WorldWideScience

Sample records for american countries partner

  1. Trust between international joint venture partners: Effects of home countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Ertug; Ilya R P Cuypers; Niels G. Noorderhaven; Ben M Bensaou

    2013-01-01

    Trust is an important factor in interorganizational relations. Interorganizational trust in cross-border relationships is likely to be influenced by the home countries of both partners. Using data on 165 international joint ventures (IJVs), we show that the perceived trustworthiness of an IJV partner is influenced by the general propensity to trust in the trustor's home country. Moreover, the trustworthiness perceived by a focal parent firm is also affected by the home country of the other IJ...

  2. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy. PMID:26617449

  3. Partners and innovation in American destination marketing organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    study focuses on destination marketing organizations (DMOs) as they collaborate with destination businesses to assist in the development of new services in marketing the destination. A national survey among American DMOs indicates that partner collaboration is a significant driver of visitor......-orientated innovation. Specifically, innovation success was found to be driven solely by the development of market-oriented rather than strategyoriented new services, indicating that many of the American DMOs respond to visitor changes at the expense of providing new services that somehow do not fit within current...

  4. Brief Report: The Number of Sexual Partners and Race-Related Stress in African American Adolescents--Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  5. International joint venture partner selection: The role of the host-country legal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Roy; Christine Oliver

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to enhance our understanding of how a host country's legal environment influences international joint venture (IJV) partner selection criteria. Empirical results based on survey data collected on 169 IJVs revealed that host-country rule of law perceptions negatively influence appropriation and coordination cost concerns, which positively influence partner-related criteria. Furthermore, these concerns mediate the relationship between perceptions of host-country rule of law ...

  6. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  7. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  8. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  9. Prevalence and demographic correlates of intimate partner violence in Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Doris F.; Shen, Biing-Jiun; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first national estimates of the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Asian Americans. Population estimates are based on data from 1470 Asian Americans interviewed for the National Latino and Asian American Study. Interviews were conducted in English, Chinese, Tagalog, or Vietnamese. Results suggest that rates of IPV among Asian Americans are low compared to the general U.S. population. Minor violence victimization by a current intimate par...

  10. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, KC; Williams, JK; Bolden, S; Guzman, Y; Harawa, NT

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American ...

  11. Influence of sexual arousability on partner communication mediators of condom use among African American female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Swartzendurber, Andrea; Murray, Sarah H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Graham, Cynthia A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ample evidence shows that partner sexual communication is related to condom use. Although communication about safer sex may often occur when sexual arousal is high, no studies have examined arousability, one’s propensity for sexual arousal and partner sexual communication. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sexual arousability and partner-related mediators of condom use among African American female adolescents, who have disproportionate risk for HIV and...

  12. Frequency and Types of Partner Violence among Mexican American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Sanderson, Maureen; Cantu, Ethel; Huerta, Debbie; Fadden, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied the prevalence of partner violence, by type, among Mexican American college women aged 18 to 35 years (N = 149; response rate = 85%). Results: Twelve percent of women who reported a dating partner in the past year were physically or sexually assaulted, 12.1% were stalked, and 9.1% scored as…

  13. Does trade with low-wage countries hurt American workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Golub

    1998-01-01

    Does trade with low-wage countries steal American jobs and, hence, rob American workers of higher wages and a higher standard of living? Most economists think trade is not guilty as charged. Instead, they cite concepts such as comparative and absolute advantage and differences in productivity to explain why trade, particularly trade with low-wage countries, doesn't pack the economic wallop its critics claim. In this article, Steve Golub shows that popular fears are based on a misunderstanding...

  14. Complementary Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN YANFENG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The trade vol-ume between China and Latin American and Caribbean countries has surpassed $100 billion,and China has become that region's second largest trading partner.Their cooperation has increased across the board, including in new energy, climate change,nuclear energy and agricultural technology.

  15. Private power in developing countries: Exporting the American experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses using American marketing and financing expertise and technology to meet the need for increased power production and efficiency in developing countries. The topics of the paper include the opportunity for independent power production, dangers in international development, foreign country market evaluation, the criteria for selection, and taking advantage of the opportunities

  16. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  18. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  19. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy.

  20. Music department partners with American Opera Theatre for live event

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Music at Virginia Tech and American Opera Theater present an evening of early opera, sung in English, at Blacksburg's Lyric Theatre with performances of works by Henry Purcell and John Blow.

  1. Same-Sex Spouses and Unmarried Partners in the American Community Survey, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The US Census Bureau release of data from the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) included the first official estimates for the number of same-sex couples who called one partner a “husband” or “wife”. This report compares these same-sex spousal couples to those who designated a partner as an “unmarried partner”. Comparisons are also made with comparable different-sex couples.

  2. The effectiveness of forex interventions in four Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Broto

    2012-01-01

    Many central banks actively intervene in the foreign exchange (forex) market, although there is no consensus on its impact on the exchange rate level and volatility. We analyze the effects of daily forex interventions in four Latin American countries with inflation targets — namely, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru — by fitting GARCH-type models. These countries represent a broad span of intervention strategies in terms of size and frequency, ranging from pure discretionality to intervention ...

  3. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory: Country Cases from EU and ETF Partner Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Certificates, diplomas and titles are commonly known as qualifications. Their purpose is to show employers, training providers, and individuals what the person holding the qualification has learned and can do. Every country issues many different qualifications, but for the European labor market to work as intended--that is for European citizens to…

  4. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  5. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop...

  6. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Bonnie M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7% of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native. Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9. Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7. Conclusions Native American women in

  7. Racializing Intimate Partner Violence among Black, Native American, Asian American and Latina Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…

  8. Trade Openness and Inflation in Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2007-01-01

    In the pre-reforms period the trade policy in Latin America had involved very high levels of protection and government intervention. The recent trade liberalization policies of the Latin American countries have sought to reverse the protectionist policies and open the scope for foreign direct investment and joint ventures in the public and private sector industries. This paper discusses the impact of trade openness policy on tariff structure, export competitiveness, inflation and economic gro...

  9. Attitudes towards genomic research in four Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Eduardo; Valdebenito, Carolina; Misseroni, Adelio; fernandez, lautaro; outomuro, Delia; schiattino, Irene; Ferrer, Marcela; Lolas, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The present reflection refers to data obtained about the social representations of genomic research and its applications through interviews with legislators and lawyers, biomedical researchers and civilians and the review of scientific and legal literature in four Latin American countries: Argentine, Chile, Mexico and Peru. Several issues are addressed: little access to prevention and therapeutic methods, lack of equity in health benefits, commercialization of gene sequences through patents w...

  10. Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, P F

    1986-01-01

    The Salt Lake Clinic's problem was one of balance. Although the organizational values of the clinic were well developed, the organizational structure was not. The board of directors historically was accountable to its partners or shareholders, but the competitive, consumer-oriented environment also called for recognition of community, business, and consumer interest. To achieve a more balanced approach to clinic governance, a lay advisory board was appointed, made up of members active in civic affairs who each had a unique contribution to make and represented a business, community, or consumer perspective. PMID:10278455

  11. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  12. Prenatal Stress, Partner Support, and Infant Cortisol Reactivity in Low-Income Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Luecken, Linda J.; Lin, Betty; Coburn, Shayna S.; MacKinnon, David P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to significant prenatal stress can negatively affect infant neurobiological development and increase the risk for developmental and health disturbances. These effects may be pronounced in low SES and ethnic minority families. We explored prenatal partner support as a buffer of the impact of prenatal stress on cortisol reactivity of infants born to low-income Mexican American women. Women (N=220; age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; 89% foreign born; modal family income $10,000–$...

  13. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  14. What Predicts Sex Partners' Age Differences Among African American Youth? A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauermeister, José A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Yange Xue; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2010-01-01

    Partner age is associated with youth’s sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, we do not know whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, we first described the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, we tested whether thi...

  15. What predicts sex partner age differences among African American youth? A longitudinal study from adolescence to young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Bauermeister, José A.; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2010-01-01

    Partner age is associated with youth’s sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, we do not know whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, we first described the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, we tested whether thi...

  16. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated...

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Social Pressure among Gay Men in Six Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Finneran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM experience intimate partner violence (IPV at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures – namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism– on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paperexamines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S., Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil.Methods: We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Threeoutcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity.Results: Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries.Conclusion: There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middleincome countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were

  18. Status of Latin-American countries regarding IAEA conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made on the status (as of March 1999) of Latin-American countries regarding IAEA conventions, namely the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage, the joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna convention and the Paris convention, the protocol to amend the Vienna convention of civil liability for nuclear damage, the convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage, the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material, the convention on nuclear safety, the convention on early notification of a nuclear accident, the convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management

  19. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  20. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  1. Multi-Sectoral Uses of Water & Approaches to DSS in Water Management in the NOSTRUM Partner Countries of the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zeid, Khaled; Afifi, Sameh

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture contributes an average of about 10% to the GDP of the partner countries of the Mediterranean involved in the project NOSTRUM. On the other hand, industry contributes an average of about 30% in these countries. It is to remark that in almost all countries the weight of industry accounts between 20% and 30% of the national economy, with the exception of Algeria, where this weight is at about 60%, mainly imputable to the great development of oil extraction and energy sector. In the m...

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614

  3. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  4. Earnings inequality within and across gender, racial, and ethnic groups in four Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Wendy; Joyce P. Jacobsen

    2008-01-01

    Latin American countries are generally characterized as displaying high income and earnings inequality overall along with high inequality by gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not a major contributor to the former phenomenon. Using household survey data from four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Guyana) for which stratification by race...

  5. Enlightenment of American High Sports Teaching on Education in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2014-01-01

    Sports is one that is firmly integrated into the American culture and identity. High school sports not only enhance a person's academic performance and build a person's character, but also serve as a key to the preservation of the American culture and identity. Find out suitable clues to think about education in our country and understand the ways of future development of the education in our country base on the American high school sports teaching.

  6. Characterizing the burden of premature ejaculation from a patient and partner perspective: a multi-country qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannix Sally

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ejaculation (PE is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with PE and the female partners of men with PE on their sexual experience, distress and relationships. Methods Qualitative data were collected through 14 focus groups in the US and through one-on-one interviews in the US, UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Poland. Study participants included heterosexual men with PE and female partners of males with PE. All participants were asked about how PE affects their daily life, including emotional impacts. One-on-one interviews also included obtaining feedback on the male and female versions of 4-single item measures of PE focusing on ejaculatory control, satisfaction with intercourse, interpersonal distress, and relationship difficulty. Results Participants included 172 males with PE and 67 female partners of men with PE. Lack of control over ejaculation and dissatisfaction with intercourse emerged as central themes of PE. Lack of ejaculatory control resulted in greater dissatisfaction and greater emotional distress, including feelings of inadequacy, disappointment, and anxiety. Continued PE ultimately leads to greater problems with partners and often disrupts partner relationships. Participants indicated that PE was keeping them from attaining complete intimacy in their relationships even when their partners were generally satisfied with sexual intercourse. Impacts of PE on sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and partner relationships were consistent across countries. Feedback on the single-item PE measures confirmed relevance of the item content and further confirmed major themes identified from the qualitative

  7. Trade and Political Relations Between the Czech Republic and Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rýcová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Main objective of the thesis is to evaluate trade and political relations between the Czech Republic and selected countries in Latin America (selected countries will be those with strongest ties to the Czech Republic). Hypothesis: Trade and political relations between Czech Republic and Latin American Countries are well developing in the course of the time. Latin-American region provides a great potential for future cooperation. Emphasis will be targeted on the assessment of business conditio...

  8. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Disorders among American Indian Women from Southwest Tribes in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Bonnie; Oetzel, John; Parker, Tassy; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of intimate partner violence (IPV) with mental disorders was investigated among 234 American Indian/Alaska Native female primary care patients. Results indicated that unadjusted prevalence ratios for severe physical or sexual abuse (relative to no IPV) were significant for anxiety, PTSD, mood, and any mental disorder. Adjusted…

  10. Potential benefits of the increase in nuclear cooperation between Latin and North American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic problems of Latin American countries are increasing the pressure on the world's environmental health. Therefore, it is necessary to create efficient means to support fast and environmentally safe development efforts in the region. The objective of this work is to stress the importance of nuclear technology cooperation between American countries as an important means to foster economic and social growth. Scientific production in Brazil and other Latin American countries has not increased significantly in the last decades, and modern technology is only available to a small fraction of the population. To ameliorate this problem it is necessary to improve technological cooperation throughout the american continent, which will be facilitated by the existing scientific capacity available in some Latin American universities and laboratories. Small and big countries alike need to establish their share in the cooperative effort to reduce present day technology hazards. (author)

  11. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  12. Political Aspects of CEE-Countries Participation in American Anti-Terrorism Campaign (2001–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Koblan Andrii

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the political moments of CEE countries participation in American anti-terrorist and military efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. In the course of these events, it accentuates the bilateral relationships between four countries of Visegrad group with the USA, with the focus on the participation of Poland and Czech Republic that presented some different, although controversial patterns of support of American policy. The paper clearly shows the remoteness of international terror...

  13. Impact of agglomeration on the regional growth of Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero, Grace Carolina Guevara

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical approaches have been developed to examine the effect of agglomeration on growth. However, the understanding of the mechanisms of agglomeration in developing countries remains unaddressed. This paper aims to give empirical evidence of the role of agglomeration on the growth of Latin American regions. The study of the subcontinent is crucial because of the evidence of a rapid pace of urbanization process. Using a database with information of 162 regions of 8 Latin American countries...

  14. On the structuralist view of inflation in some Latin American countries: A reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Bernhard; Mayer, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Comparing inflation rates internationally, one finds a number of Latin American countries in the lead. Therefore, when investigating inflation in LDCs, it has become common practice to refer to these countries as prime examples. Mainly two theories have been put forward to explain Latin American inflation: the monetarist and structuralist hypotheses. While in the monetarist theory aggregate excess demand resulting from an excess supply of money is regarded as the only cause of inflation, the ...

  15. Substance use and intimate partner violence victimization among White, African American, and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Graves, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    The existing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) does not paint a consistent portrait of the impact of race/ethnicity. In addition, although research has clearly demonstrated that there is a relationship between substance use and IPV, the temporal ordering of these variables is not clearly established. This article seeks to examine the temporal ordering of IPV victimization and drug use using longitudinal data with a nationally representative racially and ethnically diverse sample. Data from Wave III (2001-2002) and Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) will serve as Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, to answer three research questions. First, does substance use during early young adulthood (Time 1) predict IPV victimization during young adulthood (Time 2) among women? Second, does IPV victimization during early young adulthood predict substance use during young adulthood for women? Finally, do these bidirectional relationships vary by race/ethnicity (i.e., White, African American, and Latina)? Four different forms of IPV (minor violence, major violence, rape/sexual coercion, and injury) are investigated along with binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Understanding not only the temporal relationship between substance use, trauma, and IPV but also the racial and ethnic differences in these relationships is critical to developing and refining culturally sensitive trauma-informed prevention and treatment services for women. PMID:23946141

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and Social Pressure among Gay Men in Six Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Finneran; Anna Chard; Craig Sineath; Patrick Sullivan; Rob Stepheneon

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures – namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism– on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paperexami...

  17. Geographical deviations in foreign trade statistics: A study into European trade with Latin American Countries, 1925

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras-Mar??n, Anna; Badia-Mir??, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial accuracy of European foreign trade statistics compared to Latin American. We have also included USA?s data because of the importance of this country in Latin American trade. We have developed a method for mapping discrepancies between exporters and importers, trying to isolate systematic spatial deviations. Although our results don?t allow a unique explanation, they present some interesting clues to the distribution channels in the Latin American Continent as well...

  18. The PHARE Multi-country Energy Program an efficient tool for European integration of the partner countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper intends to demonstrate the financial, geographical and qualitative dimensions of the PHARE transfer of know-how in the energy field. Also it emphasizes the efforts made to improve the international cooperation, to ensure the realization of certain objectives of continental interest and for the harmonization of the national interests in a common European policy in the energy sector. Since its inception the efforts of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Program (MEP) aimed at three strategic targets: development of energy supply, improvement of energy efficiency and environment protection. (author). 4 tabs., 3 refs

  19. Factors associated with attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women: a comparative analysis of 17 sub-Saharan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawoko Stephen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive and mental health consequences. Even though most societies proscribe violence against women, the reality is that violations against women's rights are often sanctioned under the garb of cultural practices and norms, or through misinterpretation of religious tenets. Methods We utilised data from 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted between 2003 and 2007 in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the net effects of socio-demographic factors on men's and women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW using multiple logistic regression models estimated by likelihood ratio test. Results IPVAW was widely accepted under certain circumstances by men and women in all the countries studied. Women were more likely to justify IPVAW than men. "Neglecting the children" was the most common reason agreed to by both women and men for justifying IPVAW followed by "going out without informing husband" and "arguing back with the husband". Increasing wealth status, education attainment, urbanization, access to media, and joint decision making were associated with decreased odds of justifying IPVAW in most countries. Conclusion In most Sub-Saharan African countries studied where IPVAW is widely accepted as a response to women's transgressing gender norms, men find less justification for the practice than do women. The present study suggests that proactive efforts are needed to change these norms, such as promotion of higher education and socio-demographic development. The magnitude and direction of factors associated with attitudes towards IPVAW varies widely across the countries, thus suggesting the significance of capitalizing on need-adapted interventions tailored to fit conditions in each country.

  20. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  1. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle. PMID:23907305

  2. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Schady, Norbert Rüdiger; Behrman, Jere R.; Araujo, María Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; López Bóo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina H.; Vakis, Renos

    2015-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and noncognitive abilities appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, the paper...

  3. Risk sharing opportunities and macroeconomic factors in Latin American and Caribbean countries : A consumption insurance assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of consumption insurance enjoyed by Latin American and Caribbean countries, with respect to various reference areas, by estimating a parameter expressing the sensitivity of a country's consumption growth to a measure of idiosyncratic shocks to income. The paper surveys common econometric implementations of "consumption insurance tests." The author proposes s...

  4. Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry in the Mediterranean Partner Countries and Turkey: Factors, Indicators and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kniivilä, Matleena; Mili, Samir; Ait El Mekki, A.; Arovuori, Kyösti; Ben Saïd, Moncef; Çağatay, Selim; Horne, Paula; Kıymaz, Taylan; Laajimi, Abderraouf; Martinez-Vega, Javier; Pyykkönen, Perttu; Soliman, Ibrahim; Thabet, Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define the main factors of sustainable agriculture and forestry in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The study is based on the review of existing literature and country level analyses. In the study indicators which can be used to measure sustainability are defined and examined and data on these is collected. Major challenges of the sector in the study countries are tentatively examined. According to the study relatively much data is available, but not enough to g...

  5. Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry in the Mediterranean Partner Countries and Turkey: Factors, Indicators and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kniivilä, Matleena; Mili, Samir; El Mekki, A. Ait; Arovuori, Kyösti; Ben Saïd, Moncef; Çağatay, Selim; Horne, Paula; Kıymaz, Taylan; Laajimi, Abderraouf; Martínez Vega, Javier; Pyykkönen, Perttu; Soliman, Ibrahim; Thabet, Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define the main factors of sustainable agriculture and forestry in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The study is based on the review of existing literature and country level analyses. In the study indicators which can be used to measure sustainability are defined and examined and data on these is collected. Major challenges of the sector in the study countries are tentatively examined. According to the study relatively much data is available, but ...

  6. HIV/AIDS in Latin American Countries : The Challenges Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Abreu, Anabela; Noguer, Isabel; Cowgill, Karen

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS in Latin America falls within the framework of a low endemic setting. In the majority of the countries, the epidemic is still concentrated in high-risk populations: men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), commercial sex workers (CSWs), prisoners, and people with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The exceptions are Honduras and southeastern Brazil, where...

  7. ANALYSIS OF TENDENCIES IN AGRIBUSINESS NETWORKING COOPETITION IN POLAND AND IN THE PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar BOJAR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper following the case of Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland development tendencies of SME agri-food networking organizations in the light of coopetition were presented. Supporting development of those organizations using the EU funds is to ensure sustainable development of rural areas and it is attempted to defy domination of huge food processing and distributing corporations through integration and strengthening market power of agricultural producers. It results from the analysis that important role in new the EU member countries are played by endogenous factors as institutional undergrowth and low social capital level, what deteriorates the development of SME networks in those countries. Experience of Andalusia region in Spain benchmarked to organizations in new the EU member countries can give desired effects in the scope of improvement of co-operation with public sector, product marketing and promotion and also in facing expectations of consumers for safe and healthy food in international markets.

  8. Partner Country Series: Gas Pricing - China's Challenges and IEA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    China will play a positive role in the global development of gas, the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Executive Director, Maria Van der Hoeven has said in Beijing on 11 September, 2012 when launching a new IEA report: Gas Pricing and Regulation, China’s challenges and IEA experiences. In line with its aim to meet growing energy demand while shifting away from coal, China has set an ambitious goal of doubling its use of natural gas from 2011 levels by 2015. Prospects are good for significant new supplies – both domestic and imported, conventional and unconventional – to come online in the medium-term, but notable challenges remain, particularly concerning gas pricing and the institutional and regulatory landscape. While China’s circumstances are, in many respects unique, some current issues are similar to those a number of IEA countries have faced. This report highlights some key challenges China faces in its transition to greater reliance on natural gas, then explores in detail relevant experiences from IEA countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States as well as the European Union (EU). Preliminary suggestions about how lessons learned in other countries could be applied to China’s situation are offered as well. The aim of this report is to provide stakeholders in China with a useful reference as they consider decisions about the evolution of the gas sector in their country.

  9. Cooperation with emerging countries in advanced mining training programmes involving an industrial partner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources (CESMAT) is a Higher Education Institution in France to train and perform the upper management personnel working in mining, throughout the world. The program of study is comprised of seven separate year long study programs, a network of some 2 300 former students from a hundred countries with whom regular contact is maintained, and a permanent think tank unit that concentrates on the training of mining sector managers. The guiding principle for CESMAT is that cooperation and training hold a special position in French policy concerning relations with mineral producing countries. Seven programmes have been progressively developed on minerals prospecting and processing, resources evaluation, open cast mining techniques, mining economics, impact of mining on environment, management of closure of mining activities and the role of the State. These programmes bring together ten to twelve engineers or geologists who have already had professional experience. For non-French speakers, a language-training phase of three months may precede the programs. The following specializations are currently being offered: - Ore Prospecting and Mineral Processing - Nancy School of Geology - CESEV, - Treatment of Industrial Evolutions and Changes - CESTEMIN, - Geostatistical Analysis of Ore Deposits - Paris School of Mines - C.F.S.G., - Open Cut Mining Operations - Paris School of Mines - CESECO, - Economic Analysis of Mining Projects - Paris School of Mines - CESPROMIN, - Mine Safety and Environments - Ales School of Mines - CESSEM, - Mines Public Administration - Paris School of Mines - CESAM. Teaching is done both by Institute professors and by public and private sector industry experts. These instructors rely heavily on technical visits and on practical case studies. One specific example is the student research project mentored by specialists in the field, which is oriented directly to circumstances in the student's country

  10. Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, partners receive $1.45 million award for plant protection in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Susan

    2010-01-01

    A research collaboration led by a professor from the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech will work to develop methods to protect agriculturally important crops in developing countries from devastating attacks from plant pathogens with the support of a $1.45 million award from the Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development (BREAD) program sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

  11. Austrian Partners in Joint Ventures With Companies from CMEA Countries: Problems Today

    OpenAIRE

    Razvigorova, E.; Plasonig, G.; Horak, C.

    1990-01-01

    International research institutes involved in comparative global studies are not normally involved in the education of students or their respective studies. However, this study on joint ventures between Austrian enterprises and companies from CMEA countries was undertaken by students of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration with the assistance of IIASA scientists. This exceptional example proves that such cooperation can be most successful and mutually beneficial. ...

  12. Does CSR Foster Inclusion and Diversity? An Exploratory Study of Ibero American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, E.; Susaeta, L.; Alcaraz, J.M.; Perelló, R.; Colon, C; Gutierrez, I.; Cunha, R.; Leguizamón , F.; Idrobo, S.; Weisz, N. (Natalia); Correia, M.; Apascaritei, P.; Pin , José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop the theoretical concept of the social dimension of corporate social responsibility (CSR) through an empirical study focusing on the Ibero-American hospitality industry. We examined social initiatives in general and, in particular, diversity and social inclusion initiatives in four different Ibero-American countries: Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Spain. We conducted 54 interviews involving 37 hotel chains. Our study revealed that a significant number of the actions...

  13. Devaluation and trade balance in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Kalyoncu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine effectiveness of devaluation on the trade balance in four countries: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru. We use the Johansen-Juselius cointegration test and impulse response function to estimate the long-run and shortrun effects of devaluation on the trade balance. The estimated results suggest that depreciation improve the trade balance in the long run for the case of Argentina and Peru, and in the short-run there has been J-curve in Argentina and Peru. In addition, the cointegration is found among the four variables (trade balance, domestic income, foreign incomes and real exchange rate in the case of Argentina and Peru. The results also indicate that there is no cointegration relationship between these variables for Brazil and Mexico. The conclusion of the paper is that the evidence of the J-curve pattern was found for Argentina and Peru only.

  14. Partnering for long-term management of radioactive waste. Evolution and current practice in thirteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent participation. With host community support, they also help ensure the desirable combination of a licensable site and management concept as well as a balance between compensation, local control and development opportunities. This report provides up-to-date information on experience with local partnership arrangements in 13 countries. The characteristics, advantages and aims of community partnerships are also described in addition to the concept's evolution over the past decade. (authors)

  15. Dietary Patterns and Non-communicable Diseases in Selected Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Chacín, María Eugenia; Marcano Vázquez, Luis T.; Sierra, Ricardo; Aldana, Úrsula

    2013-01-01

    To raise awareness among policymakers and health practitioners about unhealthy diets, this document examines dietary patterns in selected Latin American countries using household surveys. The analysis shows that a large percentage of households in the countries examined have inadequate diets. Not only are calorie intakes higher than recommended to maintain a healthy weight, but the diets are also rich in fats, particularly saturated fats, sugars and sodium, and poor in fruits and vegetables. ...

  16. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  17. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  18. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  19. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður;

    2012-01-01

    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  20. The Other partner: The changing role of good provider for men's union formation in industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldscheider, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMost studies of union formation behaviors have focused on women and children,with less emphasis on men. Using comparable retrospective survey data, this study looks at the waysCanadian, Italian and Swedish men begin conjugal life (distinguishing between marriage andcohabitation and at how the effects of their good provider status qualifications have changed in thelast 30 years. Results for Canadian men have shown that the simple patterns that have been assumed toshape separate and symmetrical roles for men and women are taking new shapes with the growth incohabitation and changes in women's economic roles. Our study will extend these results to examine twocountries at very different levels of cohabitation prevalence: Italy, where the growth in cohabitationhas just begun, and Sweden, where it has been underway much longer than in Canada. Our results showstrongly parallel changes underway in each country, indicating that it is important to continue tocompare, both between countries and over time, if we are to understand the situations fostering (ornot changing gender roles for men as good providers.FrenchLa plupart des études sur les comportements durant le passage à la vie de coupleont porté sur les femmes et les enfants, avec moins d’emphase sur le comportement des hommes. En se servant de données comparables d’enquêtesrétrospectives, cet article examine les différentes façons dont les Canadiens, lesItaliens et les Suédois commencent leur vie conjugale (en distinguant entre lemarriage et la cohabitation ainsi que les effets causés par les changements destrente dernières années dans leur statut de pourvoyeur. Chez les Canadiens, lesrésultats démontrent que les habitudes de vie qui avaient été prises pour modelerdes rôles masculins et féminins séparés et symétriques sont en train de prendrede nouvelles formes, avec une croissance dans les taux de cohabitation et deschangements dans les rôles économiques des femmes

  1. Cultural and Gender Convergence in Adolescent Drunkenness Evidence From 23 European and North American Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Knibbe, R.A.; Simons-Morton, B.; Farhat, T.; Hublet, A.; Bendtsen, P.; Godeau, E.; Demetrovics, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). Setting: High schools in 23 countries. Participants: A sam

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-40 - Peppers from certain Central American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) For peppers of the species Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, and Capsicum... annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, and Capsicum pubescens from areas in... Vegetables § 319.56-40 Peppers from certain Central American countries. Fresh peppers (Capsicum spp.) may...

  3. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  4. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES in eight countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fleming

    Full Text Available This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806 that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC, men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  5. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  6. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  7. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  8. Partnering with a Higher Power: Academic Engagement, Religiosity, and Spirituality of African American Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…

  9. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ellsberg Mary; Kiss Ligia; Devries Karen; Garcia-Moreno Claudia; Watts Charlotte H; Abramsky Tanya; Jansen Henrica AFM; Heise Lori

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of ...

  10. Developing Renewable Energy: Comparative Scenarios and Public Policy Perspectives from some Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cecilia Lardizabal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The energy matrix of Latin American and the Caribbean countries has one of the largest renewable energy components when compared to other regions of the world. Nonetheless, by 2009 nearly three-quarters of its structure corresponded to fossil fuels, with most of the countries being net importers of these fuels. This situation marks the region´s dependence on the effects of changes in energy commodities. Therefore, the opportunity lies in higher use of renewable energy sources that contribute to the country´s energy security and represent significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of current energy scenarios of six Latin American countries (Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile in order to evaluate the policies, programs and strategies implemented in the search for greater participation of renewable energy. Considering the importance of the water-energy nexus that could serve to promote renewables under conditions of water scarcity, a qualitative data comparison was accomplished, considering energy consumption, CO2 emissions, GDP and water withdrawals per country. The authors conclude that, despite technological and financial constraints, all the involved countries are moving towards the substitution of a fossil fuel based matrix to a renewable one. This process could be seen as a result of clear policies and strategies that have been set, which include (but are not limited to price regulations setting, preferential prices to electricity generated through renewable energy technologies and incentives formulated to encourage the production of biofuels.

  11. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries. PMID:26709109

  12. Testing for an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Latin-American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Bengochea-Morancho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical estimates of Environmental Kuznets Curves for a panel of Latin-American countries over the period 1975-1998. It uses a new econometric technique that allows for more flexible assumptions in a panel data framework with a large time dimension. Unlike most previous studies we test for slope heterogeneity of the income coefficient in the search of a common empirical relation between carbon dioxide emissions and income. Our results point to the existence of some heterogeneity among countries, but with specific patterns for those sharing certain characteristics.

  13. The medical equipment acquisition problems in Brazil and most of Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, S J

    1994-01-01

    The process of acquiring medical equipments in Brazil and other Latin American countries is a continuing learning process. Several conditions in the acquisition contract have to be established by the buyer, since the consumer protection law is nonexistent or not respected by some vendors. Furthermore, few countries have laboratories for testing the performance of the equipments in general. The recommendations of this paper are based on 8 years of experience in Clinical Engineering activities in a University health complex of about 600 beds. PMID:7968859

  14. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian. PMID:26861958

  15. Toward relationship-directed parenting: an example of North American born second-generation Korean-American mothers and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lana; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Tuttle, Amy

    2014-03-01

    Historically, parenting has been constructed hierarchically; however, contemporary parenting models frequently emphasize parenting as relationship (Siegel & Hartzell [2004] Parenting from the inside out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive; Tuttle, Knudson-Martin, & Kim [2012] Family Process, 51, 73-89). Drawing on interviews with 20 North American born second-generation Korean-American mothers and their partners, and sensitized by TP-CRO, a social constructionist framework for conceptualizing parent-child relational orientations, this grounded theory analysis identified three main processes that facilitate relational connection as a parenting orientation rather than the rule-directed approach historically associated with first-generation immigrant Asian families. These include: (a) emphasizing dominant culture values; (b) inviting open communication; and (c) promoting mutuality. Results also show how parents integrate collectivist cultural values of their first generation immigrant parents' traditional culture into North American parenting ideals with which they primarily identify. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the TP-CRO for understanding parent-child relationships within multicultural parenting contexts and offers suggestions for working with second-generation Korean families. PMID:24215341

  16. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  17. TIME USE AND GENDER INEQUALITIES. SOME EVIDENCE FROM THREE LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    MERCEDES PEDRERO NIETO

    2013-01-01

    This article presents gender differences on time use for three Latin American countries. Variations on time use depend on being male or female and the roles played in the household, which are identified through the marital status, kinship and age. Gender inequalities in the global workload - defined as the sum of time spent working for the market and the time devoted to domestic tasks - are disadvantageous for women limiting their access to other opportunities because time is not an endless r...

  18. A multiple indicators multiple causes model of late-life depression in Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brailean, Anamaria; Guerra, Mariella; Chua, Kia-Chong; Prince, Martin; Prina, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Euro-D depression scale consists of symptom clusters that may be differentially related to demographic and cognitive characteristics in older adults. This hypothesis needs further investigation and the role of measurement bias on substantive conclusions remains to be established.METHOD: The study sample comprised 10,405 community-dwelling older adults from six Latin American countries. We applied a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model for a concurrent investigatio...

  19. What Explains Nominal Exchange Rate Volatility? Evidence from the Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Grydaki; Stilianos Fountas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-run and long-run impact of the determinants of nominal exchange rate volatility in three Latin American countries during the period 1979-2009. We estimate a multivariate GARCH model and include the covariances of those determinants, which have been ignored in the prior relevant literature. In combination with the role of financial openness and alternative exchange rate regimes, we find that nominal variability, namely variability in the money supply and infla...

  20. Assessment of human resources for health programme implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Sepulveda, Hernan Rodrigo; Costa Couto, Maria Helena; Godue, Charles; Padilla, Monica; Cameron, Rick; Vidaurre Franco, Thais de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Background The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. An assessment of the human resources for health (HRH) programmes that have been implemented at the country level was developed as part of the measurement of the 20 HRH regional goals for 2007–2015, adopted in 2007 by the Pan American S...

  1. Political Aspects of CEE-Countries Participation in American Anti-Terrorism Campaign (2001–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblan Andrii

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the political moments of CEE countries participation in American anti-terrorist and military efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. In the course of these events, it accentuates the bilateral relationships between four countries of Visegrad group with the USA, with the focus on the participation of Poland and Czech Republic that presented some different, although controversial patterns of support of American policy. The paper clearly shows the remoteness of international terrorist threat in the region that is irrelevant with active participation of the region in outer campaigns in Asia, with dubious rationale and consequences. As a result this paper is the attempt to consolidate the conclusions of other (predominantly local works on the issue, but also to generalize this issue from the historical perspective; and is the additional contribution to the whole picture of American anti-terrorist campaign in the first decade of XXI century. Thus the background of terrorism in the region is contemplated through the context of American anti-terrorist policy along with the reforms of anti-terrorist system of these states after “September 11”. Indeed, main point of the work is the comparative approach to analyzing the contribution of Poland and Czech Republic to the anti-terrorist campaign.

  2. Cocaine Use among High School Students in Six South American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes Dowell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare lifetime and past year prevalence estimates of cocaine use among secondary school students in six South American countries. Methods: Data are from the 2009 Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD and United Nations Office on Drug Control Policy (UNODC collaborative study on drug use; with national representative samples of over 170,286 secondary school students in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay. Results: Cocaine was the second most commonly reported illicit substance used following marijuana in Argentina and Uruguay, and was the most common illicit substance following marijuana and inhalants in the other four countries surveyed. Past year use ranged from a high of 3.5% in Uruguay to a low of 1.1% in Peru. Conclusions: Cocaine prevalence shows a worrisome pattern among high school students in South America. Rates in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay are close to the United States and Canada. This analysis provides evidence to support the notion that cocaine use is a problem in South American countries, particularly among those that have no known history of cocaine production. Implications for drug policy, health among teenagers and education in Latin America are discussed.

  3. Political advocacy by the American Society for Cell Biology and its partners

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    I trace how the American Society for Cell Biology became a strong political advocate for the scientific community. I celebrate how good leadership and an effective staff enabled its energetic volunteer organization to have an impact, but I also ask how the effort can be made more successful.

  4. Spanish recruitment programmes for Latin Americans in countries of origin: a flexible management framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª López-Sala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, countries whose markets needed seasonal labour have sought new ways of importing foreign workers through channelling and recruitment programmes in countries of origin. This article seeks to demonstrate that, in the case of Spain, the effective development of this process has only been possible because of a flexible and dynamic system in which bilateral agreements have played a major role, among them those signed with some Latin American countries. Flexible management of these programmes has been implemented via legislation, via the institutions and actors involved, and via the immigrants themselves, who have managed (or been forced to adapt to the changes of a labour market conditioned by the globalisation of labour and capital.

  5. Analysis of the features of the entrepreneurship and leadership in the Asian and Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.

  6. Public responses to intimate partner violence: comparing preferences of Chinese and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuning; Button, Deeanna M; Smolter, Nicole; Poteyeva, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Based on data collected from college students in Beijing and Hong Kong (China) and in Newark and Detroit (United States), this study assesses and explains citizen preferences of 2 major formalized responses to intimate partner violence (IPV)--law enforcement and social services intervention--in a cross-cultural context. Results show that Chinese respondents have lower support for law enforcement responses. Regional variation is only observed within China with students from Hong Kong supporting both law enforcement and social services responses more than their Beijing counterparts. Results also show that social attitudinal variables--including male dominance ideology, perceptions of IPV causation, support for the criminalization of IPV, and tolerance of IPV--influence public preferences of responses to IPV more than do demographic and experiential variables. PMID:23763114

  7. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  8. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results...

  9. Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mena

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This turbulent economic environment makes it particularly troublesome for econometricians to test theoretical propositions dealing with credit market behavior, as well as for policymakers to interpret and forecast credit and interest rate behavior. This paper illustrates this issue using Chile as a case study. A simple theoretical model of business credit is developed, which is then used to interpret the developments in Chile's credit market during 1980-1986. Using a partial equilibrium analysis, it is shown how the contemporaneous correlation between output and credit demand can change sign, whenever the economy is subject to unanticipated recessions and devaluations. The analysis is a timely one for policymakers in many LDCs, who are currently on the path of transforming their economies to free-market open-economies. The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This

  10. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellsberg Mary

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. Methods Standardised population-based household surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. One woman aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from each sampled household. Those who had ever had a male partner were asked about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts. We performed multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of physical and/or sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Results Despite wide variations in the prevalence of IPV, many factors affected IPV risk similarly across sites. Secondary education, high SES, and formal marriage offered protection, while alcohol abuse, cohabitation, young age, attitudes supportive of wife beating, having outside sexual partners, experiencing childhood abuse, growing up with domestic violence, and experiencing or perpetrating other forms of violence in adulthood, increased the risk of IPV. The strength of the association was greatest when both the woman and her partner had the risk factor. Conclusions IPV prevention programs should increase focus on transforming gender norms and attitudes, addressing childhood abuse, and reducing harmful drinking. Development initiatives to improve access to education for girls and boys may also have an important role in violence prevention.

  11. Evaluation of diagnostic radiology services in five Latin American countries: Results for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities, which indicate that the failure to comply with the international standards of quality control produces images of unacceptable quality, as measured either by using a phantom or by an independent evaluation of the clinical images. (author)

  12. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, M.-E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Caspani, C. E. M.; Fleitas, I.; de-la-Mora, R.; Miranda, A. A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Betancourt, C.-M.; Borras, C.

    2001-10-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services.

  13. Community in Competition: The American Birkebeiner Cross-Country Ski Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Donahue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, few people use skis as transportation, but each year, millions of people in colder climates enjoy cross-country skiing for recreation and fitness. And those familiar with the Winter Olympics know that it is also a serious sport. Donahue is particularly interested in exploring the idea of the “train,” in which a large group of skiers bind together like a pack to harness group dynamics in the largest ski race in North America, the 50 kilometer American Birkebeiner, in Hayward, Wisconsin. The key to this race, implies Donahue, is knowing and deciding when to compete with and when to compete against.

  14. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services

  15. Development and implementation of the regulatory control of sources in Latin American Model Project countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general assessment of the situation regarding radiation safety and the radiation protection infrastructure in Latin American countries, several of them were invited to participate in a Model Project oriented, in some cases, towards establishing a mechanism for national regulatory control of radiation sources, and in others, towards upgrading their national control programme. All these activities aimed at reaching an effective and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure based on international basic safety standards. The paper presents a general overview of the current situation with regard to radiation protection within the Model Project countries in Latin America after almost five years of activities. It includes: the implementation of regulatory issues; the control of occupational, medical and public exposures; emergency response and waste safety issues. The paper also presents some lessons learned during implementation concerning the numerous activities involved in this interregional project. (author)

  16. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  17. Energy intensity: A decomposition and counterfactual exercise for Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates trends in energy intensity over the last 40 years. Based on a sample of 75 countries, it applies the Fisher Ideal Index to decompose the energy intensity into the relative contributions of energy efficiency and economic structure. Then, the determinants of these energy indexes are examined through panel data regression techniques. Special attention is lent to Latin American countries (LAC) by comparing its performance to that of a similar set of countries chosen through the synthetic control method. When analyzed by income level, energy intensity has decreased in a range between 40 and 54% in low and medium income countries respectively. Efficiency improvements drive these changes, while the structural effect does not represent a clear source of change. The regression analysis shows that per capita income, petroleum prices, fuel-energy mix, and GDP growth are main determinants of energy intensity and efficiency, while there are no clear correlations with the activity component. In the case of LAC the energy intensity decreased around 20% which could be interpreted as an under-performance. However, the counterfactual exercise suggests that LAC has closed the gap with respect to its synthetic control

  18. How do country risk and national cultural differences between partners affect the survival of international alliances in emerging countries? Longitudinal analysis of 165 international joint ventures in Brazil 1974 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Xavier Meschi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying the individual and joint impact of two « country-level variables », namely national distance and country risk, on the survival of international joint ventures in emerging countries. Research hypotheses predicting the negative impact of national distance and country risk on survival are formulated in this article. These research hypotheses are tested in a sample of 165 international joint ventures that were formed in Brazil between 1974 and 2003. These joint ventures were subjected to an event history analysis over a period of time ranging from 1974 to 2005. The empirical results show that the intercultural dynamics increases the instability of international joint ventures whereas the survival of these alliances does not seem to be affected by the economic and political uncertainty of Brazil. Furthermore, the national distance between local and foreign partners has effects on survival that are variable according to the life cycle of international joint ventures.

  19. Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in Nine Developing Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Santiago; Katz, Craig L; Harry, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among prisoners in Latin America is greatly underestimated, and because of the lack of awareness about mental illness among service providers in Latin American prisons, oftentimes these conditions go unrecognized or are not treated properly. In the worst-case scenarios, human rights violations occur. Despite the high levels of need, many prisoners have not received adequate or timely treatment. The sparse existing literature documents prison conditions throughout Latin American countries, ranging from poor to extremely harsh, overcrowded, and life threatening. Most prison systems do not meet international prison standards. The information on forensic mental health services and the treatment of offenders with mental illness have been less extensively studied and compared with forensic practices in developed American nations. This study analyzes the existing literature on forensic psychiatry, focusing on nine socioeconomically developing nations in Latin America, to improve understanding of treatment approaches for offenders with mental illness and identify emerging themes. A review was conducted and data were included in regression analyses to investigate information relative to the treatment of offenders with mental illness and its interaction with the mental health system. PMID:26438812

  20. Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jyoti D; Galsky, Matthew D; Chagpar, Anees B; Pyle, Doug; Loehrer, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a global community of health care professionals whose stated purpose is to "make a world of difference" by improving cancer care around the world. Unfortunately, cancer survival rates vary significantly among countries with differing financial and infrastructural resources. Because ASCO is a professional oncology society committed to conquering cancer through research, education, prevention, and delivery of high-quality patient care, it is ideally suited to address this issue. ASCO could bring together oncology professionals and other necessary stakeholders from around the world to improve cancer care and lessen suffering for patients worldwide. As part of the ongoing commitment of ASCO to the future of cancer care, the Leadership Development Program was created to foster the leadership skills of early and midcareer oncologists and provide these participants with a working knowledge of the depth and breadth of the organization. As participants in the inaugural class of the ASCO Leadership Development Program, we were charged with investigating how ASCO might favorably affect cancer prevention and treatment in resource-poor countries in a cost-effective, scalable, and sustainable fashion. ASCO can significantly influence cancer care in low- and middle-income countries through a comprehensive approach that promotes cancer awareness and education, improves clinical practice by identifying and removing barriers to delivery of quality cancer care, and fosters innovation to initiate novel solutions to complex problems. PMID:21709190

  1. Factors associated with attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women: a comparative analysis of 17 sub-Saharan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olalekan A Uthman; Lawoko, Stephen; Moradi, Tahereh

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive and mental health consequences. Even though most societies proscribe violence against women, the reality is that violations against women's rights are often sanctioned under the garb of cultural practices and norms, or through misinterpretation of religious tenets. Methods We utilised data from 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted b...

  2. Correlation Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Risk of Substance Abuse and Depression among African-American Women Seen in an Urban Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Hankin, Abigail; Smith, L. Shakiyla; Daugherty, Jill; Houry, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse) as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African-American women seen in an urban Emergency Department (ED). Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21-55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint, and who were triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate were taken to complete a computer-b...

  3. Correlation Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Risk of Substance Abuse and Depression among African-American Women in an Urban Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Hankin, Abigail; Smith, L. Shakiyla; Daugherty, Jill; Houry, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse) as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African-American women seen in an urban emergency department (ED). Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21–55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint and triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate completed a computer-based survey that focused on demo...

  4. ART integration in oral health care systems in Latin American countries as perceived by directors of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a situation analysis of: a prevalence of ART training courses; b integration of ART into the oral healthcare systems and; c strengths and weaknesses of ART integration, in Latin American countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire, consisting of 18 questions, was emailed to directors of national or regional oral health departments of all Latin American countries and the USA. For two countries that had not responded after 4 weeks, the questionnaire was sent to the Dean of each local Dental School. The questions were related to ART training courses, integration of ART in the dental curriculum and the oral healthcare system, barriers to ART implementation in the public health system and recommendations for ART implementation in the services. Factor analysis was used to construct one factor in the barrier-related question. Means and percentages were calculated. RESULTS: The response rate, covering 55% of all Latin American countries, was 76%. An ART training course had been given in all Latin American countries that responded, with more than 2 having been conducted in 64.7% of the respondent countries. ART was implemented in public oral health services in 94.7 % of the countries, according to the respondents. In 15.8% of the countries, ART was applied throughout the country and in 68.4%, in some areas or regions of a country. ART had been used for more, or less, than three years in 42.1% and 47.4% of the countries, respectively. Evaluation and monitoring activities to determine the effectiveness of ART restorations and ART sealants had been carried out in 42.1% of the countries, while evaluation training courses had taken place in only 3 countries (15.8%. Respondents perceived the "increase in the number of treated patients" as the major benefit of ART implementation in public oral health services. The major perceived barrier factors to ART implementation were "operator opinion" and "high

  5. The Contribution of European Vocational Training Policy to Reforms in the Partner Countries of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent developments in EU vocational education and training (VET) policy, and of the issues and challenges faced by VET systems in the Western Balkans, Turkey, and other countries covered by the "wider European neighbourhood" policy. The purpose is to emphasise the relevance for these countries of the EU…

  6. Stigma of poverty. The discursive construction of ­"South" term in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÓMEZ QUINTERO, Juan David

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects a general knowledge and a macro-paradigmatic contribution of developmentalist discourses, in particular, its modernist and Eurocentric roots. In particular we analyze the artificiality of the discursive construction of certain categories that represent geopolitical stigma of poverty, such as ­Third World® or ­South® or ­underdeveloped® adopted in the field of international relations and the development cooperation. It notes that there are not metaphors opposite (North-South in its own right, the ­South® is not the opposite of the ­North®, but its negative extension, as evidenced by the imaginarium of most Latin American countries. The metaphors that stigmatize poverty are symbolic discourse used to define in a European way the identity of the winner (rich people.

  7. Individual and Partner-Level Factors Associated with Condom Non-Use Among African American STI Clinic Attendees in the Deep South: An Event-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Barnett, Nancy; Parker, Sharon; Barnes, Arti; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer S; Nunn, Amy S

    2016-06-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated in the Deep South, yet factors contributing to HIV transmission are not fully understood. We examined relationships between substance use, sexual partnership characteristics, and condom non-use in an African American sample of STI clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi. We assessed condom non-use at last intercourse with up to three recent sexual partners reported by participants between January and June 2011. Participant- and partner-level correlates of condom non-use were examined using generalized estimating equations. The 1295 participants reported 2880 intercourse events, of which 1490 (51.7 %) involved condom non-use. Older age, lower educational attainment, reporting financial or material dependence on a sex partner, sex with a primary partner, and higher frequency of sex were associated with increased odds of condomless sex. HIV prevention efforts in the South should address underlying socioeconomic disparities and structural determinants that result in partner dependency and sexual risk behavior. PMID:26683032

  8. Life expectancy with and without cognitive impairment in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of cognitive impairment is an increasing challenge with the ageing of our populations but little is known about the burden in low- and middle- income Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC that are aging more rapidly than their developed counterparts. We examined life expectancies with cognitive impairment (CILE and free of cognitive impairment (CIFLE in seven developing LAC countries.Data from The Survey on Health, Well-being and Ageing in LAC (N = 10,597 was utilised and cognitive status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. The Sullivan Method was applied to estimate CILE and CIFLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of age, gender and education on cognitive outcome. Meta-regression models were fitted for all 7 countries together to investigate the relationship between CIFLE and education in men and women at age 60.The prevalence of CI increased with age in all countries except Uruguay and with a significant gender effect observed only in Mexico where men had lower odds of CI compared to women [OR = 0.464 95% CInt (0.268 - 0.806]. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of CI in Brazil [OR = 4.848 (1.173-20.044], Chile [OR = 3.107 (1.098-8.793, Cuba [OR = 2.295 (1.247-4.225] and Mexico [OR = 3.838 (1.368-10.765. For males, total life expectancy (TLE at age 60 was highest in Cuba (19.7 years and lowest in Brazil and Uruguay (17.6 years. TLE for females at age 60 was highest for Chileans (22.8 years and lowest for Brazilians (20.2 years. CIFLE for men was greatest in Cuba (19.0 years and least in Brazil (16.7 years. These differences did not appear to be explained by educational level (Men: p = 0.408, women: p = 0.695.Increasing age, female sex and low education were associated with higher CI in LAC reflecting patterns found in other countries.

  9. Regional repositories - The best alternative for countries with unfavorable conditions for siting their own disposal sites. The Latin American case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. These countries would benefit from regional co-operation for the disposal. The intentions of this paper are to discuss the advantages of having a common repository (repositories) in Latin American Region and to promote the cooperation between countries interested in advancing the concept of shared storage and disposal. Small potential users of a common facility should be able to speak with a common voice when discussing the options with international bodies or with potential host countries offering such back-end services. (author)

  10. Personnel from Chambers of Commerce of Latin-American & Caribbean Countries Trained in China for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On December 4, the First Training Seminar for Personnel from Chambers of Commerce of Latin-American & Caribbean Countries, held by the Ministry of Commerce and CCPIT (China Council for the Promotion of International Trade), held the opening ceremony in Beijing.Over 20 leaders of Chambers of Commerce from 12 countries such as Grenada, Ecuador, Haiti, Uruguay, Brazil, Saint Lucia,Guatemala, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama, Nigeria, etc., attended this training.

  11. The three partners of language planning and the revitalization of the Basque language in the Northern Basque Country

    OpenAIRE

    Coyos, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the current situation of the Basque language and the policy implemented in its favor in the Northern Basque Country or French Basque Country. One of the aims is to show the limits of the public linguistic policy implemented, for the first time, by the authorities. If the commitment of the associations of support for the language is important, that of society as a whole is less, even if the latter becomes gradually more favorable. From a general point of view, we can say ...

  12. Current situation with the centralized storage facilities for non-power radioactive wastes in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several Latin American (LA) countries have been firmly committed to the peaceful applications of ionizing radiations in medicine, industry, agriculture and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development in diverse sectors. Consequently the use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. Moreover, such facilities are extremely expensive to develop. It is unlikely that such an option will become available in the foreseeable future for most of these countries, which do not have nuclear industries. Storage has long been incorporated as a step in the management of radioactive wastes. In the recent years, there have been developments that have led some countries to consider whether the roles of storage might be expanded to provide longer-term care of long-live radioactive wastes The aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation with the storage facilities/conditions for the radioactive wastes and disused sealed radioactive sources in Latin-American countries. In some cases a brief description of the existing facilities for certain countries are provided. In other cases, when no centralized facility exists, general information on the radioactive inventories and disused sealed sources is given. (author)

  13. Trends in adolescent unions and childbearing in four Central American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remez, Lisa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Four low-income Central American nations—El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua—have the highest rates of adolescent fertility in Latin America. More information on time trends in adolescent marital and reproductive behaviors is needed to assess the need for improved information and services to delay marriage and childbearing. Methodology: Data from these countries’ recent Demographic and Health Surveys and Reproductive Health Surveys are used to examine trends in adolescent unions and childbearing by comparing two cohorts roughly a generation apart, 40–44-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds. We tested for significant differences over time, both for women overall and within subgroups, using Pearson Χ2 statistics that take the stratified, cluster sample design into account. Findings: As of 2001–2005/6, adolescent unions, which are far more likely to be consensual than legal, were still widespread in the subregion, as 45–60% of 20–24-year-old women in these four countries had entered into a union before their 20th birthday. Nonetheless, such early unions have fallen significantly over time in all four countries, declining by relatively less in Honduras (by six percentage points than in the other three countries (by 10–15 percentage points. In contrast, no comparable uniform trend emerged in the timing of first births: The proportions giving birth before age 20 fell significantly only in Nicaragua (by eight points; declines were smaller and nonsignificant in the other three countries (2–5 points. At the subgroup level, just one change was significant within area of residence—the 12-point decline in the proportion with any adolescent birth in urban areas in Nicaragua. Although the change was not significant at the population level, adolescent births increased significantly among less-educated women and the poorest women in El Salvador and Honduras, as traditional behaviors likely became more concentrated in those

  14. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  15. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. This study conducted in Latin American countries shows a low incidence of aplastic anemia in this region of the world. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases this risk, while any association with specific drugs is uncertain.

  16. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  17. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  18. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women. PMID:26892099

  19. The effects of agricultural trade openness on food price transmission in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Flachsbarth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade of agricultural commodities has grown significantly in most Latin American countries (LAC over the last two decades. However, after the international food price surges in 2006-08 and 2011-12 concerns about food access of the poor arose. Within a panel framework containing six LAC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, we used a single equation error correction model to identify possible cointegrating relationships between the food consumer price index (CPI and a set of trade related and domestic variables. The main focus of the study was to examine how different levels of trade openness impact international food price transmission to domestic markets. Our results confirm that deeper market integration increases global price transmission elasticities. In other words, more agricultural trade openness proves to elevate food CPIs during global price spikes. Thus, for poor consumers world price shocks can be deteriorating in the short-run and domestic food prices will slowly converge to a higher long-run equilibrium. Especially in increasingly integrated economies, effective policies to buffer food price shocks should be put in place, but must be carefully planned with the required budget readily available. We also found that exchange rate appreciations can buffer price shocks to a certain extent and that monetary policies seem to be an appropriate means for stabilizing food prices to safeguard food access of the poor population.

  20. The stationarity of consumption-income ratios: evidence from South American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the order of integration of the consumption-income ratio in 10 South American countries. To do this, the individual ADF test, its panel versions and theMinimumLMunit root test with structural break(s were employed. While the former tests found more favorable evidence of an integrated process, after controlling for structural breaks only Uruguay seems to be integrated. Thus, in general, the consumption-income ratio was diagnosed as a stationary process, as suggested by the relative income hypothesis, the habit persistence model, the permanent income hypothesis and the life cycle hypothesis.Este artigo analisa a ordem de integração da razão consumo-renda em 10 países da América do Sul. Para tanto, utilizamos o teste ADF e sua versão painel, além de um teste LM de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural(s. Enquanto os primeiros testes encontraram evidências mais favoráveis a processos integrados, após o controle de quebras estruturais apenas o processo do Uruguai parece ser integrado. Assim, em geral, a razão consumo-renda foi diagnosticada como um processo estacionário, como sugerido pelo modelo de hábito e pelas hipóteses de renda relativa, renda permanente e ciclo de vida.

  1. Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Emma Fulu, PhD; Prof. Rachel Jewkes, MBBS MD; Tim Roselli, BSc; Claudia Garcia-Moreno, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) is under-researched. In this Article, we present data for the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of IPV from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of perpetration of partner violence, identify factors associated with perpetration of different forms of violence, and inform prevention strategies. Methods: We undertoo...

  2. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    . The findings showed, on one hand, that while some social partners have started very good work, for many the issues of lifelong learning and opportunities for career development for older workers are not on their agenda. Besides differences between the unions in regards many aspects and within most......The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the...... demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society and the...

  3. Dutch Disease in Latin American countries: De-industrialization, how it happens, crisis, and the role of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sara A.; Petreski, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if and how different episodes of large net inflows – export boom, remittances, FDIs, or aid – caused Dutch disease in Latin American countries. We investigate this disease – i.e. the decline of manufacturing output – with special reference to the channels through which it works, to the crisis period and to the role of China for LAC. The study conducts analyses at the 3-digit International Standard Industrial Classification level for manufacturing industries. Our result...

  4. Factors Affecting Transport Sector CO(2) Emissions Growth in Latin American and Caribbean Countries : An LMDI Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, G. R.; Shrestha, A

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the factors responsible for the growth of transport sector CO(2) emissions in 20 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing the emissions growth into components associated with changes in fuel mix (FM), modal shift and economic growth, as well as changes in emission coefficients (EC) and transportation energy intensity (EI). The key finding of the study is that economic growth and the changes in transportation El are the princ...

  5. Entrepreneurship, Economic Mobility, and Entrepreneurial Propensity: A Regional View Based on the Analysis of Selected Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo D. Kantis; Juan S. Federico; Luis A. Trajtenberg

    2012-01-01

    Using household surveys from Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and El Salvador, this paper assesses the contribution of entrepreneurship to socioeconomic mobility and to understand the main variables associated with entrepreneurial propensity in selected Latin American countries. It is found that, at the aggregate regional level, income mobility is rather modest and that entrepreneurs do not outperform the rest of the population. However, entrepreneurs tend to perform as well as or better tha...

  6. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the...... difficult position” regarding this matter, but also that they should develop clearer strategy in response to demographic change, and communicate it to their members. The OWNsurvey was carried out as a part of the work in the network Older workers in the Nordic countries (OWN) supported by the Nordic Council...... demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society and the...

  7. To what extent do Latin Americans trust and cooperate? Field experiments on social exclusion in six Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Juan Camilo; Chong, Alberto; Ñopo, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which individuals trust, reciprocate, cooperate and pool risk by using a battery of field experiments containing the trust game, the voluntary contributions mechanism and the risk pooling game; applied in six capital cities in Latin America. The results suggest that: (i) on average, the propensity to trust and cooperate among Latin Americans is remarkably similar to that found in other regions of the world; (ii) expectations about the behavior of other player...

  8. Correlation Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Risk of Substance Abuse and Depression among African-American Women Seen in an Urban Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houry, Debra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among African-American women seen in an urban Emergency Department (ED. Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21-55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint, and who were triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate were taken to complete a computer-based survey that focused on demographic information and general health questions as well as standardized instruments including the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA, the Tolerance, Worried, Eye openers, Amnesia, K(Cut down (TWEAK screen for alcohol abuse, Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST20, and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC. This analysis uses results from a larger study evaluating the effects of providing patients with targeted educational literature based on the results of their screening. Results: 610 women were surveyed. Among these, 85 women (13.9% screened positive for IPV. Women who screened positive for IPV were significantly more likely to also screen positive for tobacco abuse (56% vs. 37.5%, p< 0.001, alcohol abuse (47.1% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001, and drug abuse (44.7% vs. 9.5%, p<0.001. Women who screened positive for IPV were also more likely to screen positive for depression and to report social isolation. Conclusion: African-American women seen in the ED, who screen positive for IPV, are at significantly higher risk of drug, alcohol, tobacco abuse, depression and social isolation than women who do not screen positive for IPV. These findings have important implications for ED-based and community-based social services for women who are victims of intimate partner violence. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 253-257.

  9. Partnering in Research: A National Research Trial Exemplifying Effective Collaboration With American Indian Nations and the Indian Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jennifer Q.; Copeland, Kenneth C.; Daniel, Mary R.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie A.; Felton, Beverly A.; Khan, Sohail I.; Saunkeah, Bobby R.; Wharton, David F.; Payan, Marisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that numerous major public health problems have plagued American Indian communities for generations, American Indian participation in health research traditionally has been sporadic in many parts of the United States. In 2002, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and 5 Oklahoma American Indian research review boards (Oklahoma City Area Indian Health Service, Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, and Choctaw Nation) agreed to participate collectively in a national research trial, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescence and Youth (TODAY) Study. During that process, numerous lessons were learned and processes developed that strengthened the partnerships and facilitated the research. Formal Memoranda of Agreement addressed issues related to community collaboration, venue, tribal authority, preferential hiring of American Indians, and indemnification. The agreements aided in uniting sovereign nations, the Indian Health Service, academics, and public health officials to conduct responsible and ethical research. For more than 10 years, this unique partnership has functioned effectively in recruiting and retaining American Indian participants, respecting cultural differences, and maintaining tribal autonomy through prereview of all study publications and local institutional review board review of all processes. The lessons learned may be of value to investigators conducting future research with American Indian communities. PMID:25389367

  10. Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Two Samples of Deaf Adults via a Computerized American Sign Language Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Robert Q.; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparabl...

  11. Disordered eating among African American and African Caribbean women: The influence of intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Francis, Lucine; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Doris W. Campbell

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV), depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on disordered eating patterns (DE) among women of African descent through a comparative case-control study (N=790) in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands from 2009–2011. IPV, depression and PTSD were independent risk factors in the full sample. The relationship between IPV and DE was partially mediated by depression. The influence of risk for lethality f...

  12. Scientific-technical study on reactor safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and EU partner countries (INSC) and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project 3611R0801503 of the BMUB/BfS was focused on coordination and implementation of generic technical and organisational activities for assessments of nuclear safety and effectiveness of regulatory systems in foreign countries (with focus to Eastern Europe and in INSC partner countries). To comply with the BMUB objectives and the GRS strategy, the tasks were structured taking into account the specificity of countries and nuclear design series whereas the technical knowledge and results of the analyses were provided to meet the requirements. This final documentation on the project describes the results of the activities from 04/01/2011 through 09/31/2014 on working packages ''Programme Coordination'', ''Project Management'', ''Networks and On-Site Assistance'', ''Project Documentation'', ''Knowledge Management'', ''Design Series Specific Activities'', ''Multilateral Activities'', ''Country Specific Activities'', ''International Institutions'', ''EU Panels'', ''G8 and EBRD Funds'' and ''Network Activities''. The project contributed significantly to a systematic extension and deepening of knowledge in GRS. Also, international cooperation with selected regulators and their TSOs as well as with the IAEA, the EU and representatives of multilateral bodies was intensified. As intended, this allowed to extend the information and knowledge basis for nuclear safety. The know-how gain for GRS is to be rated as high. This is true for the work in international bodies, but also for the creation, further development and usage of national and international information, knowledge and cooperation platforms. By the insights gained from the project, GRS completes and consolidates its knowledge and tools available. The status achieved in the

  13. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  14. Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

  15. School Leadership in Two Countries: Shared Leadership in American and Chinese High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wenlen

    2010-01-01

    Cross-culture educational leadership researchers have shown in their research that national boundaries make a difference. What works in one nation may not work in another one because of different cultures in schools and across nations. This study aims to better understand the similarities and differences between American and Chinese high school…

  16. Inter-country and ethnic variation in colorectal cancer survival: Comparisons between a Philippine population, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondos Adam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies showed differences in international and within country colorectal cancer survival estimates, but few investigated the role of prognostic factors. Using a "high resolution approach", we aimed to determine the effect of ethnicity and health care by comparing Filipino-Americans with Philippine residents, who have the same ethnicity, and with Caucasians living in the US, who have the same health care system. Methods Using databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed and compared between Filipino-American colorectal cancer patients, cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasian patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Much lower 5-year relative survival estimates were obtained for Philippine residents (37% as compared to those in Filipino-Americans (60.3% and Caucasians (62.4%. Differences in age, stage and receipt of surgery explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans. However, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents remained after controlling for these and other variables (relative risk, RR, 2.03, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.83-2.25. Conclusions Strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients were disclosed, which most likely reflect differences in access to and utilization of health care. Health education and advocacy, for both patients and health practitioners, should likewise be given priority.

  17. Is the Hegemonic Position of American Culture Able to Subjugate Local Cultures of Importing Countries? A Constructive Analysis on the Phenomenon of Cultural Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tien-Hui

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that globalization assists the USA to gain a hegemonic position, allowing it to export its culture. Because this exportation leads to the domination by American culture of the local cultures of importing countries, which are the key element in sustaining their citizens' national identity, citizens of these countries are…

  18. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  19. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low-carbon ene...... debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation....

  20. Criminalization of HIV transmission or exposure in eight Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil

    2010-10-01

    While the prosecution of HIV transmission or exposure has been widely documented in Western Europe and North America, Latin America has not figured in this trend. In this article, based on an oral abstract presentation at AIDS 2010, Tamil Kendall reviews HIV-specific legislation and instances of prosecution in eight countries in the region, and discusses how civil society might respond. PMID:21413623

  1. The Relevance of the Informational Content of Book-Tax Differences for Predicting Future Income: Evidence from Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vieira Cunha Marques

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the different types of book-tax differences are useful for predicting the future income of publicly traded companies in five Latin American countries. This is possible since these differences convey information about transitory components of income, which can be used by investors for predicting future income. However, little is known about the relationship between tax variables and companies' future results. The sample analyzed here is composed of 580 publicly traded companies from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru with information available in the Economatica(r database covering 2002 to 2013. In terms of methodology, regressions are employed in order to find a connection between the different types (total, permanent, temporary, and the negative and positive variations of book-tax differences and companies' current and future earnings per share, as well as some control variables suggested by previous literature. The model's coefficients were estimated through panel data techniques: fixed effects. The results obtained suggest that the information gathered in the different types of book-tax differences (total, permanent, temporary, positive and negative variations is relevant in predicting future income. Total, permanent and temporary differences contribute to the uncertainty in future income prediction, given that results are more transitory and less persistent in years with higher book-tax differences. Positive and negative variations, on the other hand, attribute higher income in coming years to greater variations in book-tax differences, representing increased timeliness of results and a reduction in off balance sheet funding for the publicly traded companies from these countries.

  2. Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Rachel Jewkes, MBBS MD; Emma Fulu, PhD; Tim Roselli, BSc; Claudia Garcia-Moreno, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rape perpetration is under-researched. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of rape of non-partner women and of men, and the reasons for rape, from nine sites in Asia and the Pacific across six countries: Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, undertaken in January 2011–December 2012, for each site we chose a multistage representative sample...

  3. Energy consumption and related CO2 emissions in five Latin American countries: Changes from 1990 to 2006 and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the primary energy consumption and energy-related CO2 emissions in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela during the period 1990-2006. It also reviews important reforms in the energy sector of these countries as well as the promotion of energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES). Using a decomposition analysis, results indicate that even though significant reductions in energy intensity have been achieved in Colombia, Mexico and in a lesser extent in Brazil and Argentina, the reduction of CO2 emissions in these countries has not been significant due to an increased dependence on fossil fuels in their energy mix. Although the Latin American region has an important experience in the promotion of EE programs and renewable sources, the energy agenda of the examined countries focused mostly on the energy reforms during the analyzed period. The policy review suggests that further governmental support and strong public policies towards a more sustainable energy path are required to encourage a low carbon future in the region.

  4. Foreign direct investment and host country productivity: the American automotive component industry in the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbur Chung; Mitchell, W.; Yeung, B

    2003-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) often leads to greater host country productivity, researchers have yet to determine the relative importance of direct technology transfer and competitive pressure. To assess the relative importance of the two channels, we examine the US auto-component industry between 1979 and 1991. During this period, Japanese automobile assemblers began to produce vehicles in North America, and began to purchase inputs from US a...

  5. The effects of net food imports on obesity in selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. Jolly; Jolly, P E; Namugabo, E.; Nyguyen, G.; Diawara, N.; Ovalle, F.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a major health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The prevalence of obesity and its related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which were estimated at 26 percent of all diseases are expected to triple by 2020. Researchers and policy makers have accredited the rise in obesity to changes in diet, life style, income and the growth of urbanization. Not much attention has been paid to food availability and imports. Food production in the LAC countries...

  6. How Spanish Multinationals implement CSR in Latin American countries: a focus on the energy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Llera Bagüés, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Spain is behind in the level of CSR implementation in comparison with other European countries, among other reasons due to low political commitment and support. In fact, private companies and in particular large corporations and multinationals are fostering the CSR arena in Spain, and despite the difficulties at home, the Spanish multinationals try to export their CSR initiatives abroad. Here, the energy sector is used as a guiding tool for the analysis due to the dominant position of the Spa...

  7. Are Dictatorships necessary? Trade Unions and Neoliberal Populism in Four Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Astudillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The economic crisis of the beginning of this century in Latin America has questioned that a neo-liberal kind of populism may solve the puzzle of how to implement pro-market economic reforms by democratic regimes in less developed countries. Populism is both prone to corruption and incompatible with the necessary institutional reforms (the “second generation” reforms) complementing the economic reforms. Non-populist politicians may not have this handicap, but they could not overcome the labor ...

  8. The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

  9. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  10. Latin American Agriculture in a World of Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Josling, Tim; Paggi, Mechel; Wainio, John; Yamazaki, Fumiko

    2014-01-01

    Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have been among the most active participants in the negotiation of regional and bilateral FTAs. The countries of the region are members of 73 of the 259 FTAs notified to the WTO as currently in force, with 29 of these agreements containing tariff concessions made to one or more Latin American partners: the remaining 44 are between an LAC member country and a third country. Among LAC countries already linked by an FTA, a large percentage of agricult...

  11. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Migrant Children and Adolescents in American Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Kouider, Esmahan; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2015-08-01

    The present review postulates the current mental health status in migrant children and adolescents in the North American continent. 35 studies published from 2009 to 2013 chosen from a systematic literature research were included. Almost all studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. From the perspective of selection effect, migration as a risk factor was not proven. The migration process perspective could have underestimated a higher danger of problem behavior in second-generation migrant children. Comparing native and migrant children, balanced results in problem behavior were reported, but the Asian migrant group was at higher risk of developing mental disorders. Family-based risk factors were offered: high acculturation stress, low English language competence, language brokering, discrepancies in children's and parent's cultural orientation, the non-Western cultural orientation, e.g., collectivistic, acceptance feelings of parents, or harsh parenting. However, the importance to support migrant families in the acculturation process becomes apparent. PMID:24851820

  12. Chimpanzee included in the genus Homo? How Biology teachers from three Latin American countries conceive it

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Heslley M.; Carvalho, Graça Simões

    2016-01-01

    This work intended to understand the biology teachers’ conceptions about the humans’ position regarding other animal species. It was carried out in three countries with contrasting secularism conditions: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Teachers were asked to answer, in a Likert-type scale, to the question B7 of the European project BIOHEAD-CITIZEN: “The Chimpanzee should be included in the genus Homo, notably because 98.5% of its DNA is identical to that of Homo sapiens”.. Results were analyze...

  13. Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action. PMID:22673958

  14. Exclusive breast-feeding duration is associated with attitudinal, socioeconomic and biocultural determinants in three Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C; Segall, A M; Rivera, A; Treviño-Siller, S; Sanghvi, T

    1995-12-01

    International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = 446, 2 maternity wards), Honduras (n = 1582, 3 maternity wards) and Mexico (n = 765, 3 maternity wards) were interviewed at birth and in their homes at 1 mo and 2-4 mo after delivery. Multivariate survival analyses (Cox model) indicated that planned duration of EBF (all 3 countries), having a female infant, and not being employed (Brazil and Honduras), lower socioeconomic status (Honduras and Mexico) and higher birth weight (control hospital in Brazil and Honduras) were positively associated (P programs were more successful with EBF. The association between maternal education and EBF was modified by the maternity ward in Mexico and Honduras. Being > or = 18 y and having a partner living (Brazil) or not (Mexico) living at home were positively associated with EBF. These findings can contribute toward the design of EBF promotion efforts in Latin America. PMID:7500175

  15. The Culture and Development Index (CDI: Measuring Values and Attitudes Associated With Development In Selected Asian and Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I. B. Gonzales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing data gathered in five waves in the period 1981–2005 for up to 97 societies (most of which are independent countries, the World Values Survey Organization (WVSO identified two orthogonal factors, Traditional/Secular-Rational Values, and Survival/Self-Expression Values, that account for up to 70 percent of cross-cultural variation worldwide. However, one weakness of the two-factor construct is that it overlooks regional or local patterns in values and attitudes that may be vitally related to development. Alternatively, the Culture and Development Index (CDI and the closely related Culture and Corruption Index (CCI are constructed for selected South and Southeast Asian, Latin American, and East Asian countries to account for cross-cultural variation in terms of a different set of orthogonal factors, some of which are strongly associated with leading measures of development and of corruption. Both CDI and CCI reveal patterns of value and attitudinal change relevant to promoting development and to mitigating corruption.

  16. An analysis on the implementation of the convention on the rights of the child in south american and european countries1

    OpenAIRE

    Da Cunha Frota, Maria Guiomar; Gomes Quintao, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the recognized rights’ implementation made in the Convention on the Rights of the Child in South American and European countries. The empirical research used, as its mains source, data from the State Party Reports, write by governments and Alternative Reports write by non governmental organizations, which were sent to the “Committee on the rights of the child” –an organization created to monitor the implementation of the Convention–, in these countries...

  17. Are Dictatorships necessary? Trade Unions and Neoliberal Populism in Four Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astudillo, Javier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis of the beginning of this century in Latin America has questioned that a neo-liberal kind of populism may solve the puzzle of how to implement pro-market economic reforms by democratic regimes in less developed countries. Populism is both prone to corruption and incompatible with the necessary institutional reforms (the “second generation” reforms complementing the economic reforms. Non-populist politicians may not have this handicap, but they could not overcome the labor resistance to their pro-market reforms either. Still, under certain conditions, democratic politicians can implement these reforms without suffering from the costs of populism.

    Las crisis económicas de comienzos de este siglo en América Latina han cuestionado que el populismo, en su versión neoliberal, pueda ser la solución para llevar a cabo las reformas económicas pro-mercado por los regímenes democráticos de los países menos desarrollados. Tanto la tentación de cualquier clase de populismo de caer en una corrupción que las haga estériles, como su incompatibilidad con las necesarias reformas institucionales, de “segunda generación”, que complementen a las económicas, es muy alta. Los políticos no populistas no tendrían este problema, pero tampoco podrían hacer frente a la oposición sindical. Ahora bien, bajo ciertas condiciones, los políticos democráticos las pueden llevar a cabo sin tener que caer en los costes del populismo.

  18. [Ethical dilemmas in gastroenterology practice in Latin-American countries: the AIGE survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E

    1999-01-01

    (truth, informed consent), the autonomic decision of biological death versus the sacrament of life, justice in allocation resources, confidentiality and social concern, abortion, and many other controversies linked to tecno-scientific development, impact the practice of Gastroenterology in latinoamerican countries. However medical answers to ethical dilemmas are not uniform. Although our results ought to be verified by other studies they clearly suggest the needs for systematic incorporation of applicated Ethics in pre and postgraduate Gastroenterology curricula, besides the regular activities of our regional institutions. PMID:10491718

  19. A review of the feasibility of irradiation technology to increase the potential of food exports in Latin American countries: A case study in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has concentrated on the preservation of fresh fruits, mainly those that are common in most Latin American countries and that have good potential for export. in addition, preliminary studies have been performed to determine the dose of gamma radiation required to preserve the maturation of Drosophila larvae

  20. Characterization and Clinical Impact of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Seven Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Pallares, Christian J.; Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Correa, Adriana; Álvarez, Carlos; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Luna, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Cortesía, Manuel; Guzmán-Suárez, Alfonso; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health problem associated with higher mortality rates, longer hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. We carried out a study to describe the characteristics of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-CPE bloodstream infection (BSI) from Latin American hospitals and to determine the clinical impact in terms of mortality and antibiotic therapy. Methods Between July 2013 and November 2014, we conducted a multicenter observational study in 11 hospitals from 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were included and classified either as CPE or non-CPE based on detection of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by polymerase chain reaction. Enrolled subjects were followed until discharge or death. Demographic, microbiological and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the information. Results A total of 255 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI were included; CPE were identified in 53 of them. In vitro non-susceptibility to all screened antibiotics was higher in the patients with CPE BSI, remaining colistin, tigecycline and amikacin as the most active drugs. Combination therapy was significantly more frequent in the CPE BSI group (p < 0.001). The most common regimen was carbapenem + colistin or polymyxin B. The overall mortality was 37% (94/255). Overall and attributable mortality were significantly higher in patients with CPE BSI (p < 0.001); however, we found that patients with CPE BSI who received combination therapy and those who received monotherapy had similar mortality. After multivariate adjustment, CPE BSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–9.5; p = 0.002) and critical illness (aOR 6.5; 95% CI 3.1–13.7; p < 0

  1. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3 + 1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy

  2. Fallout Radionuclides as Indicators of Soil Degradation and Potential Loss of Agricultural Production in Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    recent short periods of heavy rainfall. In view of the above, the project 'Using Environmental Radionuclides as Indicators of Land Degradation in Latin American, Caribbean and Antarctic Ecosystems', RLA/5/051, was approved for 5 years from 2009-2013. The project aims to enhance regional capacity for sound assessment of land degradation and improved national and regional policies for soil conservation in Latin America, Caribbean and Antarctic ecosystems through the use of fallout radionuclide based techniques. Within the framework of the ARCAL RLA/5/051 project, research groups from 15 countries in the region (i.e. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) have started in 2010 to implement intensive field campaigns and laboratory and modelling activities focused on employing fallout radionuclides as tracers of soil erosion and redistribution in representative agroecosystems of the region. It aims to assess soil degradation in the region and to assist policy makers in the participating countries to select the right approaches and tools to diagnose the state of land degradation and the consequences of human intervention under different agro-ecological conditions

  3. Scientific diasporas from developing countries in Switzerland: empirical evidence and policy responses. Skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa in Switzerland as partners in development

    OpenAIRE

    Tejada Guerrero, Gabriela; Bolay, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries («brain drain») has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects of skilled labour migration as scientific diasporas are playing a growing role in the transfer of technology, skills and knowled...

  4. Evidence on equity, governance and financing after health care reform in Mexico: lessons for Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes evidence on equity, governance and health financing outcomes of the Mexican health system. An evaluative research with a cross-sectional design was oriented towards the qualitative and quantitative analysis of financing, governance and equity indicators. Taking into account feasibility, as well as political and technical criteria, seven Mexican states were selected as study populations and an evaluative research was conducted during 2002-2010. The data collection techniques were based on in-depth interviews with key personnel (providers, users and community leaders, consensus technique and document analysis. The qualitative analysis was done with ATLAS TI and POLICY MAKER softwares. The Mexican health system reform has modified dependence at the central level; there is a new equity equation for resources allocation, community leaders and users of services reported the need to improve an effective accountability system at both municipal and state levels. Strategies for equity, governance and financing do not have adequate mechanisms to promote participation from all social actors. Improving this situation is a very important goal in the Mexican health democratization process, in the context of health care reform. Inequality on resources allocation in some regions and catastrophic expenditure for users is unequal in all states, producing more negative effects on states with high social marginalization. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the main strengths and weaknesses, as relevant evidences for other Latin American countries which are designing, implementing and evaluating reform strategies in order to achieve equity, good governance and a greater financial protection in health.

  5. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry

  6. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  7. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    delivery, often in combination with the introduction of private finance in hitherto publicly funded buildings and infrastructure works (PPP, PFI). Some construction clients have taken this a step further and adopted a much more collaborative approach towards project delivery, often known as partnering....... This can involve contractual changes, but is more often primarily founded on agreements and commitments outside the contract framework. The paper presents evidence from an explorative study of partnering and partnerships in five Nordic countries. The study was implemented in a collaborative network...... of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...

  8. Exploring Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, S.; Gonzalez, W. Y.; Melendez, M. O.; Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, J. D.; Juarez, C. G.; Martinez, E. A.; Penalba, S. J.; Pizzanelli, E. M.; Solorzano, L. I.; Wright, M. G. M.; Cumsille, F.; De La Haye, W.; Sapag, J. C.; Khenti, A.; Hamilton, H. A.; Erickson, P. G.; Brands, B.; Flam-Zalcman, R.; Simpson, S.; Wekerle, C.; Mann, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Research from developed countries shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. However, little evidence on this relationship is available from developing countries, and recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to…

  9. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  10. Lessons learned for a more efficient knowledge and technology transfer to South American countries in the fields of solid waste and contaminated sites management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Szarka, Nóra; Navia, Rodrigo; Konrad, Odorico; Lorber, Karl E

    2007-04-01

    The present paper describes the development, performance and conclusions derived from three know-how and technology transfer projects to South American countries. The first project comprised a collaborative study by European and South American universities to find sustainable solutions for Chilean and Ecuadorian leather tanneries which had underachieving process performances. The second project consisted of investigations carried out in a Brazilian municipality to enhance its municipal solid waste management system. The final collaborative programme dealt with the initial identification, evaluation and registration of suspected contaminated sites in an industrial region of Chile. The detailed objectives, methods and procedures applied as well as the results and conclusions obtained in each of the three mentioned projects are presented, giving special attention to the organizational aspects and to the practical approach of each programme, concluding with their main advantages and disadvantages for identifying a set of qualitative and quantitative suggestions, and to establish transferable methods for future applications. PMID:17439050

  11. CONCOMITANT FORMS OF ABUSE AND HELP-SEEKING BEHAVIOR AMONG WHITE, AFRICAN AMERICAN, AND LATINA WOMEN WHO EXPERIENCE INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n=1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse were less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking were more likely to seek help, whereas concom...

  12. Implications of global pricing policies on access to innovative drugs::the case of trastuzumab in seven Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pichon-Riviere, A; Garay, O.U.; Augustovski, F.; Vallejos, C.; Huayanay, L.; del Pilar Navia Bueno, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Coelho de Andrade, C.J.; Buendía, J.A.; Drummond, M F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differential pricing, based on countries’ purchasing power, is recommended by the WHO to secure affordable medicines. However, in developing countries innovative drugs often have similar or even higher prices than in high-income countries. We evaluated the potential implications of trastuzumab global pricing policies in terms of cost-effectiveness (CE), coverage and accessibility for patients with breast cancer in Latin America (LA). Methods: A Markov model was designed to estimat...

  13. The value of Standards and Labelling: an international cost-benefit analysis tool for Standards and Labelling programs with results for Central American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a cost-benefit spreadsheet analysis tool that provides an evaluation of the net impacts of an appliance standards and labelling (SandL) program. The tool is designed to provide a rough estimate at very low cost to local analysts, while allowing for a more accurate evaluation when detailed local data are available. The methodology takes a bottom-up engineering approach, beginning with appliance-specific engineering parameters relating efficiency improvement and incremental costs associated with specific design technologies. Efficiency improvement afforded by each potential policy option is combined with local appliance use patterns to estimate average annual energy consumption for each appliance. This information is combined with appliance lifetime data and local energy prices to provide a life cycle cost impact assessment at the household level. In addition to household level impacts, the analysis tool forecasts future appliance sales, in order to calculate potential energy savings, consumer financial impacts and carbon emissions reductions at the national level. In order to demonstrate the features of the policy model employed, this poster presents a regional analysis based on the most recent publicly available appliance data. In particular, a set of developing countries in Central America were chosen as an example. Taken as a whole, the Central American results demonstrate the general level of benefit which could be afforded in these countries. Comparison between the countries reveals the key parameters determining the benefit a given country can expect from a standards program

  14. Young African American Men Having Sex with Multiple Partners Are More Likely to Use Condoms Incorrectly: A Clinic-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.; Snow, Gregory; Troutman, Adewale

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the research hypothesis that men’s errors using condoms would be associated with having multiple sex partners. Specifically, men engaging in sex with three or more women were compared to those having sex with two or fewer women. Recruitment (N=271) occurred in a publicly-funded STD clinic located in a metropolitan area of the Southern U.S. All men were clinically diagnosed with a STD. Men completed a self-reported questionnaire (using a three-month recall period). Those repo...

  15. CO2 emissions from electricity generation in seven Asia-Pacific and North American countries: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method of complete decomposition is used to examine the role of three factors (electricity production, electricity generation structure and energy intensity of electricity generation) affecting the evolution of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in seven countries. These seven countries together generated 58% of global electricity and they are responsible for more than two-thirds of global CO2 emissions from electricity generation in 2005. The analysis shows production effect as the major factor responsible for rise in CO2 emissions during the period 1990-2005. The generation structure effect also contributed in CO2 emissions increase, although at a slower rate. In contrary, the energy intensity effect is responsible for modest reduction in CO2 emissions during this period. Over the 2005-2030 period, production effect remains the key factor responsible for increase in emissions and energy intensity effect is responsible for decrease in emissions. Unlike in the past, generation structure effect contributes significant decrease in emissions. However, the degree of influence of these factors affecting changes in CO2 emissions vary from country to country. The analysis also shows that there is a potential of efficiency improvement of fossil-fuel-fired power plants and its associated co-benefits among these countries

  16. CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation in seven Asia-Pacific and North American countries: A decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malla, Sunil [Technology Consultancy Services, GPO Box 13288, Kalika Marg, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2009-01-15

    The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method of complete decomposition is used to examine the role of three factors (electricity production, electricity generation structure and energy intensity of electricity generation) affecting the evolution of CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation in seven countries. These seven countries together generated 58% of global electricity and they are responsible for more than two-thirds of global CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation in 2005. The analysis shows production effect as the major factor responsible for rise in CO{sub 2} emissions during the period 1990-2005. The generation structure effect also contributed in CO{sub 2} emissions increase, although at a slower rate. In contrary, the energy intensity effect is responsible for modest reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions during this period. Over the 2005-2030 period, production effect remains the key factor responsible for increase in emissions and energy intensity effect is responsible for decrease in emissions. Unlike in the past, generation structure effect contributes significant decrease in emissions. However, the degree of influence of these factors affecting changes in CO{sub 2} emissions vary from country to country. The analysis also shows that there is a potential of efficiency improvement of fossil-fuel-fired power plants and its associated co-benefits among these countries. (author)

  17. CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation in seven Asia-Pacific and North American countries: A decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil Malla [Technology Consultancy Services, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2009-01-15

    The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method of complete decomposition is used to examine the role of three factors (electricity production, electricity generation structure and energy intensity of electricity generation) affecting the evolution of CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation in seven countries. These seven countries together generated 58% of global electricity and they are responsible for more than two-thirds of global CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation in 2005. The analysis shows production effect as the major factor responsible for rise in CO{sub 2} emissions during the period 1990-2005. The generation structure effect also contributed in CO{sub 2} emissions increase, although at a slower rate. In contrary, the energy intensity effect is responsible for modest reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions during this period. Over the 2005-2030 period, production effect remains the key factor responsible for increase in emissions and energy intensity effect is responsible for decrease in emissions. Unlike in the past, generation structure effect contributes significant decrease in emissions. However, the degree of influence of these factors affecting changes in CO{sub 2} emissions vary from country to country. The analysis also shows that there is a potential of efficiency improvement of fossil-fuel-fired power plants and its associated co-benefits among these countries. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. From Neighbors To Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Central Asian nations are both benefiting from closer economic,political and social ties This year marks the 15th anniversary of China’s establishment of diplomatic relations with five Central Asian countries—Uzbekistan,Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. After becoming independent upon the breakup of the Soviet Union, they established and developed stable and sustainable ties with China on a brand new basis. Now, with close cooperation in various fields, China and Central Asian countries have become friendly and cooperative partners.

  19. New Structures of American Foreign Strategy Since 9/11-Seeking Cooperation with Asia-Pacific Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    When George W. Bush entered the White House in early 2001,American foreign policy was based on unilateral principles and favored disengagement from global conflict resolution. The United States declared it's decision to withdraw from the Kyoto protocol, refused to negotiate with North Korea, and, in particular, it's pursuit of a national ballstic missile defense system,in face of global opposition, further reinforced the position of its unilateralism.The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 came as a shock to the world. The United States suffered not only physical casualties, but felt a psychological blow as well. For the first time since the 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had been attacked at home. Unlike Pearl Harbor, the attacks on September 11 targeted civilians and the cornerstones of the American way of life- their financial and government centers. The terrorist attacks forced the Bush administration to re-examine it approach to foreign policy Seeking cooperation with other powers will be the new choice for American foreign strategy.

  20. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  1. Patterns, trends and sex differences in HIV/AIDS reported mortality in Latin American countries: 1996-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Luise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International cohort studies have shown that antiretroviral treatment (ART has improved survival of HIV-infected individuals. National population based studies of HIV mortality exist in industrialized settings but few have been presented from developing countries. Our objective was to investigate on a population basis, the regional situation regarding HIV mortality and trends in Latin America (LA in the context of adoption of public ART policies and gender differences. Methods Cause of death data from vital statistics registries from 1996 to 2007 with "good" or "average" quality of mortality data were examined. Standardized mortality rates and Poisson regression models by country were developed and differences among countries assessed to identify patterns of HIV mortality over time occurring in Latin America. Results Standardized HIV mortality following the adoption of public ART policies was highest in Panama and El Salvador and lowest in Chile. During the study period, three overall patterns were identified in HIV mortality trends- following the adoption of the free ART public policies; a remarkable decrement, a remarkable increment and a slight increment. HIV mortality was consistently higher in males compared to females. Mean age of death attributable to HIV increased in the majority of countries over the study period. Conclusions Vital statistics registries provide valuable information on HIV mortality in LA. While the introduction of national policies for free ART provision has coincided with declines in population-level HIV mortality and increasing age of death in some countries, in others HIV mortality has increased. Barriers to effective ART implementation and uptake in the context of free ART public provision policies should be further investigated.

  2. RELATIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS, INSTITUTIONAL DISTANCE, AND PARTNER SELECTION DECISIONS ACROSS BORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Meuleman, M.; Jääskeläinen, M.; M. V.J. MAULA; Wright, M; Siegel, D S

    2012-01-01

    We respond to calls to incorporate the broader institutional context in which partner selection decisions occur into the study of partner selection. We examine the neglected question concerning how varying institutional distance between potential partners in different countries influences the role of relational embeddedness in cross-border partner selection decisions. We develop an integrative perspective where the institutional context in which partner selection decisions occur defines bound...

  3. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained fi...

  4. Current status of nucleonic gauge applications in Brazil and the needs for the technology in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is actually the only country in Latin America that design and manufacture nucleonic gauges in industrial scale for internal market and export. There are some local companies that manufacture or assemble simple first generation nucleonic gauges for density, level and thickness gauges for pulp and paper industry, metallurgy and mineral ore processing and beverage packaging. There is apparently a market saturation due to economic crisis, public concern and licence procedures. (author)

  5. The Culture and Development Index (CDI): Measuring Values and Attitudes Associated With Development In Selected Asian and Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph I. B. Gonzales

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing data gathered in five waves in the period 1981–2005 for up to 97 societies (most of which are independent countries), the World Values Survey Organization (WVSO) identified two orthogonal factors, Traditional/Secular-Rational Values, and Survival/Self-Expression Values, that account for up to 70 percent of cross-cultural variation worldwide. However, one weakness of the two-factor construct is that it overlooks regional or local patterns in values and attitudes that may be vitally r...

  6. Do foreign portfolio flows increase risk in emerging stock markets? Evidence from six Latin American countries 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Agudelo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign portfolio flows have been blamed for causing instability in emerging markets, especially during financial crises. This study measured the effect of foreign capital flows on volatility and exposure to world market risk in the six largest Latin American stock markets: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru, for around 10 years including the 2008 World financial crisis. This will test whether these flows cause instability for those markets and increase their exposure to international stock market returns. A proprietary database, from Emerging Portoflio.com and time series models, both univariate (ARCH-GARCH and multivariate (VAR, are used to estimate the effect foreign portfolio flows on the risk variables and the causality of these effects. We found no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that foreign flows cause instability in the Latin American stock markets, in spite of some evidence of causing price pressure. Instead, the evidence points to a strong dependence of market returns on international stock and foreign exchange markets, both in means and in volatility, instrumental to transmit crisis to those markets.

  7. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    OpenAIRE

    Holden Chris; Lee Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy t...

  8. Research capacity building and collaboration between South African and American partners: the adaptation of an intervention model for HIV/AIDS prevention in corrections research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Priscilla; Taylor, Sandra E; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a partnership between researchers from the United States who are involved in corrections health issues and scientists from South Africa who conduct prison health research, a previously underresearched area in South Africa. The article discusses some of the challenges as well as opportunities for knowledge and skills exchange via capacity building and collaboration strategies. Through historical and contemporary perspectives, it also discusses barriers and benefits of collaboration when forging links between researchers from developed and less developed nations. A focus on conducting public health research in South Africa, and on HIV/AIDS studies in particular, is placed within the context of the 2001 document of the Council on Health Research for Development. The South African prison health study represents a collaborative between the South African National Health Promotion Research and Development Group of the Medical Research Council, the South African Department of Correctional Services, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The article illuminates the process of adapting a model for a postapartheid prison study from one designed for use in the American correctional system. PMID:12413197

  9. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries; Intercomparacion TLD en aceleradores para radioterapia en tres paises latinoamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez, M.A.; Picon, C.; Castellanos, E.; Plazas, M.C.; Murcia, G.; Archundia, L. [Depto. El Hombre y su Ambiente. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Calz. Del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  10. Radiation doses and image quality in pediatric chest X-ray for the diagnosis of pneumonia in selected Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pneumonia and acute lower respiratory infections in general, is the leading cause of child death in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 4 millions of children die annually due to this disease. Despite the growing use of vaccination as an alternate approach to reduce mortality, the increasing antimicrobial resistance and the high costs of vaccines remain important obstacles in the global struggle against the disease. The usual treatment strategy begins with a clinical examination of the patient followed by the prescription of a chest X-ray. Radiography would appear as the best available method for diagnosing pneumonia only if radiologists (and other health professionals such as pediatricians) knew how to interpret the images showed in the radiographs, and these meeting the standards of quality (anatomic structures, image contrast and optical density, and patient dose among other factors). On the other hand, special attention should be paid on patient doses due to children's specific radiosensitivity, repeated and extended use of chest x-ray in all Radiology Departments, and high rejection rate due to both equipment malfunction and to human skills shortcomings. Patient doses of chest X-ray performed to children less than 5 years old in PAHO Sentinel Hospitals for surveillance of bacterial pneumonias in various Latin American countries were estimated using technical parameters and equipment specifications. Image quality was compared to WHO criteria for chest X-rays quality. Results showing differences in patient doses translates on one hand the impact of specific characteristics of the radiological equipment, including equipment limitations and performance of the radiographs and on the other various and divers levels of health professionals skills and training on image quality interpretation and dose optimization. The study concludes that professionals' training and education on chest radiographs image quality constitutes

  11. Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Rachel Jewkes, MBBS MD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention—a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; United Nations Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

  12. Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emma Fulu, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention—a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; UN Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

  13. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  14. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...

  15. An a priori analysis of how solar energy production will affect the balance of payment account in one developing Latin American country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavy, Michael [Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies a model developing Latin American country (hypotheria) with a weak currency (the hypo is the monetary unit), a trade deficit (including being a net importer of fossil fuels) and a sensitive balance of payments situation. There is an a priori analysis of the effect of domestic solar energy production on Hypotheria's positive effect is the BoP Value of domestic solar energy. Many forms of solar energy are not cost competitive with fossil fuels. Because solar energy production does not emit greenhouse Value and the BoP Value of solar energy should be used to reduce the cost of solar energy projects in Hypotheria and to make the solar energy cost competitive with fossil fuels. [Spanish] Este articulo estudia un modelo de un pais Latinoamericano en desarrollo (Hypoteria) con moneda debil (el hypo es la unidad monetaria), un deficit comercial (incluyendo el ser un importador neto de combustibles fosiles) y un balance precario en la situacion de pagos. Existe un analisis a priori sobre el efecto de la produccion domestica de energia solar en un efecto positivo de Hypoteria que es el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos (BoP) de la energia solar domestica. Muchas formas de energia solar no son competitivas en costo con los combustibles fosiles debido a que la produccion de energia solar no emite un Valor de invernadero, y el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos, debe ser utilizado para reducir los costos de los proyectos de energia solar en Hypoteria y asi hacer el costo de la energia solar competitiva con los combustibles fosiles.

  16. The Development of Cooperation Mode between Trade Unions and Government in European and American Countries under the Globalization%全球化下欧美工会与政府合作模式的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺凌燕

    2012-01-01

    European and American trade union movements have a long history and the trade unions,playing a significant role in European and American countries,are closely related with government and party,namely,the trade unions in most European and American countries have financial interaction with the governmental decision and the party election.With the impact of globalization on the trade unions,however,some changes have occurred in the relationship between trade unions and governments in European and American countries.Therefore,the thesis,from the perspective of globalization,discusses the European and American trade unions' influences on the governmental decision under the globalization,and it is expected to provide new insights into the development of the trade union and the public-oriented model of governmental decision in the new era.%欧美工会运动的历史悠久,一直以来工会都在欧美国家中占据重要的地位。欧美工会与政府政党的关系也相当密切,多数欧美国家的工会利益与政府决策政党选举都有着利益上的交往。在全球化对工会的冲击影响下,欧美国家的工会在与政府之间存在互处的模式也有所变迁。故笔者从全球化的角度出发,探讨全球化背景下欧美工会对政府决策的影响,从而为新时期工会的发展与政府决策的公共导向模式提供一定的参考价值。

  17. Analysis on the Laws and Policies of Addressing Climate Change in Latin American Countries%拉丁美洲国家应对气候变化法律与政策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海嵩

    2013-01-01

    为有效应对气候变化,拉丁美洲国家在参与气候变化国际谈判的同时,还制定了相应的应对气候变化的法律、政策和行动计划,形成了两种推进方式:以气候变化法律为主、政策为辅的法律主导方式,以气候变化政策为主、少有甚至没有相关立法的政策主导方式。整体上看,拉丁美洲国家在应对气候变化上取得了较大进展,尤其是在气候变化综合性立法上取得了突破,在发展中国家中处于领先地位;气候变化国家政策正顺应时代潮流加速发展。在气候变化立法上,拉丁美洲国家在发展中国家中处于领先地位,在气候变化政策上,拉丁美洲国家正加快发展速度。由于受到多方面因素的制约,拉丁美洲国家在制定与实施应对气候变化法律与政策时仍面临一定阻力,个别国家在应对气候变化上徘徊不前,须尽快弥补政策空白。%To address climate change effectively, Latin American countries formulate the corresponding laws, policies and action plan while participating in the international negotiations on climate change. They formed two kinds of pushing ways:one is law dominated based on laws on climate change with policy as a sup-plement, the other is policy dominated based on policy on climate change with little or even no relevant legisla-tion. As a whole, Latin American countries have made big progress in addressing climate change, especially, a breakthrough in comprehensive legislation on climate change. They are in a leading position among developing countries. National policies on climate change in Latin American countries conform to the trend of the times, which speed up the development. In terms of legislation on climate change, Latin American countries are in a leading position among developing countries. With respect to policies on climate change, development of Latin American countries are being accelerated. The laws and policies

  18. Classifying Partner Femicide

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity of men who are violent toward their female partner has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe from of intimate partner violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisone...

  19. Attitudes Towards Partner Violence and Gender Roles in Uruguayan Women

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Bucheli; Máximo Rossi

    2014-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (2013), 30% of even-partnered women have experienced either physical or/and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in the course of their lives. The incidence of IPV in Latin America and Caribbean region is higher relative to other high income and middle-income countries. This problem is particularly relevant in Uruguay. The empirical literature provides evidence that violence towards partners is more likely among individuals that justify, approve or fav...

  20. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Meekers, Dominique; Pallin, Sarah C; Hutchinson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women’s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demog...

  1. 越南跨境及中国边境暗娼多国性伴及高危性行为对比分析研究%Comparative analysis of multi-country sexual partners and high risk behavior between Chinese and vietnamese cross-border FSWs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朵林; 杨佳; 薛皓铭; 朱志斌; 周虹; 李洪

    2012-01-01

    目的 对比分析边境地区中越籍商业性女性性服务者(FSW),多国性伴及高危性行为情况,为下一阶段联合干预提供科学依据.方法 选择云南某边境县越南籍及中国籍FSW,滚雪球方法选取社区FSW为调查对象,双语外展人员问卷调查,收集目标人群多国性伴及高危性行为等方面资料进行对比分析.结果 越南籍FSW多国性消费者发生率为59.00%,越南籍FSW与中国籍FSW发生过性行为对象中,性消费者多国情况对比x2值为28.43,P<0.05,固定性伴多国情况对比x2值为4.84,P<0.05.有90%越南籍FSW与性消费者多数情况下使用安全套.两国FSW与临时性伴、性消费者、固定性伴安全套使用情况P值均小于0.05.结论 越南籍FSW多国性伴情况普遍,与性消费者、临时性伴使用安全套情况低于中国籍FSW,应重点加强干预.%Objective To perform comparative analysis of multi-country sexual partners and high risk behavior between border Chinese and Vietnamese FSW's to provide scientific evidence for further jointed cross-border intervention. Methods We used community snow-ball sampling method to choose Chinese and Vietnamese FSWs at two border counties. The investigations were carried out by well-trained bilingual outreach workers. The content includes demographic characteristics, multi country sexual partner and HIV/AIDS related high risk behavior for comparisou. Results 59. 00%of the investigated Vietnam FSWs serviced multi countries clients. The comparison of the Vietnamese FSW's clients and Chinese FSW's client showed that x2 value of the multi-nationality clients was 28. 43, P<0. 05;x2 value of the multi-nationality regular sexual partner was 4. 84, P<0. 05. Most Vietnam FSWs used condoms most of the time in last month;two country's FSW condom using with paid clients and temporary client also showed difference with P<0. 05. Conclusion Vietnam FSW indicates more multi-country sexual partner's phenomena

  2. A macro-sociological study into the changes in the popularity of domestic, European, and American pop music in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, H.; Lubbers, M.; Ultee, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the top 100 pop songs from year-end charts, we coded more than 30,000 chart positions based on the country of origin of the artist and the language of performance, in nine Western countries. We estimated cross-national differences and trends since 1973, testing expectations on globalizati

  3. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Give Testimonials Planned Giving Circle of Light Society Corporate Partners Program Crystal Awards Board of Trustees ... Us Association for Bariatric Endoscopy Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 3300 Woodcreek Dr. • Downers Grove, ...

  4. American Health Information Management Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2016 by The American Health ...

  5. One Nation After All: What Middle-Class Americans Really Think About God, Country, Family, Racism, Welfare, Immigration, Homosexuality, Work, The Right, The Left, and Each Other by Alan Wolfe

    OpenAIRE

    Kalil, Nashua

    1999-01-01

    In the midst of an identity crisis and morality tug-of-war, intellectuals on the far ends of the socio-political spectrum have declared the country to be in the midst of a "culture war." Public opinion polls asserted the existence of deep cultural divisions that threaten the future of the nation as a democratic society. But what do everyday Americans think about these critical topics? In the current turmoil of the political landscape, there exists a compelling need to reassess what common val...

  6. Factores escolares asociados al desarrollo socio-afectivo en Iberoamérica. [School factors associated with socio-emotional development in Latin American Countries].

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, F.Javier; Hernández-Castilla, Reyes

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an international research that intends to identify key factors associated with school and classroom socio-emotional achievement of Primary Education Students in Latin America countries. This Multilevel Study has been conducted with 4 analysis levels; we studied 5,603 students from 248 classrooms from 98 schools in 9 countries. We worked with 4 product socio-affective variables (self-concept, academic behaviour, social interaction and satisfaction with the school). Th...

  7. Caribou: mon pays blanc. Serie: Villes Franco-Americaines de la Nouvelle - Angleterre (Caribou, My Snowy Country. Collection: French-American Cities of New England, Vol. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipyn, Michel

    This text is the second in a series of materials dealing with cities in New England having a distinct Franco-American presence. The text and supporting audio-visual materials present an overview of the city of Caribou, Maine, as seen through the eyes of its people. Its primary objective is to provide up-to-date, culturally valid Franco-American…

  8. Guidelines of Foreign Partner Selection in the USSR

    OpenAIRE

    Soloviev, I.

    1989-01-01

    This working paper is one of a series produced by TES-MTC project discussing the problems of East-West Joint Ventures located in the CMEA countries on a country basis. The share of joint ventures as the latest form of economic relations between CMEA countries and market-economy countries is increasing rapidly. Managers and policy-makers in state governmental organizations are now trying to overcome various problems arising during the process of partner selection, negotiation and operatio...

  9. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals. PMID:20100435

  10. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  11. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the trend of coal demand in Central and South American countries; 1994 nendo kaigaitan kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chunanbei shokoku ni okeru sekitan jukyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Focusing on the present status and future of coal demand in Central/South American countries and the coal trade between Central/South American countries and the U.S., the paper described the present status and future of coal demand there and the effects on Japan. Export of Colombian coal will amount to approximately 30-35 million tons in 2000. Venezuelan coal 10-20 million tons. The U.S. imported good-quality general coal low in sulfur content, 3.08 tons from Columbia and 1.39 tons from Venezuela. Coal export from the U.S. to Central/South America was mostly of raw material coal, 5 million tons in 1993 and 5.39 million tons in 1994. General coal was 180,000 tons. The U.S. has no plans of increasing US coal export to Central/South America. But it is safely predicted that Columbia and Venezuela will increase coal export to Europe in the future. It will bring about decrease in export of US coal to Europe, which connects with increasing pressure for the coal trade amount of Japan. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  12. Warnings of Urbanization in Latin American Countries on Chinese Urban and Rural Integration%拉美国家城市化问题对我国城乡融合的警示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆文娟

    2016-01-01

    The urbanization is the main trend of social development particularly in the social and economic development model in developing countries. In this process, anti-urbanization coexists both in developed and developing countries, however, in the developed countries, anti-urbanization refers that the resources in population-centralized cities are dispersed around some small towns and villages in order to achieve a reasonable evacuation of the population, while in developing countries, especially in Latin American countries, it refers that people in the largest city are forced to move to the suburbs and poor areas, thus forming a large slum. Anti-urbanization at varying degrees also appears in China. Therefore, comparing the process of urbanization in Latin America and China, assessing the similarities and differences of transformation of social relations scientifically between China and Latin American countries are helpful to form moderate proportion of industry and agriculture and resource sharing ways between urban and rural areas, and finally it is to truly achieve a new pattern of integration of urban and rural development.%城市化已是当今社会发展的主要趋势,在这一过程中,“逆城市化”是当前发达国家和后发达国家共有的发展思路。但是发达国家的“逆城市化”是指人口集中型城市的优势资源向有条件的中小城镇及乡村分散发展,以实现人口的合理疏散,而后发达国家,特别是拉美国家的“逆城市化”则是大城市的底层群体被迫向城市郊区和贫困地区转移,因此形成大片的贫民区。中国作为后发达国家,也出现了“逆城市化”的发展趋势。对比拉美与中国的城市化进程,科学评估工业化条件下中国与拉美城乡社会关系转型之异同,适度协调工农业比例,使城乡共享资源,中国才能真正实现城乡融合发展的新格局。

  13. Electricity planning for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following issues of electricity planning for developing countries are discussed: evolution of planning methodologies; the Latin American Energy Organization's view on energy planning; power sector history and trends; risk and uncertainty in policy formulation

  14. Association between intimate partner violence and poor child growth: results from 42 demographic and health surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jeanne; Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children’s growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner viole...

  15. Partnering with Homeschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Vicki

    1999-01-01

    Homeschooled students from families representing all ethnicities, socioeconomic backgrounds, and education levels are increasingly entering public schools part-time. This article explains how school administrators, teachers, parents, and homeschoolers can become partners. Tips are provided on classroom deportment, parental aspirations, and…

  16. Partners and Competitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The United States and China are entering an entirely new and complex era in their economic relationship. In a nutshell, China is both partner and competitor, and simplistic efforts to cast the complexity of U.S.-China economic relations as either one of partnership or competition are unhelpful to the development of effective policy.

  17. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement. PMID:25904678

  18. Factores escolares asociados al desarrollo socio-afectivo en Iberoamérica. [School factors associated with socio-emotional development in Latin American Countries].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo, F. Javier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an international research that intends to identify key factors associated with school and classroom socio-emotional achievement of Primary Education Students in Latin America countries. This Multilevel Study has been conducted with 4 analysis levels; we studied 5,603 students from 248 classrooms from 98 schools in 9 countries. We worked with 4 product socio-affective variables (self-concept, academic behaviour, social interaction and satisfaction with the school. The results showed a series of classroom and school factors that explain the socio-emotional development, consistent with those found in research on school effectiveness to cognitive factors. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación internacional que pretende identificar los factores de escuela y de aula asociados al logro socio-afectivo de los estudiantes de Educación Primaria en Iberoamérica. Se realizó un estudio Multinivel con 4 niveles de análisis, se analizaron 5.603 alumnos de 248 aulas correspondientes a 98 escuelas de 9 países. Se trabajó con cuatro variables de producto socio-afectivo (Autoconcepto, Comportamiento académico, Convivencia social y Satisfacción con la escuela. Los resultados arrojaron una serie de factores de aula y escuela que explican el desarrollo socio-afectivo, coherentes con los hallados en la investigación sobre eficacia escolar con factores cognitivos.

  19. College Students’ Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Japan, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Thanh Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of cross-cultural differences between the United States, Japan, and China in perceptions of male to female intimate partner violence, and in the extent to which gender and traditional attitudes toward women related to these perceptions. College students (n = 943 read two fictitious scenarios describing marital and dating violence. MANOVA results showed gender differences in the perceptions of violence between the three countries. Male participants had more traditional attitudes toward women and placed more blame on female victims. The magnitude of the difference between women’s and men’s scores was much smaller for Japanese students than for American and Chinese students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the effects of respondent gender were reduced when traditional attitudes toward women were taken into account. Differences in beliefs about appropriate gender roles still exist among college students in these countries and may be related to socially tolerant attitudes toward violence against women.

  20. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2015-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among So...

  1. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  2. Conservadorismo em cinco países da América do Sul Conservatism in five South-American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moraes da Costa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido objetivando a avaliação de como o lucro contábil incorpora o retorno das ações de empresas argentinas, brasileiras, colombianas, peruanas e venezuelanas. Para tanto, o grau de assimetria de reconhecimento de boas e más notícias foi analisado utilizando-se o modelo de Basu (1997. Os resultados indicam uma baixa relação entre lucro corrente e retorno corrente. Tal fato pode ser explicado pela relação entre modelos de governança corporativa e seu relacionamento com a relevância da informação contábil, levando-se em conta seu ambiente institucional. Ressalte-se que foi observado um reconhecimento assimétrico entre más e boas notícias, evidenciando um certo grau de conservadorismo no lucro contábil. Este trabalho contribui para reduzir a lacuna existente na literatura internacional com relação ao papel da contabilidade em países em desenvolvimento.This study was developed to evaluate how earnings reported in the financial statements incorporate stock returns of public companies from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Thus, the level of asymmetry on recognition of good and bad news was analyzed applying the Basu model (1997. Results indicate a low relationship between current earnings and current stock returns. This fact can be explained by the relationship between corporate governance models and their relationship with the value-relevance of accounting information taking into account the institutional environment. It must be highlighted that an asymmetric recognition was observed between good and bad news, indicating a certain level of conservatism on accounting earnings. This work contributes to reduce the existing gap on international literature regarding the role of accounting in developing countries.

  3. Engaging as Equal Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TRADE volume between China and Africa hit a record last year, sending out positive signals about economic and trade cooperation. China’s robust economic activities,and enhanced cooperation between the two sides,have dragged bilateral trade out of the shadows of the global economic crisis,and helped China emerge as Africa’s largest trading partner in 2009.Professor Mthuli Ncube,Chief Economist and Vice President of the African Development Bank,spoke with ChinAfrica reporter Yu Nan to share his views about the role China has had in Africa’s economic development in recent years. Edited excerpts follow:

  4. New partner - Forestland

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      New partner   Do you need a moment of relaxation and adventure?  Come to Divonne-les-bains and benefit of an immediate discount of 20% on all ropes courses of Forestland http://www.forestland.fr/ upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card. The park is open from 10h00 to 19h00 on Wednesday, Saturday, Sunday during the school period and public holidays (France and Switzerland) or every day during school holidays (France and Switzerland). Different levels of difficulty are available: children, juniors, adults, athletes.

  5. Intimate partner violence towards women

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Laura; Casteel, Carri

    2010-01-01

    Between 10% and 70% of women may have been physically or sexually assaulted by a partner at some stage, with reported assault rates against men about one quarter of the rate against women. In at least half of people studied, the problem lasts for 5 years or more. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with socioeconomic and personality factors, marital discord, exposure to violence in family of origin, and partner's drug or alcohol abuse.Women reporting IPV are more likely tha...

  6. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible for the...... building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing...... diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite...

  7. China seeks Korean partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May

  8. Trade partner diversification and growth: how trade links matter

    OpenAIRE

    Onder, Ali Sina; Yilmazkuday, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    We use network centrality measures to capture the trade partner diversification (TPD) of countries as revealed by their position in the international trade network. These measures are shown to enter long-run growth regressions positively and significantly, on top of trade openness and other control variables. Historical evidence based on threshold analyses shows that countries can use their trade networks to compensate for their low levels of financial depth, high levels of inflation, and low...

  9. Old Friends, New Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China and Afiica celebrate 50 years of diplomatic relations Fifty years ago in May, Egypt became the first African country to establish diplomatic ties with China, a move that ushered in a new era of Sino-African diplomatic relations. Over the past five decades, China and

  10. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  11. Foreign Firms Partner Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ There is an important strategic adjustment occurring on the part of foreign dairy companies seeking to capitalize on the China market. Rather than going it alone,with local partnerships little more than an entry mechanism,global giants such as Danone,Arla, and Fonterra are taking advantage of the country's more relaxed foreign investment rules by upping their stakes in established local firms and expanding the role they play in business and industrial operations.

  12. Placing Asterisks: An Approach to American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he co-teaches an interdisciplinary American Studies class that fosters inquiry and reflection on the complexity of an authentic telling of US history. With the help of his partner, a social studies teacher, the author designed an American Studies course that aims to reveal to students that America's…

  13. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities in...... the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university...

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Substance Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women of Diverse Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Kisha B.; McKenzie, Robetta; Pruitt, Vikki; Aaron, Katrina; Hall, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. D...

  15. Cote d'Ivoire - Country Environmental Analysis : Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this country environmental analysis (CEA) is to assist the Government of Cote d'Ivoire, development partners and civil society to integrate environmental issues into policy dialogues and country programming through: a) assessing environmental priorities in Cote d'Ivoire, b) identifying environmental implications of key policies, c) evaluating the country's institutional capa...

  16. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  17. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  19. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  20. Managing Your China JV Partner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Having critical management tools gives foreign investors the chance to maximize their investment, minimize their risk and develop a mutually profitable business with a Chinese partner. This concludes our series on this topic.

  1. Managing Your China JV Partner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Joint ventures (JVs) are a marriage between businesses, and as in any marriage,both partners need to put time and effort intoit. Having conducted your due diligence,negotiated your investments, and agreed to

  2. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    publications change across this period. It is concluded that trends such as research on developing trust among construction partners to facilitate project success, feasibility of and the barriers to adopting a partnering approach and strategic propositions for overcoming barriers are highly emerging. Finally......Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...... gaps in existing body of knowledge. The objective of this literature-based paper is to explore the current literature by systematically reviewing and summarizing research trends in leading top-tier construction management journals between 2002 and 2012, addressing how the themes in partnering related...

  3. Partner rate card: Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the London 2012 Partner Rate Card catalogue, the easy way to order the products, services and facilities you will need to deliver hospitality programmes at the Olympic Hospitality Centre and showcasing facilities at the Olympic Park.

  4. 2015 NAIP Partner Availability Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Shows the available NAIP imagery which NAIP Partners can access. Either Quarter Quads (QQs), Compressed County Mosaics (CCMs) or data that has been physically...

  5. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  6. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  7. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  8. Leadership in construction partnering projects

    OpenAIRE

    Thurairajah, N.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of partnering in construction. Central to any successful partnering arrangement is the change in cultural and behavioural characteristics towards mutual trust and understanding. Leadership is originally the source of the beliefs and values which forms shared assumptions of organisational culture. This paper builds on the leadership literature which has so ably demonstrated the influence of powerful leaders. As Bueno a...

  9. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  10. Partnering and integrated supply management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Olsen, Anders; Thyssen, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    for strategic management of collaborative relationships on a line with the purchasing perspectives offered by Supply Chain Management. Based on a study of the literature and an in-depth case study carried out within a large Scandinavian contractor, this article gives a proposal for how Partnering can...... be supported by strategic purchasing, with the aim of achieving strategic Partnering. The contribution of this article is thus the development of a new purchasing perspective within Construction Supply Chain Management....

  11. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  12. Family, peer, and individual correlates of sexual experience among Caucasian and Asian American late adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, CS; Chen, C.; Greenberger, E; Biermeier, C

    1997-01-01

    This study explored ethnic and gender differences in sexual behavior and its correlates among 148 Caucasian American and 202 Asian American college students (mean age = 19.8 years). Among Asian Americans, differences in mean number of sexual partners were not associated with differences in generational status, ethnic subgroup, or level of acculturation as indicated by language usage at home. As expected, Caucasian Americans reported having had more sexual partners by late adolescence to young...

  13. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality: Can results be generalized to Latin American countries? Contaminación atmosférica por partículas y mortalidad diaria: ¿se pueden generalizar los resultados a los países de Latinoamérica?

    OpenAIRE

    ISABELLE ROMIEU; VÍCTOR HUGO BORJA-ABURTO

    1997-01-01

    Objective. Recently, a series of reports, based on ecological analyses of routinely collected data, have shown positive associations between measures of particle concentration and daily mortality counts in various cities of the US and Europe. Material and methods. We reviewed the process of generalization of these results to Latin American countries addressing possible differences in air pollution mixtures, exposure profiles, and population susceptibility. Results. A limitation to the process...

  14. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  15. Intimate partner violence, partner notification, and expedited partner therapy: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Elian A; Marx, John; Terry, Martha A; Stall, Ronald; Pallatino, Chelsea; Borrero, Sonya; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    SummaryOver one-third of women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. IPV increases the risk of infection and re-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The extent to which health care providers consider IPV when recommending partner notification and expedited partner therapy is unknown. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand health care providers' views on IPV and STIs when recommending partner treatment to patients with chlamydia. Using a purposive sampling strategy to include health care providers who treat young women at risk for chlamydia, 23 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. While some health care providers expressed concern for their patients' safety and believed assessing for IPV was needed before provision of expedited partner therapy, nearly a third had not considered the links between IPV and STIs. Strategies used by health care providers to assess for IPV did not include inquiry about specific behaviours related to IPV, STI risk, and sexual coercion. Many health care providers understand the risk for IPV in the setting of STI treatment, yet a significant portion of those interviewed failed to recognise the link between IPV and STIs. Provider education is necessary to increase knowledge and implement more effective inquiry and counselling about IPV to more safely recommend expedited partner therapy. PMID:26088259

  16. American Holidays and Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凌

    2002-01-01

    One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.

  17. Pan American Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Google Tag Pan American Health Organization | Organización Panamericana de la Salud Skip to content English Español Menu Home Health Topics Programs Media Center Publications Data Countries and Centers About PAHO question  Trachoma is the ...

  18. La Country : histoire d'une renaissance

    OpenAIRE

    Chastagner, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Old-time music is becoming an increasing force within mainstream country music. Ob the wake of the Coen Brothers' blockbuster O Brother, a renewed interest for traditional American music, from folk to bluegrass, is sweeping the country, attracting a younger, more feminine audience. After having mapped out the various territories and eras of classic country music, this paper explores the nostalgic and religious dimensions of the current revival and analyzes the changes it triggered in the econ...

  19. Capital flight from resource rich developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kazue Demachi

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the magnitude and determinants of capital flight from resource-rich developing countries (RRDCs) using macro-panel data from 21 countries from 1990 to 2011. Calculations reveal that capital flight from RRDCs was less serious than that experienced by some Latin American countries during the 1980s. In addition, capital flight was more episodic than chronic during the period studied. Econometric analysis indicates a linkage between natural resource revenues and capital flight...

  20. Partnering for Canada's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Partnering'' is an evolving relationship that could lead to a partnership or joint ownership. Babcock and Wilcox (BW) has used a variety of forms of contracting and partnering to develop global strategy for the supply of its products, both fossil and nuclear steam generating equipment. A strategic mix of consortia, strategic alliances and joint ventures has provided the impetus for BW to lead in worldwide market share in many categories, including the supply of nuclear replacement steam generators to the USA since 1992. The implication is that continuing cooperation with BW will benefit the Canadian nuclear industry. 6 refs., 12 figs

  1. Intimate partner violence and depression among women in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deyessa Kabeta, Negussie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported socioeconomic, socio-demographic factors, including violence against women to be associated with depression among women, but knowledge in the area among women living under extreme poverty in developing countries remains scarce. Relationship between intimate partner violence and women’s literacy in societies where violence is normative is complex, there are only limited data describing this difference in the distribution of violence exposure by residen...

  2. Partner violence during pregnancy: prevalence, effects, screening, and management

    OpenAIRE

    Beth A Bailey

    2010-01-01

    Beth A BaileyDepartment of Family Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Pregnancy IPV is a significant problem worldwide, with rates varying significantly by country and maternal risk factors. Pregnancy IPV is associated with adverse newborn outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth...

  3. Intimate partner violence, female employment, and male backlash in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Kade Finnoff

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of gendered violence during civil conflict are among the least well-understood aspects of civil war, and even greater gaps in our understanding exist regarding the long-term patterns of gendered power and violence in countries affected by war. This article examines the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence, based on household-level data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Rwanda in 2005. Three results stand out. First, there are significant difference...

  4. Association between intimate partner violence and poor child growth: results from 42 demographic and health surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children’s growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner violence and child stunting and wasting. Findings Prior exposure to intimate partner violence was reported by 69 652 (34.1%) of the 204 159 ever-married women included in our analysis. After adjusting for a range of characteristics, stunting in children was found to be positively associated with maternal lifetime exposure to only physical (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09–1.14) or sexual intimate partner violence (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05–1.13) and to both forms of such violence (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05–1.14). The associations between stunting and intimate partner violence were stronger in urban areas than in rural ones, for mothers who had low levels of education than for women with higher levels of education, and in middle-income countries than in low-income countries. We also found a small negative association between wasting and intimate partner violence (aOR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.90–0.98). Conclusion Intimate partner violence against women remains common in low- and middle-income countries and is highly detrimental to women and to the growth of the affected women’s children. Policy and programme efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence and impact of such violence. PMID:27147763

  5. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a more serious condition known as postpartum depression . Often, women with postpartum depression are not aware they are depressed. It is ... aware that all new parents can have postpartum depression. Talk to a health care ... health benefits for most women and their babies. Some partners feel left out ...

  6. CHINA-JANAICA'S VALUABLE PARTNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan; Yang Wei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Jamaica is China's largest trading partner in the English-speaking Caribbean and bilateral trade has developed rapidly,although last year bilateral trade has been greatly affected because of the economic crisis.However,with continuous development of the two economies,bilateral economic development and trade has great potential.

  7. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  8. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Dewing, Sarah; Lurie, Mark N; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-06-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services. PMID:27144318

  9. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PELLOWSKI, JENNIFER; MATHEWS, CATHERINE; KALICHMAN, MOIRA O.; DEWING, SARAH; LURIE, MARK N.; KALICHMAN, SETH C.

    2016-01-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services. PMID:27144318

  10. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Chad Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Babacar

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Chad and its partners in development have adopted a 10-year strategy called Education and Training...

  11. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays ...

  12. The partner as a caregiver in the birth process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fernandes da Silva Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the scientific production about the role of the man as a caregiver during the birth process of his partner. Methods: integrative review held in electronic databases Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Latin American and Caribbean in Health Sciences. Results: there were 389 scientific articles located, of which 26 studies were selected that showed active roles - physical and emotional support - and passive roles – spectator or total lack of viewer participation – of the partner during the birth process. The monitoring of this event by the father is considered positive experience. However, the lack of incentive limits their active participation. Conclusion: despite the historical, religious, cultural, institutional or individual barriers, there is a desire to actively participating in the child´s birth, even though sometimes parents are unprepared to provide the support they would like.

  13. Analisi dei flussi commerciali dei prodotti ittici tra l'UE e i suoi partner mediterranei

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the analysis of fishery products exchange between the EU and its Mediterranean partners. In order to delineate more clearly the framework of trade in fish products among the Mediterranean countries, EU and non-EU members, countries under analysis (only those with a Mediterranean shore) will be divided into 4 groups: PMM, EU Mediterranean members (France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, Malta and Slovenia); PCM, candidate Mediterranean countries (Croatia and Turkey);...

  14. [Screening for intimate partner violence against women. International discussion, considerations for Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzank, P; Blättner, B

    2010-02-01

    Domestic violence and partner violence against women is a serious problem in many countries, including Germany. This type of violence has far-reaching social, economic, and health consequences for victims. The health sector can play a decisive role within intervention and prevention, if healthcare providers discover at an early stage that violence is the cause for injuries and disorders. Screenings can identify victims of domestic and partner violence. In several other countries, recommendations or agreements about screening for domestic and partner violence in the health sector are already in place. In Germany, however, the discussion about this kind of screening is just beginning. This article introduces the debate by referring to a Health Technology Assessment from the UK and giving an overview. The present findings also justify screening for partner violence against women in Germany. However, further research on the screening instruments used with women as well as other victims, such as men or elderly, is recommended. PMID:20119664

  15. SOUTH AMERICA: Looking for partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Regional Meeting on Fundamental Physics organized at the CIF International Physics Centre in Bogota, Colombia, in April, looked at future international collaboration possibilities for physicists from the South American Andean region in general, and from Colombia in particular

  16. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckl Heidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60 times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89 times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial

  17. Trade Relationship between Oman and Its Major Trading Asian Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam F. Yahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: No empirical research exists that examines the interdependence of trade between Oman and its five major trading Asian partners (Emirates, Japan, South-Korea, Thailand and Mainland China. This study attempted to fill this gap in the literature by examining the interaction of trade between Oman and its major trading Asian partner. Particularly, this study attempted to answer the very important question that is there any feedback effect of the trade relationship between Oman and its major trading Asian partners. Approach: A simultaneous-equations model with a double-log form was developed and tested in this study in order to achieve its objectives. Results: The model was estimated using the Two Stage Least Square (2SLS procedure of estimation and the main findings of the analysis revealed that the price of oil does not seem to be the major determinant of Omani exports to its major trading partners with exception of Japan. The short-term elasticity of Omani imports from its major trading partners with respect to its income seems to be higher (e.g., ranging from 0.55-2.0 in all cases. Conclusion: This study brought new empirical evidence on the trade interdependence and suggested that there is a significant impact (a feedback effect on the level of GDP of Omani's four major trading partners namely Emirates, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, policy maker in sultanate of Oman should be aware of such interdependence and consider the degree of feedback effect of trade in any economic programming that linked and related to these countries.

  18. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions. To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center's Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event. Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance. Additional information about LPI's E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO's partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  19. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, Stephanie; Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; LaConte, Keliann

    2015-11-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions.To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center’s Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event.Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance.Additional information about LPI’s E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO’s partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  20. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Stöckl Heidi; Filippi Veronique; Watts Charlotte; Mbwambo Jessie KK

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's H...

  1. Faith and Rights. A participatory global learning evaluation with Digni members and partner organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Døhlie, Elsa; Meer, Shamim; Haugen, Hans Morten

    2015-01-01

    Digni’s members constitute a wide range of Norwegian churches and missionary organisations, with partners in almost 40 countries. Their familiarity with and application of a rights-based approach differs. A participatory learning evaluation with the aim of sharing, learning and building competence among the Digni members and partners was undertaken by an Evaluation Team consisting of three members: Two Associate Professors from Diakonhjemmet University College in Oslo, Elsa Døhlie...

  2. Religion and Intimate Partner Violence in Chile: Macro- and Micro-Level Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Krauss, Ramona

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present stud...

  3. The Cross-Cultural Association Between Marital Status and Physical Aggression Between Intimate Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Bernards, Sharon; Graham, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Some research suggests that the risk of physical aggression by an intimate partner is related to marital status, but this relationship may vary across cultures and by gender. In the present study, we systematically examine the relationship between marital status and physical partner aggression by gender across 19 countries. Logistic and multilevel regression confirmed previous findings of lower rates of physical aggression for legally married versus cohabiting and separated/divorced women and...

  4. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...

  5. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when they ... out: Getting a partner trained to spot potential skin cancers can be a lifesaver for melanoma survivors, a ...

  6. Light 't Hooft top partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Parolini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Vectorlike quarks, usually dubbed top partners, are a common presence in composite Higgs models. Being composite objects, their mass is expected to be of the order of their inverse size, that is the condensation scale of the new strong interactions. Light top partners, while not being a generic prediction, are, however, often considered in phenomenological models. We suggest that their lightness may be due to the matching of global 't Hooft anomalies of the underlying theory. We check this mechanism in explicit models, showing that, in one case, composite fermions with the quantum numbers of the top quark obtain a mass which is controlled by a soft breaking term and can be made parametrically small.

  7. Light 't Hooft Top Partners

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Vector-like quarks, usually dubbed top partners, are a common presence in composite Higgs models. Being composite objects, their mass is expected to be of the order of their inverse size, that is the condensation scale of the new strong interactions. Light top partners, while not being a generic prediction, are however often considered in phenomenological models. We suggest that their lightness may be due to the matching of global 't Hooft anomalies of the underlying theory. We check this mechanism in explicit models showing that, in one case, composite fermions with the quantum numbers of the top quark obtain a mass which is controlled by a soft breaking term and can be made parametrically small.

  8. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639

  9. Privacy against the business partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Gruschka, Nils

    2009-01-01

    For service-oriented business processes, an important security requirement is confidentiality of transmitted data. Here, existing Web Services security standards provide suitable solutions for single invocations, but fail to cover service composition scenarios properly, especially for securing...... business process data against partners. In this paper, we investigate the issues regarding the realization of process level confidentiality in WS-BPEL-based Web Service compositions. © 2009 IEEE....

  10. Top partner probes of extended Higgs sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.); Pierce, Aaron; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ratios to these extended Higgs sector states. In fact, top partner decays may provide the most promising discovery mode for such scalars, especially given the large backgrounds to direct and associated production. In this paper, we present a search strategy for top partner ...

  11. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Armas Rodríguez Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010.

  12. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  13. Educating Pre-Service School Librarians for the Instructional Partner Role: An Exploration into University Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi; Kimmel, Sue; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Programs" (2009), the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) identified the instructional partner role of school librarians as the most critical role for the future of the profession. To determine the extent to which school librarian preparation programs prepare pre-service…

  14. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  15. A New Era of Sino-Latin American Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongying; Li Huan

    2007-01-01

    @@ The year 2006 saw enhanced political trust, even closer economic interdependency, and deepened strategic partnership between China and many Latin American countries. It is fair to say that Sino-Latin American relations have entered a new phase.

  16. Marital Quality, Acculturation, and Communication in Mexican American Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Audrey Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Marital quality is a broad measurement of perceptions of satisfaction, happiness, and stability by partners in an established relationship. Marital quality has been relatively understudied among Mexican Americans, a population that warrants the inclusion of cultural constructs in any model concerning relationship outcomes. Therefore, acculturation differences between Mexican American couples were conceptualized as a distal context for understanding marital quality. Traditional gender role val...

  17. Nuclear energy in transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition countries, respectively the countries that have in the year's 89/90 broken with the communist political and economy system are passing through difficult years. From their traditional markets within the closely interconnected socialist economy system, which has disintegrated, they have to reorient themselves to new, often saturated and sophisticated markets. To integrate into Europe as equal partners, rather then remain poor relatives, they must reduce this development gap in a reasonable time, not longer than 15 years. Slower pace would not give acceptable perspective to their young people and they would look for it elsewhere, thereby reducing creative forces for progress. Examples of economic development show that sustained growth of GDP is impossible without similar industrial growth, which, in turn, requires corresponding increase of energy use. In the same time these countries are the parts of densely populated European region and are subject to emission restriction of effluents with local or global effects. It is difficult to see how these countries could attain their development goals, whilst respecting their Kyoto obligations, without supplying increased energy demand from nuclear sources. (author)

  18. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  19. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way. PMID:27058634

  20. IT TAKES TWO: PARTNER ATTRIBUTES ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and summarize implications for research and prevention. Design Systematic review. Methods We identified peer-reviewed studies published 1990–2010 which assessed ≥1 partner attribute in relation to a biologically-confirmed STI among adolescents (15–24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies which included adolescents but >50% of the sample or with mean or median age ≥25 years were excluded. Results Sixty-four studies met eligibility criteria; 59% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross-sectional; 91% enrolled females and 42% males. There was no standard “partner” definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms appear to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for: other partner sociodemographics; sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, sex worker, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel) and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Conclusions Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard “partner” definition would facilitate interpretation of findings in future studies. PMID:23588126

  1. Alcohol May Not Cause Partner Violence but It Seems to Make It Worse: A Cross National Comparison of the Relationship between Alcohol and Severity of Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses whether severity of physical partner aggression is associated with alcohol consumption at the time of the incident, and whether the relationship between drinking and aggression severity is the same for men and women and across different countries. National or large regional general population surveys were conducted in 13…

  2. Quality and Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training in the Mediterranean Countries: Lessons from the European Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Raymond; Baati, Mounir; Seyfried, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the development of the European approach towards quality and quality assurance in vocational education and training (VET) and its relevance for VET reforms in the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries. The analysis is based on an ETF project conducted in 2007-2008 in the Mediterranean partner countries to…

  3. Racial Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence Examined Through the Multiple Disadvantage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2016-07-01

    This research adopted the perspective of the multiple disadvantage model to explore racial disparities in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and IPV's links to social structural factors, social relationships, substance use, and health/mental health and access to related services. The study used data from 6,588 women who completed the National Violence Against Women Survey; linear regression was conducted separately for four ethnic groups. Results consistently showed physical assaults to increase with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For African Americans, increases in assaults were linked to injury, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as medical professionals, Medicaid use, and drug use; decreases, in turn, were linked to past assault by ex-partners. For Latinas, increases in assaults were associated with eight factors: being married, number of ex-partners, depression, disclosing IPV to friends/family and disclosing to mental-health professionals, drug use, alcohol abstinence, and partner's frequent alcohol use. For European Americans, increases in assaults were linked to number of ex-partners, injury, low income, Medicaid use, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as mental-health professionals, and alcohol abstinence; decreases were associated with age and with other health insurance coverages. For women of other ethnicity, increases were linked to number of ex-partners, disclosing IPV to mental-health professionals, Medicaid use, drug use, and woman's own as well as partner's alcohol abstinence; decreases in this ethnicity category were linked to past assault by ex-partners. Intervention and policy implications are discussed. PMID:25716196

  4. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Martin

    Full Text Available When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice. Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice.

  5. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  6. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality: Can results be generalized to Latin American countries? Contaminación atmosférica por partículas y mortalidad diaria: ¿se pueden generalizar los resultados a los países de Latinoamérica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABELLE ROMIEU

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Recently, a series of reports, based on ecological analyses of routinely collected data, have shown positive associations between measures of particle concentration and daily mortality counts in various cities of the US and Europe. Material and methods. We reviewed the process of generalization of these results to Latin American countries addressing possible differences in air pollution mixtures, exposure profiles, and population susceptibility. Results. A limitation to the process of generalization is the lack of a well-established biological mechanism by which particles may act on daily mortality. Also, sources and levels of ambient air pollution as well as population characteristics and habits vary widely between Northern communities of Europe and the US, and Latin American countries, which impairs the process of generalization. However, results of studies conducted in Latin American countries suggest a similar effect to that observed in Northern countries of Europe and the US. Conclusions. Despite uncertainty about the mechanism, there is sufficient evidence that particles are harmful for health. Control measures of particle emission are urgently needed in Latin American countries. Given the potential of misclassification of exposure, the dose-response relationship observed in Northern Europe and the US may not be adequate for Latin American populations. There is a need for a new generation of epidemiological studies including a specific assessment of exposure to fine particles and of events surrounding death.Objetivo. Recientemente una serie de reportes basados en análisis ecológicos de datos recolectados rutinariamente ha mostrado asociaciones positivas de la concentración diaria de partículas y el número de muertes diarias en diferentes ciudades de los Estados Unidos y Europa. Material y métodos. Se revisaron los procesos de generalización de los resultados a América Latina con énfasis en posibles diferencias en las

  7. Does Trade Openness Make Countries Vulnerable?

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Federici; Pierluigi Montalbano

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the welfare costs of exposure to shocks linked to trade openness, an issue that is of main interest for international economic policy. It addresses the question as to whether the current process of trade liberalisation has a net destabilising effect on partner countries, increasing their vulnerability. Starting from a broader definition of vulnerability than simply vulnerability to poverty because of trade openness, this paper highlights, presenting both probit and 3SLS ...

  8. Partnering with stakeholders in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site selection for radioactive waste management (RWM) facilities draws considerable attention from implementers, government bodies, local communities and the public at large. Facility siting processes have generally tended to be marred by conflicts, disagreements and delays. In response, efforts have been made to shift from a more traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model to one of 'engage, interact and co-operate'. The essence of the new approach is co-operation or partnership between the implementer and the affected communities, involving dialogue between experts and citizens, mutual learning and public participation in the decision-making process. National ministries and authorities have also been called to and do play a more visible role. The intensity and degree of partnering can vary from country to country and in different phases of project development. Important changes have taken place in citizen participation in radioactive waste management over the past decade. These changes can be summarised as follows: - shift from information and consultation towards partnership, i.e. from token involvement to citizen influence and power; - shift from a passive to an active role of local communities: from resigned acceptance to collaboration, volunteering and veto; - development of a great variety of administrative formats for collaboration; - recognition of the need for, and legitimacy of, community empowerment measures and socio-economic benefits; - emergence of new ideals and bases for collaboration including mutual learning, adding values to the host community/region and sustainable development. Involving local actors in the design of the facility and community benefits are likely to result in solutions that will add value to the host region. In all cases, social capital is augmented as local stakeholders develop new skills and increase their knowledge about the interests and ideals of their community. Implementers and other institutional players also

  9. Administrative costs in selected industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullier, J P

    1992-01-01

    The costs of health administration are compared across several countries, accompanied by discussion of some of the variations in the definition of health administration. The influence of American health accounting on other countries is examined, and findings are presented regarding the relative costs of insurance-based and direct-delivery systems. Data are presented on health administrative spending providing gross as well as per capita measures. PMID:10122004

  10. Administrative costs in selected industrialized countries

    OpenAIRE

    Poullier, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The costs of health administration are compared across several countries, accompanied by discussion of some of the variations in the definition of health administration. The influence of American health accounting on other countries is examined, and findings are presented regarding the relative costs of insurance-based and direct-delivery systems. Data are presented on health administrative spending providing gross as well as per capita measures.

  11. U.S. Government and Partners: Working Together on a Comprehensive, Coordinated and Effective Response to Highly Vulnerable Children. Third Annual Report to Congress on Public Law 109-95, the Assistance for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Developing Countries Act of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Public Law 109-95, the Assistance for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Developing Countries Act of 2005 (hereinafter, referred to as PL 109-95), was signed into law four years ago to respond to the global orphans and vulnerable children crisis. It calls for the U.S. Government (USG) response to the crisis to be comprehensive, coordinated…

  12. EXPLORING COUNTRY MUSIC'S POTENTIAL FOR MARKET GROWTH IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Traditional North American country music has commercially grown from the first recordings made in the early 1900’s to a multimillion-dollar business. The market consists of national and international audiences. Country music has influenced many popular Finnish artists and music styles. Due to a lack of extensive previous theories, this study was conducted in order to define country music in a Finnish context and explore Finland as a potentially increasing market for country music sales. ...

  13. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...

  14. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46- ...

  15. Inflationary memory as restrictive factor of the impact of the public expense in the economic growth: Lessons from high inflation Latin American countries using an innovative inflationary memory indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Sheriff, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    A new inflationary memory indicator was developed and applied here. A panel was built with the selected countries considering the economic growth as dependent variable in function of the convergence hypothesis, the inflation rate, the public expense and, the recursive variance of the inflation (VARINF) as inflationary memory indicator. The expected results of the panel were that the inflation and their variability affect the growth negatively neutralizing the possible effects that it could ha...

  16. U.S.-KYRGYZSTAN: PARTNERS IN DIFFERENT WEIGHT DIVISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakpaev, Marat

    2006-01-01

    As soon as Kyrgyzstan became an independent state, its relations with the United States in the military-political sphere moved ahead at a slack pace mainly because the "island of democracy," as the country was perceived in Central Asia, was too small and too poor economically to be contemplated as a strategic partner first by the Clinton and later by the George W. Bush Administration. However, the Kyrgyz Republic's consistent and positive foreign policy with respect to the U.S. contributed to...

  17. What challenges does mental and neurological health research face in Latin American countries? ¿Qué desafíos enfrenta la investigación en salud mental y neurológica en los países latinoamericanos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Fiestas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization Atlas Project identified important deficiencies in world mental and neurological health resources. These deficiencies, especially evident in low and middle-income countries, can be overcome by improving research capacity. The objective of this study is to assess the status of mental and neurological research in Latin American countries and identify the main difficulties encountered in conducting research, publishing results, and shaping health policies, interventions, and programs. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 key informants from 13 Latin American countries. RESULTS: Participants reported that production of mental and neurological research in Latin American countries is low. Lack of financial and human resources, including lack of support from government agencies, were identified as the main factors contributing to the dearth of local research. The few research projects that do take place in Latin American countries are often funded at researchers' personal expense. Few policies, interventions, or programs are generated from research results. To address these deficiencies, participants called for training in research methodology, mechanisms for identifying funding opportunities, and greater recognition of their research products. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and stakeholders recognize the need to mobilize local and international efforts aimed at strengthening research capacity and results implementation. This will lead to an overall optimization of mental and neurological research in the region.OBJETIVO: El proyecto Atlas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud identifica importantes deficiencias en salud mental y neurológica. Estas deficiencias, especialmente evidentes en países de medianos y bajos ingresos, pueden resolverse mejorando las capacidades en investigación. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el estado de la investigación en salud mental y neurológica en pa

  18. Partner relationships during the transition to parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Partner relationships are relevant in the psychological adjustment during the transition to parenthood, but mothers have been studied more often than fathers in this respect. The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) to assess negative and positive dimensions of the partner relationship, The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depression an the State Anxiety Inventory (STAi) to assess anxiety were administered to 43 women and their partners recruited during the sec...

  19. Cultural transformation in construction partnering projects

    OpenAIRE

    Thurairajah, N.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of partnering in construction. Since partnering is seen as changing behaviours and attitudes, cultural transformation cannot be forgotten in the process. Much of the literature tends to presume that cultural alignment is a prerequisite for partnering. Furthermore, the existing research fails to adequately address the complex relationship between individual or group behaviour and organisational culture which, nevert...

  20. Putting intimate partner violence on your radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870

  1. Maternal perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Hobbs, Amy J; Sheila W McDonald; Tough, Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background Many women find breastfeeding challenging to sustain beyond the first three postpartum months. Women rely on a variety of resources to aid and encourage breastfeeding, including ‘partner support’. Women’s perception of partner support during breastfeeding may influence maternal satisfaction and confidence but it remains understudied. We asked women about their perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding and measured the effect on maternal confidence, commitment, and satisfa...

  2. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  3. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  4. Understanding Partners in Compliance (PIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partners in Compliance (PIC) is a motor carrier safety and compliance program that rewards carriers for their commitment to highway safety. Carriers voluntarily commit to a high level of compliance to eight benchmark criteria and monitor their operations. They submit reports on a monthly basis and understand that they can be subject to random government audits with respect to any of the benchmark areas. The eight benchmark criteria are: (1) safety and driver qualifications, (2) reportable collision data and analysis, (3) equipment inspection and repair, (4) driver's hours of service, (5) dangerous goods, (6) vehicle weight and dimensional management, (7) IFTA and Treasury compliance, and (8) pro-rate and registries compliance. It was emphasized that PIC is not a carrier self-regulation program, it is an investment in highway safety, a sharing in responsibility between regulators and carriers, a sign of a paradigm shift in thinking about transportation safety

  5. INR Pitesti - Partner in NULIFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INR Pitesti has become on the 29th September 2006 a partner in the European Network of Excellence Nuclear Plant Life Prediction (NULIFE) coordinated by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The EU's Network of Excellence NULIFE was launched under the EURATOM FP6 Program with a clear focus on integrating safety-oriented research on materials, structures and systems and exploiting the results of this integration through the production of harmonised lifetime assessment methods. NULIFE will help provide a better common understanding of, and information on, the factors affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate extensions to the safe and economic lifetime of existing nuclear power plants.(author)

  6. Measuring evolution of income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries Medición de la evolución de las desigualdades en la salud y la utilización de la atención sanitaria relacionadas con los ingresos en países seleccionados de América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Almeida; Flavia Mori Sarti

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodology used to measure and explain income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization over time in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: Data from nationally representative household surveys in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru were used to analyze income-related inequalities in health status and health care utilization. Health was measured by self-reported health status, physical limitations, and chronic illn...

  7. 77 FR 22181 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-9018 Filed 4-11-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Organization of American States--a body dedicated to the pursuit of democracy and economic opportunity for all... secure a clean energy future. Our Nation remains committed to working together with partners across...

  8. Intimate partner violence in Malawi and the gender order : A quantitative study examining the association between IPV in Malawi and the gender order

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread and accepted in Malawi (Chakwana 2004). To figure out how a country can fight against intimate partner violence it is important to discover the causes behind the problem so policymakers and program planners could know where to draw their attention (Heise, Ellsberg and Gottemoeller 1999). The aim of the present study was to explore more of the reasons behind intimate partner violence in Malawi, and how the gender order is associated to IPV. Gender ...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Symptom Severity among South African Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum: Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Mark Tomlinson; W Scott Comulada; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

    2016-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner is a common and widespread problem. Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV, also called domestic violence) vary widely between countries but, globally, nearly a third of women experience IPV at some time in their life. IPV is defined as physical, sexual, or emotional violence that is perpetrated on an individual by a current or former partner or spouse. Physical violence includes slapping, pushing or shovin...

  10. To Punish or to Leave: Distinct Cognitive Processes Underlie Partner Control and Partner Choice Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Justin W Martin; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show...

  11. MNC Strategies and Linkage Effects in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    is hypothesized that compared to investments undertaken by MNCs following strategies of global integration, investments of MNCs pursuing local responsiveness create more jobs but imply less job upgrading in developing countries. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of Danish MNCs with extensive......The paper addresses the question of which implications MNC strategies have to FDI linkage effects in developing countries. Two contrasting MNC strategies reflecting an integration-responsiveness dichotomy are scrutinized as to their job effects on local linkage partners in developing countries. It...... investments in developing countries....

  12. Petroleum market under american peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of Usa in petroleum import is now about 50%. The question is to know if american government wants to continue this policy which privileges low prices. Low prices do not allow to increase economic development in Arab countries. An other point is the situation of Middle East able to see other conflicts and in this case are Usa able to avoid them

  13. American Folk Legend: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Wayland D., Ed.

    The proceedings of the UCLA Conference on American folk legend are the subject of these 14 papers. Areas of discussion include matters of definition, classification, structure and style, historical perspective, socio-psychological values, certain aspects of saints' legends in the Pennsylvania-German country, comparison of legendary and balladic…

  14. Managing FDI country risks in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Komlan Akoli; Elie Chrysostome; Hamadoun Sidibé

    2005-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has always been an important concern for international organizations and for governments as well. Despite the failure of various structural adjustment and development aid programs, foreign capital is still a key element in the success of several development programs. Unfortunately, during the last decade, the level of foreign direct investments has not increased that much in several developing countries due to, among others, country risks. The concept of country risk...

  15. Partner Selection in Technological Licensing Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Trombini, Giulia

    as attractors, and market competition and potential involuntary spillovers act as repellants. Firms seek potential licensing partners by trying to maximize technological synergies while attempting to minimize the competitive downsides. We hypothesize that when licensees engage in matches involving a partner...

  16. The Relationship Talk: Assessing Partner Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    "The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211…

  17. Sexual Experiences of Men with Incontinent Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Milou D.; Beck, Jacky J. H.; Putter, Hein; van Driel, Mels F.; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrordus; Nijeholt, Guus A. B. Lycklama A.; Elzevier, Henk W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies show that urinary incontinence (UI) impairs women's sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. However, there is no scientific knowledge about the effects of UI on sexual functioning of the male partners. Aim. To analyze sexual functioning of the male partners of femal

  18. Odd top partners at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  19. KAZAKHSTAN: A PARTNER FOR DEMOCRACY?

    OpenAIRE

    Muradyan, Vahagn

    2010-01-01

    The decision reached in Madrid to hand over OSCE chairmanship in 2010 to Kazakhstan focused international attention on Kazakhstan’s human rights record and, by extension, on the whole of the Central Asian region. This decision stirred debates about the merits of awarding OSCE chairmanship to a country with a widely-recognized problematic human rights record. However interesting they may have been, the discussions concentrated only on short-term objectives that could be addressed during the ch...

  20. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik;

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  1. Do minimum wages in Latin America and the Caribbean matter ? Evidence from 19 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study the authors analyze cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries to gain an understanding of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, the authors find regional trends. Minimum wages a...

  2. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners. PMID:26933760

  3. The mental health of US Black women: the roles of social context and severe intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Krim K. Lacey; Parnell, Regina; Mouzon, Dawne M; Matusko, Niki; Head, Doreen; Abelson, Jamie M.; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Black women continue to have rates of mental health conditions that can be negative for their well-being. This study examined the contribution of social and contextual factors and severe physical intimate partner violence on the mental health of US Black women (African-American and Caribbean Black). Setting Data were largely collected via in-person community interviews at participants’ homes. Participants We studied 3277 African-American and Black Caribbean women from the 2001–2003 ...

  4. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor M. Cantera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver and violence (violent, peaceful woman and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each country, they agreed to a stratified convenience sample according to criteria of gender, age, education level, occupational status and sexual orientation. In one session lasting between 35 and 60 minutes, the participants first answered an IAT (Implicit Association Test and then a series of items in a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. One section includes 48 items referring to “activities” that the person must categorize numerically on a scale of 1-7, with a semantic differential format, and whose poles are “male” and “woman.” In this series two scales of 24 items each are mixed: hardness and tenderness. From the information obtained it is seen that samples from all countries organize their perception of partner violence according to gender stereotypes. Men and women both perceived attributes of the hardness scale to be masculine, and those of tenderness to be feminine, with these perceived differences in terms of gender role behaviors being even more enhanced and further polarized by the women. The socio-cultural anchor of the gender violence stereotype has theoretical and social implications in that it visualizes abuse from a man to a woman in the heterosexual couple and blurs that which occurs in other forms of partner. This raises topics which should be urgently addressed in the research agenda.

  5. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-09-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network.

  6. Racial Preferences in Online Dating across European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we eng

  7. Stakeholder Engagement in Post-Conflict Countries : The Liberian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori- Atta, Nana Yaa

    2008-01-01

    In February 2006, the government of Liberia invited the World Bank Group to work with the country to implement a comprehensive multiyear advisory services program. The program is designed to support the growth of a vibrant domestic private sector in Liberia that can create employment, increase opportunities for growth, attract partners, and provide services for quality international invest...

  8. Women as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Maputo City, Mozambique : occurence, nature and effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zacarias, António Eugénio

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a widespread bad behavior, and its effects on women’s lives encompass injuries, mental ill-health, decreased intimacy, and a financial burden. Growing evidence indicates that women also abuse their intimate male partners. The role of controlling behaviors in IPV remains controversial, but data, mainly from Western countries, indicate that both women and men use them. The situation (e.g., health condition) of women who have been vict...

  9. Risk factors for intimate partner violence in women in the Rakai Community Cohort Study, Uganda, from 2000 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; Calzavara, Liviana M.; Bondy, Susan J; O’Campo, Patricia; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Kagaayi, Joseph; Kigozi, Godfrey; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem. There is a lack of data on IPV risk factors from longitudinal studies and from low and middle income countries. Identifying risk factors is needed to inform the design of appropriate IPV interventions. Methods Data were from the Rakai Community Cohort Study annual surveys between 2000 and 2009. Female participants who had at least one sexual partner during this period and had data on IPV over the study period w...

  10. Revistas de Ciencias de la Nutrición en los países ibero latinoamericanos en el siglo XXI Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Culebras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la nutrición como materia independiente dentro de los planes de estudio de las facultades de Medicina españolas ha sido exigua hasta el final del siglo XX. Pareja a esta carencia ha sido la falta de vehículos científicos solventes. A lo largo de los doce años transcurridos en el siglo XXI hemos asistido a un crecimiento importante en calidad y cantidad de las oportunidades especificas para las ciencias de la nutrición en lengua castellana y portuguesa. En 2000 aparecían en el Journal Citation Reports Science Edition 51 revistas en la categoría de Nutrition & Dietetics. Entre ellas solo había una ibero latinoamericana, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622. A lo largo del siglo XXI se han incorporado tres revistas ibero latinoamericanas al JCR, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611 en 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273 y Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074 en 2007. Las cuatro revistas van teniendo un lugar cada dia mas destacado en otras plataformas electrónicas, prestando un servicio importante a la sociedad científica, no solo de su ámbito, sino en el resto del mundo. Aun cuando la lengua inglesa domina la comunicación científica, la masa crítica de publicaciones ya existentes en castellano y el ámbito de influencia de esta lengua es un estimulo para seguir utilizándola como vehículo científico.The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one ibero latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622, was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading

  11. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  12. Cross-national and multilevel correlates of partner violence: an analysis of data from population-based surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lori L Heise, PhD; Andreas Kotsadam, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: On average, intimate partner violence affects nearly one in three women worldwide within their lifetime. But the distribution of partner violence is highly uneven, with a prevalence of less than 4% in the past 12 months in many high-income countries compared with at least 40% in some low-income settings. Little is known about the factors that drive the geographical distribution of partner violence or how macro-level factors might combine with individual-level factors to affect ind...

  13. Hegemonia norte-americana, governabilidade global e impasses nos grandes países da periferia North-american hegemony, global governability and deadlock in the largest countries of the periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Dupas

    2003-12-01

    situation of the United States crystallizes a brutal unbalance of forces. Nevertheless, this immense power concentration neither means - nor guarantees - the permanent exercise of domination. This is also true because a nation maintains its hegemony as long as, while conducting the system of nations into a desired direction, it manages to be perceived as seeking general interest and favoring global governability. The idea of a new and more stable global order from Bretton Woods onwards was rapidly buried by the brutality of a market ruled by volatile capitals and submitted to high levels of instability. Despite the strength of the capitalist system, the affirmation about market supremacy created a wave of crises that swept through the last three decades of the previous century and continues until today. The fragmentation of global productive chains and the worldwide expansion of commerce ended up allowing for a greater participation of large peripheral countries in the world market. However, with few exceptions, the exchange terms continue in favor of the central countries and unbalance has increased. It is the function of these countries - especially the United States as the mean conductor of global policies - to face the urgency of a new global order, basically including efficient measures for the reduction of their agricultural and industrial protectionism, regulation of volatile financial flows and support for strategies that allow large peripheral countries to incorporate value into their local production. The latter, then, should not raise exaggerated hopes in relation to globalization, merely putting it forward as an important perspective and not as the center of their policies. Therefore, the concept of a national State needs to be reconstructed, which is capable of exercising its sovereignty in a mature way, simultaneously informed by a new notion of identity and by the circumstances of the global market.

  14. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  15. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  16. Self-employment and parenthood: exploring the impact of partners, children and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Aidis, Ruta; Wetzels, Cecile

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between self-employment, partner's employment, the household and children on a mother's and father's probability to choose self-employment. Few studies are available on this topic and their analysis is mainly limited to the female role in the North American context. In this study, we examine the influence of personal characteristics, household and labor market characteristics for both mothers and fathers in a family context and their probability to be self...

  17. Unintended Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence before and during Pregnancy among Latina Women in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Garcia, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy among Latinas. A cross-sectional interview measuring pregnancy intent, IPV, and acculturation, using the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II), was conducted among Latina women…

  18. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  19. A Comparison of Referred Sexual Partners to Their Community Recruited Counterparts in The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Grace; Li, Keala; Wilton, Leo; Wheeler, Darrell; Fogel, Jessica; Wang, Lei; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-12-01

    The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061) was established to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention among African American MSM to reduce HIV incidence. The goal of this analysis was to determine if the sexual partner referral approach used in HPTN 061 broadened the reach of recruitment with regards to characteristics associated with higher infection rates and barriers to quality health care. Overall, referred sexual partners had notable structural barrier differences in comparison to community-recruited participants: lower income, less education, higher unemployment, HIV positive diagnosis, incarceration history, and no health insurance. The study's findings pose implications for utilizing the sexual partner referral approach in reaching African American MSM who may not be accessed by traditional recruitment methods or who are well-integrated in health care systems. PMID:25874753

  20. Latina breast cancer survivors informational needs: information partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lena; Gavier, Maria; Hellesø, Ragnhild

    2009-01-01

    The ability to access and understand health information is becoming more critical to managing one's own health and illness. Informatics tools are increasingly the central resources for responding to these needs. But just as information is culturally bound, so are the tools used to access it; both are bounded by the contexts in which they are situated. Latinas face more barriers in accessing needed information due to cultural, linguistic and health access inequities in the US. Although breast cancer rates for Latinas are lower than for non-Latina white women, they are more likely to have a more advanced stage at diagnosis and poorer quality of survivorship. Few studies have explored Latina breast cancer survivors' information needs & strategies. This community-based study focused on Mexican American women with breast cancer and explored their health information experiences, needs, and strategies; it examined their perceptions of how their relationships with providers influenced how information was accessed and utilized. Managing information was not an individual responsibility for any of these women. All of these women had access and used the Internet either directly or through their support networks. All emphasized the importance of having a select support network of people (information partners) for receiving, searching, and interpreting all health information about their illness. If information partners are strategies preferred by Latinas, then we must refocus our assessment of e-health literacy competencies on networks rather than individuals. PMID:19592948

  1. Regulatory Process and Implementing Justification: A View from Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper intends to present the current situation of regulation of the principle of justification in different Latin American countries. The survey does not intend to be exhaustive because, at least for the author, not all the required information is available. Of course the situation in the author's country is presented simply for comparison with other countries of similar economies and development. The author would like to thank the Ibero-American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulators (FORO), as this presentation is in part based on current work performed under the auspices of this organization by a task force named Radiological Protection to Patient. (author)

  2. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, L.; Schraiber, LB; Hossain, M.; Watts, C.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    : Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effec...

  3. Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberalizati...

  4. Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in Latin America : Current Trends and Country Cases

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a descriptive analysis of the current practices and trends of corporate governance of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) in several Latin-American countries. It provides practitioners of SOE corporate governance with a stocktaking of current practices and trends in several Latin American countries, as well as international experiences and good pr...

  5. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  6. The uncounted dead--American civilians dying overseas.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, T. D.; Hargarten, S. W.; Guptill, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Government, U.S. physicians, their patients who travel, insurance companies, the travel industry, and multinational corporations should know the health hazards facing Americans overseas. However, the deaths overseas of almost 5,000 Americans every year have never been analyzed. A previously unreported, unexamined data source is analyzed by cause, sex, age, length of stay, and country of death of Americans dying overseas. The major findings are 1. Most Americans who die overseas di...

  7. Inferring interaction partners from protein sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Colwell, Lucy J; Wingreen, Ned S

    2016-01-01

    Specific protein-protein interactions are crucial in the cell, both to ensure the formation and stability of multi-protein complexes, and to enable signal transduction in various pathways. Functional interactions between proteins result in coevolution between the interaction partners. Hence, the sequences of interacting partners are correlated. Here we exploit these correlations to accurately identify which proteins are specific interaction partners from sequence data alone. Our general approach, which employs a pairwise maximum entropy model to infer direct couplings between residues, has been successfully used to predict the three-dimensional structures of proteins from sequences. Building on this approach, we introduce an iterative algorithm to predict specific interaction partners from among the members of two protein families. We assess the algorithm's performance on histidine kinases and response regulators from bacterial two-component signaling systems. The algorithm proves successful without any a pri...

  8. MPS/CAS Partner Group on Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yipeng; Gerhard B(o)rner

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Partner Group does research in cosmology, focussing on the quantitative modeling of the structure and evolution of galaxies and galaxy clusters, the pattern of galaxies and of larger structures.

  9. Supersymmetric partners for the associated Lame potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez C, David J

    2008-01-01

    The general solution of the stationary Schrodinger equation for the associated Lame potentials with an arbitrary real energy is found. The supersymmetric partners are generated by employing seeds solutions for factorization energies inside the gaps.

  10. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  11. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads’ performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens’ preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice. PMID:27286247

  12. Is My Exercise Partner Similar Enough? Partner Characteristics as a Moderator of the Köhler Effect in Exergames

    OpenAIRE

    Forlenza, Samuel T.; Kerr, Norbert L.; Irwin, Brandon C.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent research has shown the Köhler motivation gain effect (working at a task with a more capable partner where one's performance is indispensable to the group) leads to greater effort in partnered exercise videogame play. The purpose of this article was to examine potential moderators of the Köhler effect by exploring dissimilarities in one's partner's appearance, namely, having an older partner (compared with a same-age partner) and having a heavier-weight partner (compared with...

  13. Men's Avoidance Coping and Female Partner's Drinking Behavior: A High-Risk Context for Partner Violence?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Amy M.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored whether men's avoidance coping in response to the drinking behavior of their female partner with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) would be associated with higher levels of men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Women with an AUD (n = 109) and their male partners in a U.S. urban area were assessed on men's perpetration of minor and severe violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale, men's avoidance coping using the Spouse Behavior Questionnaire, and men's ...

  14. Romantic Partners, Friends, Friends with Benefits, and Casual Acquaintances As Sexual Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Wyndol; Shaffer, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed examination of sexual behavior with different types of partners. A sample of 163 young adults reported on their light nongenital, heavy nongenital, and genital sexual activity with romantic partners, friends, and casual acquaintances. They described their sexual activity with “friends with benefits” as well as with friends in general. Young adults were most likely to engage in sexual behavior with romantic partners, but sexual behavio...

  15. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  16. Relation of chronic kidney disease and lipid metabolism among three Latin American countries 'outpatients in hospital ship%医院船就诊拉美3国人群中慢性肾脏疾病与脂质代谢的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余永武; 杨峥维; 张雅芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation of chronic kidney disease(CKD) and lipid metabolism in three Latin American countries' outpatients in hospital ship. Methods: A total of 692 cases from three Latin American countries who made health examination from October to November 2011 in hospital ship were selected. The gender, age, proteinuria, hematuria, serum creatinine, serum urea nitrogen, serum total cholesterol, and serum triglycer-ide were analyzed, the glomerular filtration rate (CFR) of the outpatients was calculated according to their age and the levels of serum creatinine. Results:The prevalence of CKD was 16. 3%. The prevalence of dyslipidemia, hy-percholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were 46. 2% , 22. 8% , and 35. 8% respectively. The prevalence of CKD in dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia outpatients were higher than those in normal lipid and normal triglyc-eride outpstients, respectively(P < 0.05). The prevalence of dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia in CKD outp-stients were higher than those in non -CKD outpslients(P<0.05). Conclusion;The prevalence of CKD and dyslipidemia was higher in three Latin American countries'outpatients. The prevalence of CKD was higher in the dyslipidemia's patients.%目的:探讨医院船就诊的拉美3国人群慢性肾脏疾病(CKD)与脂质代谢的关系.方法:选取2011 - 10~ 11医院船执行任务期间在医院船就诊的拉美3国体检人员692人(年龄均超过18岁),记录上述患者性别、年龄、尿蛋白、尿红细胞、血肌酐、血尿素氮、血胆固醇、血甘油三酯,并根据年龄、血肌酐计算肾,小、球滤过率(GFR).结果:CKD患病率16.3%(113/692),血脂异常、高TC血症及高TG血症患病率分别为46.2%、22.8%、35.8%;血脂异常患者中CKD患病率(20.3%)高于血脂正常患者(12.9%),高TG血症患者CKD患病率(24.2%)高于TG正常患者(11.9%),且有统计学意义(P<0.05);CKD患者中血脂异常、高TG血症患

  17. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays as the objects for laughs; gays revealing their sexual identities; sexual scenes of gays; masculine gay men; and violence in gay life. They appear in genres like drama, comedy, romance, detective, western, and horror/mystery with two images of gay people shown in American gay movies; they are the portrait of gays as a minority and the pessimism. However, it also shows that some American gay films picture good gay life, happy gay couples, gay marriage, etc.

  18. North American Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remarks by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Energy Cooperation concerning North American energy policy were presented. Guiding principles behind the National Energy Policy report released in 2001 were presented, stressing energy and economic security for the United States as well as strengthening global energy security, particularly in the western hemisphere. The energy trade relationship between Canada and the United States was discussed along with economic integration, with particular reference to the northeastern provinces of Canada. An overview of growth in offshore oil production, crude oil and petroleum exports from Canada was examined. American gas consumption levels and a forecast for future economic developments between the two countries was outlined. Four major orders were presented to contextualize future trade relationships: the authorizing of Presidential permits for petroleum and liquids pipelines that cross international boundaries of the United States; the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Canadian National Energy Board (NEB) and the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) addressing the sharing of information between the two organizations; the signing of the Canada-United States Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Framework for Cooperation; and, the United States-Canada Power System Outage Task Force report. The goals, challenges and obstacles of the North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) were also outlined, with specific reference to their principal objective of promoting a more fully integrated energy market in North America. An outline of future initiatives planned by the Bush Administration was presented, including details of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy and the international Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum and outlines of the Western Hemisphere Energy Technology Cooperation Initiative. It was concluded that the partnership between Canada and the United States

  19. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  20. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  1. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  2. Ethnoracial Variation in Women's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hannah M; Galano, Maria M; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew C; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2016-02-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) has been acknowledged as a national public health concern, little research exists that directly assesses differential exposure to IPV for distinct ethnoracial groups. The current study compared the rate, severity, and type of IPV exposure across samples of White, African American, and Latina women (N = 180). Participants reported rates of exposure to violence on measures of physical assault, psychological aggression, injury, and sexual coercion; each subscale contained items denoting both mild and severe levels of violence. Multiple regression analyses indicated that women's frequency of exposure to sexual coercion, and severe and injurious violence significantly differed based on participants' ethnoracial identification, such that Latina women experienced disproportionate levels of violence relative to White and African American peers. Mothers' monthly income, level of education, general health, and relationship status also emerged as significant predictors of violence exposure. Results support the development of culturally sensitive adaptations of IPV interventions, targeting not only Latina populations but also women who are single, low-income, and educationally underserved. PMID:25392382

  3. COUNTRY VERSUS INDUSTRY EFFECT ON BOARD STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi JaiN; Dev Prasad

    2012-01-01

    We examine the board structures of US and Indian firms in two industries. We examine three aspects of board structures: board size, board independence, and board leadership. The two industries selected for analysis are information technology and capital goods. While Indian information technology firms have close ties to the American economy, capital goods firms have a domestic focus. Thus, we are able to analyze differences in board structures of firms in two countries and two industries, one...

  4. International Demand for American Higher Education: An Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.; Wan, Weidong

    1990-01-01

    A study of the relationship of population and income in Asian countries and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members to their demand for American higher education found that both population and income significantly affect demand, but not proportionally. Findings suggest countries meet most change in citizens' demand with…

  5. Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Couples in the Countries of the World: a Chronological Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Waaldijk, C.; Marsh, V

    2011-01-01

    Chronological overview of countries (and parts of countries) that have taken some major steps in legally recognising same-sex couples: legal recognition of non-registered same-sex cohabitation, introduction of a form of registered partnership, opening up of adoption and/or marriage for same-sex partners.

  6. PRevalence of Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence Surgical Evaluation (P.R.A.I.S.E.): rationale and design of a multi-center cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is described by the American Medical Association as "a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include repeated battering and injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation." The long-term consequences of IPV include health risks, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and staggering economic costs for health care of victims. Intimate partner violence is often underreported among women who ...

  7. Partner violence during pregnancy: prevalence, effects, screening, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Bailey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Beth A BaileyDepartment of Family Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy. Pregnancy IPV is a significant problem worldwide, with rates varying significantly by country and maternal risk factors. Pregnancy IPV is associated with adverse newborn outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. Many mechanisms for how IPV may impact birth outcomes have been proposed and include direct health, mental health, and behavioral effects, which all may interact. Screening for IPV during pregnancy is essential, yet due to time constraints and few clear recommendations for assessment, many prenatal providers do not routinely inquire about IPV, or even believe they should. More training is needed to assist health care providers in identifying and managing pregnancy IPV, with additional research needed to inform effective interventions to reduce the rates of pregnancy IPV and resultant outcomes.Keywords: intimate partner violence, pregnancy, pregnancy screening, pregnancy risks

  8. The Anti-American Century?*

    OpenAIRE

    Krastev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The twentieth century was “the American century.” championing democracy and capitalism, the United States won the cold War and emerged as the only global superpower— not only in military, but also in economic, technological, and even cultural terms. The widening currency of the English language and the continued desire of millions around the world to emigrate to the united States underlined the reality of U.S. predominance. The future, it was said, looked like a country, and that country was ...

  9. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  10. Credit Suisse Enjoys Chinese Banking--An exclusive Interview with Dr. Urs Buchmann, Managing Director, Country Head China, Credit Suisse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Widening Opportunities for Foreign Market Participants As a result of a direct interaction with its partners and clients in China extending over 5 decades, Credit Suisse already enjoys a very strong position in the country's financial markets.

  11. Patriotism, Courtesy of Toby Keith: The Voice of Country Music After September 11

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Arin Rose

    2006-01-01

    In releasing the songs "Courtesy of the Red, White and Blue (The Angry American)" and "American Soldier" in the aftermath of September 11, country artist Toby Keith enacts a tradition that has been established in the world of country music since the Civil War, that of producing wartime songs of patriotism. I conducted an organic analysis of both songs as rhetorical acts produced and consumed within a particular rhetorical context. Because country music is fundamentally a discourse that celebr...

  12. Probing top-partners in Higgs + jets

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea; Sanz, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Fermionic top-partners arise in models such as Composite Higgs and Little Higgs. They modify Higgs properties, in particular how the Higgs couples to top quarks. Alas, there is a low-energy cancellation acting in the coupling of the Higgs boson to gluons and photons. As a result of this cancellation, no information about the spectrum and couplings of the top-partners can be obtained in gluon fusion to Higgs, just the overall new physics scale. In this paper we show that this is not the case when hard radiation is taken into account. Indeed, differential distributions in Higgs plus jets are sensitive to the top-partner mass and coupling to the Higgs. We exploit the transverse momentum distribution of the hard jet to obtain limits on the top-partners in the 14 TeV LHC run, finding that 300 ifb of data of 14 TeV LHC are sufficient to rule out top-sector mixing angles $\\sin^2 (\\theta_R)$ > 0.05 for top-partners with masses from 300 GeV to above 2 TeV.

  13. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-1 - Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice...

  14. VARIETIES OF CAPITALISM AND GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    JOACHIM AHRENS; RAINER SCHWEICKERT; JULIANE ZENKER

    2015-01-01

    Empirical papers on the size of government suffer from neglecting preferences for government activity as discussed in the literature on varieties of capitalism. Cross-country evidence for a sample of 126 developed and developing countries reveals a global divide. Among developing countries, Asian countries are closer to continental European economies, i.e., they reveal relatively higher levels of spending dependent on the quality of governance. Latin American countries rather tend towards low...

  15. American inequality and its consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Burtless, Gary; Jencks, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Income inequality has risen sharply in the United States over the past generation, reaching levels not seen since before World War II. But while almost two-thirds of Americans agree with the statement that 'income differences in the United States are too large', policies aimed at reducing income differences command relatively little popular support. In most rich countries sizeable majorities 'agree strongly' that the government ought to guarantee each citizen a minimum standard of living. Onl...

  16. Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Power Inequity and the Role of Sexual and Social Risk Factors in the Production of Violence among Young Women Who Have Multiple Sexual Partners in a Peri-Urban Setting in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zembe, Yanga Z.; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to assess the extent and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV), explore relationship power inequity and the role of sexual and social risk factors in the production of violence among young women aged 16-24 reporting more than one partner in the past three...... months in a peri-urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa. Recent estimates suggest that every six hours a woman is killed by an intimate partner in South Africa, making IPV a leading public health problem in the country. While there is mounting evidence that levels of IPV are high in peri-urban...... settings in South Africa, not much is known about how it manifests among women who engage in concomitantly high HIV risk behaviours such as multiple sexual partnering, transactional sex and age mixing. We know even less about how such women negotiate power and control if exposed to violence in such sexual...

  17. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  18. More Americans Engaging in Same-Sex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans said they don't accept same-sex relations. Meyer is a senior scholar for public policy at the Williams Institute for Sexual Orientation ... to involve bisexual interactions with both male and female partners, Meyer said. ... relations. Still, Meyer said the findings were "remarkable" and " ...

  19. Household catastrophic health expenditures: a comparative analysis of twelve Latin American and Caribbean Countries Gastos catastróficos en salud de los hogares: un análisis comparativo de doce países en América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Marie Knaul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare patterns of catastrophic health expenditures in 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prevalence of catastrophic expenses was estimated uniformly at the household level using household surveys. Two types of prevalence indicators were used based on out-of-pocket health expense: a relative to an international poverty line, and b relative to the household's ability to pay net of their food basket. Ratios of catastrophic expenditures were estimated across subgroups defined by economic and social variables. RESULTS: The percent of households with catastrophic health expenditures ranged from 1 to 25% in the twelve countries. In general, rural residence, lowest quintile of income, presence of older adults, and lack of health insurance in the household are associated with higher propensity of catastrophic health expenditures. However, there is vast heterogeneity by country. CONCLUSIONS: Cross national studies may serve to examine how health systems contribute to the social protection of Latin American households.OBJETIVO: Comparar los patrones de gastos catastróficos en salud en 12 países de América Latina y el Caribe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estimó la prevalencia de gastos catastróficos de manera uniforme para doce países usando encuestas de hogares. Se emplearon dos tipos de indicadores para medir la prevalencia basados en el gasto de bolsillo en salud: a en relación con una línea de pobreza internacional; y b en relación con la capacidad de pago del hogar en términos de su propia canasta alimentaria. Se estimaron razones para comparar el nivel de gastos catastróficos entre subgrupos poblacionales definidos por variables económicas y sociales. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de hogares con gastos catastróficos variaron de 1 a 25% en los 12 países. En general, la residencia rural, el bajo nivel de ingresos, la presencia de adultos mayores, y la carencia de aseguramiento en salud de los hogares

  20. Intimate partner violence, consenting to HIV testing and HIV status among Zambian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kara A; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L; Masho, Saba W

    2016-09-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are heavily burdened with HIV, which disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. Extant literature is inconsistent regarding the link between intimate partner violence and HIV. Data from the 2007 Zambian Demographic Health Survey of women aged 15-49 (n = 5014) were analysed. The influence of abuse by a current or former husband on consent to HIV testing and HIV positivity were evaluated. The unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and consent to testing for HIV. Stratified analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and HIV testing in rural areas but not in urban areas. However, the association lost its significance when adjusted for confounding factors. No statistically significant association was found between intimate partner violence and HIV-positive status. It is encouraging that women who experienced intimate partner were testing for HIV. Prevention efforts should continue addressing the needs of this population. PMID:26185042

  1. Whom to Choose as License Partner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Trombini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    benefits and obviate issues related to technology transfer and knowledge recombination. At the same time, firms wish to select a partner operating in a different product market to minimize competitive downside issues and to access other product markets, skills and resources. We contend interdependence......This paper investigates the matching of firms on the market for technology. The paper forwards two dimensions along which license formation occurs: technology and product-market. Both sides of the market search for a partner representing potential for high technology synergies to maximize licensing...... between technology and market forces: if partners are market distant, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnership decreases with partners’ technological distance. Using data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994-2004 the...

  2. Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwesigye Nazarius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3 compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The

  3. Search for exotic heavy quark partners

    CERN Document Server

    Pagano, Davide

    2013-01-01

    We present searches for massive top and bottom quark partners at CMS using data collected at sqrt(s)=7 and 8 TeV. Such partners can be seen in 4th generation models, or can be found in models predicting vector-like quarks to solve the Hierarchy problem and stabilize the Higgs mass. The searches span a range of final states, from multi-leptonic to entirely hadronic, and limits are set on mass and production cross sections as a function of branching ratios.

  4. Modulo computably enumerable degrees by cupping partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; De-cheng DING

    2007-01-01

    Cupping partners of an element in an upper semilattice with a greatest element 1 are those joining the element to 1. We define a congruence relation on such an upper semilattice by considering the elements having the same cupping partners as equivalent. It is interesting that this congruence relation induces a non-dense quotient structure of computably enumerable Turing degrees. Another main interesting phenomenon in this article is that on the computably enumerable degrees, this relation is different from that modulo the noncuppable ideal, though they define a same equivalent class for the computable Turing degree.

  5. Evaluación de las políticas contra el tabaquismo en países latinoamericanos en la era del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis Thrasher

    2006-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. RESULTS: ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. CONCLUSIONS: Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.

  6. Helping Hands in Haiti: Examining the Sustainable Strategies of Partners In Health and Build Change

    OpenAIRE

    Neiman, Andrew Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written on the negative aspects of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Haiti and elsewhere as organizations have been criticized for squandering donor funds, back room decision making and operations, and for creating a cycle of dependence between developing and developed countries. On the other hand, many NGOs have done good work in their respective nations. This paper examines the projects of two NGOs working in Haiti: Build Change and Partners In Health. Drawing on observ...

  7. Screening for intimate partner violence in healthcare in Kano, Nigeria : Barriers and challenges for healthcare professionals

    OpenAIRE

    John, Ime Akpan

    2010-01-01

    Background Though there has been increased advocacy for screening for Intimate partner violence (IPV) in healthcare over the past decades, data from developed country context suggest that only one in ten healthcare providers routinely screen for this phenomena suggesting barriers. Knowledge on the screening activity, with regard to IPV, and related barriers among healthcare providers in Sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. Aims The aim of this dissertation is to scrutinize ...

  8. The role of the network lead company in integrating new product development processes across strategic partners

    OpenAIRE

    Badir, Yuosre

    2006-01-01

    In today's network world, advancement in new product development (NPD) is being driven by different types of networks, joint ventures, alliances, outsourcing and mergers. These business trends have resulted in complex organisations and development projects that cross location, company, country and cultural boundaries. The key success is no longer integrating the company's units and activities, but integrating the NPD process across a network of strategic partners. Managing the integration of ...

  9. Factors Associated with Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarne Jansson; Stephen Lawoko; Leah Okenwa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Though the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) remains high in less developed countries, data suggest that these figures may represent an underestimation considering that many women are unwilling to disclose abuse. This paper aims to determine women's willingness to report abuse, factors determining willingness to disclose IPV, and to whom such disclosure is made. Methods: A total of 911 women visiting reproductive health facility responded to the questionnaire...

  10. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane; Redmond, S; Scott, Paul; Cassell, Jackie A; Herrmann, B; Uüskula, A

    2013-01-01

    system characteristics, such as governance structures, public-private mix, models of service provision, resource allocation, financing - including payment for care and reimbursement of clinicians, and access to care, also influence practice. Differences in the microbiological and clinical characteristics......Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI...

  11. The role of the network lead company in integrating new product development processes across strategic partners

    OpenAIRE

    Badir, Yuosre; Perret, Francis-Luc

    2007-01-01

    In today's network world, advancement in new product development (NPD) is being driven by different types of networks, joint ventures, alliances, outsourcing and mergers. These business trends have resulted in complex organisations and development projects that cross location, company, country and cultural boundaries. The key success is no longer integrating the company's units and activities, but integrating the NPD process across a network of strategic partners. Managing the integration of ...

  12. Does Type of Child Risk Affect Whether Mothers Seek Assistance for Intimate Partner Violence From Civil or Criminal Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jane E; Renner, Lynette M; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether risks to children of intimate partner violence survivors affected the type of legal assistance accessed. We hypothesized that the level and type of perceived child risk would be associated with whether women sought a protection order in civil court or filed charges against a current or former intimate partner in criminal court. Using data from a sample of predominantly African American women (N=293), we found that some forms of child risk were positively associated with seeking a civil order of protection but negatively associated with pressing criminal charges. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are presented. PMID:26438617

  13. TWO-WAY INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND PRODUCTION IN ITALY: A COUNTRY/INDUSTRY SPECIFIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Economic interactions among high-income developed countries are characterized by high degrees of both intra-industry trade and intra-industry affiliate production and sales. Similar high-income countries both heavily trade with and invest into each other. This paper examines the determinants of Italian intra-industry trade and intra-industry production with most European trading partners using a dataset where variables are different not only between countries but also between sectors of the s...

  14. Pakistan : Country Development Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This Country Development Landscape (CDL) is an analytical input for the preparation of the World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). It assesses the countryapos;s most recent performance, and benchmarks it to regional peers and global comparators; identifies the most critical development constraints and challenges; summarizes the Governmentapos;s vision for the future and ...

  15. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  16. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  17. Health Manpower Planning: A Comparative Study in Four Countries. Volume 1. Health Manpower References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Daniel F.; And Others

    The health manpower planning experiences of four countries reported here were presented in a traveling seminar held for member countries of the Pan American Health Organization. Focus was on what should be carried out in any country to coordinate the training of health workers with the operation of health services. Following the introduction, the…

  18. Examining the Regional Aspect of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    and Latin American countries can be fully explained by structural characteristics rather than fixed regional effects. The implication of this finding is that countries that are lagging behind other developing countries in attracting foreign capital have the opportunity to implement policies aimed at...

  19. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...... originally produced in December 2012, focusing on policy developments over the previous twelve months. The reports were produced by independent experts under direct contract with IPTS. The analytical framework and the structure of the reports have been developed by the Institute for Prospective Technological...

  20. Anti-Americanism in Contemporary Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Mujani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to explore these two basic arguments. To that end we need first to discuss what is meant by "anti-Americanism," then what is meant by "unjust American foreign policies," and thirdly what is meant by "civilization" in the context of Indonesian Muslim society. "Anti-Americanism" in the international context is an individual or group attitude or action that reflects a feeling of dislike, hatred or intolerance toward America as a nation, or America as defined by the attitudes or behavior of the American government toward other countries. It is not easy to decide how to measure these anti-American attitudes or actions.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v12i2.588

  1. Telling Your Partner You Have an STD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... you blame your partner for infidelity, keep in mind that some STDs don't always ... relationship without even knowing it. The most important thing ...

  2. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  4. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  5. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-02-25

    "Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes" is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community -academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  6. Germany's social market economy: A blueprint for Latin American countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sauerland, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    [Introduction ...] This paper tries to answer these questions taking five steps of argumentation. Firstly, the paper briefly sketches the theoretical and empirical background of the modern liberal market economy concept. Secondly, it outlines in more detail the basic ideas of the ordoliberal social market economy concept and some modern amendments to this concept based on institutional economics’ ideas. Thirdly, the paper compares the two concepts and it uses institutional data to describe tw...

  7. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  8. Oil and gas developments in some American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lajous, Adrian; Manso, Rogerio; Sandrea, Ivan; Honoré, Anouk

    2007-01-01

    Adrián Lajous assesses Canada, Mexico and Venezuela as suppliers of heavy crude oil to the USA; Rogerio Manso considers the search for a new agenda for energy policy in Brazil; Ivan R. Sandrea discusses hydrocarbon sector reforms in Colombia and its impact on undiscovered potential and Anouk Honoré asks whether Bolivia’s natural gas sector nationalisation was such a bad idea after all.

  9. The Impact of European Union’s Newly-Adopted Environmental Standards on its Trading Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Sorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption by the European Union of environmental and social standards seems to affect trade relations with countries from outside the Union. Most seriously hurt are a great number of developing countries that are highly dependent on the European market for their exports. Complying with the said regulations means higher production costs, which eat into the respective countries’ international competitiveness. However, for all the widespread discontent, many developing countries are taking steps in order to adjust their production and export systems to the new rules. Unfortunately it will probably take a long time until full compliance is achieved. Meanwhile, in the short run, the frequent clashes between developing countries and their partners in the West in respect of environmental and social issues are disrupting the smooth functioning of international trade.

  10. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    clusters, and the detection of organic and other molecules in space. The ALMA partners will construct the telescope at an altitude of 16,500 feet in the Atacama Desert in the Chilean Andes. This unique site is perhaps the best location on Earth to study millimeter and sub-millimeter light because these wavelengths are absorbed by moisture in the atmosphere. "Astronomers will have a pristine view of that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ALMA site," said Colwell. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The National Research Council of Canada will partner with the NSF in the North American endeavor. "The NRAO is very pleased to have the leading role in this project on behalf of the North American partners," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, director of the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. "ALMA will be one of astronomy's premier tools for studying the Universe," said Nobel Laureate Riccardo Giacconi, president of AUI. "The entire astronomical community is anxious to have the unprecedented power and resolution that ALMA will provide." The President of the ESO Council, Professor Piet van der Kruit, agrees: "ALMA heralds a breakthrough in sub-millimeter and millimeter astronomy, allowing some of the most penetrating studies of the Universe ever made. It is safe to predict that there will be exciting scientific surprises when ALMA enters into operation." By signing this agreement, ESO and the NSF give the green light for the joint construction of the ALMA telescope, which will cost approximately $552 million U.S. (in FY 2000 dollars). To oversee the construction and management of ALMA, a joint ALMA Board has been established by the partners. This board met for the first time on February 24

  11. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  12. The Determinants of Arab Countries Demand for Saudi Exports: Panel Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Aljebrin

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the critical parameters of export demand function for Saudi Arabia by using annual time series-cross section data (1984-2008) and by applying fixed effects model. The empirical results confirm that there exists a significant relationship among the real value of Saudi Arabia exports to Arab countries and trade partner's real income, relative export price, and trade partner's real exchange rates. The estimation results show that all variables have a significant ...

  13. Postpartum depression and the male partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Magistris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have shown that postpartum depression is a phenomenon that develops in a family, social and economic context capable of influencing its course. A predominant role in the onset of the pathology is played by the relationship of the couple, but up to now few studies have been carried out on the role of the partner of the depressed mother and on the interactions between the two partners, that is, on how maternal depression influences the behaviour of the male partner and is in turn influenced, and how the depression of both parents, and not only that of the mother, influences the neuropsychic development of the child and the interactions between the child and the outside world. Objectives: The objectives are to examine the literature to arrive at an understanding of how the father figure develops during the pregnancy and how postpartum depression impacts on the couple’s relationship and the care of the children by both partners. Materials and methods: This article presents a review of recent literature on the subject through a search for articles in Pubmed and Sciencedirect (keywords: men, postpartum depression, fathers, couple, prediction, detection, and by referring to classic texts in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy on the development of the parental figures. Conclusions: Although up to now the literature on the consequences of postpartum depression on the couple is scanty, the data collected allow us to affirm that it is not a problem that concerns only the mother, but one that has an impact on the entire family, on the child and the partner, triggering a chain reaction of maladjustment and distress that may lead to separation and destruction of the family unit with important repercussions on society as a whole.

  14. Country report Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    selection procedure. As regards the nuclear energy research in Germany, the 'Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology' with the main partners FZK, FZJ, FZR, GRS, and associated universities compiled a summary report on the status of nuclear safety research in the country. The mission of this Alliance is to increase the efficiency of existing R and D activities in the areas of nuclear safety and repository research, to preserve complementary competence at universities, and to support the Federal Government in fulfilling its legal duties. The Alliance established an industry funded project for PhD students in order to strengthen education in nuclear technology and to prevent a loss of competence. The two nuclear research centers Karlsruhe (FZK) and Juelich (FZJ) are members of the Helmholtz Association (HGF). The mission of the HGF is to perform and foster research in the field of natural sciences and medicine which is of national importance and public interest. The HGF is the largest science organisation in Germany, encompassing 15 centres with 24000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2.1 billion EUR. The HGF covers six research areas: health, energy, environment, structure of matter, transportation and space, and key technologies. Within the energy research area, there are four programmes: renewable energies, efficient conversion of energy, fusion technology, and nuclear safety research. The programme Nuclear Safety Research is divided into two programme topics (PT). The programme Nuclear Safety Research was evaluated in February 2003 by an international Evaluation Committee with the following main results: The proposed research programme is scientifically excellent and well embedded in international cooperations and programmes; The strategy and long-term perspectives in PT1 are limited according to the given research-political restrictions (no work using public funding on innovative reactor systems is permitted); The recruitment and education of young scientists

  15. France, an international partner in the climate change field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperation for low carbon and energy efficient development is a high priority for France, in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. France contributes to tackling climate change by working with its partners on all continents to implement projects both to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change. Within the framework of the Marrakech Accords, France also encourages the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, in particular between French business and non-Annex I countries; this mechanism will facilitate the financing of mitigation projects and contribute to the sustainable development of host countries in the South. At multilateral level, France is a major donor. At a bilateral level, an initial analysis of cooperation projects which are strongly linked to tackling climate change identified public support of 136 millions euros per year, as an average over the past few years. Some project examples, mostly implemented with local/national co-financing are presented. (A.L.B.)

  16. Evaluation of Georgian military co-operation with partner countries and institutions / George Manjgaladze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manjgaladze, George

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Gruusia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõudude ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh NATO-ga 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  17. The Other partner: The changing role of good provider for men's union formation in industrialized countries

    OpenAIRE

    Goldscheider, Frances; Hogan, Dennis; Turcotte, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    EnglishMost studies of union formation behaviors have focused on women and children,with less emphasis on men. Using comparable retrospective survey data, this study looks at the waysCanadian, Italian and Swedish men begin conjugal life (distinguishing between marriage andcohabitation) and at how the effects of their good provider status qualifications have changed in thelast 30 years. Results for Canadian men have shown that the simple patterns that have been assumed toshape separate and sym...

  18. ANALYSIS OF TENDENCIES IN AGRIBUSINESS NETWORKING COOPETITION IN POLAND AND IN THE PARTNER COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Waldemar BOJAR; Drelichowski, Ludosław

    2009-01-01

    In the paper following the case of Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland development tendencies of SME agri-food networking organizations in the light of coopetition were presented. Supporting development of those organizations using the EU funds is to ensure sustainable development of rural areas and it is attempted to defy domination of huge food processing and distributing corporations through integration and strengthening market power of agricultural producers. It ...

  19. Cooperation with Emerging Countries in Advanced Mining Training Programmes Involving an Industrial Partner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After about 20 years at a low level of activity the global uranium mining industry has been enjoying a significant expansion since about 2003. However, it is apparent that the “quiet” period has led to a shortage of new staff coming into the industry, many middle ranking and skilled professionals have moved to other industries and many of the remaining staff is fast approaching retirement. Many organizations are looking at ways to address this situation as quickly and effectively as possible, including governments, industry and the IAEA. This paper describes one training programme that has been developed, and is currently being implemented, as a joint venture between the uranium mining company AREVA NC and the Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources, which is located at the School of Mines in Ales, France. (author)

  20. Partner Country Series: Developing a Natural Gas Trading Hub in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The trading of natural gas in the Asia-Pacific region is dominated by long-term contracts in which the price of gas is indexed to that of oil. As the price of gas between Asia and other parts of the world has widened in recent years, observers have raised serious doubts about the sustainability of this pricing model. In this report, the IEA shows what it would take to create a functional, regional natural-gas trading hub in which prices reflect the local supply and demand fundamentals. The report aims to provide stakeholders with insights on the changes that are required in the Asia-Pacific natural gas sector - both downstream and upstream - to allow a competitive natural gas price to emerge. Building on OECD Europe and OECD America experiences, this report sets out to assess perspectives for these changes in the Asia-Pacific natural gas markets. It identifies obstacles and opportunities for a competitive natural gas price in the Asian economies to emerge.

  1. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  2. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  3. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext....... It highlights Ghanaian communal personality, gendered socialization and meaning systems of marriage as salient sociocultural features for conceptualizing partner dependency and emotional-related spousal violence.......While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the...... of dependency and attachment-related spousal violence as a form of a psychopathology. This article discusses partner dependency and jealousy-motivated spousal violence as socioculturally situated, dependent on contextual and relational conditions of meaning embedded in the communal society of Ghana...

  4. Ants use partner specific odors to learn to recognize a mutualistic partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru K Hojo

    Full Text Available Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants.

  5. China's Oil Ties with Developing Countries Further Strengthened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Petronas teams up with Chinese counterparts For Petroliam Nasional Bhd (Petronas),Malaysia's national petroleum corporation, China is a strategically important partner for growth as it expands into the country's energy market.Established in August 1974, Petronas is vested with all of Malaysia's oil and gas resources and is entrusted with the responsibility of developing and adding value to these resources. The company's foray into China began in the early 1990s in the upstream sector of the petroleum industry.

  6. Ants Use Partner Specific Odors to Learn to Recognize a Mutualistic Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Masaru K. Hojo; Ari Yamamoto; Toshiharu Akino; Kazuki Tsuji; Ryohei Yamaoka

    2014-01-01

    Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with f...

  7. Dominican Republic : Country Fiduciary Assessment, Volume 3, Country Procurement Assessment Report - Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has made significant strides in deepening democracy during the past decade including the implementation of an important electoral reform. This fiduciary assessment was prepared by the Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) as a tool for their coordinated policy dialogue on governance with the country, and as a key input for their respective assistance strategies. Consequently, the report also provides important contributions to both institutions' analytical ...

  8. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  9. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  10. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and cross-country comparisons. These comparative overviews cover: each main type of leave; total...... leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2016 review includes one new country: Korea. Altogether, it covers 39 countries......The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care...

  11. Skewness preference across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prospect theory implies that assets with positively skewed returns should be traded at premium to assets with negative skewness. We hypothesize that in the integrated financial markets this concept should also hold for the entire country equity portfolios. This article examines the linkages between the country-level expected returns and past skewness. We evidence a robust negative relationship between skewness and future returns. The phenomenon is most significant within large, liquid, developed, and open stock markets. Additional sorts on skewness can improve performance of both cross-country value and momentum strategies. The study is based on the sorting and cross-sectional tests conducted within a sample of 78 country equity markets for years 1999-2014.

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Rules about casual sex partners, relationship satisfaction, and HIV risk in partnered gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Starks, Tyrel J; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The authors used latent class analysis to investigate rules guiding nonmonogamy in partnered gay and bisexual men. Data are from a 2010 survey (N = 463) from which those in relationships (n = 191) were analyzed. More than half (56%) were nonmonogamous, and these men responded to 13 rules about sex outside of their relationship. The safe anonymous sex group (34%) included men who indicated that they must use condoms for anal sex and not have sex with people they know. The communication mandate group (19%) included men who indicated that they must talk about outside partners before sex occurs, disclose their relationship status to outside partners, and use condoms for anal sex. The play together group (9%) included men who indicated that they must play with others as a couple, not have anal sex with outside partners, and not spend the night with outside partners. Those in the no salient rule group (37%) were individuals who did not endorse a clear set of rules. These 4 groups (and compared with monogamous men) differed in age, agreement formality and flexibility, relationship satisfaction, and whether anal sex recently occurred with casual partners. This study provides a novel approach for understanding nonmonogamous same-sex relationships and highlights their complexity. PMID:23768194

  14. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid test...

  15. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-01-01

    According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropri...

  16. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  17. Uzbekistan Country Gender Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Uzbekistan celebrated 20 years of independence. The transition has not been smooth for any country in the Commonwealth of Independent States, and Uzbekistan, too, has experienced both positive and negative developments in gender equality. The status of women and men in Uzbekistan is very much shaped by the fact that the country has undergone significant and rapid change in recent years. Uzbekistan is still being transformed from a state-controlled, largely agricultural economy to a m...

  18. The developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambiguous definitions and groupings e.g. which countries are taken to be ''developing countries'' are first considered. Although the different definitions may suit a particular purpose it makes comparing statistical data almost impossible. Grouping by commercial energy typology is shown. Statistics on estimated world population growth by country and total world energy consumption (with percentage of electricity supplied by nuclear energy) are listed. Although diverse, the developing countries have broad common energy characteristics and consumption patterns which are discussed. Past, present and future prospects of nuclear power development are reviewed. A nuclear power capacity projection for 2000 is presented. The interest in small and medium sized power reactors (SMPR) from developing countries is considered. Available SMPRs are listed. The launching conditions of a nuclear power programme in developing countries is examined, with emphasis on the importance of having a nuclear energy programme integrated into an energy master plan. The introduction of nuclear power into Argentina and Brazil is reported. It is concluded that nuclear energy will gradually increase its share in the provision of energy. (U.K.)

  19. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  20. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  1. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    AH Herdy; F López-Jiménez; CP Terzic; Milani, M.; R Stein; T Carvalho; S. Serra; CG Araujo; PC Zeballos; CV Anchique; G Burdiat; González, K.; González, G.; R. Fernández; C Santibáñez

    2014-01-01

    In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR). In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopul...

  2. 76 FR 11929 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... the two hundred and thirty- fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-5029 Filed 3-2-11; 11:15 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8629 of February 28, 2011 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011 By the... immigrants built strong communities and helped forge our country's future. During Irish-American...

  3. 76 FR 68623 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8749 of November 1, 2011 National Native American Heritage Month, 2011 By the..., American Indians and Alaska Natives have contributed immensely to our country's heritage. During...

  4. METABOLIC SYNDROME RISK ACROSS WEIGHT STATUS IN MEXICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexican Americans experience some of the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in this country. With the rising rates of obesity in Mexican American children, these children are also at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, especially when diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. There is not, however, standard ...

  5. MAPSS, a Multi-Aspect Partner and Service Selection Method

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    In Service-Oriented Virtual Organization Breeding Environments (SOVOBEs), services performed by people, organizations and information systems are composed in potentially complex business processes performed by a set of partners. In a SOVOBE, the success of a virtual organization depends largely on the partner and service selection process, which determines the composition of services performed by the VO partners. In this paper requirements for a partner and service selection method for SOVOBEs are defined and a novel Multi-Aspect Partner and Service Selection method, MAPSS, is presented. The MAPSS method allows a VO planner to select appropriate services and partners based on their competences and their relations with other services/partners. The MAPSS method relies on a genetic algorithm to select the most appropriate set of partners and services.

  6. 76 FR 50715 - Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Agency for International Development Briefing on Partner Vetting System Pilot Program... briefing. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a briefing on the Partner Vetting System (PVS) pilot...

  7. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...

  8. Mrica Hydroelectric Project: a study in partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the contractual and financial aspects of the Mrica Project. Of particular interest is the high degree of cooperation that developed between the various parties, and the effect this had on the progress and completion of the project. This relationship had its origin in the need to make the best use of the relatively scarce funds available. It was vitally important that problems were solved jointly and that costs did not escalate as a result of confrontation between the parties. In this respect, the project was an early manifestation of the contractual relationship now called partnering, and the procedures adopted at Mrica are very similar to those now widely used in partnering contracts. The paper is therefore structured to identify and analyse the key elements of co-operation, and their impact on both the negotiation of the contracts and the completion of the works. (Author)

  9. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  10. Partner choice creates competitive altruism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Pat; Willer, Robb

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocal altruism has been the backbone of research on the evolution of altruistic behaviour towards non-kin, but recent research has begun to apply costly signalling theory to this problem. In addition to signalling resources or abilities, public generosity could function as a costly signal of cooperative intent, benefiting altruists in terms of (i) better access to cooperative relationships and (ii) greater cooperation within those relationships. When future interaction partners can choos...

  11. Supersymmetric partners of the truncated harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First and second order supersymmetric transformations are applied to the truncated harmonic oscillator to generate new Hamiltonians with known spectra. We also study the effect of these transformations on the eigenfunctions of the initial Hamiltonian. Finally the link between first and the second order supersymmetric partners of the truncated harmonic oscillator which possess third-order differential ladder operators with the Painlevé IV equation is used to obtain several solutions of this non-linear second-order differential equation.

  12. Technology acquisition: sourcing technology from industry partners

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Gallardo, Victor Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the conditions that influence technology acquisition when an industry partner is involved. The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge regarding the conditions that affect effective acquisition of technology by collaboration by identifying and describing the relationship between the following variables: key activities and influential factors. The results are drawn from the analysis of eleven case studies involving experiences from different industr...

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Bostic, Chiquita DaJuan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore womenâ s dual experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) to examine whether their motivations fit the current framework on four types of IPV in light of Johnsonâ s typology, which includes: violent resistance (VR), situational couple violence (SCV), mutual violent combat (MVC), and intimate terrorism (IT) (Kelly and Johnson 2008). I applied these types of IPV to describe womenâ s physical aggression, control, and emotional responses experienced ...

  14. Nurses Christian Fellowship International: Partners in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The Nurses Christian Fellowship International Quadrennial Conference was held November 5-10, 2012, in Santiago, Chile. The theme, "Partners in Care: Unity in diversity through Christ" brought together nurses from all over the world for Bible teaching, education, networking, and fellowship. Plenary and session abstracts are available as supplemental digital content through the HTML and PDF versions of this article at journalofchristiannursing.com. PMID:23607156

  15. International partner selection Indian technical textile market

    OpenAIRE

    Beunk, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Due to a combination of a vast agricultural industry and a tremendously growing technical textile industry, Ludvig Svensson identified India as target market for possible expansion through domestic production and supply. However, Svensson needed additional information about the industry structure and key players. Therefore, this project focused on a detailed analysis of the technical textile market and its players by following the international partner selection process. Thereb...

  16. Early childhood experiences of intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Paula Sismeiro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2013-01-01

    Research about intergenerational transmission of spouse abuse produced diverse results assigning different degrees of importance to parental abuse or to child witnessing of interparental violence as risk factors for future intimate partner violence. The present study analyses early experiences of abuse through childhood recollections of physical and emotional abuse and neglect and of witnessing interparental violence. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview specia...

  17. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bowie, Janice V.; Juon, Hee-Soon; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Cho, Juhee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Hispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, "Hispanic" is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. Methods To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans li...

  18. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  19. Intimate Partner Violence: Thailand Situation and Intervention Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Montakarn; Usaneya

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem issues in Thai society. The objectives of this study were: 1) To explore severed cases of Bangkok women who came to the hospital from physical, psychological and sexual violence by their partner 2) To understand circumstances of intimate partner violence and health consequences 3) To develop model intervention for reduction of intimate partner violence problem. This study deployed two research studies to collect data; Quantitati...

  20. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gregory A. K.; Kiers, E. Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888