often exceeded 1,000 per catch in the agricultural fields. The maximal travel distance recorded was 1.91km for females and 1.51km for males. The calculated mean distance traveled (MDT) was 0.75km. Conclusions The overall results indicate the presence of dense and mobile sand fly populations in the study area. There seem to be numerous scattered sand fly microsites suitable for development and resting in the agricultural fields. Sand flies apparently moved in all directions, and reached the residential area from the surrounding agricultural fields. The travel distance noted in the current work, supported previous findings that P. papatasi like P

  20. Distribution and Dispersal of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae in a Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus, the Northern Negev, Israel.

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    Laor Orshan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. In recent years reported incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis increased and endemic transmission is being observed in a growing number of communities in regions previously considered free of the disease. Here we report the results of an intensive sand fly study carried out in a new endemic focus of Leishmania major. The main objective was to establish a method and to generate a data set to determine the exposure risk, sand fly populations' dynamics and evaluate the efficacy of an attempt to create "cordon sanitaire" devoid of active jird burrows around the residential area.Sand flies were trapped in three fixed reference sites and an additional 52 varying sites. To mark sand flies in the field, sugar solutions containing different food dyes were sprayed on vegetation in five sites. The catch was counted, identified, Leishmania DNA was detected in pooled female samples and the presence of marked specimens was noted. Phlebotomus papatasi, the vector of L. major in the region was the sole Phlebotomus species in the catch. Leishmania major DNA was detected in ~10% of the pooled samples and the highest risk of transmission was in September. Only a few specimens were collected in the residential area while sand fly numbers often exceeded 1,000 per catch in the agricultural fields. The maximal travel distance recorded was 1.91km for females and 1.51km for males. The calculated mean distance traveled (MDT was 0.75km.The overall results indicate the presence of dense and mobile sand fly populations in the study area. There seem to be numerous scattered sand fly microsites suitable for development and resting in the agricultural fields. Sand flies apparently moved in all directions, and reached the residential area from the surrounding agricultural fields. The travel distance noted in the current work, supported previous findings that P. papatasi like P. ariasi, can have a relatively long

  1. Leishmaniasis in the knee area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bava Amadeo Javier; Rossi Maria Laura; Seley Celeste; Troncoso Alcides

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by species leishmaniae, which can produce two types of manifestations: visceral and cutaneous. In south America cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common than visceral leishmaniasis. A case of primary cutaneous leishmaniasis from Bolivia is presented for its rarity. The patient of our case showed an ulcerated lesion of the knee. Montenegro's intradermal test was positive. Giemsa-stained touch preparation of the skin biopsy revealed amastigotes inside macrophages, consistent with leishmaniasis. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate intramuscular (20 mg of Sb+/kg/day) three weeks, with complete cicatrization of the lesion.

  2. Cytokine profile in Montenegro skin test of patients with localized cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Perfil de citocinas na intradermorreação de Montenegro em doentes de leishmaniose cutânea localizada e cutâneo-mucosa

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    Marcia Ferraz Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis presents as two major clinical forms: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. The immune response in leishmaniasis is efficiently evaluated by the response to Leishmania antigen through the Montenegro skin test (MST. Both LCL and MCL present positive response to MST, indicating that the patients present cell-mediated immunity against the parasite - Leishmania. In spite of the presence of immunity in MCL, this is not sufficient to stop disease progression and prevent resistance to treatment. In this study we demonstrated interleukin (IL 2, 4, 5 and interferon (IFN gamma expression in biopsies of MST of ten patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The obtained results were compared between LCL (n = 5 and MCL (n = 5 patients. The MST of MCL patients displayed a higher expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, in comparison to LCL. There was no significant difference in IFN-gamma expression between groups. The obtained results suggest the role of IL-4 and IL-5 in the maintenance of the immunopathogenic mechanism of the destructive lesions that characterize MCL.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana apresenta duas formas clínicas mais comuns: a leishmaniose cutânea localizada e a leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. A imunidade da leishmaniose é avaliada pela resposta ao antígeno Leishmania através da Intradermorreação de Montenegro. Estas duas formas apresentam resposta positiva, indicando que o paciente apresenta imunidade celular contra o parasita Leishmania. Apesar da presença da imunidade celular na leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa, esta não é suficiente para barrar a progressão da doença e a resistência ao tratamento. Neste estudo, detectamos quatro citocinas por imunohistoquímica, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 e IFN-gama nas biópsias da intradermorreação de Montenegro de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana (n = 10, cinco com leishmaniose cutânea e cinco com cut

  3. [Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Torres, V A; Silva, C A; Correia, D; Carvalho, E M; Magalhães, A V; Macêdo, V de O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250 mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), 20 mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

  4. STATUS OF THE AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO , BRAZIL, FROM 2004 TO 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    VITA, Gilmar Ferreira; PEREIRA, Maria Angélica Vieira DA COSTA; FERREIRA, Ildemar; SANAVRIA, Argemiro; BARBOSA, Celso Guimarães; AURNHEIMER, Rita de Cássia Martins; de MELLO, Ericson Ramos; da SILVA, Claudia Bezerra; CABRAL, Rísia Brígida Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to analyze the status of the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, from 2004 to 2013, through its spatiotemporal distribution. We also described variables considered relevant to the epidemiology of the disease, such as the clinical form, gender, ethnic group, age group, and progression of disease. This is a descriptive study, which used notified secondary data from the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), Ministry of Health, Brazil, regarding confirmed diagnoses. To help the calculation of coefficients of detection and mortality, we used population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). We analyzed 1,470 cases of ATL with the predominance of the cutaneous clinical form (1,292/87.89%). The data has also revealed seven deaths, a predominance of males (922/62.72%), and a higher incidence of ATL in the white ethnic group (731/49.72%). We observed a high incidence of ATL in the group of 20 - 39 years old (477/32.44%). We concluded that there was a decrease in the number of ATL cases in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a coefficient of detection of 1.44/100.000 inhabitants in 2004 decreasing to 0.20/100.000 inhabitants in 2013. The localities with the highest occurrences of ATL were the metropolitan region (843 cases) and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (740 cases). In 2005, the highest incidence of the disease was observed (351 cases) in the study. Among the variables selected to describe the epidemiology of the disease, the following categories: cutaneous clinical form, male patients, white ethnic group, and the age group of 20 - 39 years old were more affected than the others. PMID:27680176

  5. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

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    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  6. The emergence of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis following the earthquake in southern villages of bam district, southeastern iran, 2010.

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    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a new emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in southern villages of Bam District, southeastern Iran, 2010.A house-to- house census survey of 5544 individuals were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of active lesions or scars. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct smears, cultures and identification by PCR. The data were entered into a computer and SPSS ver. 15.Overall, 1.2% of the inhabitants were infected, 0.5% active and 0.7% scars and females were more significantly infected (1.7% than males (0.8%, (P= 0.003. All age groups were equally affected. Most of the lesions were on the face and majority had single lesion. Most of the cases appeared from 2006 to 2008 during the CL epidemic in the city of Bam. PCR indicated L. tropica as the causative agent.The presence of non-immune individuals along with suitable ecological conditions could induce a new emerging focus of ACL in villages.

  7. First report on isolation of Leishmania tropica from sandflies of a classical urban Cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Rasolian, Mohammad; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Doosti, Sogra

    2010-12-01

    Shiraz district in south of Iran is a classical focus of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and previous research has consistently documented the etiologic agent to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major in urban and rural areas, respectively. However, none of the Phlebotomus sergenti, a known vector for L. tropica, of the region has been found infected. We report the first isolation of L. tropica from sandflies in urban community of southern part of Shiraz city. Parasite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gene sequencing analyses indicate CL cases in this community were caused by either L. major or L. tropica. Sandflies of P. sergenti were infrequent, however, three out of 10 (30.0%) females captured in urban area were found infected with L. tropica. But, no human cases were found to be infected with L. tropica. Phlebotomus papatasi were found the most dominant and infected species where 41 out of 207 (20%) tested individuals harboring L. major in suburb area of the city. Patients have been lived in the suburb area of the city where people keep normally domestic animals in their houses which provide appropriate environment for completion of sandfly life cycle and expansion of CL disease in the region.

  8. Molecular identification of Leishmania tropica infections in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from an endemic central of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Gilda; Hajimohammadi, Bahador; Jafari, Abbas Ali; Mirzaei, Farzaneh; Gholamrezai, Mostafa; Anvari, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The most common form of the disease is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) which is a public health and social problem in many countries especially Iran. In endemic areas where other diseases with similar clinical symptoms occur, definitive diagnosis of CL is very important. The detection and identification of Leishmania in infected patients is crucial for achieving a correct treatment and prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study in terms of geographical distribution and molecular identification of Leishmania tropica isolates in central of Iran. This study was performed between 2010 and 2011, during which 218 CL suspected patients referred to Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd, Iran for confirmation were examined. After microscopic analysis, DNA extraction was performed for identification. The molecular target region was ITS1 gene. Results showed that out of 218 isolates, 102 (46.8%) samples were positive for Leishman body using molecular assay. After PCR-RFLP, analysis identified 50 (49.01%) samples as L. major and 52 (50.98%) as L. tropica. Two samples showed a different pattern that were reported as unknown. Among L. tropica, six different isolates were identified in this endemic area. Finally, this study showed heterozygosity among L. tropica isolates in this endemic area such as some other studies from the world. This heterozygosity among the strains may suggest a sexual recombination or genetic exchange between strains.

  9. The Emergence of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Following the Earthquake in Southern Villages of Bam District, Southeastern Iran, 2010

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    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a new emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in southern villages of Bam District, southeastern Iran, 2010.Methods: A house-to- house census survey of 5544 individuals were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of active lesions or scars. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct smears, cultures and identification by PCR. The data were entered into a computer and SPSS ver. 15.Results: Overall, 1.2% of the inhabitants were infected, 0.5% active and 0.7% scars and females were more signifi­cantly infected (1.7% than males (0.8%, (P= 0.003. All age groups were equally affected. Most of the lesions were on the face and majority had single lesion. Most of the cases appeared from 2006 to 2008 during the CL epidemic in the city of Bam. PCR indicated L. tropica as the causative agent.Conclusion: The presence of non-immune individuals along with suitable ecological conditions could induce a new emerging focus of ACL in villages.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis prevalence and morbidity based on environmental factors in Ilam, Iran: Spatial analysis and land use regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mehdi; Miri, Mohammad; Nikoonahad, Ali; Jalilian, Ali; Naserifar, Razi; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Kazembeigi, Farogh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the environmental factors on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) prevalence and morbidity in Ilam province, western Iran, as a known endemic area for this disease. Accurate locations of 3237 CL patients diagnosed from 2013 to 2015, their demographic information, and data of 17 potentially predictive environmental variables (PPEVs) were prepared to be used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and Land-Use Regression (LUR) analysis. The prevalence, risk, and predictive risk maps were provided using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) model in GIS software. Regression analysis was used to determine how environmental variables affect on CL prevalence. All maps and regression models were developed based on the annual and three-year average of the CL prevalence. The results showed that there was statistically significant relationship (P value≤0.05) between CL prevalence and 11 (64%) PPEVs which were elevation, population, rainfall, temperature, urban land use, poorland, dry farming, inceptisol and aridisol soils, and forest and irrigated lands. The highest probability of the CL prevalence was predicted in the west of the study area and frontier with Iraq. An inverse relationship was found between CL prevalence and environmental factors, including elevation, covering soil, rainfall, agricultural irrigation, and elevation while this relation was positive for temperature, urban land use, and population density. Environmental factors were found to be an important predictive variables for CL prevalence and should be considered in management strategies for CL control.

  11. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-05-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  12. Cytotoxic cell involvement in human cutaneous leishmaniasis: assessments in active disease, under therapy and after clinical cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, C F; Ferraz, R; Pimentel, M I F; Lyra, M R; Schubach, A O; Da-Cruz, A M; Bertho, A L

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health issue worldwide. The control of Leishmania infection depends on cellular immune mechanisms, and the inflammatory response may contribute to pathogenesis. A beneficial role of CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been proposed; nevertheless, other studies suggest a cytotoxic role of CD8(+) T lymphocytes involved in tissue damage, showing controversial role of these cells. The goal of the current study was to understand the immunopathology of CL and determine the profile of cytotoxic cells--such as CD4(+) T, natural killer and natural killer T cells--that might be involved in triggering immunological mechanisms, and may lead to cure or disease progression. The frequencies of cytotoxic cell populations in peripheral blood, obtained from patients with active disease, during treatment and after clinical healing, were assessed by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity could not be related to a deleterious role in Leishmania braziliensis infection, as patients with active CL showed similar percentages of degranulation to healthy individuals (HI). Cured patients exhibited a lower percentage of degranulating cells, which may be due to a downregulation of the immune response. The understanding of the immunopathological mechanisms involved in CL and the commitment of cytotoxic cells enables improvements in therapeutic strategies.

  13. Preliminary study towards a novel experimental model to study localized cutaneous leishmaniasis caused bY Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana

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    Erika Ivett Sosa-Bibiano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is not an experimental model of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL caused by Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana. The aim of the present study was to characterize the clinical and histological features of Peromyscus yucatanicus experimentally infected with L. (L. mexicana. A total of 54 P. yucatanicus (groups of 18 were inoculated with 1x10(6 promastigotes of L. (L. mexicana in the base of the tail. They were euthanized at three and six months post experimental infection. The control group was inoculated with RPMI-1640. The predominant clinical sign observed was a single ulcerated lesion in 27.77% (5/18 and in 11.11% (2/18 P. yucatanicus at three and six months respectively. The histological pattern described as chronic granulomatous inflammation with or without necrosis was found in 7/7 (100% biopsies of euthanized P. yucatanicus at three (n = 5 and six (n = 2 months, respectively. These results resembled clinical and histological features caused by L. (L. mexicana in humans, and support the possibility to employ P. yucatanicus as a novel experimental model to study LCL caused by this parasite.

  14. First detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in wild caught Phlebotomus papatasi in endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rassi Yavar; Gholami Manuchehr; Karami Hadi; Abai Mohammad Reza; M Mohebali; Bakshi Hasan; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali; Rafizadeh Sina; Bagherpoor Hagigi Habib; Hosseini Abodolrahim

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify the vectors and reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the endemic focus of Farashband, Fars Province, South of Iran. Methods: Sticky papers and Sherman trap were used for collection of sand flies and rodents, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA were used for identification of Leishmania parasite in sand flies as well as rodents. Results:Totally 2 010 sand flies were collected and the species of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli was the common specimen in outdoors and indoors places. PCR technique was employed on 130 females of Phlebotomus papatasi. One of them (0.76%) was positive to parasite Leishmania major (L. major) and one specimen (0.76%) was positive to Leishmania infantum. Microscopic investigation on blood smear of the animal reservoirs for amastigote parasites revealed 16 (44%) infected Tatera indica. Infection of them to L. major was confirmed by PCR against kDNA loci of the parasite. Conclusions: The results indicated that Phlebotomus papatasi was the dominant species circulating two species of parasites including L. major and Leishmania infantum among human and reservoirs. Furthermore, Tatera indica is the only main host reservoir for maintenance of the parasite source in the area.

  15. The Role of Inflammatory, Anti-Inflammatory, and Regulatory Cytokines in Patients Infected with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Thaís Tibery Espir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss in this paper the role of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in patients infected with different species of Leishmania in Amazonas State, Brazil. A comparative analysis was made of serum concentrations of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of 33 patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The isolates were identified as Leishmania guyanensis, L. naiffi, and L. amazonensis. Most (64% of the patients were male ranging in age from 18 to 58 years. Protein expression profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 cytokines were shown to vary significantly between infected and noninfected (control group individuals and according to the Leishmania species. Infection caused by L. guyanensis accounted for 73% of the cases and patients with this parasite also showed higher concentrations of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 when compared to infection by L. amazonensis. Patients with infection caused by L. naiffi showed higher concentration of the cytokines analyzed when compared to uninfected patients; however, there was no statistically significant difference with the other species analyzed.

  16. Detection of IgG Anti-Leishmania Antigen by Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriefer, Albert; Magalhães, Andréa; Meyer, Roberto; Glesby, Marshall J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Carvalho, Lucas P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals. Here our goal was to develop a new serological technique using polystyrene microspheres sensitized with soluble Leishmania antigens as a tool for the detection of IgG in serum from CL patients by flow cytometry. To validate the assay we carried out a comparative test (ELISA) commonly used as a diagnostic test for parasitic diseases. To determine cross-reactivity we used serum from patients with Chagas disease, caused by a trypanosome that has several proteins with high homology to those of the Leishmania genus. We observed that the flow cytometry technique was more sensitive than the ELISA, but, less specific. Our results show that the flow cytometry serologic test can be used to confirm CL cases in L. braziliensis transmission areas, however, presence of Chagas disease has to be ruled out in these individuals. PMID:27622535

  17. [Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

    1996-04-01

    An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

  18. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Iran: a GIS-based spatio-temporal multi-criteria decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollalo, A; Khodabandehloo, E

    2016-07-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) constitutes a serious public health problem in many parts of the world including Iran. This study was carried out to assess the risk of the disease in an endemic province by developing spatial environmentally based models in yearly intervals. To fill the gap of underestimated true burden of ZCL and short study period, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy AHP decision-making methods were used to determine the ZCL risk zones in a Geographic Information System platform. Generated risk maps showed that high-risk areas were predominantly located at the northern and northeastern parts in each of the three study years. Comparison of the generated risk maps with geocoded ZCL cases at the village level demonstrated that in both methods more than 90%, 70% and 80% of the cases occurred in high and very high risk areas for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Moreover, comparison of the risk categories with spatially averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and a digital elevation model of the study region indicated persistent strong negative relationships between these environmental variables and ZCL risk degrees. These findings identified more susceptible areas of ZCL and will help the monitoring of this zoonosis to be more targeted.

  19. The Contribution of the Fas/FasL Apoptotic Pathway in Ulcer Formation during Leishmania major-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsmo, Liv; Nylen, Susanne; Khamesipour, Ali; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Chiodi, Francesca; Akuffo, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania major, is characterized by lesion formation and ulceration at the site of infection. The mechanism of ulcer formation during CL is not fully understood. The expression of Fas and FasL and the levels of apoptosis in skin biopsies and in restimulated blood mononuclear cells from patients with 1 to 7 months of L. major-induced CL were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. The levels of soluble Fas and FasL were also analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A substantial number of apoptotic keratinocytes were observed mainly in the superficial epidermis of morphologically active and healing CL skin samples. Fas expression was increased on epidermis in active CL, whereas Fas expression was similar in healing and healthy epidermis. FasL-expressing macrophages and T cells were found in subepidermal infiltrate, mainly in active disease. When CL peripheral blood mononuclear cells were restimulated with L. major, Fas was up-regulated on effector T cells, and high levels of sFasL were secreted. Supernatants from restimulated cultures induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes (HaCaT), possibly through Fas/FasL interactions. Our results indicate that FasL-expressing effector T cells and macrophages may act to induce apoptosis and ulcer formation in Fas-expressing keratinocytes during L. major infection. PMID:15793290

  20. Rodenticide Comparative Effect of Klerat® and Zinc Phosphide for Controlling Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Iran

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    Arshad VEYSI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is a neglected disease with public health importance that is common in many rural areas of Iran. In recent years, behavioral resistance and/or bait shyness against the common rodenticide among reservoir hosts of ZCL have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Klerat® and zinc phosphide against natural reservoir of ZCL.Methods: This survey was carried out in four villages located 45 to 95 km far from Esfahan City Esfahan province, central Iran from April to November 2011. The rodent burrows were counted destroyed and reopened holes baited around all villages. Effect of rodent control operation on the main vector density and incidence of ZCL were evaluated.Results: The reduction rate of rodent burrows after intervention calculated to be at 62.8% in Klerat® and 58.15% in zinc phosphide treated areas. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the densities of the vector in indoors and outdoors in intervention and control areas. The incidence of the disease between treated and control areas after intervention was statistically different (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Klerat® could be a suitable alternative for zinc phosphide in a specific condition such as behavior resistance or occurrence of bait shyness.

  1. Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract is effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Dávila, Claudio M.; Pan, Li; Isaac-Márquez, Angelica P.; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Isaac-Márquez, Ricardo; Pech-Dzib, MY; Barbi, Joseph; Calomeni, Edward; Parinandi, Narasimham; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) manifests as localized skin lesions, which lead to significant tissue destruction and disfigurement. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mayan traditional healers use Pentalinon andrieuxii Muell.-Arg. (Apocynaceae) roots for the topical treatment of CL. Here, we studied the effect of P. andrieuxii root hexane extract (PARE) on the parasites and host cells in vitro and examined its efficacy in the topical treatment of CL caused by L. mexicana. PARE exhibited potent antiparasitic activity in vitro against promastigotes as well as amastigotes residing in macrophages. Electron microscopy of PARE-treated parasites revealed direct membrane damage. PARE also activated NF-κB and enhanced IFN-γR and MHC class II expression and TNF-α production in macrophages. In addition, PARE induced production of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 in dendritic cells as well as enhanced expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86. In vivo studies showed that L. mexicana-infected mice treated by topical application of PARE resulted in the significant reduction in lesion size and parasite burden compared to controls. These findings indicate that PARE could be used as an alternative therapy for the topical treatment of CL. PMID:24347110

  2. Topical delivery and in vivo antileishmanial activity of paromomycin-loaded liposomes for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Guilherme; Santos, Delia C M; Oliveira, Monica C; Fernandes, Ana P; Ferreira, Luciana S; Ramaldes, Gilson A; Nunan, Elziria A; Ferreira, Lucas A M

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of liposomes loaded with paromomycin (PA), an aminoglycoside antibiotic associated with poor skin penetration, for the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Fluid liposomes were prepared and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment. Permeation studies were performed with two in vitro models: intact and stripped skin. The antileishmanial activity of free and liposomal PA was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (L.) major. Drug entrapment ranged from 10 to 14%, and the type of vesicle had little influence on this parameter. Particle size and polydispersity index of the vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PC/cholesterol (Chol) ranged from of 516 to 362 nm and 0.7 to 0.4, respectively. PA permeation across intact skin was low, regardless of the formulation tested, while drug penetration into skin (percent of the applied dose) from PC (7.2 +/- 0.2%) and PC/Chol (4.8 +/- 0.2%) liposomes was higher than solution (1.9 +/- 0.1%). PA-loaded liposomes enhanced in vitro drug permeation across stripped skin and improved the in vivo antileishmanial activity in experimentally infected mice. Our findings suggest that the liposomes represent a promising alternative for the topical treatment of CL using PA.

  3. FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO ADHERENCE TO DIFFERENT TREATMENT SCHEMES WITH MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

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    Madelon Novato Ribeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The favorable outcome of the treatment of a disease is influenced by the adherence to therapy. Our objective was to assess factors associated with adherence to treatment of patients included in a clinical trial of equivalence between the standard and alternative treatment schemes with meglumine antimoniate (MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Between 2008 and 2011, 57 patients with CL were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data. The following methods were used for adherence monitoring: counting of vial surplus, monitoring card, Morisky test and modified Morisky test (without the question regarding the schedule; we observed 82.1% (vial return, 86.0% (monitoring card, 66.7% (Morisky test and 86.0% (modified Morisky test adherence. There was a strong correlation between the method of vial counting and the monitoring card and modified Morisky test. A significant association was observed between greater adherence to treatment and low dose of MA, as well as with a lower number of people sleeping in the same room. We recommend the use of the modified Morisky test to assess adherence to treatment of CL with MA, because it is a simple method and with a good performance, when compared to other methods.

  4. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical manifestations, epidemiological situation and public health importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shushtar County, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali kassiri; Masoud Lotfi; Parvaneh Farajifard; Elnaz Kassiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate as a descriptive and cross sectional study on epidemiology, the laboratory diagnosis and clinical manifestation ofCutaneousLeishmaniasis(CL) inShushtar County.Methods:The investigation was carried out on referrals from different districts of ShushtarCounty and was diagnosed based on their ulcer clinical manifestations withCL using laboratory method.This study was actively developed over the period of2008 to2010.Surface of a clean slide was pressed on to the scraped part of the lesions and moved along to produce a smear on the slide.The slides were fixed with methanol, stained with standardGiemsa, and examined carefully under high magnification for an hour or more to look for amastigotes by a trained person.Two smears were prepared and examined from each patient and data were collected using different correlative patients characteristics to analyze information.The essential records including residential area, type and location of lesion, age, sex, the number of ulcers, season, and the history of traveling to endemic areas for this disease were carefully gathered. Results:Parasites presumed to beLeishmania major (L. major) based on the existence of a large vacuole in the cytoplasm.Totally206 patients were referred to the central laboratory and their manifestation lesions were clinically examined.Of these,64 cases(31.1%) were female and142 cases(68.9%) were male.The findings documented that the rate of incidence ofCL was in fall61 cases(29/6%) and winter80 cases(38/8%), which is one of the most important characteristics of zoonoticCL.Sixty-eight cases(33%) had ulcers on hands,63 cases(30.6%) on feet and30 cases (14.6%) on hands and feet.A total of120 patients(58.3%) had only one ulcer.But70 cases(34%) had2 ulcers.The highest incidence was found among patients with two age groups of20-29 years old(43.2%) and10-19 years old(18%).The most cases resided in rural areas with164 cases(79.6%). Conclusions:Analyzing of the composed results revealed

  5. Clinical Features of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Direct PCR-Based Identification of Parasite Species in A New Focus in Southeast of Iran

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    A Fazaeli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To clinically characterize the cutaneous leishmaniasis and identify the causative parasite species in Mirjaveh, an important geographical region across the border of Iran-Pakistan at Southeast of Iran."nMethods: A number of 116 patients during a year since March 2005 to April 2006, subjected to the study. Clinical infor­mation collected and scrapings were taken from cutaneous lesions and used for microscopic examination, NNN cultivation and kinetoplast DNA-PCR amplification."nResults: The cases comprised of 48 males and 68 females, 84 (72.4% Iranians and 32 (27.6% non-Iranians. They aged between 2 months to 68 years with the most affection of children, 0-10 years (55.2%. The patients presented a total of 248 active lesions with an average of 2.14. The ulcers distributed mostly on upper extremity (42.3% then on face (32.7%, fol­lowed by lower extremity (20.6% and other parts (4.4%. The majority of ulcers stated to be developed rapidly, <1 month (40.3% or 1-2 months (45.2%. However, from 248 ulcers, only 19 (7.7% found to be wet and the remaining were dry or moderately wet, 45 (18.1% and 184 (74.2%, respectively. kDNA-PCR assay detected 51 out of 73 samples, all of which were identified as L. major, the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis."nConclusion:  L. major is the species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mirjaveh, however the pattern of clinical findings, does not completely resemble the ZCL characteristics. These indicate that the manifestation of the lesions may not necessarily correspond to the Leishmania species and may be unreliable to conclude the speciation of parasite without labo­ratory identification.

  6. Double blind, randomized controlled trial, to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled nitric oxide releasing patch versus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [NCT00317629

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    Silva Federico A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease, endemic in 88 countries, that has shown an increasing incidence over the last two decades. So far, pentavalent antimony compounds have been considered the treatment of choice, with a percentage of cure of about 85%. However, the high efficacy of these drugs is counteracted by their many disadvantages and adverse events. Previous studies have shown nitric oxide to be a potential alternative treatment when administered topically with no serious adverse events. However, due to the unstable nitric oxide release, the topical donors needed to be applied frequently, making the adherence to the treatment difficult. The electrospinning technique has allowed the production of a multilayer transdermal patch that produces a continuous and stable nitric oxide release. The main objective of this study is to evaluate this novel nitric oxide topical donor for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and design A double-blind, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial, including 620 patients from endemic areas for Leishmaniasis in Colombia was designed to investigate whether this patch is as effective as meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis but with less adverse events. Subjects with ulcers characteristic of cutaneous leishmaniasis will be medically evaluated and laboratory tests and parasitological confirmation performed. After checking the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. During 20 days Group 1 will receive simultaneously meglumine antimoniate and placebo of nitric oxide patches while Group 2 will receive placebo of meglumine antimoniate and active nitric oxide patches. During the treatment visits, the medications will be daily administered and the presence of adverse events assessed. During the follow-up, the research group will visit the patients at days 21, 45, 90 and 180. The

  7. What about Th1/Th2 in cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine discovery?

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    Campos-Neto A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell type 1 (Th1 response is essential to resist leishmaniasis, whereas the Th2 response favors the disease. However, many leishmanial antigens, which stimulate a Th1 immune response during the disease or even after the disease is cured, have been shown to have no protective action. Paradoxically, antigens associated with an early Th2 response have been found to be highly protective if the Th1 response to them is generated before infection. Therefore, finding disease-associated Th2 antigens and inducing a Th1 immune response to them using defined vaccination protocols is an interesting unorthodox alternative approach to the discovery of a leishmania vaccine.

  8. Concurrent Chagas’ disease and borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis: The role of amiodarone as an antitrypanosomatidae drug

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    Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi1,4, Alexandra M Pérez-Álvarez1, Oscar Reyes-Jaimes2, Gustavo Socorro1, Olga Zerpa3, Denisa Slova4, Juan L Concepción51Laboratorio de Estudio de Antígenos, Instituto de Biomedicina, “Hospital José Gregório Hernández”, Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales, Caracas, Venezuela; 2Departamento de Dermopatología, Instituto de Biomedicina, 3Sección de Leishmaniasis, Instituto de Biomedicina, Caracas, Venezuela; 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, St. Luke’s – Roosevelt - Beth Israel Medical Center, University Hospital of Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA; 5Laboratorio de Enzimología de Parásitos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, VenezuelaAbstract: The occurrence of mixed infections of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. is becoming a common feature in Central and South America due to overlapping endemic areas. Unfortunately, the possibilities for treating flagellated kinetoplastid infections are still very limited and most of the available drugs exhibit severe side effects. Although the development of new drugs for Leishmania has markedly improved in the last years, the tendency is still to employ antimonial compounds. On the other hand, treatment for Chagas’ disease is only available for the acute phase with no effective therapeutical options for chronic stage disease. The following case report substantiates the recently discovered effect of amiodarone as a nonconventional antiparasitic drug, particularly against Leishmania, breaching a new perspective in the therapeutic management of these important infectious parasitic diseases.Keywords: Chagas’ disease, leishmaniasis, chemotherapy, amiodarone

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of a defined vaccine for the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Iván D; Gilchrist, Katherine; Martínez, Sofía; Ramírez-Pineda, José R; Ashman, Jill A; Alves, Fabiana P; Coler, Rhea N; Bogatzki, Lisa Y; Kahn, Stuart J; Beckmann, Anna Marie; Cowgill, Karen D; Reed, Steven G; Piazza, Franco M

    2009-12-11

    Healthy Colombian adult volunteers with no history of leishmaniasis were evaluated for evidence of previous subclinical infection with Leishmania based on the Montenegro skin test (MST). Twelve MST-positive subjects were enrolled in an open-label, uncontrolled clinical trial (the "MST-positive trial") and received three injections of the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine (consisting of 10 microg recombinant Leishmania polyprotein LEISH-F1 antigen [TSA+LmSTI1+LeIF]+25 microg MPL-SE adjuvant). Sixty-eight MST-negative subjects were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial (the "MST-negative trial") and were randomly assigned to receive three injections of either the vaccine (n=34), 10 microg LEISH-F1 protein alone (n=17), or saline placebo (n=17). In both trials, the study injections were given subcutaneously on Days 0, 28, and 56, and subjects were followed for safety and immunological endpoints. The LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine was safe and well tolerated in MST-positive and MST-negative subjects. In both trials, an IFN-gamma response to the LEISH-F1 antigen at Day 84 was observed in more than half of the vaccine recipients. In the MST-negative trial, the IFN-gamma response was significantly more frequent and of greater magnitude in vaccine recipients than in protein-alone or placebo recipients. An IgG antibody response to LEISH-F1 was observed in all vaccine recipients. In both trials, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to LEISH-F1 was observed in most of the vaccine recipients. In the MST-negative trial, DTH was significantly higher in vaccine than placebo recipients. These clinical trials of the first defined vaccine for leishmaniasis show that the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine is safe and immunogenic in healthy subjects with and without evidence of previous subclinical infection with Leishmania.

  10. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; Fuzari, Andressa A; Filho, José Dilermado Andrade; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Britto, Constança; Reginaldo P Brazil

    2014-01-01

    Background Notifications concerning American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis have increased in recent years in the state of Acre, Brazil. Despite identification of distinct Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous lesions, there are still no records of visceral leishmaniasis in the state. However, studies on the sand fly fauna in this region are still limited. Findings Insects were collected from April 2011 to April 2012, using HP light traps distributed in four residential areas and one recreation...

  11. Wound healing genes and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: Role of COL1A1

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Lucas; Oliveira, Joyce; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Castellucci, Léa

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a role for wound healing genes in resolution of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania spp. in both mice and humans, including the gene FLI1 encoding Friend leukaemia virus integration 1. Reduction of Fli1 expression in mice has been shown to result in up-regulation of collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1) and alpha 2 (Col1a2) genes and, conversely, in down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (Mmp1) gene, suggesting that Fli1 suppression is involved in a...

  12. Psammomys obesus Cretzschmar, 1828 and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

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    Morsy, T A; Sabry, A H; Rifaat, M M; Wahba, M M

    1996-08-01

    In the Middle East, the fat sand rat Psammomys obesus is the most important reservoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishmamiasis (ZCL). It is the most incriminated host in outbreaks. Two P. obesus caught in Wadi El Gedeiret (Al Arish, North Sinai) were found naturally infected with Leishmania major as indicated by enzyme electrophoresis. In Egypt, the already known reservoir hosts are Gerbillus pyramidum I. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1825; Meriones crassus Sundevall, 1984 and Meriones sacramenti Thomas, 1922. The hostal role of P. obesus was discussed.

  13. Ecoepidemiological characteristics of a hypoendemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in north Iran (southeast of Caspian Sea

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    M D Agh-Atabay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is an endemic parasitic disease reported sporadically throughout Iran. Golestan province is one of the 17 zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL foci. In this study, ecoepidemiological characteristics of ZCL were investigated in Gonbad-e Kavus County, Golestan province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in three endemic villages and one ZCL-free village by exploiting a stratified random sampling methodology in 2013. To understand particular time-allocation and activity patterns, sandflies were entrapped twice per month using sticky traps from May to October 2013. Records of daily maximum and minimum temperatures (°C obtained from the meteorological station were used to calculate accumulated degree days (ADD for Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies using an online software, viz. degree-day calculator, available from the website of Integrated Pest Management, University of California. The computational ADD and expected stage appearance for P. papatasi sandflies were evaluated along with the phenological events. Human infection indices were investigated in the study areas as well. Results: In the entomological survey, a total of 13 different sandfly species were identified. Sergentomyia sintoni (66.8% and P. papatasi (20% were observed to be the most dominant species. Monthly activity of the different species of sandflies started from early May to mid-October, with two peaks observed in early July and mid- September, and the peak of hourly activity occurred at night (1900-2000 hrs. According to the phenological study, population dynamics of P. papatasi was completely in agreement with ADD required for the various stages of their growth. Epidemiologically, the highest incidence of ZCL was observed in the age group of 30-34 yr (29.4%. Interpretation & conclusion: Higher incidence of the disease was seen in the northern and the northeastern parts of the province bordered by Turkmenistan. The

  14. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Leishmania Species Among Suspected Patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using ITS-r DNA in Fars Province

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    O Dehnam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fars province is one of the most important foci of leishmaniasis that includes two types of cutaneous (urban and rural forms and visceral leishmaniasis in sympatry. To study leishmaniasis among suspected patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis in 5 counties of Shiraz, Firouz abad, GhirـKarzin, Farashband and Larestan, both microscopic and molecular analysis were carried out in the present study. Methods: The samples were smeared on the microscopic slides and were also stained by Giemsa. All smears were examined under a light microscope and the positive smears were scored for amastigote frequency. DNA was extracted from stained smears and Leishmania DNA was detected by amplification of ITS1ـ5.8sـITS2 fragments. Amplicons were analyzed using electrophoresis in 1.5 % agarose gel containing ethidium bromide. Results: Among 34 studied patients, 29 cases (%85 were positive in microscopic and 32 (%94 in molecular analysis using standard PCR. All examined samples were infected with L.major except one (%3 that was infected with L.tropica. Most lesions due to L.major were located on the feet, whereas ulcer due to L.tropica was on the forehead. Conclusions: Preparing stained smears from active lesions of suspected patients (microscopic analysis removes the problem of Leishmania preservation and transition to culture media. Also, intergenic variations in amplified fragment of ITS-rDNA cause to produce fragments with different length and based on this difference, we can identify L. major and L. tropica separately. Using microscopic and molecular methods in present study confirmed presence of L.major and L.tropica as the causative agents of CL in studied regions of Fars.

  15. Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Dissemination and Tissue Tropism of Genetically Distinct Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Populations

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    Guilherme Marx de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the internal dissemination of initial cutaneous lesions and tissue tropism of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis populations in naturally infected dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphisms of L. (V. braziliensis populations in different anatomic sites of naturally infected dogs by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and low-stringency single specific primer-PCR (LSSP-PCR techniques. The amplified products were analyzed by LSSP-PCR to investigate the genetic variability of the parasite populations present in different anatomical sites. Twenty-three out of the 52 samples gave PCR-positive results. The existence of L. (V. braziliensis strains that remained restricted to cutaneous lesions and others showing characteristics of dissemination to internal organs and healthy skin was observed. LSSP-PCR and numerical analyses revealed that parasite populations that do not disseminate were genetically similar and belonged to a separate phenetic cluster. In contrast, populations that showed spreading to internal organs displayed a more polymorphic genetic profile. Despite the heterogeneity, L. (V. braziliensis populations with identical genetic profiles were observed in popliteal and cervical lymph nodes of the same animal. Our results indicate that infection in dogs can be manifested by dissemination and tissue tropism of genetically distinct populations of L. (V. braziliensis.

  16. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela

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    Scorza José V.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.

  17. The Effect of Sun Radiation on the Course of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice

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    Amir Abas Azarian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sStudies have described immunomedulatory effects of sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation on infectious and neoplastic diseases. Here the effect of exposure to low potency radiation of sun on the course of leishmaniasis in mice was studied. Materials and MethodsFifteen BALB/c mice were exposed to suberythemogenic doses of sun (mean 180 mJ/cm2/day of UVB 2 months before and 4 months after Leishmania major inoculation to food pad. Control group was kept in the sun protected environment. From 2nd to 17th week after inoculation, size of the lesion was recorded in each group weekly and at last week the parasite burden in spleen was detected. Results were compared between two groups. ResultsSeven mice from case group and 9 mice from control group survived up to last week. The mean lesion size was 0.90±0.59 cm in exposed and 4.01±3.59 cm in unexposed mice (P= 0.037. Parasite burden in spleen of case and control groups were 5.5±4.61 and 106.94±279.76 respectively (P= 0.006.ConclusionChronic exposure of BALB/c mice to suberythemogenic doses of sun suppressed skin lesion and decreased the extension of L. major to spleen.

  18. Identification of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Agents by Nested Po-lymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR in Shush City, Khuzestan Province, Iran

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    M Ghasemian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease world wide. Leishmania tropica and L. major are two common cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. The aim of this study was determination of the cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shush city, Khouzestan Province, Southwest Iran"nMethods: One hundred samples were collected from patients at the age of 1-80 year with documented cutaneous leishmani¬asis referred to the health centre and a private medical diagnostic laboratory at Shush City. DNA was extracted from slid samples by phenol- chloroform- Isoemil alcohol method, and subjected to Nested-PCR as template. k DNA of the parasites were amplified by CSB1XR and CSB2XF in the first round of PCR and 13Z and Li R primers for the second round. After PCR, electrophoresis of products was performed and 750bp band from L. tropica and 560bp band from L. major were de¬tected."nResults: A total of 100 cases comprising 47 females and 53 males were studied. The highest infected age group was under 10 years with a rate of 42% and the lowest rate was 4% at the age group of above 40 years. The results of PCR electropho-resis indicated that 90(90% cases were L. major and 10 (10% L. tropica. The predominant species in this area was L. ma-jor."nConclusion: It is concluded that Nested PCR is a reliable test for diagnosis and identification of Leishmania species and can apply in epidemiological investigations.

  19. Testing of four Leishmania vaccine candidates in a mouse model of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salay, G; Dorta, M L; Santos, N M; Mortara, R A; Brodskyn, C; Oliveira, C I; Barbiéri, C L; Rodrigues, M M

    2007-09-01

    We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies.

  20. Testing of Four Leishmania Vaccine Candidates in a Mouse Model of Infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the Main Causative Agent of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the New World▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salay, G.; Dorta, M. L.; Santos, N. M.; Mortara, R. A.; Brodskyn, C.; Oliveira, C. I.; Barbiéri, C. L.; Rodrigues, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies. PMID:17626159

  1. PCR and Microscopic Identification of Isolated Leishmania tropica from Clinical Samples of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Human Population of Kohat Region in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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    Nasser M. Abd El-Salam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania tropica was isolated from the clinical patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural community of Kohat district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and was identified through PCR, microscopy, and culture techniques. A total of 113 samples from the clinical patients were examined through PCR, microscopy, and culture which showed 87.61% (99/113, 53.98% (61/113, and 46.90% (53/113 prevalence. During the study, 186 bp Leishmania tropica was identified through PCR. Thus the sensitivity of PCR is very high as compared to the conventional techniques.

  2. PCR and microscopic identification of isolated Leishmania tropica from clinical samples of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human population of Kohat region in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Nasser M; Ayaz, Sultan; Ullah, Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania tropica was isolated from the clinical patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural community of Kohat district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and was identified through PCR, microscopy, and culture techniques. A total of 113 samples from the clinical patients were examined through PCR, microscopy, and culture which showed 87.61% (99/113), 53.98% (61/113), and 46.90% (53/113) prevalence. During the study, 186 bp Leishmania tropica was identified through PCR. Thus the sensitivity of PCR is very high as compared to the conventional techniques.

  3. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  4. The sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, A C; Vilela, M L; Souza, N A; Andrade-Coelho, C A; Barbosa, A F; Firmo, A L; Rangel, E F

    1996-01-01

    The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fischeri, L. pessoai, L. shannoni and L. misionensis were identified. Lutzomyia whitmani was the predominant species. Specimens were collected indoors, at peridomestic sites, in the cocoa plantations and in other types of collections. Females fed readily on humans and were attracted to domestic animals. Our evidence suggests that L. whitmani is a probable vector.

  5. The sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae of a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilhéus, state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Alfredo CR Azevedo

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fischeri, L. pessoai, L. shannoni and L. misionensis were identified. Lutzomyia whitmani was the predominant species. Specimens were collected indoors, at peridomestic sites, in the cocoa plantations and in other types of collections. Females fed readily on humans and were attracted to domestic animals. Our evidence suggests that L. whitmani is a probable vector.

  6. Leishmanioses tegumentares: aspectos clínicos e imunopatológicos Cutaneous leishmaniasis: clinical and immunopathological aspects

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    Gabriel Grimaldi Júnior

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi visto nesta revisão que os parasitas do gênero Leishmania induzem uma variedade de respostas complexas nos hospedeiros vertebrados, efetuadas e/ou moduladas pelo seu sistema imunológico. Foi também salientado que o destino da Leishmania no interior de macrófagos depende de relações particulares parasito-hospedeiro, envolvendo não apenas as propriedades intrísecas do parasita, mas também as características, geneticamente determinadas, da cédula hospedeira ou das suas interações com outras células imunocompetentes. Atráves de uma revisão das evidências consubstanciando essesconceitos, os mesmos foram aplicados na descrição do espectro clínico e imunopatológico da doença humana, particularmente das leishmanioses cutâneas e mucocutâneas do Novo e do Velho Mundo. Finalmente, baseando-se nos resultados obtidos em modelos experimentais de leishmaniose cutânea, os quais reproduzem os achados das formas resolutiva e persistentes da doença humana, o autor apresenta uma análise esquemática da evolução das características histopatológicas das lesões leishmanióticas.Parasites of the genus Leishmania induce a complex variety of responses in their mammalian hosts, effected and/or modulated by the immune system. The outcome of leishmanial infection of macrophages depends on factors particular to each host-parasite combination, involving not only intrinsic properties of the parasite, but also genetically determined characteristics of the host cell or of its interactions with immunocompetent cells. Following a review of evidence supporting these concepts, they are applied in describing the clinical and immunopathological spectrum of the disease as it occurs in man, with emphasis on the cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniases of the Old and New World. Based on results obtained in experimental models of cutaneous leishmaniasis which reproduce features of healing and non-healing human disease, the author presents a schematic

  7. Temporal dynamics and impact of climate factors on the incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Tunisia.

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    Amine Toumi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Old world Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL is a vector-borne human disease caused by Leishmania major, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite transmitted by pool blood-feeding sand flies mainly to wild rodents, such as Psammomys obesus. The human beings who share the rodent and sand fly habitats can be subverted as both sand fly blood resource. ZCL is endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, Subsaharan and North Africa. Like other vector-borne diseases, the incidence of ZCL displayed by humans varies with environmental and climate factors. However, so far no study has addressed the temporal dynamics or the impact of climate factors on the ZCL risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seasonality during the same epidemiologic year and interval between ZCL epidemics ranging from 4 to 7 years were demonstrated. Models showed that ZCL incidence is raising i by 1.8% (95% confidence intervals CI:0.0-3.6% when there is 1 mm increase in the rainfall lagged by 12 to 14 months ii by 5.0% (95% CI: 0.8-9.4% when there is a 1% increase in humidity from July to September in the same epidemiologic year. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher rainfall is expected to result in increased density of chenopods, a halophytic plant that constitutes the exclusive food of Psammomys obesus. Consequently, following a high density of Psammomys obesus, the pool of Leishmania major transmissible from the rodents to blood-feeding female sand flies could lead to a higher probability of transmission to humans over the next season. These findings provide the evidence that ZCL is highly influenced by climate factors that could affect both Psammomys obesus and the sand fly population densities.

  8. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Gongora, Rafael E.; Valderrama, Liliana; Jojoa, Jimena; Alexander, Neal; Rubiano, Luisa C.; Cossio, Alexandra; Adams, Emily R.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Gomez, María Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    Background The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking. Methods We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed. Principal Findings Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114) of leishmanin skin test (LST) positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total). Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Conclusions Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia) transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and

  9. Modeling the Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vectors (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Iran: A Potential Transmission in Disease Prone Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Rassi, Yavar; Karimi, Ameneh; Charrahy, Zabihollah

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is now the main vector-borne disease in Iran. Two forms of the disease exist in the country, transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. Modeling distribution of the vector species is beneficial for preparedness and planning to interrupt the transmission cycle. Data on sand fly distribution during 1990-2013 were used to predict the niche suitability. MaxEnt algorithm model was used for prediction using bioclimatic and environmental variables (precipitation, temperature, altitude, slope, and aspect). Regularized training, area under the curve, and unregularized training gains were 0.916, 0.915, and 1.503, respectively, for Ph. papatasi. These values were calculated as 0.987, 0.923, and 1.588 for Ph. sergenti s.l. The jackknife test showed that the environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation has the mean temperature of the wettest quarter for both species, while slope decreases the gain the most when it is omitted from the model. Classification of probability of presence for two studied species was performed on five classes using equal intervals in ArcGIS. More than 60% probability of presence was considered as areas with high potential of CL transmission. These areas include arid and semiarid climates, mainly located in central part of the country. Mean of altitude, annual precipitation, and temperature in these areas were calculated 990 and 1,235 m, 273 and 226 mm, and 17.5 and 16.4°C for Ph. papatasi and Ph. sergenti s.l., respectively. These findings can be used in the prediction of CL transmission potential, as well as for planning the disease control interventions.

  10. Molecular Identification and Polymorphism Determination of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis Agents Isolated from Human and Animal Hosts in Iran

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    Homa Hajjaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of internal transcript spacer 1 of ribosomal RNA (ITS1-RNA gene followed by RFLP analysis and sequencing was used to identify the causing agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL in humans and animal reservoir hosts from various geographical areas in Iran. We also used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR to obtain polymorphisms among isolates of Leishmania spp. Totally, 362 suspected human and animal cases including 173 CL, 49 VL, 60 rodents, and 80 domestic dogs were examined for Leishmania infection. From 112 culture-positive samples prepared from CL cases, 75 (67% were infected with L. major and 37 (33% with L. tropica. Of the 60 rodents examined, 25 (41.6% harbored the Leishmania infection; 21 were infected with L. major and 4 with L. turanica. From 49 suspected VL, 29 were positive by direct agglutination test (DAT, whereas microscopy detected parasite in bone marrow of 25 and culture in 28 of the patients. Two VL patients were infected with L. tropica and 26 with L. infantum. Of the 80 domestic dogs, 56 showed anti-Leishmania antibodies with DAT. Of these, 55 were positive by both microscopy and culture. Molecular identity, obtained only for 47 samples, revealed L. infantum in 43 and L. tropica in 4 dogs. The polymorphisms among L. tropica and L. major isolates were 3.6% and 7.3%; the rate among human and canine VL isolates was 2.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Our results showed that at least four different Leishmania species with various polymorphisms circulate among humans and animal hosts in Iran.

  11. Community knowledge,attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello,Gamo Gofa Zone,South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia.Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software.Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results.Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225(57.4%) of the participants were males and 167(42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265(67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127(32.4%) responded that they did not know CL.Based on the scoring results, 265(67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215(54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL.Approximately, 215(54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net.Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized community awareness creation through various means.

  12. Risk Mapping of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis via a Fuzzy C Means-based Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, P.; Karimi, M.; Pahlavani, P.

    2014-10-01

    Finding pathogenic factors and how they are spread in the environment has become a global demand, recently. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) created by Leishmania is a special parasitic disease which can be passed on to human through phlebotomus of vector-born. Studies show that economic situation, cultural issues, as well as environmental and ecological conditions can affect the prevalence of this disease. In this study, Data Mining is utilized in order to predict CL prevalence rate and obtain a risk map. This case is based on effective environmental parameters on CL and a Neuro-Fuzzy system was also used. Learning capacity of Neuro-Fuzzy systems in neural network on one hand and reasoning power of fuzzy systems on the other, make it very efficient to use. In this research, in order to predict CL prevalence rate, an adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system with fuzzy inference structure of fuzzy C Means clustering was applied to determine the initial membership functions. Regarding to high incidence of CL in Ilam province, counties of Ilam, Mehran, and Dehloran have been examined and evaluated. The CL prevalence rate was predicted in 2012 by providing effective environmental map and topography properties including temperature, moisture, annual, rainfall, vegetation and elevation. Results indicate that the model precision with fuzzy C Means clustering structure rises acceptable RMSE values of both training and checking data and support our analyses. Using the proposed data mining technology, the pattern of disease spatial distribution and vulnerable areas become identifiable and the map can be used by experts and decision makers of public health as a useful tool in management and optimal decision-making.

  13. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

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    Mariana Rosales-Chilama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking.We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed.Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114 of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total. Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia subgenus.Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping

  14. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤ 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  15. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

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    Ahmed Seid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS, statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤0.056 as the inclusion level for the model’s environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  16. The Role of Apoptosis in the Cellular Response of Liver and Spleen of BALB/c Mice in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Mahvash Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease in Iran being mainly caused by Leishmania (L. major. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of apoptosis in the spleen and liver of female mice infected with L. major. Methods: BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into the control and experimental groups (ten mice per group. The experimental groups were subcutaneously inoculated with promastigotes of L. major at stationary phase. The animals were sacrificed after 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 days of injection. The liver and spleen were analyzed for various parameters of apoptosis. Results: Activities of superoxide dismutase and caspase-3, levels of superoxide anion production and malondialdehyde, and the percent of DNA fragmentation were increased in the liver and spleen of the infected mice. Catalase activity in the liver was increased, while glutathione level in both tissues was decreased after 90 and 120 days of infection. The numbers of apoptotic nuclei in the spleen were higher than the liver at 90 and 120 days post-infection using the TUNEL method. Conclusion: L. major infection induces a time-dependent increase in apoptosis in the liver and spleen as evidenced by the production of ROS, increasing activation of caspase-3, elevated DNA fragmentation, and increasing lipid peroxidation. Induction of oxidative stress was observed in the liver and spleen after 90 and 120 days of initiation of the infection. However, the spleen tissue appears to be more sensitive to the infection to L. major on oxidative stress and apoptosis induction compared with the liver tissue.

  17. Risk Mapping of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis via a Fuzzy C Means-based Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

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    P. Akhavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Finding pathogenic factors and how they are spread in the environment has become a global demand, recently. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL created by Leishmania is a special parasitic disease which can be passed on to human through phlebotomus of vector-born. Studies show that economic situation, cultural issues, as well as environmental and ecological conditions can affect the prevalence of this disease. In this study, Data Mining is utilized in order to predict CL prevalence rate and obtain a risk map. This case is based on effective environmental parameters on CL and a Neuro-Fuzzy system was also used. Learning capacity of Neuro-Fuzzy systems in neural network on one hand and reasoning power of fuzzy systems on the other, make it very efficient to use. In this research, in order to predict CL prevalence rate, an adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system with fuzzy inference structure of fuzzy C Means clustering was applied to determine the initial membership functions. Regarding to high incidence of CL in Ilam province, counties of Ilam, Mehran, and Dehloran have been examined and evaluated. The CL prevalence rate was predicted in 2012 by providing effective environmental map and topography properties including temperature, moisture, annual, rainfall, vegetation and elevation. Results indicate that the model precision with fuzzy C Means clustering structure rises acceptable RMSE values of both training and checking data and support our analyses. Using the proposed data mining technology, the pattern of disease spatial distribution and vulnerable areas become identifiable and the map can be used by experts and decision makers of public health as a useful tool in management and optimal decision-making.

  18. Is paromomycin an effective and safe treatment against cutaneous leishmaniasis? A meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials.

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    Dae Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High cost, poor compliance, and systemic toxicity have limited the use of pentavalent antimony compounds (SbV, the treatment of choice for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Paromomycin (PR has been developed as an alternative to SbV, but existing data are conflicting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, without language restriction, through August 2007, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy or safety between PR and placebo or SbV. Primary outcome was clinical cure, defined as complete healing, disappearance, or reepithelialization of all lesions. Data were extracted independently by two investigators, and pooled using a random-effects model. Fourteen trials including 1,221 patients were included. In placebo-controlled trials, topical PR appeared to have therapeutic activity against the old world and new world CL, with increased local reactions, when used with methylbenzethonium chloride (MBCL compared to when used alone (risk ratio [RR] for clinical cure, 2.58 versus 1.01: RR for local reactions, 1.60 versus 1.07. In SbV-controlled trials, the efficacy of topical PR was not significantly different from that of intralesional SbV in the old world CL (RR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-1.89, whereas topical PR was inferior to parenteral SbV in treating the new world CL (0.67; 0.54-0.82. No significant difference in efficacy was found between parenteral PR and parenteral SbV in the new world CL (0.88; 0.56-1.38. Systemic side effects were fewer with topical or parenteral PR than parenteral SbV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Topical PR with MBCL could be a therapeutic alternative to SbV in selected cases of the old world CL. Development of new formulations with better efficacy and tolerability remains to be an area of future research.

  19. Two recent but temporally distinct outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis among foreign workers in the Dead-Sea area of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, I M; Geith, E; Schönian, G; Kanani, K A

    2009-07-01

    Two temporally distinct outbreaks of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), as well as scattered cases of the disease, have recently been observed close to the Dead Sea, in Jordan. Each of the two outbreaks, which occurred in 2004/2005 and 2007/2008, involved a group of foreign workers who were deployed within otherwise uninhabited locations. During each outbreak, about 20% of the workers were found infected with the causative parasite. In the earlier outbreak, 61 workers were found to have skin lesions like those of CL and all but three were confirmed by culture and/or the examination of smears (40 cases) or, in the case of 18 (86%) of the 21 suspected cases found smear- and culture-negative, by PCR. In the second outbreak, the cases were only identified from their clinical manifestations and their response to antileishmanial treatment (cryotherapy). Leishmania major was identified as the cause of the 2004/2005 outbreak and some sporadic cases that occurred, in 2004, along the shores of the Dead Sea. The burrows of potential reservoir hosts were found close to the outbreak locations, frequently under the chenopod Seidlitzia rosmarinus. The two outbreaks emphasise the continuing problem posed by the CL focus in the Mid Jordan Valley and its impact on humans who move into the area. Curiously, an investigation on the socio-economic conditions of the workers during the outbreaks identified a group of 48 workers who were living in air-conditioned rooms during the 2007/2008 outbreak, among whom no CL cases were found. In contrast, 26 of a neighbouring group of 124 workers, who were all living in non-air-conditioned rooms, developed CL lesions. The role of air conditioning, and of other factors and measures, in the prevention of the transmission of the causative parasites of CL merits further investigation and the attention of the local health authorities.

  20. Detection of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia: accuracy of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Herintha Coeto Neitzke-Abreu

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL can occur in skin and mucosa, causing disfiguring lesions. The laboratory diagnosis of CL involves immunological methods and optical detection of the parasite, al of which have limitations. There is a need for more effective diagnostic methods for CL which wil allow treatment to be initiated more promptly in order to help prevent the development of severe forms of mucosal disease, and to estimate the prognosis of the infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been widely used to diagnose CL, because of its higher sensitivity. This study estimated the accuracy and compared PCRs of samples from lesion scarification (PCR-L and blood sample-enriched leukocytes (PCR-B with three conventional diagnostic techniques: parasite direct search (DS, Montenegro skin test (MST, and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF. The study included 276 patients under suspicion of CL. We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which patients were selected by convenience sampling. We used MP3H/MP1L primers to generate a Leishmania (Viannia (minicircle kDNA fragment of 70-bp. Of 106 patients with CL, 83.87%, 51.67%, 64.52%, 85.71%, or 96.10% tested positive by PCR-L, PCR-B, DS, IIF, or MST, respectively. Five patients tested positive only by PCR-L, and two other patients only by PCR-B. PCR-L is indicated for use in patients with chronic lesions or Leishmania reinfection, which may progress to mucosal lesion. PCR-B is indicated for use in patients with negative results in conventional tests or for patients with no apparent lesion. PCR is not only useful in diagnosing CL but also helps to identify the infecting species.

  1. Laryngeal leishmaniasis in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsadni, C; Fsadni, P; Piscopo, T; Mallia Azzopardi, C

    2007-02-01

    The localization of Leishmania spp. in the larynx is rare especially when not associated with immunosuppression or with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis, the first of its kind documented in Malta and infrequently reported from the Mediterranean basin.

  2. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas.

  3. Protective Effect of Vitamin D3 and Gp63 Conjugated with Tetanus Toxoid on Outcome of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions in Balb/C Mice

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    S Soudi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: GP63 is a major surface protease of Leishmania promastigotes that plays an important role in its virulance. As GP63 on its own can not develop an effective protection against leishmaniasis, the goal of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of GP63 conjugated with tetanus toxoid (TT and Vitamin D3 in susceptible BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: This study was a basic-applied experimental study performed in Tarbiat Modarres University from September 2002 to April 2005. Cloned virulant Leishmania (L. major [MRHO / IR / 75 / ER] strain was cultured and 5109 cells were harvested. GP63 Molecule was purified and conjugated with TT and conjugated molecule was used for immunization of 8 groups of female BALB/c mice. Results: Results showed that the group of mice receiving conjugated molecule with Vitamin D3 had significant differences from other groups regarding lesion progression (P0.05. The culture of spleen cells showed that the disease did not become systemic in this group. Conclusion: Conjugation of GP63 with TT strengthens cell immunity and its use along with vitamin D3 provokes macrophages activity. This basis can be used for production of an appropriate preparation for protection against Leishmaniasis.

  4. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Leishmania Reactive CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Proliferation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    H Keshavarz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of the division history of T cells in vitro is helpful in the study of effector mechanisms against infections. Technique described here uses the intracellular fluorescent label carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE to monitor the proliferation. Methods: In a cross sectional study, blood samples were collected from 7 volunteers with history of cutaneous leishmania­sis (CL and one healthy control from endemic areas in Isfahan province who referred to the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL, then CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes were isolated from peri­pheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using mAbs and magnetic nanoparticles. CFSE labeled CD4+ or CD8+ lympho­cytes cultured with autologous monocytes in the presence of PHA, SLA, live Leishmania major or as control with­out sti­mulation. Cells were harvested after 7 days and were analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Five consecutive divisions were monitored separately. Stimulation of CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes from CL sub­jects with SLA showed a significant difference in proliferation comparing with unstimulated cells (P< 0.05. The signifi­cant difference in the percentages of CD4+ cells stimulated with SLA was revealed at different divisions for each subject. In CD8+ lymphocyte, significant stronger stimulation of SLA was evident later in the proliferation process. The mean number of divisions in both CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes stimulated with SLA was significantly greater than when stimulated with live L. major (P=0.007 / P=0.012, respectively Conclusion: The percentage of divided cells might be calculated separately in each division. The cells remained active following CFSE staining and there is possibility of functional analysis simultaneously.

  5. Karyosystematic and morphometric characterization of the rodents as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of Isfahan Province, Iran

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    L. Shirani Bidabadi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Rodents belonging to Gerbillinae subfamily are the main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL in Iran. Regarding the important role of these rodents in the maintenance of Leishmania major in the nature, their identification with morphometric, cytogenetic and molecular methods seems to be essential. The karyotype study of these species, captured from a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the south of Isfahan Province was carried out in 2007.Methods: Twenty specimens containing seventeen Meriones persicus and three Nesokia indica were captured from Mobarakeh rural district south of Isfahan. Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these two species were prepared from bone marrow chromosome preparations. Systematic important characters of the body and cranium (incisors, molars, occipitonasal, condylobasal, zygomatic, tympanic bullae, etc. of these rodents were studied. Cranium size was measured using a Vernier calipers.Results: Specimens of M. persicus and N. indica had 2n = 42. The karyotype study of these species included metacentric, sub-metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes. Morphological studies were completely matched with the reported characters of these species and further confirmed the diagnoses. Interpretation & conclusion: Based on the results of this study, M. persicus and N. indica are two completely differentiated rodents species that were collected from a new focus and they can also be differentiated morphologically.

  6. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Leishmania amazonensis expressing infrared fluorescence protein (iRFP) for real-time monitoring of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice.

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    Oliveira, Janaina Correia; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Oliveira, Renato Antonio Dos Santos; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales

    2016-11-01

    The use of Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice is an important model for the study of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here we report the development of a non-invasive method to directly evaluate and measure parasite burden during the course of the infection, based on the near-infrared fluorescence detection of a recombinant L. amazonensis strain. So, we generated a L. amazonensis strain that stably expresses the near-infrared protein (iRFP) gene and compared the maintenance of its vitro and in vivo characteristics, such as fitness, pathogenicity and fluorescence emission. After that, we followed the disease development, as well as the parasite burden in BALB/c mice footpads infected with L. amazonensis-iRFP, by using an in vivo near-infrared fluorescence scanner. In vitro results showed a linear correlation between the fluorescence emission and the number of parasites. The in vivo study showed that the use of iRFP-transfected L. amazonensis enables the monitoring of parasite burden by measuring fluorescence signals. Therefore, this technique can be confidently used to directly monitor parasitic load and infection overtime and could be an excellent tool for in vitro and in vivo screening of anti-leishmanial drugs and vaccine efficiency. This is the first report of the use of the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technique for monitoring in vivo cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  7. Therapeutic Effect of Sodium Selenite and Zinc Sulphate as Supplementary with Meglumine Antimoniate( Glucantime® Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In BALB/C Mice

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    M Mohebali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful therapy of leishmaniasis depends on effective cellular immune response. We evaluated the effectiveness of sodium selenite and zinc sulphate as known immunomodulator materials, in combination with Glucantime® in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions resulting from Leishmania ma­jor in susceptible animal model.Methods: Thirty three female mice weighing 18-20 g at the age of 7-8 week infected with L. major were randomly divided into 3 groups: group1: treated by sodium selenite (0.35 mg/kg for 30 days, group2: treated by zinc sulphate (2 mg/kg for 30 days and group3: treated by distilled water (0.01 ml/gr body weight for 30 days as control. All groups received Glucantime® as a standard anti- leishmanial agent (60 mg/kg, ip for 14 days. To assess the results of treatment measurement of lesions size and parasitological tests were done weekly.Results: The lesion sizes increased continuously in sodium selenite group .Although, in zinc group did not in­crease compared to baseline But with considering the time- group interaction there was no significant difference between zinc and control group during this study. There was no difference between lesion sizes and Leishmanial loads in the interventional and control groups, respectively.Conclusion: Sodium selenite and zinc sulphate at mentioned doses and duration of treatment did not show any treatment effect on cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major in BALB/c mice. Increasing the dose of supplements and considering the follow up period after treatment can help more certain conclusion.

  8. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Yamamoto, Eduardo S.; Campos, Bruno L. S.; Jesus, Jéssica A.; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Ribeiro, Susan P.; Kallás, Esper G.; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S.; Sessa, Deborah P.; Lago, João H. G.; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  9. The effectiveness of mix extracts of Thyme, Yarrow and Propolis on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: a comparative study in animal model (Balb/c

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    Moatar F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Though many therapeutic modalities have been suggested but still no definite treatment for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is available. Many compounds including Alkaloid, Quinones, Iridoids, Terpenes, Indole analogue have been documented to have antileishmania activity invitro. On the other hand, the aforementioned compounds can be found in the herbs including Thyme, Yarrow. Propolis is a brown color substance that is collected by honey bee from plants. Regarding the lack of data about the possible efficacy of these herbs against leishmaniasis, we have decided to evaluate and compare the efficacy of herbal extract of Thyme, Yarrow, Propolis and systemic glucantime against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c, and to formulate drugs without harmful chemical material and without side effect. "nMethods: During three weeks of inoculation of parasite in base tail of mice, lesions will appear in the inoculation site. The animals divided into seven groups. We used mix alchoholic extract solution two times a day, checked lesions weekly for six week and measured size of lesion in the base of tail with kulis- vernieh. "nResults: We observed significant difference between mean of lesion diameter before and after treatment in control, Yarrow and Thyme groups (p<0.05. Paired t test showed no significant difference between mean of lesion diameter after treatment between treatment and glucantime groups (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Alchoholic extract to Thyme and Yarrow have good effect on lesions treatment, we suggest repeat of this study with Thyme and Yarrow extract in gel or cream base in first stage of lesions appearance.

  10. [Determination of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP in the smear samples taken from the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases].

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    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Ertuğ, Sema; Çalışkan, Serçin Özlem; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The forms of the disease caused by Leishmania species in Turkey as well as in Aegean region are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL, respectively), and the agent of CL is commonly L.tropica. However, L.infantum was also reported as being CL agent recently. Direct microscopic examination, serological tests and culture are the conventional methods used for the diagnosis of CL. Since the specificities of these methods are high their sensitivities are variable and identification at species level is not possible. Recently, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods enabled the rapid and reliable diagnosis and species identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method both for the detection and identification of Leishmania species simultaneously in CL patients. A total of 30 smear samples that were positive for Leishmania amastigotes with microscopic examination, obtained from CL-suspected cases admitted to Adnan Menderes University Medical School Hospital, Parasitology Laboratory (located at Aydin, in the Aegean region of Turkey) between 2012-2014 period were included in the study. Ten samples taken from the skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus (n= 5) and Candida albicans (n= 5) were also included as negative controls. DNA extractions from the smears were performed by the use of a commercial kit (Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Tissue® Kit, Germany). DNA isolation was also performed from L.major, L.infantum and L.tropica promastigotes that were grown in culture as positive controls. In PCR method LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting to ITS (internal transcribed spacer)-1 region were used. In RFLP method, the amplified PCR products were cleaved by BsuRI (HaeIII) restriction enzyme for the species identification. As a result, restriction profiles of all samples (n= 30) were in accordance with L.tropica restriction profile. No band was observed in the

  11. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

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    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  12. Clinical and pathological analysis of six cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis%皮肤利什曼病六例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘排; 宋琳毅; 姜祎群; 沈永年; 陈浩; 孙建方

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological,clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis.Methods This study included six patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed in the Institute of Dermatology,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College,over the past 10 years.The epidemiological features as well as clinical and histopathologic presentations of these patients were analyzed retrospectively.Results All of the six patients were male.The mean age at onset of skin eruptions was 47.67 (range:37-67) years,and the mean duration of disease was 10 (range:6-18) months.Clinical presentations included erythema,nodules and ulcers in the face and limbs.Skin biopsy revealed infection-associated granulomatous inflammation with many amastigotes (basophilic bodies) in the cytoplasm of histiocytes,which were highlighted with Giemsa stain.All the patients had a history of working at or travel to epidemic areas.Conclusion The diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis mainly depends on epidemiological data,clinical manifestation and histopathologic findings.%目的 探讨皮肤利什曼病的流行病学、临床及组织病理学特点.方法 收集并分析6例皮肤利什曼病患者的流行病学、临床及组织病理学资料.结果 6例患者均为男性,平均发病年龄47.67岁(37~67岁),平均病程10个月(6~ 18个月).皮损特点为红斑、结节、溃疡,分布于面部及四肢暴露部位.组织病理表现为感染性肉芽肿模式,组织标本中均可找到组织细胞胞质内嗜碱性小体.6例患者均具有疫区工作或旅行史.结论 皮肤利什曼病的诊断主要依靠流行病资料、临床表现和组织病理学检查.

  13. Aspectos ecológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana: 2. ecótopo artificial como abrigo de Psychodopygus intermedius e observações sobre alimentação e reprodução sob influência de fatores físicos naturais Ecological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: 2. the artificial biotope as shelter for Psychodopygus intermedius and observations about feeding and reproduction under direct influence of natural physical factors

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available As observações levadas a cabo em um galinheiro experimental mostraram que Psychodopygus intermedius tem a capacidade de nele abrigar-se. Para se chegar a este resultado, a metodologia utilizada consistiu na coleta total diurna e exame do estado de alimentação e digestão sangüínea dos Ps. intermedius como parâmetro da sua maior ou menor permanência no ecótopo estudado. Além disso, observou-se paralelamente, os tempos para o repasto sangüíneo, digestão completa, oviposição, sobrevivência e cópula sob a influência direta dos fatores físicos naturais. A importância epidemiológica dos resultados reside em novas elucidações experimentais sobre a viabilidade da transmissão da leshmaniose tegumentar ocorrer em ambiente domiciliar.Observations carried out in experimental hen-houses showed that Psycihodopygus intermedius are able to take shelter in them. The methodology consisted in making daytime catches and examining the feeding and blood digestion states, in terms of the time spent in the ecotope. The times of blood meals, complete digestion, oviposition, survival and mating under the direct influence of natural physical factors were also calculated. The epidemiological importance of the results consists in the new experimental evidence of the viability of leishmaniasis cutaneous transmission taking place within household environments.

  14. Field trial of a vaccine against new world cutaneous leishmaniasis in an at-risk child population: how long does protection last?

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    Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, M Margaret; Romero, Luciano; Garcia, Vinicio; Salazar, Jorge

    2003-06-15

    During 12 months of follow-up in a randomized double-blind controlled field study, a killed whole-promastigote vaccine cocktail plus bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) adjuvant significantly reduced the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuadorian children, compared with BCG alone. To determine how much longer protection might continue, the study was reblinded to permit 48 additional months of follow-up. During months 13-18, CL incidence remained lower in the vaccine group, compared with that in the control group (5.9% vs. 13.8%; chi2=8.8; P=.003), with vaccine efficacy calculated at 56.5% (95% confidence interval, 18.7%-76.7%); however, during months 24-60, no significant between-group differences were detected. Periodic administration of boosters may be necessary to maintain whole-parasite-vaccine protection against New World CL.

  15. Development of a novel formulation with hypericin to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis based on photodynamic therapy in in vitro and in vivo studies.

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    Montoya, Andrés; Daza, Alejandro; Muñoz, Diana; Ríos, Karina; Taylor, Viviana; Cedeño, David; Vélez, Iván D; Echeverri, Fernando; Robledo, Sara M

    2015-09-01

    An evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity in vitro and in vivo of hypericin, an expanded-spectrum photosensitizer found in Hypericum perforatum, is presented. Hypericin was evaluated against intracellular amastigotes in vitro of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis. A topical formulation containing 0.5% hypericin was developed and assayed in vivo in a hamster model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Results demonstrate that hypericin induces a significant antiamastigote effect in vitro against L. panamensis by decreasing the number of parasites inside infected cells. The topical formulation of 0.5% hypericin allows healing of L. panamensis-induced lesions upon a topical application of 40 mg/day plus visible-light irradiation (5 J/cm(2), 15 min), twice a week for 3 weeks.

  16. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis co-infection in dogs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: evaluation by specific PCR and RFLP-PCR assays

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    Marize Quinhones Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During a diagnostic evaluation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL, two of seventeen dogs were found to be co-infected by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. Methods Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR assays were performed. Results PCR assays for Leishmania subgenus identification followed by RFLP-PCR analysis in biopsies from cutaneous lesions and the spleen confirmed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi in those fragments. Conclusions This report reinforces the importance of using serological and molecular techniques in the epidemiological surveillance of canine populations in endemic areas in which both diseases are known to co-exist. In such cases, a reassessment of the control measures is required.

  17. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with contraindication to systemic therapy from Rio de Janeiro (2000 to 2006).

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    Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira E; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Azeredo-Coutinho, Rilza Beatriz; Silva, Fátima da Conceição; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Moreira, João Soares; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Baptista, Cibele; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) in 24 not submitted to previous treatment patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and with contraindication to systemic therapy. Each treatment consisted of one to four intralesional applications of MA at 15-day intervals. Patients' age ranged from 3 to 90 years; fourteen were females. Intralesional treatment in the absence of any relevant toxicity was successful in 20 (83.3%) patients. Three patients required additional treatment with amphotericin B and one required systemic MA. None of the patients developed mucosal lesions when followed up to 60 months. Intralesional MA is an effective and less toxic alternative treatment of patients with CL and contraindication to systemic therapy.

  18. Entomological studies of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in relation to cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Al Rabta, North West of Libya.

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    Dokhan, Mostafa Ramahdan; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin; Doha, Said Abdallah; El-Hosary, Shabaan Said; Shaibi, Taher; Annajar, Badereddin Bashir

    2016-02-01

    Al Rabta in the North-West of Libya is a rural area where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic for long time. Few reports are available on sand flies in this area which is an important focus of CL. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, and monthly fluctuation of sand flies in this area. Sand flies were biweekly collected by CDC light traps from June to November 2012 and April to November 2013 in two villages, Al Rabta East (RE) and Al Rabta West (RW). Nine species (6 Phlebotomus and 3 Sergentomyia) were reported in the two villages. A total of 5605 and 5446 flies were collected of which Phlebotomus represented 59.30 and 56.63% in RE and RW, respectively. Sergentomyia minuta and Phlebotomus papatasi were the abundant species. Generally, more males were collected than females for all species. The overall ratios (males: females) for most of species were not deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio (Chi-squared, P>0.05). Sand fly abundance (fly/trap) is directly related to the temperature and RH (P0.05). Flies were active from April to November with increased activity from June to October. Prominent peaks were in September and June. The abundance of P. papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti, vectors of CL (August-October) coincided with the reported higher numbers of CL cases (August- November). The obtained results could be important for the successful planning and implementation of leishmaniasis control programs.

  19. First detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species in Sergentomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae from an outbreak area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana.

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    Chukwunonso O Nzelu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  20. Species Identification and Molecular Typing of Leishmania Spp. Using Targeting HSP70 Gene in Suspected Patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Southeast Iran

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    MIRAHMADI, Hadi; SALIMI KHORASHAD, Alireza; SOHRABNAHAD, Alireza; HEYDARIAN, Peyman; BIZHANI, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a sand fly-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Because of the preventing and controlling methods, clinical course, prognosis and choice of treatment are differing from species; differentiation of species is critical. The present study was aimed to detect the parasite species using the PCR-RFLP method. Methods: A total of 130 Giemsa-Stained slides from suspected Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients were examined under a light microscope at ×1000. DNA from each slide was extracted PCR method was undertaken with HSP70 genes and the PCR products were digested with a restriction enzyme HaeIII (BsuR1). The study was conducted in the laboratory of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in the Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeastern Iran in 2015. Results: From 130 suspected samples, 59 (45.3%) were positive by the microscopic examination, meanwhile 64 (49.2%) were positive by PCR-RFLP, Leishmania species were recognized, and L. tropica was introduced as predominant species in current study. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP is a valuable technique for distinguish of Leishmania species. Furthermore, anthroponotic CL is the dominant cause of CL in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. PMID:28127360

  1. Comparison between Combination Therapy of Oral Terbinafine and Cryotherapy versus Systemic Meglumine Antimoniate and Cryotherapy in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Saeedeh Farajzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection that may lead to a variety of manifestations. In Iran, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has a high prevalence. There are many treatment modalities for CL. The use of oral terbinafine in the treatment of CL has recently been considered. The aim of this study was to compare combination of oral terbinafine plus cryotherapy versus systemic meglumine antimoniate plus cryotherapy in CL.Patients with proven direct smear for CL were divided randomly in 2 groups of 40 cases. For the first group systemic glucantime prescribed (IM, 15 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. For the second group oral terbinafine as two folds of usual dose in the treatment of fungal diseases prescribed [125 mg/day for body weight (BW 40 kg] for 4 weeks. Both groups received cryotherapy every 2 weeks for 4 weeks. The patients were followed monthly for 3 months after the treatment.Partial (HR= 0.55, CI 95%= 0.3-1.1 and complete (HR= 0.53, CI 95%= 0.3-0.98 clinical improvement in terbinafine group was much slower than glucantime group, although at the end of treatment protocols no significant difference between groups were statistically observed (P=0.27.Considering more convenient suitable route of administration and approximately comparable results, it seems that terbinafine can be used as an alternative treatment, especially in the case of allergy or resistance to systemic glucantime.

  2. Diversity and Dynamics of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae of Two Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Foci in the Fes-Boulemane Region of Northern Morocco

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    Fatima Zahra Talbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania and transmitted by several species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae. In order to evaluate the risk of leishmaniasis transmission in Fes-Boulemane, an investigation was carried out in two localities, Aichoun and Bouasseme, during 2011. From January to December, 1120 specimens were collected in Aichoun comprising six species belonging to two genera: Phlebotomus sergenti (76.07%, Phlebotomus longicuspis (9.01%, Phlebotomus perniciosus (8.48%, Phlebotomus papatasi (4.82%, Sergentomyia minuta, and Sergentomyia fallax. For Bouasseme, seven species were identified with Phlebotomus sergenti (60.39% dominating, followed by Phlebotomus perniciosus (20% and Phlebotomus longicuspis (12.15%. The remaining species, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Sergentomyia minuta, and Sergentomyia fallax, were less prevalent. The activity of sand flies in both localities is marked by the dominance of Ph. sergenti with two peaks occurring in June and September. In order to obtain a better understanding of sand fly diversity among their species, results were analyzed by the ecological indices determinant: specific richness, the relative abundance, and Shannon-Weiner index (H′. Further studies of sand fly diversity should employ statistical tests and molecular analyses. This study can be useful in the implementation of appropriate future control measures.

  3. Domestic and peridomestic risk factors associated with transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in three hypo endemic, endemic, and hyper endemic areas: A randomized epidemiological study

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    Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by leishmania protozoa. Knowledge about health effects associated with environment situation and human behavior in national and local levels seems to be very necessary. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional case-control study was carried out in three adjacent counties of Isfahan province in Iran. Data were collected by face-to-face interviewing and recorded structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and logistic. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The economic level had significant association with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL transmission (P < 0.05. However, there was no significant association between existence of food storage and transmission of CL. We, however, found significant reduction of CL transmission following use of insect control measures (P < 0.05. The odds ratio for peridomestic transmission was 0.420 for houses that weren′t round with any old or ruined houses. Conclusion: We conclude that among aforementioned risk factors, the impact of peridomestic factors is stronger in CL transmission when compared with domestic and behavioral factors.

  4. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

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    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  5. The topical treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis with the tincture of thioxolone plus benzoxonium chloride (Thio-Ben) along with cryotherapy: a single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daie Parizi, Mohammad Hossein; Karvar, Mehran; Sharifi, Iraj; Bahrampour, Abbas; Heshmat Khah, Amireh; Rahnama, Zahra; Baziar, Zahra; Amiri, Rezvan

    2015-01-01

    A simple efficacious topical treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still an unresolved challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the topical use of thioxolone plus benzoxonium chloride (Thio-Ben) tincture in combination with cryotherapy in comparison with intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) along with cryotherapy in treating anthroponotic CL (ACL). The study was conducted in Leishmaniasis Center in Dadbin Health Care Clinic, Kerman, Iran. Sixty-four CL lesions were randomly assigned to receive Thio-Ben plus cryotherapy (TC) (n = 32) or Glucantime plus cryotherapy (GC) (n = 32). Thio-Ben was used topically every other day and Glucantime was used intralesionally once a week for a maximum of 3 months. In both study groups, cryotherapy was administered using liquid nitrogen once every 2 weeks. Of 64 recruited lesions, 47 lesions completed the study protocol. Twenty lesions (91%) in TC group and 23 lesions (92%) in GC group showed complete cure. TC group showed faster clinical response. Pain, hypersensitivity reaction, dizziness, and nausea were only seen in GC group. This study showed that the topical use of Thio-Ben combined with cryotherapy has a good efficacy in treating ACL with the benefit that Thio-Ben has more patient compliance and less side effects than intralesional Glucantime.

  6. [The contribution of ethnography to knowledge on socio-cultural codes related to localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in a health education program in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Guevara, Baílde

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the experience with the validation of the ethnographic methodology as an alternative for an objective and timely approach to the construction of socio-cultural scenarios in communities affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela. It begins with a brief presentation on the resurgence of leishmaniasis in the Americas as a whole and in Venezuela in the context of social inequalities. It proceeds with a review of the role of health education in programs to control endemic diseases. It then highlights the role of ethnography in the construction of rationality in daily life, its meanings, and interpretation by persons with the disease in order to elaborate permanent and sustainable health education programs. The methodology was validated using a figure in which an analysis was performed of the clinical and epidemiological history normally used to gather information on the disease. Among the main findings was the inadequacy of the clinical history design for obtaining information on socio-cultural factors linked to the disease, expressed by specific geographic territories with the support of georeferencing.

  7. First-line therapy for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru using the TLR7 agonist imiquimod in combination with pentavalent antimony.

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    Cesar Miranda-Verastegui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current therapies for cutaneous leishmaniasis are limited by poor efficacy, long-term course of treatment, and the development of resistance. We evaluated if pentavalent antimony (an anti-parasitic drug combined with imiquimod (an immunomodulator was more effective than pentavalent antimony alone in patients who had not previously been treated. METHODS: A randomized double-blind clinical trial involving 80 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was conducted in Peru. The study subjects were recruited in Lima and Cusco (20 experimental and 20 control subjects at each site. Experimental arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus 5% imiquimod cream applied to each lesion three times per week for 20 days. Control arm: Standard dose of pentavalent antimony plus placebo (vehicle cream applied as above. The primary outcome was cure defined as complete re-epithelization with no inflammation assessed during the 12 months post-treatment period. RESULTS: Of the 80 subjects enrolled, 75 completed the study. The overall cure rate at the 12-month follow-up for the intention-to-treat analysis was 75% (30/40 in the experimental arm and 58% (23/40 in the control arm (p = 0.098. Subgroup analyses suggested that combination treatment benefits were most often observed at the Cusco site, where L. braziliensis is the prevalent species. Over the study period, only one adverse event (rash was recorded, in the experimental arm. CONCLUSION: The combination treatment of imiquimod plus pentavalent antimony performed better than placebo plus pentavalent antimony, but the difference was not statistically significant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov NCT00257530.

  8. Molecular characterization of sandflies andLeishmaniadetection in main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Abarkouh district of Yazd province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jafari R; Najafzadeh N; Sedaghat MM; Parvizi P

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess molecular characterization, distribution, seasonal activities of sandfly species andLeishmania parasites infecting them for this zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus.Methods:The collections were carried out in2009-2011 usingCDC traps,StickyPapers and manual aspirator in and around the villages inAbarkouh district.Individual sandflies were characterized byPCR amplification and sequencing offragments of their mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.Leishmania parasite infections within sandflies were performed by targeting Cyt b,ITS-rDNA, k-DNA and microsatellite genes.Results:ThePCR assays detected only Leishmania major(L. major).All infections(30) were found in the abundant and widespread vector Phlebotomus papatasi(P. papatasi).Small numbers of other sandfly species were also screened for infections, but none was found.Sergentomyia sintoni andP. papatasi were the predominant members in all locations of this district and in all habitats throughout the trapping season.Only five other sandfly species were found, namelyPhlebotomus ansari,Phlebotomus caucasicus, Phlebotomus sergenti,Sergentomyia dentata andSergentomyia merviney.Conclusions:In the current survey, the only infections detected are ofL. majorin females ofP. papatasi(30 out of 190).The rates of infection ofP. papatasi byL. major are not significantly different in compare with other locations inIran with no diversity of parasitestrains.Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis may have emerged only recently inAbarkouh district, and the reason may well be the instability of the transmission cycles there.

  9. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.O método de imunofluorescência direta (DIFMA, com anticorpos monoclonais gênero- específicos para Leishmania, foi avaliado na rotina diagnostica da leishmaniose cutânea no Equador. O método foi comparado com técnicas diagnosticas de rotina: o esfregaço, a cultura e o exame histopatolôgico. As amostras para o diagnóstico foram obtidas de um total de 90 lesões cutâneas ativas, de doentes das ãreas do Equador, endêmicas para leishmaniose cutânea. O DIFMA foi positivo em todas as lesões, com resultados significativamente superior aos métodos diagnósticos de rotina, isolado ou em combinação. A sensibilidade do DFIMA não diminui em lesões crônicas. O método mostra-se muito útil no diagnóstico de leishmaniose cutânea, pela sua sensibilidade, rapidez e facilidade de execução.

  10. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... noise, they are small (approximately one-third the size of mosquitoes), and their bites might not be ...

  11. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  12. Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    NOTES 1S. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side linscoeawy and identiIIy by block number) LEISHMANIA LEISHMANIASIS CHEMOTHERAPY ANTILEISHMANIAL PENTOSTAM...number of compounds was supplied by WRAIR for testing on four strains of Leishmania in December 1977. Preliminary data were supplied to WRAIR by the...j_ = L. tropica major (Strain LV39 from USSR) and the New World cutaneous leishmaniasis by L. mexicana amazonensis (Strain LV78 from Brazil). The test

  13. Obtaining membranes for alternative treatment hydrogels of cutaneous leishmaniasis; Obtencao de membranas de hidrogeis para tratamento alternativo da leishmaniose tegumentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose Alves de

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric Hydrogels formed by crosslinked polymeric chains were obtained by ionizing radiation process according to Rosiak technique. In the last 40 years the use of hydrogels has been investigated for various applications as curatives. In this work hydrogel membranes were synthesized with poly (N-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan and laponita clay for use as a vehicle for controlled glucantime release on the surface of skin tissues injured by leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomies sandfly. The traditional treatment of patients infected by these parasites is done with pentavalent antimony in injectable form. However, these antimonates are highly toxic and cause side effects in these patients. In addition, patients with heart and kidney disease can not use this treatment. In treatment with drug delivery hydrogel membrane applied on the surface of leishmaniasis injured tissues the drug is released directly to the wound in a controlled manner, reducing the side effects. Membranes prepared in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), swelling, gel fraction, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations of cytotoxicity and drug release were made 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' with functional test according to ethical protocol of the Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases at the Hospital of Clinics, Sao Paulo University-School of Medicine, University. The 'in vivo' test of these membranes proved to be effective in controlled release of drugs directly into leishmaniasis damaged tissues. Results of 'in vivo' tests using PVP/PVAl / clay 1,5% and glucantime membrane showed remarkable contribution to wound reduction and cure in clinical therapy. (author)

  14. Attempts using cryotherapy to achieve more rapid healing in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. braziliensis braziliensis

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    Elmer Alejandro Llanos Cuentas

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of cryotherapy as an adjunct to systemic antimonial therapy (Clucantime was studied in 17 patients with a total of23 skin lesions of leishmaniasis in an area where L. braziliensis braziliensis is the species in circulation. Cryotherapy did not speed healing and has been discarded as an auxiliary therapeutic measure in our practice. However this technique may be suitable for species o/Leishmania causing more limited superficial lesions in man without the danger of metastasis.

  15. Evaluation of immune responses and analysis of the effect of vaccination of the Leishmania major recombinant ribosomal proteins L3 or L5 in two different murine models of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Laura; Santos, Diego M; Souza, Ana P; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Barral, Aldina; Alonso, Carlos; Escutia, Marta R; Bonay, Pedro; de Oliveira, Camila I; Soto, Manuel

    2013-02-18

    Four new antigenic proteins located in Leishmania ribosomes have been characterized: S4, S6, L3 and L5. Recombinant versions of the four ribosomal proteins from Leishmania major were recognized by sera from human and canine patients suffering different clinical forms of leishmaniasis. The prophylactic properties of these proteins were first studied in the experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major inoculation into BALB/c mice. The administration of two of them, LmL3 or LmL5 combined with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) was able to protect BALB/c mice against L. major infection. Vaccinated mice showed smaller lesions and parasite burden compared to mice inoculated with vaccine diluent or vaccine adjuvant. Protection was correlated with an antigen-specific increased production of IFN-γ paralleled by a decrease of the antigen-specific IL-10 mediated response in protected mice relative to non-protected controls. Further, it was demonstrated that BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant LmL3 or LmL5 plus CpG-ODN were also protected against the development of cutaneous lesions following inoculation of L. braziliensis. Together, data presented here indicate that LmL3 or LmL5 ribosomal proteins combined with Th1 inducing adjuvants, may be relevant components of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by distinct species.

  16. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Governador Valadares, a transmission area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A study on the phlebotomine sandfly fauna was carried out in an endemic area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Governador Valadares, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Captures were undertaken using HP light traps in four districts, on three nights per month, for one year (from January to December 2008. Correlations between climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall and the numbers of sandflies collected was observed. RESULTS: 5,413 phlebotomine specimens were caught and were identified as belonging to 12 species. Of these specimens, 2,851 (52% were females and 2,562 (48% were males. CONCLUSIONS: Lutzomyia intermedia predominated (29.9% of the species caught, thus suggesting that they were responsible for transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniasis, together with L. whitmani, which was also found in the area (4.3%. The presence of L. longipalpis (11.9%, the main vector for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an important finding, which makes rigorous entomological surveillance of the area necessary.

  17. Treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in special populations: a summary of evidence

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    Juliana Saboia Fontenele e Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess and synthesize the information available in the literature regarding the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in special populations. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Cochrane Library and mRCT databases to identify clinical trials and observational studies that assessed the pharmacological treatment of the following groups of patients: pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, the elderly, individuals with chronic diseases and individuals with suppressed immune systems. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE approach. The available evidence suggests that the treatments of choice for each population or disease entity are as follows: nursing mothers and children (meglumine antimoniate or pentamidine, patients with renal disease (amphotericin B or miltefosine, patients with heart disease (amphotericin B, miltefosine or pentamidine, immunosuppressed patients (liposomal amphotericin, the elderly (meglumine antimoniate, pregnant women (amphotericin B and patients with liver disease (no evidence available. The quality of evidence is low or very low for all groups. Accurate controlled studies are required to fill in the gaps in evidence for treatment in special populations. Post-marketing surveillance programs could also collect relevant information to guide treatment decision-making.

  18. EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS CASES REPORTED IN PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALCÂNTARA, Léia Regina de Souza; DEMARCHI, Izabel Galhardo; ARISTIDES, Sandra Mara Alessi

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmaniases are infectious diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. They are widely distributed worldwide and endemic in 88 countries in four continents. The present study analyzed the reported cases of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in Paraná State (Brazil) from January 2007 to December 2013. The data were grouped according to Regional Health (RH) districts and macroregions, which allowed visualization of the reality in each region in the state. A total of 2,879 ATL cases were reported and distributed among the 22 RH districts, with an average detection rate of 3.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The northwestern region accounted for 50.1% of the total cases, and the northern region accounted for 26.0-76.1% of the reported cases. The 6th RH district did not report any cases. The 7th, 9th, and 18th RH districts had a higher cure rate (> 80%), and lower cure rates were found in the 1st, 4th, and 12th RH districts. Reported unfavorable outcomes included treatment abandonment and death. Overall cure rates are based on the entire country, and unfavorable outcomes require greater attention of managers and health professionals to meet the goals of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. PMID:27680172

  19. QBC® for the diagnosis of human and canine american visceral leishmaniasis: preliminary data

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    Liarte Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "Quantitative Buffy Coat" (QBC® is a direct and fast fluorescent method used for the identification of blood parasites. Since Leishmania chagasi circulates in blood, we decided to test it in American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. Bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood (PB of 49 persons and PB of 31 dogs were analyzed. QBC® was positive in BM of 11/11 patients with AVL and in 1/6 patients with other diseases. Amastigotes were identified in PB of 18/22 patients with AVL and in none without AVL. The test was positive in 30 out of the 31 seropositive dogs and in 28/28 dogs with Leishmania identified in other tissues. QBC® is a promising method for diagnosis of human AVL, and possibly for the exam of PB of patients with AVL/AIDS, for the control of the cure and for the identification of asymptomatic carriers. Because it is fast and easy to collect and execute, QBC® should be evaluated for programs of reservoir control.

  20. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.

  1. Identification and phylogenetic relationship of Iranian strains of various Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous and visceral cases of leishmaniasis based on N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene.

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    Hajjaran, Homa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Teimouri, Aref; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Mirjalali, Hamed; Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Shiee, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2014-08-01

    The identity of Iranian Leishmania species has been resolved to some extent by some genetic markers. In this study, based on N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) gene, we further elucidated the identity and phylogeny of the prevalent species in this country. DNAs of 121 isolates belonging to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients, canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) cases, and Rhombomys opimus rodents were amplified by targeting a partial sequence of nagt gene. All the amplicons were analyzed with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using Acc1 enzyme, and 49 amplicons representing different reservoir hosts were sequenced and aligned with similar sequences from GenBank database. The RFLP analysis revealed that 41 CL patients were infected Leishmania tropica and 36 with Leishmania major. Among 10 CVL isolates, 6 were identified as Leishmania infantum and 4 as L. tropica. Amongst 34 rodents' isolates, 11 and 23 isolates exhibited patterns similar to those of L. major, and L. tropica/Leishmania turanica, respectively. The sequencing results from all CL patients, CVL cases, and 4 reservoir rodents were in agreement with RFLP analysis and showed 99-100% homologies with the registered species of L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum from Turkey, Tunisia, Iraq and Israel. Of the 7 rodent isolates exhibiting RFLP patterns similar to L. tropica/L. turanica, 3 exhibited the highest homologies (99-100%) with L. turanica and 4 with Leishmania gerbilli. The 49 nagt DNA sequences were grouped into five clusters representing L. major, L. tropica, L. infantum, L. turanica and L. gerbilli species, encompassing 19 haplotypes. No correlation was observed between intraspecies divergence and geographic distribution of haplotypes. The L. tropica haplotypes exhibited more homologies with those of L. infantum than L. major (97.2% vs. 96.9%), a probable indication to the potential ability of L. tropica to visceralize. Characterization of Iranian Leishmania isolates

  2. Duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR to determine cytokine mRNA expression in a hamster model of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Osorio Yaneth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, has distinct immunological features and is uniquely susceptible to intracellular pathogens. Studies in hamsters are limited by the relative unavailability of tools to conduct immunological studies. To address this limitation we developed duplex real-time reverse transcriptase (RT PCR assays for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of hamster cytokines, chemokines, and related immune response molecules. Results Real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were synthesized for analysis of interleukin (IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p40, TGF-β, IL-13, IL-21, chemokine ligand (CCL 22, CCL17, Chemokine (C-C motif receptor 4 and FoxP3 expression. Standard curves and validation experiments were performed for each real-time RT-PCR assay, allowing us to use the comparative Ct (2-ΔΔCt method to calculate changes in gene expression. Application of the real-time RT PCR assays to a biological model was demonstrated by comparing mRNA expression in skin and lymph node tissues between uninfected and Leishmania panamensis infected hamsters. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT PCR assays provide a powerful approach for the quantification of cytokine transcription in hamsters, and their application to a model of cutaneous leishmaniasis suggests that a balanced type 1 and type 2 cytokine response contributes to the chronic, nonprogressive course of disease. These new molecular tools will further facilitate investigation into the mechanisms of disease in the hamster, not only for models of leishmaniasis, but also for other viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections.

  3. Phlebotomus sergenti in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Azilal province (High Atlas, Morocco: molecular detection and genotyping of Leishmania tropica, and feeding behavior.

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    Malika Ajaoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus sergenti is at least one of the confirmed vectors for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica and distributed widely in Morocco. This form of leishmaniasis is considered largely as anthroponotic, although dogs were found infected with Leishmania tropica, suggestive of zoonosis in some rural areas.This survey aimed at (i studying the presence of Leishmania in field caught Phlebotomus sergenti, (ii investigating genetic diversity within Leishmania tropica and (iii identifying the host-blood feeding preferences of Phlebotomus sergenti. A total of 4,407 sand flies were collected in three rural areas of Azilal province, using CDC miniature light traps. Samples collected were found to consist of 13 species: Phlebotomus spp. and 3 Sergentomyia spp. The most abundant species was Phlebotomus sergenti, accounting for 45.75 % of the total. 965 female Phlebotomus sergenti were screened for the presence of Leishmania by ITS1-PCR-RFLP, giving a positive rate of 5.7% (55/965, all being identified as Leishmania tropica. Nucleotide heterogeneity of PCR-amplified ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 was noted. Analyses of 31 sequences obtained segregated them into 16 haplotypes, of which 7 contain superimposed peaks at certain nucleotide positions, suggestive of heterozygosity. Phlebotomus sergenti collected were found to feed on a large variety of vertebrate hosts, as determined by Cytochrome b sequencing of the DNA from the blood meals of 64 engorged females.Our findings supported the notion that Phlebotomus sergenti is the primary vector of Leishmania tropica in this focus, and that the latter is genetically very heterogeneous. Furthermore, our results might be suggestive of a certain level of heterozygosity in Leishmania tropica population. This finding, as well as the feeding of the vectors on different animals are of interest for further investigation.

  4. Duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR to determine cytokine mRNA expression in a hamster model of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, has distinct immunological features and is uniquely susceptible to intracellular pathogens. Studies in hamsters are limited by the relative unavailability of tools to conduct immunological studies. To address this limitation we developed duplex real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR assays for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of hamster cytokines, chemokines, and related immune response molecules. Results Real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were synthesized for analysis of interleukin (IL)-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p40, TGF-β, IL-13, IL-21, chemokine ligand (CCL) 22, CCL17, Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 and FoxP3 expression. Standard curves and validation experiments were performed for each real-time RT-PCR assay, allowing us to use the comparative Ct (2-ΔΔCt) method to calculate changes in gene expression. Application of the real-time RT PCR assays to a biological model was demonstrated by comparing mRNA expression in skin and lymph node tissues between uninfected and Leishmania panamensis infected hamsters. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT PCR assays provide a powerful approach for the quantification of cytokine transcription in hamsters, and their application to a model of cutaneous leishmaniasis suggests that a balanced type 1 and type 2 cytokine response contributes to the chronic, nonprogressive course of disease. These new molecular tools will further facilitate investigation into the mechanisms of disease in the hamster, not only for models of leishmaniasis, but also for other viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. PMID:20569429

  5. Leishmaniasis FAQs

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    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Leishmaniasis FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... leishmaniasis, could I get it again? What is leishmaniasis? Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is found ...

  6. Study on Sand Flies as a Vector(s of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Nested PCR in Rural Areas of Damghan District, Semnan Province

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    Y. Rasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is caused by obligatory intracellular parasite of genus Lieshmania. The disease is reported from more than half of Iran's provinces. Various species of sand flies are vector of the disease. Determination of vectors and gaining knowledge about them are important for devising of control program. Materials & Methods: This survey was performed as a cross-sectional study in order to determine the vector(s of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Damghan district during 2008-2009. Sand flies were collected from indoors and outdoors by sticky traps twice in month from April to November. Head and last abdominal segments of the samples were removed and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium and identified. The rest of the sand flies' bodies was subjected to DNA extraction for molecular detection of Leishmania parasite by Nested PCR using specific primers of minicircle kinetoplast DNAResults: Totally, 6110 sand flies in 8 species were collected. P. papatasi had high density (46.7%. Examination of 280 female sand flies by Nested PCR showed that 28 sand flies (10%include 24 specimens P.papatasi (85.7% and 4 specimens P.caucasicus(14.3%were found naturally infected with L.major. The highest rate of infected sandflies were observed in rodents burrow (42.9%. Maximum rate of sand fly infection was in September (89.3%. Conclusion: With respect to high density of P.papatasi and isolation of L.major from it, this species was the main vector of the disease. Detection of L.major from P.caucasicus shows that this species was the secondary vector in rodent burrow. The highest rate of sand leis infected was in September, so personal protection in this month is very important and necessary. Regarding to the high density of vectors and high infection rate of them taking actions to decrease the sand fly abundance and prevention of human biting are suggested.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:47-52

  7. Observações sobre a leishmaniose tegumentar, cinco anos após profilaxia Observations of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, after five years of prophylaxis

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    Lais Clark Lima

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 1974 foram diagnosticados vários casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, no Município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brasil. Naquela ocasião, foram usadas como medidas profiláticas o tratamento dos doentes e a dedetização dos domicílios e anexos, resultando na interrupção da transmissão. Com o aparecimento de novos casos, a partir de 1979, foram reestudadas algumas características de uma das localidades (Camorim do mesmo município. De junho de 1979 a agosto de 1981, foram comprovados nessa localidade 19 casos novos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (18 humanos e um em cão. Coletaram-se 1.149 flebótomos (11,4% fêmeas e 88,6% machos com predomínio de Lutzomyia intermedia (95%. De acordo com o estudo dos casos, pressupõe-se que a transmissão tenha ocorrido no domicílio ou peridomicílio. Acredita-se, pois, que na área estudada, as medidas de controle, adotadas em 1974, foram eficientes por um período de aproximadamente quatro anos.In 1974 several cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil. At that time the patients were treated, the houses and surroundings were sprayed with DDT, and this resulted in the interruption of transmission. The emergence of new cases in 1979 led to a resumption to the study of some characteristics of one of the localities (Camorim in this area. Eighteen new human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and one in a dog were confirmed between June 1979 and August 1981. One thousand hundred and forty nine sand flies were collected (11.4% females and 88.6% males with predominance of Lutzomyia intermedia (95%. The study of the human cases led to the supposition that the transmission of the disease may take place in the domiciliary or peridomiciliary environment. It is believed that, at least for the studied area, the control measures taken in 1974 were efficient for four years.

  8. CXCR1 and SLC11A1 polymorphisms affect susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: a case-control and family-based study

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    Oliveira Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L. braziliensis causes cutaneous (CL and mucosal (ML leishmaniasis. Wound healing neutrophil (PMN and macrophage responses made following the bite of the vector sand fly contribute to disease progression in mice. To look at the interplay between PMN and macrophages in disease progression in humans we asked whether polymorphisms at genes that regulate their infiltration or function are associated with different clinical phenotypes. Specifically, CXCR1 (IL8RA and CXCR2 (IL8RB are receptors for chemokines that attract PMN to inflammatory sites. They lie 30-260 kb upstream of SLC11A1, a gene known primarily for its role in regulating macrophage activation, resistance to leishmaniasis, and wound healing responses in mice, but also known to be expressed in PMN, macrophages and dendritic cells. Methods Polymorphic variants at CXCR1, CXCR2 and SLC11A1 were analysed using Taqman or ABI fragment separation technologies in cases (60 CL; 60 ML, unrelated controls (n = 120, and multicase families (104 nuclear families; 88 ML, 250 CL cases from Brazil. Logistic regression analysis, family-based association testing (FBAT and haplotype analysis (TRANSMIT were performed. Results Case-control analysis showed association between the common C allele (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.23-4.57; P = 0.009 of CXCR1_rs2854386 and CL, supported by family-based (FBAT; Z score 2.002; P = 0.045 analysis (104 nuclear families; 88 ML, 250 CL cases. ML associated with the rarer G allele (Z score 1.999; P = 0.046. CL associated with a 3' insertion/deletion polymorphism at SLC11A1 (Z score 2.549; P = 0.011. Conclusions The study supports roles for CXCR1 and SLC11A1 in the outcome of L. braziliensis infection in humans. Slc11a1 does not influence cutaneous lesion development following needle injection of Leishmania in mice, suggesting that its role here might relate to the action of PMN, macrophage and/or dendritic cells in the wound healing response to the sand fly bite

  9. Flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae de um foco de leishmaniose tegumentar no Estado de Minas Gerais Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Minas Gerais

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    Edelberto Santos Dias

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Na localidade do Brejo do Mutambal, situado no município de Varzelândia (MG, área endêmica para leishmaniose tegumentar, foram realizadas capturas mensais sistemáticas utilizando-se armadilhas luminosas do tipo CDC durante o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2000. Foram capturadas 19 espécies de flebotomíneos, totalizando 6.756 exemplares. Lutzomyia intermedia (5,1%, L. migonei (0,4% e L. whitmani (0,1%, relacionadas com a transmissão de leishmaniose tegumentar, foram capturadas em número reduzido. Lutzomyia longipalpis foi a espécie predominante (34,8%, sugerindo também um risco de transmissão da leishmaniose visceral. A proporção de insetos capturados no peridomícilio foi de 91,7% enquanto no intradomicílio foi de 8,3%. A interferência de fatores climáticos (temperatura, umidade relativa do ar e pluviosidade sobre a dinâmica populacional de flebotomíneos foi avaliada.Between January and December 2000, systematic monthly capture of phlebotomine sandflies was undertaken by means of light traps of CDC type in Brejo do Mutambal, an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Varzelândia, State of Minas Gerais. Nineteen phlebotomine species were captured, totaling 6,756 specimens. The species correlated with ACL transmission were captured in low numbers, as follows: Lutzomyia intermedia (5.1%, L. migonei (0.4% and L. whitmani (0.1%. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species captured (34.8%, thus also suggesting a risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. The proportion of sandflies captured in areas surrounding homes was 91.7 % while 8.3% were captured inside homes. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall on phlebotomine population dynamics was evaluated.

  10. An ecosystem approach to human health and the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tumaco, Colombia Una propuesta de ecosistemas para la salud humana y la prevención de leishmaniasis cutánea en Tumaco, Colombia

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    Carlos A. Rojas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during 1996-1997 in 20 villages of Tumaco, Colombia, to evaluate the effectiveness of personal protective measures against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. The intervention was effective, but the high costs of the preventive measures and the lack of a more holistic approach hampered the intervention's sustainability. This paper analyzes the results using an ecosystem approach to human health. Using this approach, we found that CL has been present in the study area for a long time and affects farmers and those living closest to the forest. The forest constitutes the habitat for insect vectors (sandflies and parasite reservoirs (wild mammals. Four spatial scales were identified in this ecosystem: residential, village, regional, and global. From the ecosystem perspective, three interventions are proposed to prevent CL in the 20 villages: improve housing construction, organize village housing in clusters, and make diagnosis and treatment of CL more accessible. The design and implementation of these interventions require active involvement by people with the disease (village inhabitants and decision-makers (local authorities.Durante 1996-1997 se realizó un estudio en 20 veredas de Tumaco, Colombia, para evaluar la efectividad de medidas de protección para leishmaniasis cutánea (LC. La intervención fué efectiva, sin embargo, los altos costos de las medidas de protección y la falta de una propuesta más holistica no permitieron sostener la intervención. Los resultados de este estudio son analizados en este artículo usando una propuesta de ecosistemas para la salud humana. Usando esta propuesta, vemos que LC ha estado presente en la zona de estudio por mucho tiempo y que afecta a agricultores y a aquellos que vivien cerca del bosque. El bosque constituye el hábitat para los insectos vectores (sandflies y los reservorios del parásito (mamiferos salvajes. Cuatro escalas espaciales fueron identificadas en este ecosistema

  11. Exploring recent spatial patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis and their associations with climate in some countries of the Middle East using geographical information systems

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    Salahuddin M. Jaber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the spatial trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and characterises the relationships between the observed spatial patterns and climate in Jordan, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia in 2009. Areal interpolation revealed the presence of four major hotspots of relatively high incidence rates covering most parts of Syria, central parts of Iraq, and north-western, central, south-eastern and south-western parts of Saudi Arabia. The severity of these hotspots was seen to decrease from high to low latitudes. The spatial patterns could be partly linked to precipitation (the higher the precipitation, the higher the incidence rates