Sample records for american communities yomba

  1. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Yomba Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M.; Rusco, E. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)


    This report was written by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office. This office oversees the nuclear waste activities for the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility for the state of Nevada. The Yomba Shoshone Reservation socio-economic profile was the basis of this paper. It describes the life and current status of the Shoshone Indians. Population, utilities, education and social services of the Shoshone are examples of the topics which are discussed. It is intended as base-line information only. It eventually summarizes and compares data from the public opinion of the Shoshone about the high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (MB)

  2. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)


    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  3. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)


    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  4. Acting Responsibly: Linguists in American Indian Communities. (United States)

    Bigler, Gregory; Linn, Mary S.


    Linguists working with endangered American Indian languages must realize that fieldwork is a cooperative venture, requiring that control be relinguished to the community. The relationship with the tribe must be negotiated, and linguists must return something concrete to the community in terms of language revival. Working in language teams that…

  5. A History of Learning Communities within American Higher Education (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi


    This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.

  6. At Risk of Prejudice: The Arab American Community. (United States)

    Seikaly, Zeina Azzam


    Focuses on the stereotypes associated with Arab Americans. States that these stereotypes must be abandoned to stop prejudice against their community. Provides background information on Arab Americans. Discusses the role that educators and counselors have in helping Arab American students deal with prejudice against them. Includes resources on…

  7. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany


    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  8. American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates for Coastal Geographies (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...

  9. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - American Community Survey (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes select data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey on the percent of adults who bike or walk to work. This data is used for...

  10. Curanderas and Brujas--Herbal Healing in Mexican American Communities. (United States)

    Toohey, Jack V.; Dezelsky, Thomas L.


    Health educators should strive to understand the origins and roles of curanderas (herbalists) and brujas (witches) in Mexican American culture and appreciate both the advantages and the related problems that these people bring to their patients and their communities. (CMJ)

  11. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College (United States)

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne


    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  12. Citizenship Reporting in the American Community Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Van Hook


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Citizenship status among the foreign born is a crucial indicator of social and political incorporation, yet there are good reasons to suspect that citizenship status is inaccurately reported on U.S. surveys. OBJECTIVE This paper updates research carried out in the mid-1990s by Passel and Clark (1997 on the extent to which foreign-born noncitizen respondents in U.S. government-sponsored surveys misreport as naturalized citizens. METHODS We compare demographic estimates of the resident naturalized foreign-born population in 2010, based on administrative data, to estimates from the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS. RESULTS Similar to previous research, we find that misreporting in the ACS is especially high among immigrants from all countries/regions who report fewer than five years in the United States. We also find that among longer-term foreign-born residents, misreporting is concentrated only among those originating in Mexico, especially men of all ages and older women, a finding that diverges from Passel and Clark in that we find no evidence of overreporting among immigrants from Central America and the Caribbean. Finally, the estimated magnitude of misreporting, especially among longer-term Mexican-born men, is sensitive to assumptions about the rate of emigration in our administrative-based demographic estimates, and assumptions about coverage error in the ACS, though altering these assumptions does not change the conclusions drawn from the general patterns of the results. CONCLUSIONS For applications that use citizenship as an indicator of legal status, we recommend that self-reported data on citizenship be accepted at face value for all groups except those with fewer than five years of U.S. residence, Mexican men, and older Mexican women.

  13. Searching for a Just Community: The American University. (United States)

    Devore, Wynetta


    The American university community, the context of social work education, has a clear goal of education but is also the workplace for a diverse group of students and faculty. Defines this community, discusses affirmative action and multicultural education, and suggests that social work educators can make unique contributions to the development of a…

  14. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis


    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  15. CoDE: Community Diabetes Education for uninsured Mexican Americans


    Culica, Dan; Walton, James W.; Prezio, Elizabeth A.


    Low-cost diabetes education programs that target Mexican Americans are essential to reduce the observed health disparities in this population. A culturally appropriate intervention was developed as the centerpiece of the Community Diabetes Education (CoDE) program. This article describes the structure, patient acceptance, and costs of this one-to-one educational model delivered in 7 patient contact hours by a community health worker over 12 months in a community clinic serving the uninsured. ...

  16. Creating an Instrument to Measure People's Perception of Community Capacity in American Indian Communities (United States)

    Oetzel, John; Wallerstein, Nina; Solimon, Audrey; Garcia, Bruce; Siemon, Mark; Adeky, Sarah; Apachito, Gracie; Caston, Elissa; Finster, Carolyn; Belone, Lorenda; Tafoya, Greg


    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of community capacity for American Indian communities. The study included development and testing phases to ensure face, content, construct, and predictive validity. There were 500 participants in two southwest tribes who completed a detailed community profile, which contained 21 common items in…

  17. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities. (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L


    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  18. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival (United States)

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla


    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  19. The Community College Presidency: An Asian Pacific American Perspective. (United States)

    Fujimoto, M. Jack


    Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…

  20. Community Violence Exposure of Southeast Asian American Adolescents (United States)

    Ho, Joyce


    Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events.…

  1. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun


    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  2. American Pluralism in Microcosm: The City of Santa Ana as Text. Exploring America's Communities. Progress Report. (United States)

    Rancho Santiago Community Coll., Santa Ana, CA.

    In 1996, California's Rancho Santiago College (RSC) participated in the American Association of Community Colleges' Exploring America's Communities project, which works to strengthen the teaching and learning of American history, literature, and culture at U.S. community colleges. To enhance instruction about American pluralism and identity, RSC's…

  3. Frog community responses to recent American bullfrog invasions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI; Zhunwei KE; Yihua WANG; Tim M. BLACKBURN


    Native species may decline quickly when confronted with an exotic species to which they are not adapted. The extent of decline may depend on the abundance of an invader and the length of time since it first arrived in the community (residence time), and the interaction between these two variables. We tested these effects using data on the effects of American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus invasion on native frog communities in 65 permanent lentic waters on islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. We examined variation in native frog abundance and species richness in relation to features of the American bullfrog invasion, habitat disturbance, characteristics of the water body and fish communities and the presence of red swamp crayfish.Bullfrog invaded sites had lower native frog density and species richness, higher submerged vegetation cover and greater frequency of repairs to the water body than did non-invaded sites. The minimum adequate general linear mixed models showed that both native frog density and species richness were negatively related to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density, and that native frog species richness was also positively related to the vegetation cover. There was no effect on either native frog density or species richness of residence time or its interaction with bullfrog density, or of the abundance of bullfrog tadpoles. The results suggested that post-metamorphosis bullfrogs had impacts on native frog communities in the islands, and that the extents of these impacts are proportional to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density.

  4. Mentoring in Native American Communities using STEM Concepts (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.


    In this paper we will present a concept for mentoring built on STEM principles, and applied to the Native American community in Chinle, AZ. Effective mentoring includes being sensitive, listening to, and advising mentees based upon a 'correct' appreciation not only of their needs but also of the desires of the community they come from. Our project is an outreach effort on the part of NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta mission. Our initial program design incorporated ambitious STEM materials developed by NASA/JPL for other communities that excite and engage future generations in geoscience careers, to be re-packaged and brought to the Navajo community in Chinle. We were cognizant of the communities' emphasis on the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Recognizing that one of the most important near-term problems in Native American communities across the country is preservation of aboriginal language, a first step in our program involved defining STEM vocabulary. Community participation was required to identify existing words, write a STEM thesaurus, and also define contemporary words (what we called 'NASA words') that have no equivalent in the native tongue. This step critically involved obtaining approval of new words from tribal Elders. Finally, our objective was to put this newly defined STEM vocabulary to work, helping the kids to learn STEM curriculum in their own language. The communities' response to our approach was guarded interest, an invitation to return for further work, and finally a request that we co-sponsor a Summer Science Academy that was not focused on the subjects of space exploration originally envisioned by the project. Thus a first lesson learned was that ambitious material might not be the first step to a sustained educational program on the reservation. Understanding the end-users' environment, requirements and constraints is a major component to sustainability. After several months of

  5. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities (United States)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael


    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  6. Frog community responses to recent American bullfrog invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming LI, Zhunwei KE, Yihua WANG, Tim M. BLACKBURN


    Full Text Available Native species may decline quickly when confronted with an exotic species to which they are not adapted. The extent of decline may depend on the abundance of an invader and the length of time since it first arrived in the community (residence time, and the interaction between these two variables. We tested these effects using data on the effects of American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus invasion on native frog communities in 65 permanent lentic waters on islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. We examined variation in native frog abundance and species richness in relation to features of the American bullfrog invasion, habitat disturbance, characteristics of the water body and fish communities and the presence of red swamp crayfish. Bullfrog invaded sites had lower native frog density and species richness, higher submerged vegetation cover and greater frequency of repairs to the water body than did non-invaded sites. The minimum adequate general linear mixed models showed that both native frog density and species richness were negatively related to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density, and that native frog species richness was also positively related to the vegetation cover. There was no effect on either native frog density or species richness of residence time or its interaction with bullfrog density, or of the abundance of bullfrog tadpoles. The results suggested that post-metamorphosis bullfrogs had impacts on native frog communities in the islands, and that the extents of these impacts are proportional to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density [Current Zoology 57 (1: 83–92, 2011].

  7. Culture in Asian American community psychology: beyond the East-West binary. (United States)

    Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne


    In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.

  8. The Japanese-American Internment: Perceptions of Moral Community, Fairness, and Redress. (United States)

    Nagata, Donna K.


    Discusses the moral exclusion of American citizens of Japanese descent during World War II. Compares perceptions of moral community, fairness, and redress for three groups. Contrasts the views of Caucasian Americans; the Nisei, interned American citizens; and the Sansei, children of Nisei born after World War II. (JS)

  9. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College (United States)

    Romney, Paulette B.


    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  10. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby


    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…

  11. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby


    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…

  12. Culturally Tailored Smoking Cessation for Arab American Male Smokers in Community Settings: A Pilot Study


    Haddad, Linda; Corcoran, Jacqueline


    Tobacco use is a serious public health problem among Arab Americans with limited English proficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop a culturally-tailored and linguistically-sensitive Arabic-language smoking cessation program. A secondary goal was to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting Arab Americans through a faith-based community organization which serves as a neighborhood social center for the city of Richmond’s Arab Americans. Eight first-generation Arab American men aged 2...

  13. Using Community Advisory Boards to Reduce Environmental Barriers to Health in American Indian Communities, Wisconsin, 2007–2012


    Adams, Alexandra K.; Scott, Jamie R.; Prince, Ron; Williamson, Amy


    Background American Indian communities have a high prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Innovative community-based approaches are needed to identify, prioritize, and create sustainable interventions to reduce environmental barriers to healthy lifestyles and ultimately improve health. Community Context Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based and community-based intervention to increase healthy lifestyles on Wisconsin Ameri...

  14. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community. (United States)

    Miller, Shannon J


    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  15. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.


    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  16. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Bush


    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  17. Political Behavior and Candidate Emergence in the Hmong-American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Doherty


    Full Text Available This research focuses on the major social, cultural and political factors that have shaped Hmong-American political behavior in the United States and also more specifically on the issue of Hmong-American candidates who have run for electoral office. Electoral turnout and the partisan direction of Hmong-American voters will receive some general examination. Special attention is also given to the unusually rapid emergence of candidates for electoral office from the Hmong-American community in the Upper Midwest, and the specific motivations and strategies of Hmong-American electoral candidates.

  18. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2012 (American Community Survey 2008-2012 Derived Summary Tables) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  19. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2010 (American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  20. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal


    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  1. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.


    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  2. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta


    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  3. Between Polish Positivism and American Capitalism: The Educational Agents' Experiment in the Polish-American Community, 1889-1914 (United States)

    Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.


    "Ameryka-Echo" was one of the most popular Polish-language weeklies, published in the United States between 1889 and 1972. Its founder and owner, Antoni A. Paryski, consciously sought to transplant ideas of Polish Positivism to the Polish-American immigrant communities in the United States. Reading was a central concept of…

  4. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)


    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  5. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community (United States)

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie


    Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794

  6. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon


    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  7. Asian American Youth Language Use: Perspectives across Schools and Communities (United States)

    Shankar, Shalini


    Recent studies of Asian American youth language practices have presented compelling insights about the identities and migration experiences of young people of Asian descent. This article offers a detailed examination of the relationship between language use and select issues concerning Asian American youth, including social life, schooling,…

  8. Native American Community Academy: The Power of Embracing Culture (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2013


    The value that Native American nations place on deliberative experiential learning and oral reflection often is opposed to traditional practices in US schools. The inherent differences between those cultural approaches to learning have contributed to the large achievement gap between Native American schools and traditional public schools. In 2006…

  9. Usefulness of a Survey on Underage Drinking in a Rural American Indian Community Health Clinic (United States)

    Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.


    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…

  10. Attitudes of Mexican American and Anglo American Parents towards Public Education in a Rural Community. (United States)

    Birch, Troy C.; Ferrin, Scott Ellis


    A study investigated attitudes and participation of 40 Mexican American and Anglo-American parents in a rural Utah elementary school. Influenced by differing culture, religion, educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and background, the two groups had different attitudes toward and participation in the public school system and thus different…

  11. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Quaisi Audi


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  12. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty;


    To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...

  13. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.


    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

  14. Reflections on Linguistic Fieldwork in Two Native American Communities. (United States)

    Davidson, Jill


    Culturally appropriate means of conducting language research among American Indians is critical for maintaining cooperation and for increasing the depth of data collected. The apprentice-elder and fictive kinship models used in research with two Siouan-speaking tribes are discussed, as well as their practical applications, the importance of…

  15. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  16. 77 FR 53780 - Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services (United States)


    ... Minority Business Development Agency 15 CFR Part 1400 Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community... a petition from the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee requesting formal designation from... comments regarding a petition received on January 11, 2012 from the American-Arab...

  17. 77 FR 34883 - Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services (United States)


    ... Minority Business Development Agency 15 CFR Part 1400 Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community... comments regarding a petition received on January 11, 2012 from the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) requesting formal designation of Arab-Americans as a minority group that is socially...

  18. 77 FR 46346 - Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services (United States)


    ... Minority Business Development Agency 15 CFR Part 1400 Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community... a petition from the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee requesting formal designation from... comments regarding a petition received on January 11, 2012 from the American-Arab...

  19. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi. (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B


    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.

  20. Outsourcing Student Housing in American Community Colleges: Problems and Prospects (United States)

    Bekurs, Gray


    Today's community colleges are experiencing tremendous growth at a time when higher education is experiencing little success in the fierce battle for public funding. Administrators believe that providing housing on college campuses increases enrollment and improves access, but they are having difficulty meeting students' demands for both quantity…

  1. The American Nursing Shortage: Implications for Community Colleges (United States)

    Friedel, Janice Nahra


    This article examines national employment and program trends in the nursing profession, the nursing shortage in Iowa, and state policy and community college responses in Iowa. During the seven-year period 2001-2008, two Iowa governors convened special task forces to study the nursing shortage and to make recommendations. The policy responses dealt…

  2. Training for Trade: Role of American Community Colleges. (United States)

    Wismer, Jack N.

    Today, global competition affects almost every business or industry, often triggering corporate restructuring, downsizing, focus on continuous quality improvement, heightened efforts to globalize companies and increase exports. To meet the competitive challenges of a global economy, community colleges can better serve business and industry by…

  3. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women. (United States)

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols


    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  4. The Link Between Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer: The Asian American Community (United States)

    Dr. Moon Chen, Professor of the Department of Internal Medicine and Associate Director of Cancer Control at the University of California-Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, speaks about Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer as a more prevalent problem in the Asian American community.

  5. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II. (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  6. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.


    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  7. Community engagement: an essential component of well-being in older African-American adults. (United States)

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A


    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or "participation" mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit.

  8. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete


    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  9. Culturally Appropriate Environmental Education: An Example of a Partnership with the Hmong American Community (United States)

    Bengston, David N.; Schermann, Michele A.; Hawj, Foung; Moua, MaiKia


    A partnership with the Hmong American community produced "The Wildlife and Wilderness Exploration Show," a DVD that puts a modern twist on traditional Hmong storytelling. Key educational messages in the DVD were identified through interviews with Hmong natural resource professionals. The messages are delivered in entertaining segments in the DVD,…

  10. African-American Children and the Case for Community: Eleanora Tate's South Carolina Trilogy. (United States)

    Knuth, Carole Brown


    Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)

  11. Complicating College Students' Conception of the American Dream through Community Service Learning (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.; Gillmor, Susan C.; Rabinowicz, Samantha A.


    This study considered the impact of the SERVE Program upon participating college students' belief in the American Dream. The SERVE Program is a community service learning program sponsored by the philosophy and theology departments at Ignatius University. Using a mixed methods approach, the authors found that participating students demonstrated…

  12. Unlikely Alliances: Treaty Conflicts and Environmental Cooperation between Native American and Rural White Communities (United States)

    Grossman, Zoltan


    Beginning in the 1970s, members of Native and rural white communities unexpectedly came together to protect the same natural resources from a perceived outside threat. Environmental alliances began to bring together Native Americans and rural white resource users in areas of the country where no one would have predicted or even imagined them. In…

  13. American astronomy. Community, careers, and power, 1859 - 1940. (United States)

    Lankford, J.

    In this collective biography of the more than 1,200 individuals who engaged in astronomical research, teaching, or practice in the United States between 1859 and 1940, the author paints a detailed portrait of this scientific community. Focusing on a period that saw fundamental changes in the nature and content of astronomy, including the rise of astrophysics, he has compiled remarkable data, such as the number of people with and without doctorates, the number who taught in colleges or universities versus those involved in industrial or government work, and the number of women versus men. He also addresses the crucial question of power within the community - what it meant, which astronomers had it, and what they did with it. Drawing on more than a decade of archival research and quantitative analysis, the author presents his data in concise tables and figures yet takes care, through biographical sketches, to focus on the human beings the data represent. This dual approach convincingly illustrates how the changing structure of a scientific community can alter both the career trajectories of its members and the nature of the scientific research they choose to pursue.

  14. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agumanu McOliver


    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  15. Fear factors: cross validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults. (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Vines, Lauren; Petrie, Jenny


    The current study attempted a cross-validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults based on a previous model of phobia domains in a college student sample of African Americans. Subjects were 100 African American community-dwelling adults who completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II). Domains of fear were created using a similar procedure as the original, college sample of African American adults. A model including all of the phobia domains from the FSS-II was initially tested and resulted in poor model fit. Cross-validation was subsequently attempted through examining the original factor pattern of specific phobia domains from the college sample (Chapman, Kertz, Zurlage, & Woodruff-Borden, 2008). Data from the current, community based sample of African American adults provided poor fit to this model. The trimmed model for the current sample included the animal and social anxiety factors as in the original model. The natural environment-type specific phobia factor did not provide adequate fit for the community-based sample of African Americans. Results indicated that although different factor loading patterns of fear may exist among community-based African Americans as compared to African American college students, both animal and social fears are nearly identical in both groups, indicating a possible cultural homogeneity for phobias in African Americans. Potential explanations of these findings and future directions are discussed.

  16. Hmong Americans: A Review of Felt Needs, Problems, and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou Yang


    Full Text Available This paper is intended to broadly explore both the achievements and needs and problems of the diverse Hmong American community across the United States, with a particular emphasis on felt needs and problems. Felt needs and problems are defined as needs and problems ”perceived by individuals experiencing the problem, may be equated with want and are phenomenological in character” (Cox, Erlich, Rothman & Tropman, 1984, p. 9. Taken from this perspective, among the problems and needs discussed in this paper are those that were identified by key informants or members of the Hmong American community, who live in the community and are well informed of the acute issues experienced by their fellow co-ethnics.Felt needs and problems, in addition to other needs, are very important issues for Hmong community gatekeepers, social workers and service providers to know and understand, in order to effectively work with a particular community (Cox, et al. 1984. The phenomena identified in this exploratory paper are intended to provide a departure point for researchers undertaking future relevant studies of social issues important to the Hmong community.

  17. African American Perspectives and Experiences of Domestic Violence in a Rural Community. (United States)

    Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M


    Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women (n = 28) and men (n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.

  18. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in Korean American community newspapers. (United States)

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi


    This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management.

  19. Legacy of Leadership: Profiles of the Presidents of the American Association of Community Colleges, 1958-2010 (United States)

    Luskin, Bernard J., Ed.


    More than 50 years ago, two men on a train made a stop at W.K. Kellogg Foundation, to share their vision for community colleges. Thus began a partnership that has advanced the community college mission by supporting the visionary leaders at the helm of American Association of Community Colleges from 1958 to 2010. In April 2011, W.K. Kellogg and…

  20. Diversity of Eastern North American ant communities along environmental gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Del Toro

    Full Text Available Studies of species diversity patterns across regional environmental gradients seldom consider the impact of habitat type on within-site (alpha and between-site (beta diversity. This study is designed to identify the influence of habitat type across geographic and environmental space, on local patterns of species richness and regional turnover patterns of ant diversity in the northeastern United States. Specifically, I aim to 1 compare local species richness in paired open and forested transects and identify the environmental variables that best correlate with richness; and 2 document patterns of beta diversity throughout the region in both open and forested habitat. I systematically sampled ants at 67 sites from May to August 2010, spanning 10 degrees of latitude, and 1000 meters of elevation. Patterns of alpha and beta diversity across the region and along environmental gradients differed between forested and open habitats. Local species richness was higher in the low elevation and warmest sites and was always higher in open habitat than in forest habitat transects. Richness decreased as temperature decreased or elevation increased. Forested transects show strong patterns of decreasing dissimilarity in species composition between sites along the temperature gradient but open habitat transects did not. Maximum temperature of the warmest month better predicted species richness than either latitude or elevation. I find that using environmental variables as key predictors of richness yields more biologically relevant results, and produces simpler macroecological models than commonly used models which use only latitude and elevation as predictors of richness and diversity patterns. This study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms that structure the communities of important terrestrial arthropods which are likely to be influenced by climatic change.

  1. Social integration of Latin-American immigrants in Spain: the influence of the community context. (United States)

    Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan


    The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society.

  2. Partner violence and major depression in women: a community study of Chinese Americans. (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Li, Zhonghe


    This cross-sectional, retrospective study used epidemiological and anthropological methods toward two aims: 1) to examine associations between partner violence and major depression in a community probability sample of women and 2) to provide new data on partner violence in Chinese Americans. In this study, 181 Chinese American women were interviewed, with 178 completing structured sections on CIDI 2.1 major depression and on partner violence history. Results indicate that a history of partner violence is associated with significantly higher rates of lifetime, 12-month, and current major depression in this community population. This effect is specific and independent of other factors. Partner violence also has a dose-response relationship with the severity of major depression episodes, increasing risk for severe and moderate episodes. The strength and specificity of this association, its dose-response effect, and its commonality across different populations suggest a possible causal role for partner violence needing further investigation in research on major depression in women.

  3. Theaters of time and space: The American planetarium community, 1930-1970 (United States)

    Marche, Jordan Dale, II

    American astronomy education was transformed by the introduction of a remarkable teaching tool---the projection planetarium. Conceived at the Carl Zeiss firm of Jena, Germany, the first prototype was exhibited at the Deutsches Museum, Munich, in 1923. Between 1930 and 1970, more than 700 planetaria were completed or remained under construction in the Unite States, Canada, and Mexico. Members of the American planetarium community united to form the first continent-wide professional association and to launch its quarterly journal, signifying that disciplinary maturity had been achieved. Social developments in the American planetarium community are examined in light of three principal issues (along with the role of gender): patronage, professionalization, and popularization. The analytical narrative is supplemented by quantitative analysis of North American planetaria and their personnel. Utilizing methods employed in collective biography, the Appendix contains further assessments derived from five professional traits of the community's 919 known planetarium directors. On the basis of technological developments and the changing nature of patronage, three distinct periods of historical development are recognized. In the formative stage (1930--1946), the community was dominated by Zeiss-equipped facilities installed at five metropolitan cities. During the second period (1947--1957), inexpensive pinhole-style projectors, marketed by Philadelphia entrepreneur Armand N. Spitz, revolutionized the availability of 'artificial skies'. In response to the "crisis of confidence" triggered by Sputnik's launch, a third developmental period (1958--1970) ensued. The necessity of offering a space science education to rapidly growing numbers of young people justified the construction of hundreds of new planetaria through the 1960s. Originally created for teaching the confirmation of scientific theories, planetaria became important tools for researching other biological and educational

  4. The Digital Barbershop: Blogs and Online Oral Culture Within the African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Knight Steele


    Full Text Available For African Americans, the legacy of oral communication within the community is being transferred to online spaces. Blogging provides a platform with features that mirror many of the components of the Black barbershop. The barber and beauty shop symbolize a space of retreat, wherein African Americans have formed alternate publics used to critique the dominant culture, foster resistance, and strengthen African American institutions. Analysis of nine African American–authored blogs using a method of critical technocultural discourse analysis demonstrates that each blog used traditional Black rhetorical strategies while making modifications to contemporary goals. The strategies involve modifications made to traditional Black humor and folktales. The writing style is highly performative, yet relies upon participant interaction. This reliance on orality is a necessary force in the maintenance of cultural traditions that have long worked to assist in group definition and acts of resistance in political power struggles. By utilizing modified song, narrative, and fables to articulate resistance and craft African American identity, African American online oral culture persists as a strategy to house political discourse within the often hidden enclave spaces of the digital barbershop.

  5. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion (United States)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  6. 77 FR 72254 - Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services (United States)


    ... Minority Business Development Agency 15 CFR Part 1400 Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community... petition from the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee requesting formal designation as a group... rulemaking and request for comments regarding a petition received on January 11, 2012 from the...

  7. The Effect of Education plus Access on Perceived Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Rural African American Community Intervention (United States)

    Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.


    African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…

  8. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starla Hairston Blanks


    Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.

  9. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning. (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E


    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems.

  10. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities. (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica


    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population.

  11. Descriptive analysis of individual and community factors among African American youths in urban public housing. (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer


    African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  12. The Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community (United States)

    Alexander, Claudia J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N. A.


    In this talk we will present a concept for building on Native American languages and incorporating STEM concepts. Recently, a student from the Navajo Dine community took it upon himself to define 28 "NASA" terms in the Navajo language. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. We hope to add to this word list with geology and astronomy (comet-related) terms, just as we will in Rosetta public engagement for English-speakers. The U.S. Rosetta project will host these words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map will allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. The initiative will be expanded into other Native communities such as Hawaiian with the objective of drawing Native American students to the marvelous images, and other data, returned from NASA space missions. Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. One of the most important near-term problems is the preservation of Native American language. In some communities, small numbers of native speakers remain. The retention of language, and need to make it relevant to the technological age, represents a large and urgent challenge. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. STEM language elements in Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe can be found at the U.S. Rosetta website: Work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, was supported by NASA. The Rosetta mission is a cooperative project of NASA and the European Space Agency.

  13. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults. (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson


    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  14. The American Association of Variable Star Observers: Serving the Research Community in 2010 and Beyond (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Henden, A. A.; Davis, K.; Kinne, R.; Watson, C.; Saladyga, M.; Waagen, E.; Beck, S.; Menali, G.; Price, A.; Turner, R.


    The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) holds the largest single online database of variable star data in the world, collected from thousands of amateur and professional observers during the past century. One of our core missions is to preserve and distribute these data to the research community in service to the science of variable star astronomy. But as an organization, the AAVSO is much more than a data archive. Our services to the research community include: monitoring for and announcement of major astronomical events like novae and supernovae; organization and management of observing campaigns; support for satellite and other TOO observing programs by the professional community; creation of comparison star sequences and generation of charts for the observer community; and observational and other support for the amateur, professional, and educator communities in all things related to variable stars. As we begin a new century of variable star astronomy we invite you to take advantage of the services the AAVSO can provide, and to become a part of our organization yourselves. In this poster, we highlight some of the most important services the AAVSO can provide to the professional research community, as well as suggest ways in which your research may be enhanced with support from the AAVSO.

  15. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.


    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations.

  16. The ethnographically contextualized case study method: exploring ambitious achievement in an American Indian community. (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P; Alcántara, Carmela


    This article demonstrates the empirical viability of the Ethnographically Contextualized Case Study Method (ECCSM) for investigating interrelationships between cultural and psychological processes. By juxtaposing two relevant forms of data--original interview material from a single respondent and existing ethnographic evidence--the inherent idiographic limitations of the case study approach for pursuing the psychological study of culture might be transcended. Adoption of the ECCSM for the exploration of cultural ideals among an elderly Native American respondent revealed both the personal and cultural significance of ambitious achievement within this tribal community, calling into question the conventional wisdom within multicultural psychology that Native Americans are culturally disposed to passive, submissive and noncompetitive psychological orientations. This application of the proposed methodology demonstrates how important empirical insights may be obtained in unusually efficient and nuanced ways at the confluence of culture and psychology.

  17. End of Life in a Haitian American, Faith-Based Community: Caring for Family and Communal Unity. (United States)

    Ladd, Susan Charlotte; Gordon, Shirley C

    This article presents two models resulting from a grounded theory study of the end-of-life decision-making process for Haitian Americans. Successful access to this vulnerable population was achieved through the faith-based community. The first model describes this faith-based community of Haitian Americans. The second model describes the process used by families in this community who must make end-of-life healthcare decisions. Implications for nursing practice and caring science include a need to improve the congruence between the nursing care provided at this vulnerable time and the cultural values of a population.

  18. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda. (United States)

    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G


    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations.

  19. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement? (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J


    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.

  20. Working with the American Community Survey in R a guide to using the acs package

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Ezra Haber


    This book serves as a hands-on guide to the "acs" R package for demographers, planners, and other researchers who work with American Community Survey (ACS) data. It gathers the most common problems associated with using ACS data and implements functions as a package in the R statistical programming language. The package defines a new "acs" class object (containing estimates, standard errors, and metadata for tables from the ACS) with methods to deal appropriately with common tasks (e.g., creating and combining subgroups or geographies, automatic fetching of data via the Census API, mathematical operations on estimates, tests of significance, plots of confidence intervals).

  1. Community perceptions of safety in relation to perceived youth violence-delinquency in a primarily native Hawaiian and Asian American community in Hawai'i. (United States)

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Soli, Faapisa M


    Perception of safety is an important component to the well-being of community members in their own neighborhood. The present study was the first of its kind to model community perception of safety utilizing a primarily Native Hawaiian and Asian American community sample (N = 101) and with perceived youth violence and delinquency as prominent potential influences. The study found that the majority of participants felt that several types of youth violence and delinquency were problems in the community. The overall social-ecological model evidenced a strong fit and indicated that community perception of safety was adversely impacted by perceived youth violence and delinquency and increased through positive relations with neighbors. The implications included the need for a more comprehensive approach to positive youth development and community capacity-building, including incorporation of cultural components, and to determine whether the model is applicable to other minority communities.

  2. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.


    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  3. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans. (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A


    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.

  4. Telemedicine Use in Rural Native American Communities in the Era of the ACA: a Systematic Literature Review. (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Bouffard, Shelby; Dougherty, Michael; Parro, Jenna Stewart


    Native American communities face serious health disparities and, living in rural areas, often lack regular access to healthcare services as compared to other Americans. Since the early 1970's, telecommunication technology has been explored as a means to address the cost and quality of, as well as access to, healthcare on rural reservations. This systematic review seeks to explore the use of telemedicine in rural Native American communities using the framework of cost, quality, and access as promulgated by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and urge additional legislation to increase its use in this vulnerable population. As a systematic literature review, this study analyzes 15 peer-reviewed articles from four databases using the themes of cost, quality, and access. The theme of access was referenced most frequently in the reviewed literature, indicating that access to healthcare may be the biggest obstacle facing widespread adoption of telemedicine programs on rural Native American reservations. The use of telemedicine mitigates the costs of healthcare, which impede access to high-quality care delivery and, in some cases, deters prospective patients from accessing healthcare at all. Telemedicine offers rural Native American communities a means of accessing healthcare without incurring high costs. With attention to reimbursement policies, educational services, technological infrastructure, and culturally competent care, telemedicine has the potential to decrease costs, increase quality, and increase access to healthcare for rural Native American patients. While challenges facing the implementation of telemedicine programs exist, there is great potential for it to improve healthcare delivery in rural Native American communities. Public policy that increases funding for programs that help to expand access to healthcare for Native Americans will improve outcomes because of the increase in access.

  5. Father participation in a community-doula home-visiting intervention with young, African American mothers. (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew J; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Korfmacher, Jon; Humphries, Marisha L; Bellamy, Jennifer; Henson, Linda; Hans, Sydney


    This article examines the extent and nature of father participation in a perinatal, community-based doula home-visiting intervention that served young, African American mothers from low-income backgrounds and their infants. Home-visitor service records were used to assess the quantity, setting, and content of father-attended visits. Correlates of fathers' participation and thematic insights from mothers' and home-visitors' perspectives on how fathers perceived and interacted with the home-visiting program were analyzed to further characterize the nature of father participation. Although the community-doula home-visiting model does not include special outreach to increase father participation, almost half of the mothers had a doula visit at which their baby's father was present, many of which took place in medical settings. Mothers and doulas reported that fathers were generally positive about the doula, but expressed that fathers viewed the doula as a substitute provider of support that fathers seemed reticent to provide themselves. These results suggest that community doulas who visit pre- and postpartum in multiple settings have unique opportunities to have contact with fathers that traditional home visitors or early childhood specialists may not have.

  6. Advancing understanding of the sustainability of lay health advisor (LHA) programs for African-American women in community settings. (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O


    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.

  7. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease. (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y


    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required.

  8. Cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans in the online community. (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook


    Korean Americans tend to have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all US population. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. However, there is little known about their cancer information seeking behaviors and needs. The purpose of the study was to understand cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from MissyUSA, which is one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 393 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed; 120 were deleted because the messages were not related to cancer health information. A total of 273 posted free-texts were analyzed for this study, using an open source text-mining software program called AntConc 3.2.4. The extracted terms were categorized based on coding systems, after linguistic variations were handled. Terms such as "surgery," "breast cancer," "examination," "cancer" (unspecified), "Korea," and "pain" were most frequently identified. Medical topics accounted for 71.4 % of the main topics of the postings. Treatment was the most frequently discussed in the medical topics while in the non-medical category, the most frequently discussed topic was recommendations for hospitals or doctors. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern, followed by cervical and liver cancer. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their cancer information seeking trends and information needs.

  9. Examining Enabling Conditions for Community-Based Fisheries Comanagement: Comparing Efforts in Hawai'i and American Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle S. Levine


    Full Text Available Much attention in global fisheries management has been directed toward increasing the involvement of local communities in managing marine resources. Although community-based fisheries comanagement has the potential to address resource conservation and societal needs, the success of these programs is by no means guaranteed, and many comanagement regimes have struggled. Although promising in theory, comanagement programs meet a variety of political, social, economic, ecological, and logistical challenges upon implementation. We have provided an analysis of two community-based fisheries comanagement initiatives: Hawai'i's Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA legislation and American Samoa's Community-Based Fisheries Management Program (CFMP. Although Hawai'i's initiative has struggled with only two CBSFAs designated, neither of which has an approved management plan, American Samoa's program has successfully established a functioning network of 12 villages. We have explored the factors contributing to the divergent outcomes of these initiatives, including cultural and ethnic diversity, the intactness of traditional tenure systems and community organizing structures, local leadership, and government support. Differences in program design, including processes for program implementation and community involvement, supportive government institutions, adequate enforcement, and adaptive capacity, have also played important roles in the implementation of comanagement regimes on the two island groups. The different outcomes manifested in these case studies provide insight regarding the conditions necessary to enable successful community-based comanagement, particularly within U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions.

  10. In the Service of Older Americans: A Survey of the Activities of Michigan Community Colleges in the Field of Aging. (United States)

    Demko, David J.

    A survey of the 29 Michigan community colleges was conducted in regard to the services each provided to older Americans. The survey data indicated that two fundamental strategies exist for serving the older population: an integrated effort whereby the objective is the inclusion of older adults in existing services; or specific programmatic efforts…

  11. Connecting the Dots for Youth Development in American Indian Communities: A Story of the Reach for the Sky Project (United States)

    Carlson, Stephan; Hardman, Alisha M.; Marczak, Mary S.


    This second article in "JAIE'"s new "Reports from the Field" section1 explores a culturally based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program at a northern Minnesota Bureau of Indian Education high school. Engaging American Indian youth from disenfranchised communities in STEM programs has been challenging.…

  12. Incorporating Traditional Healing into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.


    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…

  13. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina


    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  14. Parental education and text messaging reminders as effective community based tools to increase HPV vaccination rates among Mexican American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Aragones


    Conclusions: Parental text messaging plus education, implemented in a community based setting, was strongly associated with vaccine completion rates among vaccine-eligible Mexican American children. Although pilot in nature, the study achieved an 88% series completion rate in the children of those who received the text messages, significantly higher than current vaccination levels.

  15. Interests diffusion on a semantic multiplex. Comparing Computer Science and American Physical Society communities (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; De Nicola, Antonio


    Exploiting the information about members of a Social Network (SN) represents one of the most attractive and dwelling subjects for both academic and applied scientists. The community of Complexity Science and especially those researchers working on multiplex social systems are devoting increasing efforts to outline general laws, models, and theories, to the purpose of predicting emergent phenomena in SN's (e.g. success of a product). On the other side the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services tailored to specific people needs. This implies defining constructs, models and methods for handling the semantic layer of SNs. We combined models and techniques from both the former fields to provide a hybrid approach to understand a basic (yet complex) phenomenon: the propagation of individual interests along the social networks. Since information may move along different social networks, one should take into account a multiplex structure. Therefore we introduced the notion of "Semantic Multiplex". In this paper we analyse two different semantic social networks represented by authors publishing in the Computer Science and those in the American Physical Society Journals. The comparison allows to outline common and specific features.

  16. [Special Issue on SEA Demographics] Response - Language Policy: Using the American Community Survey to Investigate Bilingualism and Biliteracy among Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Klerk


    Full Text Available This article is a response to Mark Pfeifers Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Community Survey and elaborates on the utility of the American Community Survey (ACS for studying immigrant groups in the United States of America, and also compares the ACS to the U.S. Census. Neither the Census nor ACS questionnaire is structured to capture the language and literacy skills of immigrant communities in as far as these surveys only collect information about respondents oral language abilities, with a focus on English fluency. Direct, self-reported, and surrogate measures of literacy are discussed, with a proposal to use education level as surrogate for literacy. Using the Vietnamese subpopulation in the ACS, examples are presented of ways to construct composite variables from the ACS raw microdata, to measure respondents bilingualism and biliteracy. When such new variables are used in analysis of immigrant communities, a more complex multilingual picture emerges than is presented normally in Census and ACS data products available to the public.

  17. [Special Issue on SEA Demographics] Response - Language Policy: Using the American Community Survey to Investigate Bilingualism and Biliteracy among Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Klerk


    Full Text Available This article is a response to Mark Pfeifer’s Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Community Survey and elaborates on the utility of the American Community Survey (ACS for studying immigrant groups in the United States of America, and also compares the ACS to the U.S. Census. Neither the Census nor ACS questionnaire is structured to capture the language and literacy skills of immigrant communities in as far as these surveys only collect information about respondents’ oral language abilities, with a focus on English fluency. Direct, self-reported, and surrogate measures of literacy are discussed, with a proposal to use education level as surrogate for literacy. Using the Vietnamese subpopulation in the ACS, examples are presented of ways to construct composite variables from the ACS raw microdata, to measure respondents’ bilingualism and biliteracy. When such new variables are used in analysis of immigrant communities, a more complex multilingual picture emerges than is presented normally in Census and ACS data products available to the public.

  18. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.


    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  19. Gated communities in Latin American cities Barrios cerrados en ciudades latinoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Demajo Meseguer


    Full Text Available Urban space in many Latin American cities is proliferating these last decades in a gated community form, being defined as enclosed housing developments, with controlled access and security devices. The search for security, the contact with nature and exclusivity are some common features of these urbanizations. These features are usually presented by advertising agencies as vital needs for this modern society. Development of gated communities entails consequences associated with urban space fragmentation, privatization of public space, social segregation and lack of a community belonging sense; hence the need to question these types of developments and to intervene to modify them. Interventions, both aimed to redirect the emerging urban model and to carry out specific actions in the already existing gated communities, should bet on following traditional neighborhood models. This article pretends to analyze the gated communities’ phenomenon occurring in Latin America, detecting it consequences and proposing possible intervention measures.

    El espacio urbano de algunas ciudades latinoamericanas está proliferando, en las últimas décadas, en forma de barrios cerrados; entendidos como áreas de viviendas cerradas, con acceso controlado y dispositivos de seguridad. La búsqueda de la seguridad, el contacto con la naturaleza y la exclusividad son algunos rasgos comunes de estos barrios que, en muchos casos, la publicidad trata de convertir en necesidades vitales para la sociedad. Los barrios cerrados llevan consigo consecuencias relacionadas con la fragmentación del espacio urbano, la privatización del espacio público, la segregación social y el sentimiento de comunidad; de ahí, la necesidad de cuestionarse este tipo de emprendimientos y de intervenir sobre ellos. Las intervenciones, ya sean dirigidas a redireccionar el modelo urbano emergente, como actuaciones puntuales en BC ya existentes, deberían apostar por seguir modelos de barrio

  20. Reluctance to screening colonoscopy in Arab Americans: a community based observational study. (United States)

    Talaat, Nizar; Harb, Walid


    To explore compliance of Arab-Americans to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and identify the barriers for non-compliance. An observational community based study. Arab-American Friday prayer attendees' ≥50 years in three mosques in Dearborn, MI volunteered. Demographics, health insurance status, screening history, availability of a primary care physician (PCP) and the ability to communicate in Arabic were inquired. The responses were compared using a student t test between respondents who have had CRC screening with colonoscopy and those who have not had any screening tests. A p value of 0.05 or lower was considered statistically significant. Total number surveyed was 130. Average age is 64 years. Males were 76 % (99) and females 24 % (31). More than 50 % were Lebanese and 28 % were from Yemen. Majority had health insurance (89 %), and 86 % had a primary care physician of which 79 % of them spoke Arabic. Half of the participants had colonoscopy mostly for screening purposes. Fifty-eight (45 %) participants did not have CRC screening. Majority of the females (72.4 %) had colonoscopy compared to 46.8 % of the males (p value = 0.016). The mean length of stay in the U.S was 39.16 years in the colonoscopy group compared to 30.77 years in the non-screening group (p value = 0.006). Participants without a PCP did not have CRC screening (77.8 %) (p value = 0.005). Participants with a non-Arabic speaking PCP had more colonoscopy rates (77.3 %) compared to those with an Arabic speaking PCP (50 %) (p value = 0.027). More Lebanese had colonoscopy (71.9 %) compared to 25.7 % of the surveyed Yemenis (p value = 0.00). Discomfort, unawareness about CRC screening, and nonrecommendation by PCP were reported barriers. Arab-Americans have lower screening colonoscopy rates. Unfamiliarity of the importance of screening is a principal issue. Having a non-arabic speaking PCP is beneficial. Better education to this population about the benefits and ease of

  1. Public Outreach and Educational Experiences in Mexico and Latin American communities in California (United States)

    Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda


    I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.

  2. Applying Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to the Development of a Smoking-Cessation Program for American Indian Teens: "Telling Our Story" (United States)

    Horn, Kimberly; McCracken, Lyn; Dino, Geri; Brayboy, Missy


    Community-based participatory research provides communities and researchers with opportunities to develop interventions that are effective as well as acceptable and culturally competent. The present project responds to the voices of the North Carolina American Indian (AI) community and the desire for their youth to recognize tobacco addiction and…

  3. Engaging an Urban African American Community to Deliver Cognitive Health Education to Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Bail, Jennifer; Nolan, Timiya S; Vo, Jacqueline B; Gisiger-Camata, Silvia; Meneses, Karen


    Little is known about cognitive changes among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCS). Here, we report our experience with engagement of leaders of urban AA churches in Birmingham, Alabama to deliver and evaluate Think Well: Healthy Living to Improve Cognitive Function, an educational cognitive health program for BCS. The Think Well team engaged leaders of urban AA churches using a 7-step process: 1) identify leaders, 2) develop connection with leaders, 3) assess AA community preferences, 4) tailor for cultural relevance, 5) plan seminars, 6) deliver seminars, and 7) evaluate cultural relevance and overall program quality. Program evaluation was via a 22-item survey and sociodemographic questionnaire. Data from AA participants were analyzed using SPSS. The engagement process resulted in sustained partnerships with three urban AA churches and delivery of three Think Well seminars to 172 participants. Of the 172 participants, 138 (80%) AA participants (40 BCS, 98 co-survivors) returned the program survey. Respondents reported Think Well to be culturally relevant (90%) and of high quality (94%). Think Well was developed and evaluated with the collaboration of urban AA church leaders. Engaging church leaders facilitated reach of AA BCS. Partnership facilitated a culturally relevant, high quality program for AA BCS and co-survivors.

  4. Reflections and perspectives of African-American community leaders regarding genetics and genomics research: sentiment and wisdom of Sankofa. (United States)

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T


    Advances in genetic and genomic research are shifting the typical disease timeline. For those afflicted by disease and for population groups known to experience excess disease-related morbidity and mortality, the ability to use genetics and genomics to predict an individuals' predisposition for developing a disease and/or to anticipate an individual's response to treatments holds tremendous promise. Over the past two decades several public and private institutions within the United States have been established for the purpose of collecting and storing biological specimens for the purpose of conducting genetic/genomic research. Multiple reports indicate that the involvement of racial/ethnic minority participants in these bio-repositories is limited. Little is known about the willingness of African-Americans, one of the largest and most vulnerable racial/ethnic population groups, to participate in genetic research, genomic research, and to contribute biological specimens to bio-repositories. An exploratory study was undertaken using principles of community engagement and community-based participatory research to examine the perspectives of leaders within the African-American community about participation in genetics research, genomics research, and bio-banking. Semi-structured focus groups with twenty-one African-American community leaders were the primary means of gathering the study data. Reflections and commentary of the community leaders were interspersed with sentiments of "Sankofa." The emergent themes, health-related disparities, historical injustices in medical research, the promise of genetic and genomic research, and genetics/genomic research engagement, implicated the importance of conducting genetics/genomics research in the context of the community interdependent with efforts to address determinants of health and health disparities.

  5. The Jade Ribbon Campaign: a model program for community outreach and education to prevent liver cancer in Asian Americans. (United States)

    Chao, Stephanie D; Chang, Ellen T; Le, Phuoc V; Prapong, Wijan; Kiernan, Michaela; So, Samuel K S


    The Jade Ribbon Campaign (JRC) is a culturally targeted, community-based outreach program to promote the prevention, early detection, and management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer among Asian Americans. In 2001, 476 Chinese American adults from the San Francisco Bay Area attended an HBV screening clinic and educational seminar. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 13%; only 8% of participants showed serologic evidence of protective antibody from prior vaccination. Participants reported low preventive action before the clinic, but after one year, 67% of those with chronic HBV infection had consulted a physician for liver cancer screening, and 78% of all participants had encouraged family members to be tested for HBV. The increase in HBV awareness, screening, and physician follow-up suggests that culturally aligned interventions similar to the JRC may help reduce the disproportionate burden of disease to chronic HBV infection among Asian Americans.

  6. The paradox of the Long-Term positive effects of a north american crayfish on a european community of predators


    Tablado, Zulima; Tella, José Luis; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Hiraldo, F.


    Invasions of non-native species are one of the major causes of losses of native species. In some cases, however, non-natives may also have positive effects on native species. We investigated the potential facilitative effects of the North American red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) on the community of predators in southwestern Spain. To do so, we examined the diets of predators in the area and their population trends since introduction of the crayfish. Most predator species consumed red...

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education: Food and nutrition programs for community-residing older adults. (United States)

    Kamp, Barbara J; Wellman, Nancy S; Russell, Carlene


    Given the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education that all older adults should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of safe, adequate food to promote optimal nutritional status. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include adequately funded food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education, screening, assessment, counseling, therapy, monitoring, evaluation, and outcomes documentation to ensure more healthful aging. The growing number of older adults, the health care focus on prevention, and the global economic situation accentuate the fundamental need for these programs. Yet far too often food and nutrition programs are disregarded or taken for granted. Growing older generally increases nutritional risk. Illnesses and chronic diseases; physical, cognitive, and social challenges; racial, ethnic, and linguistic differences; and low socioeconomic status can further complicate a situation. The beneficial effects of nutrition for health promotion, risk reduction, and disease management need emphasis. Although many older adults are enjoying longer and more healthful lives in their own homes, others, especially those with health disparities and poor nutritional status, would benefit from greater access to food and nutrition programs and services. Food and nutrition practitioners can play a major role in promoting universal access and integrating food and nutrition programs and nutrition services into home- and community-based services.

  8. Status of coral communities in American Samoa: a re-survey of long-term monitoring sites in 2002 (NODC Accession 0001470) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A re-survey of coral communities in the American Samoa Archipelago covering the island of Tutuila and the Manu'a Group of islands (Ofu, Olosega, and Tau), was...

  9. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

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    Daniel Rhodes


    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  10. The Challenges of Change. A Report from the Aspen Institute Seminar on Hispanic Americans and the Business Community (Aspen, Colorado, July 27-30, 1997). (United States)

    McGuire, Georgianna; Nicolau, Siobhan

    This report from the 1997 Aspen Institute seminar concerns how demographic changes in American will affect Hispanic Americans' role in the business community. Section 1, "Lashes: Back, Front, and Sideways" (Harold Hodgkinson), describes pervasive national pessimism over demographic change and documents universal backlash to that change among all…

  11. The Impact of Brown on the Brown of South Texas: A Micropolitical Perspective on the Education of Mexican Americans in a South Texas Community (United States)

    Guajardo, Miguel A.; Guajardo, Francisco J.


    This article identifies the Edcouch-Elsa High School Walkout of 1968 as a pivotal event in the educational history of Mexican American students in south Texas. It presents elements of the Civil Rights Movement, including the Brown decision, the rise of Mexican American political organizations, and the actions of community youth. The authors use…


    Allison, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Raij, Leopoldo; Kaplan, Robert; Ostfeld, Robert J.; Pattany, Maria S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Criqui, Michael H.


    Objective Since Hispanic ethnicity in the United States is heterogeneous, the purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) within US Hispanic/Latino groups defined by national background. Methods 9,648 men and women over the age of 45 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study – Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) included in this analysis. The ankle brachial index (ABI) was computed as the higher of the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis systolic blood pressures (SBP) for each leg divided by the higher brachial artery SBP. The index ABI was the higher of the two. An ABI ≤ 0.90 was criterion for the presence of PAD. Results The mean age was 56 years and 55% were female. Overall, the prevalence of an ABI ≤ 0.90 (PAD), 0.90 to 0.99 (borderline), 1.0 to 1.39 (normal) and ≥ 1.40 (high) was 5.7, 19.3, 72.5 and 2.6%, respectively. After multivariable adjustment for PAD risk factors, and compared to Mexicans, Cubans had nearly a 3-fold higher odds for PAD (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9 – 4.4). The odds of PAD for the other Hispanic/Latino groups ranged from 1.2 to 1.8. Although males had over a 3-fold higher odds of an ABI ≥ 1.40 (3.6, 2.0 – 6.5), the odds did not differ significantly by Hispanic/Latino background. Conclusions Compared to Mexican Americans, all other Hispanic/Latino background groups have a significantly higher odds of having PAD, with the odds being nearly 3-fold higher among Cubans. PMID:26141696

  13. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

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    Sanaz Akbari


    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate.Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods.Results: The analytical profile index (API kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y.intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional platingmethod revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2. 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequencewas identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species.Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively.

  14. EEG alpha phenotypes: linkage analyses and relation to alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

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    Phillips Evelyn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for a high degree of heritability of EEG alpha phenotypes has been demonstrated in twin and family studies in a number of populations. However, information on linkage of this phenotype to specific chromosome locations is still limited. This study's aims were to map loci linked to EEG alpha phenotypes and to determine if there was overlap with loci previously mapped for alcohol dependence in an American Indian community at high risk for substance dependence. Methods Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview using the Semi Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. Bipolar EEGs were collected and spectral power determined in the alpha (7.5-12.0 Hz frequency band for two composite scalp locations previously identified by principal components analyses (bilateral fronto-central and bilateral centro-parietal-occipital. Genotypes were determined for a panel of 791 micro-satellite polymorphisms in 410 members of multiplex families using SOLAR. Results Sixty percent of this study population had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores, for the EEG alpha power phenotype, revealed two loci that had a LOD score of 3.0 or above for the fronto-central scalp region on chromosomes 1 and 6. Additionally, 4 locations were identified with LOD scores above 2.0 on chromosomes 4, 11, 14, 16 for the fronto-central location and one on chromosome 2 for the centro-parietal-occipital location. Conclusion These results corroborate the importance of regions on chromosome 4 and 6 highlighted in prior segregation studies in this and other populations for alcohol dependence-related phenotypes, as well as other areas that overlap with other substance dependence phenotypes identified in previous linkage studies in other populations. These studies additionally support the construct that EEG alpha recorded from fronto-central scalp areas may

  15. A Qualitative Examination of Health Barriers and Facilitators Among African American Mothers in a Subsidized Housing Community. (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E


    Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming.

  16. Community-based Participatory Research Examining the Health Care Needs of African Americans who are Homeless with Mental Illness (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick; Pickett, Susan; Kraus, Dana; Burks, Raymond; Schmidt, Anne


    African Americans with mental illness who are homeless experience significant health risks and illnesses leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) team conducted a qualitative study to begin to describe these problems. Results from focus groups and key informant interviews of 42 individuals yielded 98 themes which were sorted into three categories: problems, solutions, and peer navigators. Results included a review of the problems and solutions which the community or people might adopt. An additional goal was to understand and develop impact of peer navigators for addressing health problems in this group. Results yielded a list of values in hiring peer navigators as well as skills and resources they might need to successfully do their job. Findings from the study are currently being used by the CBPR team to develop a peer navigator program for this community. PMID:25702732

  17. Community integration and participation: the role of the social network in latin american migrants in a rural province (Teruel, Spain

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    Marta Gil-Lacruz


    Full Text Available Social network play an important role in both the decision to emigrate and the choice of location. Related to migrants and its social net, very little is known about patterns of integration and community participation in rural and low population density contexts in Spain. This article explores these issues and is based on a study, in the province of Teruel (Spain, using a sample of 324 Latin American migrants over the age of 18, selected by sex and place of residence. A standardised test - the Musitu and Gracia AC-90 Community Social Support Questionnaire and open questions were employed. ANOVAS analysis showed significant differences in community integration and participation in accordance with socioeconomic, motivational and social interaction variables.

  18. Community-based fortified dietary intervention improved health outcomes among low-income African-American women. (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede K; Das, Rachita; Wilson, Ronee E; Mazza, Jessica; Okoh, Jennifer O; Naik, Eknath; Berry, Estrellita Lo


    Poor dietary exposure disproportionately affects African-Americans and contributes to the persistence of disparities in health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that fortified dietary intervention (FDI) will improve measured dietary and related health outcomes and will be acceptable among low-income African-American women living in Tampa, FL. These objectives were tested using a prospective experimental study using pretest and posttest design with a control group, using a community-based participatory research approach. The intervention (FDI) was designed by the community through structural modification of a preexisting, diet-based program by the addition of a physical and mental health component. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention and postintervention changes in study outcomes. A total of 49 women participated in the study, 26 in the FDI group and 23 controls. Two weeks postintervention, there were significant improvements in waist circumference and health-related quality of life related to physical health (PFDI group. Among overweight/obese women, improvement in health-related quality of life related to physical health, a significant decrease in depressive score, and a reduction in waist circumference were noted. In the control group, a decrease in waist circumference was observed. Implementation of the FDI through a community-based participatory research approach is feasible and effective among low-income African-American women in general and overweight/obese women in particular. Social reengineering of a nutritional intervention coupled with community-based approach will enhance health outcomes of low-income women.

  19. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community (United States)

    Kim, Eunhyun


    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  20. Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities. (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer Y., Ed.; Abraham, Nabeel, Ed.

    This book is a collection of articles and research materials on Arab-Americans. Part one of the book provides an historical overview of Arab-Americans, their reasons for emigration from Greater Syria, and profiles of the two major religious groups, Muslims and Christians, in the United States Arab population. Authors of this section include Alixa…

  1. Understanding and Working with the Power Structure in the Mexican-American Community. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Armando

    The Mexican American population at the present time is approximately 4 million, of which 80% are urban dwellers. For the city schools this situation poses difficult problems which have remained mostly unsolved, as evidenced by the high rate of Mexican American dropouts from high schools. Since the educational system has failed the Mexican…

  2. Reframing Diabetes in American Indian Communities: A Social Determinants of Health Perspective (United States)

    Mitchell, Felicia M.


    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…

  3. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy


    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  4. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understanding Teen Pregnancy with American Indian Communities. (United States)

    Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B


    Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.

  5. Communicating Effectively About Clinical Trials With African American Communities: A Comparison of African American and White Information Sources and Needs. (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Zheng, Yue; Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Foster, Caroline B


    Clinical trial (CT) participation is low among African Americans (AAs). To better communicate with AAs about the importance of CTs, the purpose of this study was to explore the communication sources and perceived effective communication channels and strategies through which the general public, AAs, and White individuals receive CT information. A quantitative telephone survey was conducted with AAs and Whites in one Southern state (N = 511). The measures assessed CT sources of information, perceived effectiveness of communication channels and strategies, CT understanding, and CT participation. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to compare responses overall and by race. AAs reported being exposed to more CT information than Whites. AAs received CT information most often through television, social media, and doctors compared to Whites. Perceived effectiveness of communication strategies and channels varied by race. AAs preferred simple and easy-to-understand CT information distributed through faith-based organizations. Whites preferred to receive CT information through a trustworthy source (e.g., doctor). There were no significant differences between AAs and Whites in their perceived effectiveness of media sources (e.g., Internet). Recommendations are provided to help health promotion practitioners and CT recruiters tailor information and communicate it effectively to potential AA and White CT participants.

  6. Advancing Understanding of the Characteristics and Capacity of African American Women Who Serve as Lay Health Advisors in Community-Based Settings (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S.; Erwin, Deborah O.


    Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This…

  7. Utilization of the Native American Talking Circle to teach incident command system to tribal community health representatives. (United States)

    Granillo, Brenda; Renger, Ralph; Wakelee, Jessica; Burgess, Jefferey L


    The public health workforce is diverse and encompasses a wide range of professions. For tribal communities, the Community Health Representative (CHR) is a public health paraprofessional whose role as a community health educator and health advocate has expanded to become an integral part of the health delivery system of most tribes. CHRs possess a unique set of skills and cultural awareness that make them an essential first responder on tribal land. As a result of their distinctive qualities they have the capability of effectively mobilizing communities during times of crisis and can have a significant impact on the communities' response to a local incident. Although public health emergency preparedness training is a priority of federal, state, local and tribal public health agencies, much of the training currently available is not tailored to meet the unique traits of CHRs. Much of the emergency preparedness training is standardized, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Training Programs, and does not take into account the inherent cultural traditions of some of the intended target audience. This paper reports on the use of the Native American Talking Circle format as a culturally appropriate method to teach the Incident Command System (ICS). The results of the evaluation suggest the talking format circle is well received and can significantly improve the understanding of ICS roles. The limitations of the assessment instrument and the cultural adaptations at producing changes in the understanding of ICS history and concepts are discussed. Possible solutions to these limitations are provided.

  8. Reactions by Native American Parents to Child Protection Agencies: Cultural and Community Factors. (United States)

    Horejsi, Charles; And Others


    Explains characteristics and behaviors of Native American parents who react to child protection services with extreme aggressiveness, passivity, or avoidance. Discusses appropriate behaviors for social workers to use with such parents. (BG)

  9. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Hee Jun Kim

    Full Text Available In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors.Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics.A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults. Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%-43.7% and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%-51.3%. Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003. Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%; however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino.There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care, including increased screening

  10. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study. (United States)

    Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean


    This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

  11. Contributions of community psychology to rural advisory services: an analysis of Latin American rural extensionists' point of view. (United States)

    Landini, Fernando


    During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.

  12. The influence of nondisclosure on the mental health of urban African-American adolescents exposed to community violence. (United States)

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E; McIntosh, Jeanne M


    African-American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms, but there has been little investigation of moderating processes that might attenuate or exacerbate this association. The current study examined nondisclosure as a possible moderator of the association between community violence and internalizing symptoms with a sample of 152 low-income urban African-American early adolescents using hierarchical regression analyses. Results revealed that nondisclosure for relationship reasons (e.g., adults could not be trusted to provide needed support) moderated the association between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms. Unexpectedly, however, results of simple effects analyses revealed a stronger association between exposure to violence and internalizing symptoms for youth who disclosed more to adults. Although unexpected, this pattern builds upon prior research indicating that adult-child relationships are compromised within the context of urban poverty and that protective factors may lose their power under conditions of extreme stress.

  13. Redefining the American Quilt: Definitions and Experiences of Community among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian and Bisexual Women (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Ibrahim-Wells, Gemma D.


    Lesbian and bisexual women from diverse backgrounds possess unique viewpoints regarding the meanings and functions of "community." Despite this, few studies have explored sexual minority women's understanding of and relationship to their communities. The present study employed qualitative research methods to investigate the meanings and functions…

  14. Historical Perspectives on Diverse Asian American Communities: Immigration, Incorporation, and Education (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.


    Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…

  15. Community-Responsive Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in American Indians (United States)

    Jobe, Jared B.; Adams, Alexandra K.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Karanja, Njeri; Lee, Elisa T.; Walters, Karina L.


    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations bear a heavy burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and they have the highest rates of risk factors for CVD, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes, of any U.S. population group. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have been launched to test potential preventive interventions in…

  16. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans (United States)

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret


    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  17. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter


    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  18. American Samoa Watershed and Coastal Community Data Layers, Utulei, Fagaalu, Fatumafuti 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Data Layers include the following.Flooding: Regions that flood during heavy rainfall.Intermittent Streams: Areas flow as streams during heavy rainfall.Community...



    Freeland, Patrick Austin


    Very little literature exists which details how climate change impacts Indian Country. This study first investigates how US newspaper stories published from 1991 to 2011 present American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) perceptions, and observations, of environmental changes resulting from climatic change. Several specific risk, impacts, and vulnerabilities were documented, and observations of climate change from AI/AN perceptions were analyzed for content to identify three frames of perspective:...

  20. African-American clergy's perceptions of the leading health problems in their communities and their role in supporting parishioners' health. (United States)

    Watson, Donnie W; West, Donnie W; Bisesi, Lorrie; Tanamly, Susie; Branch, Cheryl A; Novgrod, Judith; Sim, Tiffanie; Williams, Eugene


    This article is a report on a survey of Southern California pastors to learn of their perceptions of the leading health problems in their congregations. Participants (N=41) identified stress, overweight, and obesity as the top three health indicators that effect the health of their congregations. Tobacco use and substance abuse were listed among the top five. From a list of health problems, pastors felt that from the pulpit they could impact parishioners responsible sexual behavior most. Pastors expressed their opinions about the reasons for certain maladies and addictions. The findings indicate room for improvement in building clergy's understanding of the nature of illness and addiction and in empowering them in their role of supporting healthy behaviors in the African-American community.

  1. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E


    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin.

  2. Rich and cold: diversity, distribution and drivers of fungal communities in patterned-ground ecosystems of the North American Arctic. (United States)

    Timling, I; Walker, D A; Nusbaum, C; Lennon, N J; Taylor, D L


    Fungi are abundant and functionally important in the Arctic, yet comprehensive studies of their diversity in relation to geography and environment are not available. We sampled soils in paired plots along the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT), which spans all five bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic. Each pair of plots contrasted relatively bare, cryoturbated patterned-ground features (PGFs) and adjacent vegetated between patterned-ground features (bPGFs). Fungal communities were analysed via sequencing of 7834 ITS-LSU clones. We recorded 1834 OTUs - nearly half the fungal richness previously reported for the entire Arctic. These OTUs spanned eight phyla, 24 classes, 75 orders and 120 families, but were dominated by Ascomycota, with one-fifth belonging to lichens. Species richness did not decline with increasing latitude, although there was a decline in mycorrhizal taxa that was offset by an increase in lichen taxa. The dominant OTUs were widespread even beyond the Arctic, demonstrating no dispersal limitation. Yet fungal communities were distinct in each subzone and were correlated with soil pH, climate and vegetation. Communities in subzone E were distinct from the other subzones, but similar to those of the boreal forest. Fungal communities on disturbed PGFs differed significantly from those of paired stable areas in bPGFs. Indicator species for PGFs included lichens and saprotrophic fungi, while bPGFs were characterized by ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi. Our results suggest that the Arctic does not host a unique mycoflora, while Arctic fungi are highly sensitive to climate and vegetation, with potential to migrate rapidly as global change unfolds.

  3. Community in Competition: The American Birkebeiner Cross-Country Ski Race

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    Tim Donahue


    Full Text Available In modern times, few people use skis as transportation, but each year, millions of people in colder climates enjoy cross-country skiing for recreation and fitness. And those familiar with the Winter Olympics know that it is also a serious sport. Donahue is particularly interested in exploring the idea of the “train,” in which a large group of skiers bind together like a pack to harness group dynamics in the largest ski race in North America, the 50 kilometer American Birkebeiner, in Hayward, Wisconsin. The key to this race, implies Donahue, is knowing and deciding when to compete with and when to compete against.

  4. "American by Paper": Assimilation and Documentation in a Biliterate, Bi-Ethnic Immigrant Community (United States)

    Vieira, Kate Elizabeth


    Calls from policymakers to assimilate immigrants through English literacy have grown urgent. Yet the 2007 U.S. Census has reported that one in five U.S. residents speaks a language other than English at home. What's more, new immigrants often settle in long-standing immigrant communities in which these non-English languages are the lingua franca.…

  5. Descriptions of the American Deaf Community, 1830-2000: Epistemic Foundations (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.


    Prior to the formation of schools for the deaf in America in the early 19th century, with rare exceptions, deaf people lived under largely solitary conditions. After the formation of such schools they became a community with their own language, organizations and cultural traditions. Several social theorists have proffered various descriptions of…

  6. Differential Outcomes for American College Students Engaged in Community Service-Learning Involving Youth and Adults (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan


    The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…

  7. "Cuz They Care about the People Who Goes There": The Multiple Roles of a Community-Based Youth Center in Providing "Youth (Comm)Unity" for Low-Income Chinese American Youth (United States)

    Wong, Nga-Wing Anjela


    This article will explore the role of "CYC," a community-based youth center, in providing a sense of what I call "Youth (Comm)Unity" for Chinese American youth from low-income immigrant families. While CYC combines the youths' home and school worlds, it is also distinct from these worlds by forming a new and hybrid culture/space. In doing so, I…

  8. Funds of Knowledge and Community Cultural Wealth: Exploring How Pre-Service Teachers Can Work Effectively with Mexican and Mexican American Students (United States)

    Saathoff, Stacy D.


    This article examines how pre-service teachers can work effectively with Mexican and Mexican American students. Using the foundation of funds of knowledge (González, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) and the critical race theory concept of community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005), the article weaves together these ideas to discuss how they can be…

  9. Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention among American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: Issues in Cultural Competence. Cultural Competence Series 9. Special Collaborative Edition. (United States)

    Trimble, Joseph E., Ed.; Beauvais, Fred, Ed.

    Substance abuse continues to be one of the most damaging and chronic health problems faced by Indian people. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) substance abuse prevention and treatment programs must be framed within the broader context of the widening health disparities between AI/AN communities and the general population. Successful…

  10. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.


    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  11. Self-Determination and Goal Aspirations: African American and Latino Males' Perceptions of Their Persistence in Community College Basic and Transfer-Level Writing Courses (United States)

    Villarreal, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo A.


    This Grounded Theory study utilized Self-determination Theory to analyze the interview results of 18 community college African American and Latino males. The goal was to learn what helped participants to succeed and persist in developmental and transfer-level writing courses despite the obstacles that they faced. Three major themes emerged: (a)…

  12. Engaging Students in Life and Literature: A Qualitative Study of Rural North Alabama Community College American Literature Instructors' Course Design and Pedagogical Practices (United States)

    Ward, Steven Jerome


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the course design decisions and pedagogical practices of American literature teachers at three rural community colleges of varying size in North Alabama. Fink's (2003) Integrated Course Design (ICD) model provided a framework for this study, and the researcher attempted to determine if and…

  13. Turning the Tables: Double Benefits Attained from Training HBCU Students to Teach Geosciences in African-American Communities (United States)

    Pride, C. J.; Olsen, M. M.


    To make the greatest impact on African-American participation in the geosciences it is most efficient to bring programs designed to recruit future geoscientists to neighborhoods, campuses, and communities where African-Americans are actually in the majority rather than the minority. The "Natural History Interpretation Training Program" sponsored by SE-COSEE (NSF), SSU and SINERR did just that and impacted two generations of students in coastal Georgia in the process. In the first implementation of this program, ten HBCU science majors participated in an intensive week-long training program on coastal ecosystems, outdoor education, and regional internship/employment opportunities. The training session was followed by the planning and implementation of a two-day science camp for the youth of Sapelo Island, GA in which the undergraduates taught 15 children of Gullah/Geechee heritage aged 6 to 14 about the geology and ecology of their barrier island home. Key components to successfully recruiting undergraduate participants were to coordinate training activities around the college schedule to accommodate students who needed to enroll in summer courses and to base acceptance into the training program on interest rather than GPA. We facilitated the participation of campers by holding the camp on Sapelo Island, providing transportation, and charging no fees. Having HBCU students teach younger minority students served multiple purposes. It inspired the undergraduates to further their studies in science, to explore internship opportunities, and to consider careers in science education. For some it provided an opportunity to review and master material from past courses and inspired confidence in their approach to future course work. The program also piqued the curiosity of Sapelo Island youth so that they would further explore the science of their island home and, hopefully, will consider college attendance and majoring in the geosciences a natural path to follow. HBCU

  14. The paradox of the long-term positive effects of a North American crayfish on a European community of predators. (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Tella, José L; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Hiraldo, Fernando


    Invasions of non-native species are one of the major causes of losses of native species. In some cases, however, non-natives may also have positive effects on native species. We investigated the potential facilitative effects of the North American red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) on the community of predators in southwestern Spain. To do so, we examined the diets of predators in the area and their population trends since introduction of the crayfish. Most predator species consumed red swamp crayfish, which sometimes occurred in over 50% of their diet samples. Moreover, the abundance of species preying on crayfish increased significantly in the area as opposed to the abundance of herbivores and to predator populations in other areas of Europe, where those predators are even considered threatened. Thus, we report the first case in which one non-native species is both beneficial because it provides prey for threatened species and detrimental because it can drive species at lower trophic levels to extinction. Increases in predator numbers that are associated with non-native species of prey, especially when some of these predators are also invasive non-natives, may increase levels of predation on other species and produce cascading effects that threaten native biota at longer temporal and larger spatial scales. Future management plans should include the complexity of interactions between invasive non-natives and the entire native community, the feasibility of successful removal of non-native species, and the potential social and economic interests in the area.

  15. Intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening among African-American males in the US

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    Dickey SL


    Full Text Available Sabrina L Dickey,1 Eileen Cormier,1 James Whyte IV,1 Penny A Ralston2 1College of Nursing, 2Center on Better Health and Life for Underserved Populations, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening (PCS among African-American (AA males of ≥40 years from a nationally representative data set in the US. The theory of planned behavior was utilized as the theoretical framework. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional secondary analysis employed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. The sample consisted of 377 AA males. The primary outcome variables were two PCS tests, the digital rectal exam (DRE and the prostate-specific antigen test. Logistic regression models were developed to test for associations between the PCS tests and the factors of interest. Results: The factors of age, education, and access to a health care facility were associated with AA males receiving the DRE. The age group of 40–49 years was least likely to receive the DRE when compared to the age group of ≥70 years. Similarly AA males without a college degree were also least likely to receive the DRE when compared to AA males with a college degree. AA males with access to health care were more likely than those without access to receive the DRE. Age <70 years along with church attendance was associated with AA males receiving the prostate-specific antigen test. Conclusion: Differences were present for significant associations among intrapersonal and community variables and the two PCS exams. A culturally sensitive approach is necessary for understanding factors associated with PCS among AA males, which is central to designing and appropriately targeting public health interventions to decrease the health disparity of prostate cancer among this high-risk population. Keywords: prostate cancer screening

  16. Afterbirths in the afterlife: cultural meaning of placental disposal in a Hmong American community. (United States)

    Helsel, Deborah G; Mochel, Marilyn


    Interviews were conducted with 94 Hmong Americans in California's Central Valley to explore attitudes regarding placental disposition and the cultural values that affect those attitudes. Research indicated a persistence of the traditional belief that placentas should be buried at home. The placenta is perceived to be essential for travel by the soul of the deceased into the spirit world to rejoin ancestors. Older respondents (older than age 35) and those who self-identified as animists were most likely to believe in the importance of home placental burial. Comments by respondents indicated some reluctance on the part of Hmong patients to ask health care providers for permission to take placentas home. Incorporating non-Western patients' traditional health care practices into Western health care delivery may be facilitated by an awareness of the reluctance of some patients to verbalize their wishes.

  17. Assessing the needs and guiding the future: findings from the health needs assessment in 13 Asian American communities of Maryland in the United States. (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Ma, Grace X; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Bawa, Julie


    There is lack of in depth data on health needs of diverse Asian American communities. We conducted 19 focus groups in 13 Asian American communities in Maryland in 2007. We developed a moderator's guide to collect qualitative data on health needs from 174 participants, and used MAX QDA to analyze data and code emergent themes. Cardiovascular disease related conditions, diabetes, and mental health were the top three health concerns. Weight concerns, cancer, arthritis, smoking, osteoporosis, and hepatitis B followed next. Many participants were not receiving preventive health service such as cancer screening due to a lack of access to health care or lack of awareness of preventive care. Additionally, under-represented communities lacked adequate health resources and advocacy, potentially due to a relatively shorter history of immigration and a small population. The results render support for awareness education on importance of preventive care and mental health.

  18. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community. (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur


    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women.

  19. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.


    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  20. Breeding bird communities of reclaimed coal-mine grasslands in the American midwest

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    DeVault, T.L.; Scott, P.E.; Bajema, R.A.; Lima, S.L.


    The breeding bird communities of 19 reclaimed surface coal-mine grasslands in southwestern Indiana in 1997-1998, using roadside point counts and off-road transects were investigated. The mine grasslands in this study were large, ranging from 110 to 3180 ha in area (median, 590 ha). Although dominated by a few Eurasian grass species, they supported diverse bird communities in which grassland-dependent species were prominent along with grassland-associated and successional scrub species. The mean abundances of species (relative to one another) on roadside and off-road counts were positively correlated. Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), and Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) were present at {gt} 90% of piza americana), Eastern point count locations. Other common species, in descending order, included Dickcissels (S mon Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas), Killdeers (Charadrius vociferus), Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), Henslow's Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii), Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla), and Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were rare, as were seven grassland-dependent species that were near the edges of their geographic distributions.

  1. Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa (United States)

    Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Bourne, David G.


    Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions.

  2. Health issues in the Arab American community. A review: depression and smoking. (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L


    The association between depression and smoking has been well-documented in multiple countries and age groups. This review examines recent publications that address the magnitude of the association and its causal patterns (ie, due to lowered success of quitting in people with depression, depression causing smoking, smoking causing depression or third factor related to both smoking and depression). We conclude that the association may be multi-factorial with each of the causal directions possibly contributing to the observed association. Also, the association extends beyond depression to other mental disorders, including consumption of illegal drugs and non-medical use of prescription medications. Although the studies emphasize cigarette smoking, it is plausible to generalize the findings to other tobacco delivery systems involving deep inhalation, such as a hookah, due to the pharmacodynamics of nicotine. Although this review did not examine any studies specific to Arab Americans, the findings should generalize if smoking is stigmatized or, alternatively, as stigmatization increases. The good news is that even with the robust association between depression and smoking, people with depression can quit smoking and continue to be smoke-free. Because 44.3% of cigarettes in the United States are consumed by individuals with mental illnesses, mental illness deserves a prominent focus to allow our public health goal of reducing the prevalence of smoking to be reached.

  3. How to Practice Posthumanism in Environmental Learning: Experiences with North American and South Asian Indigenous Communities

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    Ranjan Datta


    Full Text Available This paper explores how to practice posthumanism in everyday life. This idea has increasingly come under scrutiny by posthumanist theorists, who are addressing fundamental ontological and epistemological questions in regard to defining an essential ‘human,' as well as the elastic boundary work between the human and nonhuman subject. Posthumanism is essential for considering today’s environmental problems and environmental science education. This paper then has three goals: developing posthumanist ontology, exploring methodology, and investigating whether environmental science education and practices can help students, teachers, and community in learning, teaching, and practicing processes. I demonstrate the complementary contributions from two Indigenous communities’ field studies that can be made when a researcher moves beyond an exclusive focus on western interests and considers participants as co-researchers. This paper concludes with a discussion of implications for this field.

  4. The significance of social context: the case of adolescent childbearing in the African American community. (United States)

    Henly, J R


    The persistence of racial differences in US adolescent pregnancy and contraceptive use rates even after traditional indicators of social class (e.g., parental education, income, or occupation) are controlled suggests a need to focus on broader social contextual issues. Important dimensions of the social context neglected in traditional approaches to socioeconomic status include the level of racial discrimination in the community, the percentage of same-race high status workers, the differential incentives of Blacks and Whites to avoid adolescent childbearing, the quality of schools attended, and the ability of families to provide child supervision. In addition, studies comparing the long-term effects of adolescent childbearing have found less severe costs for Blacks than Whites. This finding suggests the salience of psychosocial factors such as individual resiliency and survival. Although amelioration of poverty must be a major emphasis of social policy aimed at preventing adolescent pregnancy, employment programs that prepare teens for low-paying or nonexistent jobs and other interventions that fail to address the broader social context of discrimination are insufficient.

  5. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; Ann St. Amand,


    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  6. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.


    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  7. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  8. Lifetime history of traumatic events in an American Indian community sample: heritability and relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD. (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Gizer, Ian R; Gilder, David A; Yehuda, Rachael


    American Indians appear to experience a higher rate of traumatic events than what has been reported in general population surveys. American Indians also suffer higher alcohol related death rates than any other ethnic group in the U.S. population. Therefore efforts to delineate factors which may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance use disorders (SUD) over the lifetime in American Indians are important because of the high burden of morbidity and mortality that they pose to American Indian communities. Participants were American Indians recruited from reservations that were assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA), family history assessment and the stressful-life-events scale. Of the 309 participants, equivalent numbers of men and women (94%) reported experiencing traumas; however, a larger proportion of women received a PTSD diagnosis (38%) than men (29%). Having experienced multiple trauma and sexual abuse were most highly associated with PTSD. Having experienced assaultive trauma and having PTSD symptoms were both found to be moderately heritable (30-50%). Logistic regression revealed that having an anxiety and/or affective disorder and having a substance dependent diagnosis, but not having antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder, were significantly correlated with having a diagnosis of PTSD. These studies suggest that trauma is highly prevalent in this American Indian community, it is heritable, is associated with PTSD, affective/anxiety disorders and substance dependence. Additionally, trauma, PTSD and substance dependence appear to all co-emerge in early adulthood in this high-risk population.

  9. Validity of the SF-12 for Use in a Low-Income African American Community-Based Research Initiative (REACH 2010

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    Celia O. Larson, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionThe objective of our study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Medical Outcomes Study’s 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-12 for use in a low-income African American community. The SF-12, a commonly used functional health status assessment, was developed based on responses of an ethnically homogeneous sample of whites. Our assessment addressed the appropriateness of the instrument for establishing baseline indicators for mental and physical health status as part of Nashville, Tennessee’s, Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010 initiative, a community-based participatory research study.MethodsA cross-sectional random residential sample of 1721 African Americans responded to a telephone survey that included the SF-12 survey items and other indicators of mental and physical health status. The SF-12 was assessed by examining item-level characteristics, estimates of scale reliability (internal consistency, and construct validity.ResultsConstruct validity assessed by the method of extreme groups determined that SF-12 summary scores varied for individuals who differed in self-reported medical conditions. Convergent and discriminate validity assessed by multitrait analysis yielded satisfactory coefficients. Concurrent validity was also shown to be satisfactory, assessed by correlating SF-12 summary scores with independent measures of physical and mental health status.ConclusionThe SF-12 appears to be a valid measure for assessing health status of low-income African Americans.

  10. Applying community-based participatory research principles to the development of a smoking-cessation program for American Indian teens: "telling our story". (United States)

    Horn, Kimberly; McCracken, Lyn; Dino, Geri; Brayboy, Missy


    Community-based participatory research provides communities and researchers with opportunities to develop interventions that are effective as well as acceptable and culturally competent. The present project responds to the voices of the North Carolina American Indian (AI) community and the desire for their youth to recognize tobacco addiction and commercial cigarette smoking as debilitating to their health and future. Seven community-based participatory principles led to the AI adaptation of the Not On Tobacco teen-smoking-cessation program and fostered sound research and meaningful results among an historically exploited population. Success was attributed to values-driven, community-based principles that (a) assured recognition of a community-driven need, (b) built on strengths of the tribes, (c) nurtured partnerships in all project phases, (d) integrated the community's cultural knowledge, (e) produced mutually beneficial tools/products, (f) built capacity through co-learning and empowerment, (g) used an iterative process of development, and (h) shared findings/ knowledge with all partners.

  11. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Stay Independent Checklist to Engage a Community of American Indians and Raise Awareness About Risk of Falls, 2016 (United States)

    Popp, Janet; Waters, Debra L.; Leekity, Karen; Ghahate, Donica; Bobelu, Jeanette; Tsikewa, Ross; Herman, Carla J.


    Background The unintentional death rate from falls is higher among American Indians from the US Southwest than from other regions in the country. The Zuni Pueblo is a geographically isolated, rural American Indian community located in western New Mexico. Education and screening for falls risk is lacking in this community and may be needed to reduce falls and falls-related illness and death. Community Context Building on a 17-year relationship with the Zuni Health Initiative, meetings were held with Zuni tribal leadership, staff from the Zuni Senior Center and Zuni Home Health Services, members of the Zuni Comprehensive Community Health Center, Indian Health Service, and Zuni community health representatives (CHRs) to discuss elder falls in the community. Existing infrastructure, including CHRs who were already trained and certified in diabetes education and prevention, provided support for the study. Methods Tribal leadership agreed that CHRs would be trained to administer the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Stay Independent checklist to assess falls risk. They administered the checklist during one-on-one interviews in Shiwi (Zuni native language), English, or both to a convenience sample of 50 Zuni elders. Outcomes Mean age of participants was 72 (standard deviation, 7.4) years, and 78% were women. Fifty-two percent reported at least 1 fall during the past year; 66% scored 4 or more on the CDC Stay Independent checklist, indicating elevated risk for falls. CHRs reported that the checklist was easy to administer and culturally accepted by the elder participants. Interpretation This study broadened the Zuni Health Initiative to include falls risk screening. Self-reported falls were common in this small sample, and the incidence was significantly higher than the national rate. These results highlight the need for community engagement, using culturally acceptable falls screening, to promote falls education and implement falls prevention

  12. Variability of Symbiodinium Communities in Waters, Sediments, and Corals of Thermally Distinct Reef Pools in American Samoa (United States)

    Cunning, Ross; Yost, Denise M.; Guarinello, Marisa L.; Putnam, Hollie M.; Gates, Ruth D.


    Reef-building corals host assemblages of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) whose diversity and abundance may fluctuate under different conditions, potentially facilitating acclimatization to environmental change. The composition of free-living Symbiodinium in reef waters and sediments may also be environmentally labile and may influence symbiotic assemblages by mediating supply and dispersal. The magnitude and spatial scales of environmental influence over Symbiodinium composition in different reef habitat compartments are, however, not well understood. We used pyrosequencing to compare Symbiodinium in sediments, water, and ten coral species between two backreef pools in American Samoa with contrasting thermal environments. We found distinct compartmental assemblages of clades A, C, D, F, and/or G Symbiodinium types, with strong differences between pools in water, sediments, and two coral species. In the pool with higher and more variable temperatures, abundance of various clade A and C types differed compared to the other pool, while abundance of D types was lower in sediments but higher in water and in Pavona venosa, revealing an altered habitat distribution and potential linkages among compartments. The lack of between-pool effects in other coral species was due to either low overall variability (in the case of Porites) or high within-pool variability. Symbiodinium communities in water and sediment also showed within-pool structure, indicating that environmental influences may operate over multiple, small spatial scales. This work suggests that Symbiodinium composition is highly labile in reef waters, sediments, and some corals, but the underlying drivers and functional consequences of this plasticity require further testing with high spatial resolution biological and environmental sampling. PMID:26713847

  13. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu


    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  14. Beyond Self-Interest: Asian Pacific Americans toward a Community of Justice. A Policy Analysis of Affirmative Action. (United States)

    Chin, Gabriel; And Others

    In this policy analysis of affirmative action, four Asian Pacific American law professors make a case for affirmative action with a special focus on Asian Pacific Americans (APAs). It is asserted that affirmative action produces many benefits, such as reducing the harm of racism, promoting equal opportunity, and advancing racial justice. However,…

  15. Culturally Appropriate Photonovel Development and Process Evaluation for Hepatitis B Prevention in Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American Communities (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyeyeon; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon


    Asian Americans have disproportionately high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States and yet have low hepatitis B screening and vaccination rates. We developed three photonovels specifically designed for Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans and evaluated their cultural relevance and effectiveness in increasing…

  16. Attitudes Regarding the Use of Ventilator Support Given a Supposed Terminal Condition among Community-Dwelling Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Older Adults: A Pilot Study

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    M. Rosina Finley


    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the factors that are associated with Mexican Americans’ preference for ventilator support, given a supposed terminal diagnosis. Methods. 100 Mexican Americans, aged 60–89, were recruited and screened for MMSE scores above 18. Eligible subjects answered a questionnaire in their preferred language (English/Spanish concerning ventilator use during terminal illness. Mediator variables examined included demographics, generation, religiosity, occupation, self-reported depression, self-reported health, and activities of daily living. Results. Being first or second generation American (OR = 0.18, CI = 0.05–0.66 with no IADL disability (OR = 0.11, CI = 0.02–0.59 and having depressive symptoms (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.08–1.89 were associated with preference for ventilator support. Implications. First and second generation older Mexican Americans and those functionally independent are more likely to prefer end-of-life ventilation support. Although depressive symptoms were inversely associated with ventilator use at the end of life, scores may more accurately reflect psychological stress associated with enduring the scenario. Further studies are needed to determine these factors’ generalizability to the larger Mexican American community.

  17. Tribal Veterans Representative (TVR) training program: the effect of community outreach workers on American Indian and Alaska Native Veterans access to and utilization of the Veterans Health Administration. (United States)

    Kaufmann, L Jeanne; Buck Richardson, W J; Floyd, James; Shore, Jay


    American Indians and Alaska Natives serve at the highest rate of any US race or ethnic group, yet are the most underserved population of Veterans and do not take advantage of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) benefits and services. Barriers to seeking care include stigma, especially for mental health issues; distance to care; and lack of awareness of benefits and services they are entitled to receive. In response to this underutilization of the VA, an innovative program--the Tribal Veterans Representative (TVR) program--was developed within the VA to work with American Indians and Alaska Natives in rural and remote areas. The TVR goes through extensive training every year; is a volunteer, a Veteran and tribal community member who seeks out unenrolled Native Veterans, provides them with information on VA health care services and benefits, and assists them with enrollment paperwork. Being from the community they serve, these outreach workers are able to develop relationships and build rapport and trust with fellow Veterans. In place for over a decade in Montana, this program has enrolled a countless number of Veterans, benefiting not only the individual, but their family and the community as well. Also resulting from this program, are the implementation of Telemental Health Clinics treating Veterans with PTSD, a transportation program helping Veterans get to and from distant VA facilities, a Veteran Resource Center, and a Veteran Tribal Clinic. This program has successfully trained over 800 TVRs, expanded to other parts of the country and into remote areas of Alaska.

  18. Academic Innovation and Autonomy: An Exploration of Entrepreneurship Education within American Community Colleges and the Academic Capitalist Context (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Ginter, Mary Beth


    Employing interviews with individuals from 16 community colleges across the country, as well as an independent consultant engaged in activities of the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship (NACCE), this study considers the organizational structures and academic practices associated with community college entrepreneurship…

  19. Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities (United States)

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Peña, Edgar M.; Peña, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.


    Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a

  20. Testing the efficacy of culturally adapted coping skills training for Chinese American immigrants with type 2 diabetes using community-based participatory research. (United States)

    Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Mullan, Joseph T; Kwong, Yulanda; Hsu, Lydia; Huang, Peggy; Strycker, Lisa A; Shum, Tina; To, Diana; Kao, Rudy; Waters, Catherine M


    Chinese Americans demonstrate greater prevalence of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites and find standard diabetes care disregards their cultural health beliefs. Academic researchers and Chinatown agencies collaborated to culturally adapt and test an efficacious cognitive-behavioral intervention using community-based participatory research. Using a delayed-treatment repeated-measures design, 145 adult Chinese immigrants with Type 2 diabetes completed treatment. Immediate benefits of treatment were evident in the improvement (p diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes knowledge, bicultural efficacy, family emotional and instrumental support, diabetes quality of life, and diabetes distress. Prolonged benefits were evident in all changed variables 2 months post-intervention. The CBPR approach enabled the development of a culturally acceptable, efficacious behavioral intervention, and provides a model for working with communities that demonstrate health disparities.

  1. Impact of attitudes and beliefs regarding African American sexual behavior on STD prevention and control in African American communities: unintended consequences. (United States)

    Valentine, Jo A


    Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.

  2. Listening to their voices: Exploring mathematics-science identity development of African American males in an urban school community (United States)

    Wilson, Kimi Leemar

    National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these

  3. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women. (United States)

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan


    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  4. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project. (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B


    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.

  5. Tall Tales about Older Americans [and] Never Too Old to Earn: A Guide for Community College Placement Officers. (United States)

    Behn, Ruth; Hamer, Lois V.

    Designed as informational aids for community college practitioners, these two booklets examine the counseling and job placement needs of older adult students. The first booklet addresses itself to community college counselors. After profiling the composition of the older adult population in terms of "young-old" persons (those of 55 to 75 years…

  6. Discrepancies between self-reported years of education and estimated reading level among elderly community-dwelling African-Americans: Analysis of the MOAANS data. (United States)

    O'Bryant, Sid E; Lucas, John A; Willis, Floyd B; Smith, Glenn E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ivnik, Robert J


    The influence of education on cognition has received a great deal of attention in the literature. Although there is general consensus regarding the importance of education on cognitive functioning, the extent to which self-reported level of education corresponds to true educational attainment remains unclear, especially in ethnic minority populations where equal access to education has not always been available. Several investigators have suggested that reading skill may serve as a quantitative estimate of true education experience. Among African-Americans, however, research has shown that self-reported educational level consistently over predicts estimated reading level. The current study analyzed the discrepancy between self-reported years of education completed and estimated reading level in a sample of community-dwelling, elderly African-Americans participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) (Lucas, J.A., Ivnik, R.J., Willis, F.B., Ferman, T.J., Smith, G.E., Parfitt, F.C., Petersen, R.C., & Graff-Radford, N.R. (2005). Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Normative data for commonly used clinical neuropsychological measures. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 19, 162-183). In this sample, 29% of the participants read at a level that was 3 or more years below what would be expected based on self-report of education attained. This study also sought to evaluate the extent to which this discrepancy fluctuated as a function of demographic variables such as location of schooling (urban, suburban, rural; North vs. South), parental education and literacy, and percentage of segregation in schooling. Implications of these results are discussed, as are areas for further inquiry.

  7. "Making History Go" at a Local Community Center: Popular Media and the Construction of Historical Knowledge among African American Youth. (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg


    Looks at how young people use historical knowledge, gained from media sources, to deal with current situations. A group of young African Americans draw on behavioral examples from the film, "Panther," instead of school-based learning, to give them ways to deal with the Ku Klux Klan in their neighborhood. (DAJ)

  8. 77 FR 31765 - Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services (United States)


    ... minority group that is socially or economically disadvantaged pursuant to 15 CFR art 1400. The formal... economically disadvantaged. Based on the current definitions, the groups considered ``socially and economically.... This can be compared to Latino-Americans, a group already included in the definition of...

  9. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture. (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry


    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  10. Temporal bird community dynamics are strongly affected by landscape fragmentation in a Central American tropical forest region (United States)

    Blandón, A.C.; Perelman, S.B.; Ramírez, M.; López, A.; Javier, O.; Robbins, Chandler S.


    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the main causes of species extinctions, particularly in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of tropical bird communities in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation in eastern Guatemala. We evaluated five bird community dynamic parameters for forest specialists and generalists: (1) species extinction, (2) species turnover, (3) number of colonizing species, (4) relative species richness, and (5) a homogeneity index. For each of 24 landscapes, community dynamic parameters were estimated from bird point count data, for the 1998–1999 and 2008–2009 periods, accounting for species’ detection probability. Forest specialists had higher extinction rates and a smaller number of colonizing species in landscapes with higher fragmentation, thus having lower species richness in both time periods. Alternatively, forest generalists elicited a completely different pattern, showing a curvilinear association to forest fragmentation for most parameters. Thus, greater community dynamism for forest generalists was shown in landscapes with intermediate levels of fragmentation. Our study supports general theory regarding the expected negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the temporal dynamics of biotic communities, particularly for forest specialists, providing strong evidence from understudied tropical bird communities.

  11. Integrating community health workers into a patient-centered medical home to support disease self-management among Vietnamese Americans: lessons learned. (United States)

    Wennerstrom, Ashley; Bui, Tap; Harden-Barrios, Jewel; Price-Haywood, Eboni G


    There is evidence that patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) and community health workers (CHWs) improve chronic disease management. There are few models for integrating CHWs into PCMHs in order to enhance disease self-management support among diverse populations. In this article, we describe how a community-based nonprofit agency, a PCMH, and academic partners collaborated to develop and implement the Patient Resource and Education Program (PREP). We employed CHWs as PCMH care team members to provide health education and support to Vietnamese American patients with uncontrolled diabetes and/or hypertension. We began by conducting focus groups to assess patient knowledge, desire for support, and availability of community resources. Based on findings, we developed PREP with CHW guidance on cultural tailoring of educational materials and methods. CHWs received training in core competencies related to self-management support principles and conducted the 4-month intervention for PCMH patients. Throughout the program, we conducted process evaluation through structured team meetings and patient satisfaction surveys. We describe successes and challenges associated with PREP delivery including patient recruitment, structuring/documenting visits, and establishing effective care team integration, work flow, and communication. Strategies for mitigating these issues are presented, and we make recommendations for other PCMHs seeking to integrate CHWs into care teams.

  12. On the Pursuit of Sound Science for the Betterment of the American Indian Community: Reply to Beals et al. (United States)

    Spillane, Nichea S; Smith, Gregory T


    We argue that ongoing criticism of existing theories, the development of alternative theories, and empirical theory tests offer the best chance for advancing American Indian research. We, therefore note our appreciation for Beals et al.'s comments. We nevertheless did disagree with many of Beals et al.'s specific claims, noting that (a) our characterization of the existing literature on reservation-dwelling American Indian drinking was accurate; (b) no argument made by Beals et al. undermines their theoretical contention that there is a relative lack of contingency between access to basic life reinforcers and sobriety on many reservations; (c) our theory was developed in a responsible manner: a reservation-tied American Indian developed the theory, which was reviewed by a reservation leadership team, a cultural consultant, and reviewers for this journal, at least one of whom consulted leaders of other reservations; and (d) our theory was based on previous interdisciplinary theory development. We encourage the development and testing of new, alternative theories.

  13. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

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    Pauline Guedj


    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  14. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: the partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model. (United States)

    Trotter, Robert T; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F


    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an "logic model plus" evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-university partnership models. These approaches support the application of a "near real time" feedback system (diagnosis and intervention) based on organizational theory, social network theory, and logic model metrics directed at partnership dynamics, combined with logic model metrics.

  15. Recommended curriculum for subspecialty training in transplant infectious disease on behalf of the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice Educational Initiatives Working Group. (United States)

    Avery, R; Clauss, H; Danziger-Isakov, L; Davis, J; Doucette, K; van Duin, D; Fishman, J; Gunseren, F; Humar, A; Husain, S; Isada, C; Julian, K; Kaul, D; Kumar, D; Martin, S; Michaels, M; Morris, M; Silveira, F; Subramanian, A


    The American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases (ID) Community of Practice has established an education workgroup to identify core components of a curriculum for training specialists in transplant ID. Clinical, laboratory, and research training form the triad of components on which an additional year of ID training, dedicated to the care of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, should be based. The recommended training environment would have access to adequate numbers of transplant patients, along with qualified faculty committed to teaching specialized fellows in this area. The learning objectives for both inpatient and outpatient clinical training are presented. The laboratory component requires trainees to attain expertize in utilizing and interpreting cutting-edge diagnostics used in transplant medicine. The research component may involve basic science, and translational or clinical research individualized to the trainee. Finally, suggestions for evaluation of both the fellows and the training program are provided.

  16. Admixture mapping scans identify a locus affecting retinal vascular caliber in hypertensive African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Reich, David; Wong, Tien Y; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Patterson, Nick; Tandon, Arti; Li, Man; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sharrett, A Richey; Kao, W H Linda


    Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 ancestry-informative SNPs, we estimated the percentage of African ancestry (PAA) and conducted genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 1,737 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) representing summary measures of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, respectively, were measured from retinal photographs. PAA was significantly correlated with CRVE (rho = 0.071, P = 0.003), but not CRAE (rho = 0.032, P = 0.182). Using admixture mapping, we did not detect significant admixture association with either CRAE (genome-wide score = -0.73) or CRVE (genome-wide score = -0.69). An a priori subgroup analysis among hypertensive individuals detected a genome-wide significant association of CRVE with greater African ancestry at chromosome 6p21.1 (genome-wide score = 2.31, locus-specific LOD = 5.47). Each additional copy of an African ancestral allele at the 6p21.1 peak was associated with an average increase in CRVE of 6.14 microm in the hypertensives, but had no significant effects in the non-hypertensives (P for heterogeneity retinal vascular caliber and further insights into the interaction between genetic effects of the microvascular system and hypertension.

  17. Admixture mapping scans identify a locus affecting retinal vascular caliber in hypertensive African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Cheng


    Full Text Available Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 ancestry-informative SNPs, we estimated the percentage of African ancestry (PAA and conducted genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 1,737 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study. Central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE representing summary measures of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, respectively, were measured from retinal photographs. PAA was significantly correlated with CRVE (rho = 0.071, P = 0.003, but not CRAE (rho = 0.032, P = 0.182. Using admixture mapping, we did not detect significant admixture association with either CRAE (genome-wide score = -0.73 or CRVE (genome-wide score = -0.69. An a priori subgroup analysis among hypertensive individuals detected a genome-wide significant association of CRVE with greater African ancestry at chromosome 6p21.1 (genome-wide score = 2.31, locus-specific LOD = 5.47. Each additional copy of an African ancestral allele at the 6p21.1 peak was associated with an average increase in CRVE of 6.14 microm in the hypertensives, but had no significant effects in the non-hypertensives (P for heterogeneity <0.001. Further mapping in the 6p21.1 region may uncover novel genetic variants affecting retinal vascular caliber and further insights into the interaction between genetic effects of the microvascular system and hypertension.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064). (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F


    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064) (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.


    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  20. Translating an Evidence-Based Diabetes Education Approach Into Rural African-American Communities: The “Wisdom, Power, Control” Program (United States)

    Jiang, Luohua; Ory, Marcia G.; Hollingsworth, Ryan


    Purpose. The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the efficacy of the “Wisdom, Power, Control” diabetes self-management education (DSME) program with regard to diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-care, distress level, and A1C in an African-American population. Methods. A prospective, quasi-experimental, repeated-measure design was employed to measure these outcomes. Study participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks post-intervention, and at a 3-month A1C follow-up. Results. A total of 103 participants were recruited from the intervention counties, and 14 were identified from the control counties. At the post-test, participants in the intervention group reported a significantly higher level of diabetes knowledge (Δ = 9.2%, P <0.0001), higher self-efficacy (Δ = 0.60, P <0.0001), more self-care behaviors (Δ = 0.48, P <0.0001), lower distress level (Δ = –0.15, P = 0.05), and higher health status (Δ = 0.49, P = <0.0001). About 56% of the intervention group completed all six classes, and 25% attended five classes. Conclusions. Findings from this study demonstrate the initial success of translating a culturally adapted DSME program into rural African-American communities. The study highlights important lessons learned in the process of implementing this type of program in a real-world setting with a minority population. PMID:25987809

  1. Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations. (United States)

    Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Granados, Ysabel; Silvestre, Adriana; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Valls, Evart; Quintana, Rosana; Figuera, Yemina; Santiago, Flor Julian; Goñi, Mario; González, Rosa; Santana, Natalia; Nieto, Romina; Brito, Irais; García, Imelda; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Marcano, Manuel; Loyola-Sánchez, Adalberto; Stekman, Ivan; Jorfen, Marisa; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Midauar, Fadua; Chacón, Rosa; Martin, Maria Celeste; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A


    The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations.

  2. Implementing the ASAM Criteria in community treatment centers in Illinois: opportunities and challenges. American Society of Addiction Medicine. (United States)

    Heatherton, B


    The incorporation of the ASAM Criteria into addiction treatment centers procedure has afforded us an enormous opportunity to add credibility to our treatment. Herein lies perhaps the strongest argument for these criteria. The ASAM Criteria encourage addiction treatment centers to establish themselves as healthcare providers in their own right. The task is now for Illinois addiction treatment providers; particularly community based providers, to prove our credibility through the legitimate use of the criteria. Since most, if not all, of our patients are without means and without knowledge on quality treatment, they become easy targets for substandard or at least unimaginative and uninspired treatment. It is not that community based treatment centers are, by nature, unprincipled treatment warehouses. But it certainly can be said that our centers are frequently the last to change our treatment practices. Certainly we have become "the last resort" for the courts, overburdened mental health centers and overpopulated homeless shelters with little emphasis on clinical quality of care. Overcoming such programmed ways of viewing treatment was difficult specifically for Triangle Center and generally for community treatment providers throughout Illinois. In fact, I dare say that this transition has not occurred in total as many still passively resist this opportunity. Yet others have viewed this change as the breath of fresh air that our profession has long sought. Such variance in opinion ultimately proves that implementation of the ASAM Criteria, in a community based system, is dependent on the clinician and administrators willingness to understand, recognize and apply the Criteria.

  3. Educating the Emerging Middle Class in Brazil: A Comparative Analysis of SENAI and the American Community College. (United States)

    Kempner, Ken

    Brazil's education of its emerging middle class is compared in this paper with the U.S. community colleges' education of their middle and lower class constituency. First, introductory comments argue that, just as there are stratified technological levels within the labor market, levels of knowledge can also be distinguished, pointing to access to…

  4. Covariates of Subjective Well-Being among Latin American Immigrants in Spain: The Role of Social Integration in the Community (United States)

    Herrero, Juan; Fuente, Asur; Gracia, Enrique


    The aim of this study is to test the influence that social integration in the community might have on subjective well-being (SWB) beyond the influence of sociodemographic characteristics, self-esteem, stressful life events, and social support from intimate and confidant relationships. We explore this set of relationships among Latin American…

  5. American Behcet's Disease Association (United States)

    ... Behcet's Awareness Day Behcet's Disease Awareness Share your story and educate others about Behcet's: Upcoming Events American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI ...

  6. American Society of Nephrology (United States)

    ... stay safe! – @ASNKidney on Twitter ASN News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube ... Podcast ASN Communities Share ASN User Login © American Society of Nephrology top Text Size + - Translate Sitemap Terms ...

  7. Community phylogenetics at the biogeographical scale: cold tolerance, niche conservatism and the structure of North American forests. (United States)

    Hawkins, Bradford A; Rueda, Marta; Rangel, Thiago F; Field, Richard; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F; Linder, Peter


    AimThe fossil record has led to a historical explanation for forest diversity gradients within the cool parts of the Northern Hemisphere, founded on a limited ability of woody angiosperm clades to adapt to mid-Tertiary cooling. We tested four predictions of how this should be manifested in the phylogenetic structure of 91,340 communities: (1) forests to the north should comprise species from younger clades (families) than forests to the south; (2) average cold tolerance at a local site should be associated with the mean family age (MFA) of species; (3) minimum temperature should account for MFA better than alternative environmental variables; and (4) traits associated with survival in cold climates should evolve under a niche conservatism constraint. LocationThe contiguous United States. MethodsWe extracted angiosperms from the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis database. MFA was calculated by assigning age of the family to which each species belongs and averaging across the species in each community. We developed a phylogeny to identify phylogenetic signal in five traits: realized cold tolerance, seed size, seed dispersal mode, leaf phenology and height. Phylogenetic signal representation curves and phylogenetic generalized least squares were used to compare patterns of trait evolution against Brownian motion. Eleven predictors structured at broad or local scales were generated to explore relationships between environment and MFA using random forest and general linear models. ResultsConsistent with predictions, (1) southern communities comprise angiosperm species from older families than northern communities, (2) cold tolerance is the trait most strongly associated with local MFA, (3) minimum temperature in the coldest month is the environmental variable that best describes MFA, broad-scale variables being much stronger correlates than local-scale variables, and (4) the phylogenetic structures of cold tolerance and at least one other trait

  8. A longitudinal process analysis of mother-child emotional relationships in a rural Appalachian European American community. (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D


    This prospective longitudinal study examines emotional relationships in 58 Appalachian mother-child dyads observed at home at 5 and 20 months. Between infancy and toddlerhood, 3 of 4 dimensions of dyadic emotional relationships were stable, and three remained continuous in their mean level. Increasing maternal age was associated with greater maternal sensitivity and structuring and with more responsive and involving children. Marital status and father presence in the home as well as maternal openness, parenting knowledge, investment, and satisfaction accounted for effects of maternal age on dyadic emotional relationships. This longitudinal process analysis provides unique insights into temporal dynamics of mother-child emotional relationships and their determinants in an underserved and underresearched US community. Implications for community-specific interventions are discussed.

  9. The Design of a Multi-component Intervention to Promote Screening Mammography in an American Indian Community: The Native Women’s Health Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni L. Tolma


    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN women in the US. This article describes the design and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention to promote breast health among AI/AN women through a hybrid model that incorporates clinical and community-based approaches. This is one of the first studies using this model addressing breast cancer disparities among AI/AN populations in the US. Methods: The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as the guiding framework of the intervention and Community Based Participatory Research was the primary vehicle for the intervention planning and implementation. Three preliminary studies took place that aimed to identify qualitatively and quantitatively what deterred or encouraged AI women to get past or future mammograms. The research results were shared with community members who, through a prioritization process, identified the theoretical focus of the intervention and its corresponding activities. The priority population consisted of AI women ages 40–74, with no recent mammogram, and no breast cancer history. Results: The intervention centered on the promotion of social modeling and physician recommendation. The main corresponding activities included enhancing patient-physician communication about screening mammography through a structured dialogue, receipt of a breast cancer brochure, participation in an inter-generational discussion group, and a congratulatory bracelet upon receipt of a mammogram. Environmental and policy related changes also were developed. Conclusion: Creating a theory-based, culturally-sensitive intervention through tribal participatory research is a challenging approach towards eliminating breast cancer disparities among hard-to-reach populations.

  10. Community Essay: Seeking a dialogue: a targeted technology for sustainable agricultural systems in the American Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christianson


    Full Text Available This Community Essay aims to start a dialogue on the role of targeted environmental technologies in “sustainable agriculture.” Using the new water-quality technology of denitrification bioreactors as a specific example, we focus on the question: are edge-of-field technologies such as bioreactors simply band-aid approaches to sustainable agriculture? Or can they be part of a comprehensive paradigm shift? Denitrification bioreactors are a novel approach for reducing the amount of nitrate in on-farm agricultural drainage, a pollutant that has caused water-quality concerns at both local and national scales. We first address whether or not denitrification bioreactors might qualify singularly as a "sustainable technology" within the conceptual continuum of weak to strong sustainability. Then we introduce a broader perspective on the potential role that targeted technologies might play in multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We suggest that denitrification bioreactors are one technology that can, in a small way, mediate a shift in agrarian paradigms. A transition toward sustainability is a long and gradual process requiring the incorporation of a wide range of approaches including targeted technologies and multifunctional landscapes. While the issues presented here are hardly exhaustive, it is our hope that this commentary spurs broader dialogue within the sustainable agriculture community about the role of technology in the future of agriculture. We are seeking to encourage broader philosophical reflection on work being done in the name of a sustainable agriculture.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of nurse case manager and community health worker team interventions in urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Batts-Turner, Marian; Bone, Lee R; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Levine, David M; Powe, Neil R; Hill, Martha N; Saudek, Christopher; McGuire, Maura; Brancati, Frederick L


    The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of primary care and community-oriented interventions in managing HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids, and reducing hospitalizations and emergency room visits over 2 years. We describe an ongoing, randomized controlled trial of 542 urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes ages 25 years and older who are members of a university-affiliated managed-care organization in Baltimore, MD. The participants are 74% female, have a mean age of 58 years, and 35% have yearly incomes greater than 7500 US dollars. Participants were randomized to one of two intervention groups for a period of 2 years: (1) usual medical care plus minimal telephone intervention implemented by a trained lay health educator (control group) or (2) usual medical care plus intensive intervention implemented by a nurse case manager (NCM)/community health worker (CHW) team. The intensive NCM/CHW team executes individual plans of care using evidence-based algorithms that focus on traditional diabetes self-management, screening and management of diabetes-related complications, and social issues surrounding diabetes care. Face-to-face NCM visits are conducted in the clinic once per year and CHW visits are conducted in the participant's home one to three times per year, both with additional follow-up contacts as needed. Written and verbal feedback (when necessary) is provided to the participant's primary care physician. All participants are expected to attend a 24-month follow-up visit where data are collected by interviewers blinded to intervention assignment. As of May 1, 2003, recruitment is complete, interventions are being fully implemented, and 24-month follow-up visits are beginning. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, health-care utilization, health behaviors, and clinical characteristics of the study population are reported. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that a primary-care-based NCM plus CHW

  12. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischhacker Sheila E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA. Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores. Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%, general merchandise stores (96%, and restaurants (91%. Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89. Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66 and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91. Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67 and moderate for local health

  13. Research/Advocacy/Community: Reflections on Asian American trauma, heteropatriarchal betrayal, and trans/gender-variant health disparities research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hwahng


    Full Text Available This article first examines the author’s positionality with reference to the historical and inter-generational transmission of Asian trauma, the contemporary plight of North Koreans, and the betrayal of anatomically-female individuals (including those who are sexual minority/gender-variant within Asian heteropatriarchal systems. An analysis of the relevance of empirical research on low-income trans/gender-variant people of color is then discussed, along with an examination of HIV and health disparities in relation to the socio-economic positioning of low-income trans/gender-variant people of color and sexual minority women, and how social contexts often gives rise to gender identity, including transmasculine identities. What next follows is an appeal to feminist and queer/trans studies to truly integrate those located on the lowest socio-economic echelons. The final section interrogates concepts of health, well-being, and happiness and how an incorporation of the most highly disenfranchised/marginalized communities and populations challenges us to consider more expansive visions of social transformation.

  14. ABCC8 R1420H Loss-of-Function Variant in a Southwest American Indian Community: Association With Increased Birth Weight and Doubled Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. (United States)

    Baier, Leslie J; Muller, Yunhua Li; Remedi, Maria Sara; Traurig, Michael; Piaggi, Paolo; Wiessner, Gregory; Huang, Ke; Stacy, Alyssa; Kobes, Sayuko; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bennett, Peter H; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Nichols, Colin G; Bogardus, Clifton


    Missense variants in KCNJ11 and ABCC8, which encode the KIR6.2 and SUR1 subunits of the β-cell KATP channel, have previously been implicated in type 2 diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (HHI). To determine whether variation in these genes affects risk for type 2 diabetes or increased birth weight as a consequence of fetal hyperinsulinemia in Pima Indians, missense and common noncoding variants were analyzed in individuals living in the Gila River Indian Community. A R1420H variant in SUR1 (ABCC8) was identified in 3.3% of the population (N = 7,710). R1420H carriers had higher mean birth weights and a twofold increased risk for type 2 diabetes with a 7-year earlier onset age despite being leaner than noncarriers. One individual homozygous for R1420H was identified; retrospective review of his medical records was consistent with HHI and a diagnosis of diabetes at age 3.5 years. In vitro studies showed that the R1420H substitution decreases KATP channel activity. Identification of this loss-of-function variant in ABCC8 with a carrier frequency of 3.3% affects clinical care as homozygous inheritance and potential HHI will occur in 1/3,600 births in this American Indian population.

  15. Precipitating factors leading to decompensation of chronic heart failure in the elderly patient in South-American community hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Diaz; Cleto Ciocchini; Mariano Esperatti; Alberto Becerra; Sabrina Mainardi; Alejandro Farah


    Background Exacerbations of heart failure appear frequently associated with precipitating factors not directly related to the evolution of cardiac disease. There still a paucity of data on the proportional distribution of precipitating factors specifically in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine prospectively the precipitating factors leading to hospitalization in elderly patients with heart failure in our community hospital. Methods We evaluate elderly patients who need admissions for decompensate heart failure. All patients were reviewed daily by the study investigators at the first 24 h and closely followed-up. Decompensafion was defined as the worsening in clinical NYHA class associated with the need for an increase in medical treatment (at minimum intravenously diuretics). Results We included 102 patients (mean age 79 ± 12 years). Precipitating factors were identified in 88.5%. The decompensation was sudden in 35% of the cases.Noncompliance with diet was identified in 52% of the patients, lack of adherence to the prescribed medications amounted to 30%. Others precipitating factors were infections (29%), arrhythmias (25%), acute coronary ischemia (22%), and uncontrolled hypertension (15%),miscellaneous causes were detected in 18% of the cases (progression of renal disease 60%, anemia 30% and iatrogenic factors 10%).Concomitant cause was not recognizable in 11.5%. Conclusions Large proportion heart failure hospitalizations are associated with preventable precipitating factors. Knowledge of potential precipitating factors may help to optimize treatment and provide guidance for patients with heart failure. The presence of potential precipitating factors should be routinely evaluated in patients presenting chronic heart failure.

  16. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molaison Elaine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach

  17. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus). (United States)

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R


    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  18. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  19. 美国社区学院的教育理念和人才培养特点%On Educational Philosophy and Characteristic of Talent Cultivation in American community college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    American community college, as an organization rooted in local communities, is essentially a form of two-year short cycle higher education committed to cultivate skilled professionals. However, it should be noted that it is not independent higher vocational college due to the fact that vocational education and training are only one form of education in the community college. American community college embraces the educational philosophy of providing equitable educational and learning opportunities for all, with such characteristics of talent cultivation multiple training objectives, diversified specialty and curriculum setting, flexible learning modes, and well-equipped teachers.%美国社区学院是一种植根于社区和地方,培养专业人才的二年制短期高等教育形式,职业教育与培训只是其中的一种教育形式,并不是独立设置的职业院校。其教育理念就是为每一个有可能接受高等教育的人提供公平公开的入学和学习机会。人才培养的特点体现为培养目标的多样性、专业与课程设定的多样化、学习方式的灵活性与师资队伍的适应性。

  20. American Elementary School Children's Attitudes about Immigrants, Immigration, and Being an American (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears


    The current study examined 5 to 11-year-old European American children's (N = 90) attitudes regarding immigrants, immigration policy, and what it means to be an American. The majority of children in the sample (from a predominantly European American community) held strong American identities and had distinct ideas about what it means to be an…

  1. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece


    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  2. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008 (United States)

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.


    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  3. Diagnosed but Not Defeated: The Experiences of African-American Males with Past Histories of Enrollment in Special Education Who Successfully Attend Community College (United States)

    Strickland-Dixon, Kennedi


    African-American males are disappearing at alarming rates before our eyes through racially driven practices that secure their position in the penal system and special education. Though many scholars in the field of education have highlighted alarming rates of incarceration and overrepresentation in special education for African-American males,…

  4. "In the Interest of the Colored Boys": Christopher J. Atkinson, William T. Coleman, and the Extension of Boys' Clubs Services to African-American Communities, 1906-1931 (United States)

    Savage, Carter Julian


    This paper details how African-American boys' club workers, their Clubs as well as their service to African-American youth, gained legitimacy within the Boys' Club Federation, now Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA). Specifically, it illustrates what facilitated a predominantly urban, northeastern organization to begin opening Clubs for…

  5. National Conference on High Blood Pressure Control in Native American Communities (2nd, Tulsa, Oklahoma, November 6-7, 1980). Summary Report. (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    As part of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program effort, the conference explored the impact of high blood pressure (hypertension) on Native Americans. Participants, including health professionals, health service consumers, and volunteers providing health services to Native Americans, discussed these issues: traditional Native American…

  6. Community Entrepreneurship in Deprived Neighbourhoods: Comparing UK Community Enterprises with US Community Development Corporations (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varady, D.P.; Kleinhans, R.J.; Van Ham, M.


    Through a review of the recent American community development literature, this paper tests the assertion that British community enterprises (CEs) are fundamentally similar to American community development corporations (CDCs), and therefore, that CEs can learn from CDCs. In the context of the curren

  7. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study. (United States)

    Trappmann, Jessica L; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C; Cohen, Deborah A; Davis, Sally M

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities.

  8. The American Montessori Society, Inc. (United States)

    Donahue, Gilbert E.


    This article offers a brief history of the establishment of the American Montessori Society (AMS) and takes a closer look at its structure. The history of AMS has essentially been a search for standards and a search for community in its efforts to further the welfare of children in America. It has been an indigenous effort by American parents, and…

  9. Admixture Mapping Scans Identify a Locus Affecting Retinal Vascular Caliber in Hypertensive African Americans: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study


    Ching-Yu Cheng; David Reich; Wong, Tien Y.; Ronald Klein; Klein, Barbara E K; Nick Patterson; Arti Tandon; Man Li; Eric Boerwinkle; A Richey Sharrett; W H Linda Kao


    Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 a...

  10. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans. (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  11. Cultural Vignette: Vietnamese Americans. (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This booklet, developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, presents the findings of a nine-member research team on various aspects of the history and culture of Vietnamese Americans. The areas covered are: (1) the Vietnamese as immigrant, which includes a discussion of the trauma and…

  12. 实用制胜:美国社区学院的课程开发及启示%Practice is Success: American Community College Courses Schedule and Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It' s significant for american community college curriculum to adapt social need, such as regional integration, comprehensive professional and the open market. With practical winning, community college courses is proper and effective, which can provide re%美国社区学院的课程设置具有明显的社会适切性,呈现出区域联动性、综合职业性和市场开放性的特点。以实用制胜,社区学院课程设置的适切性及其实现的有效途径,可为我国教学型地方院校的专业建设提供借鉴,促进高等教育与区域经济发展长效互惠的联动机制。

  13. Increasing US health plan coverage for exercise programming in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness: a position statement from the Society of Behavior Medicine and the American College of Sports Medicine. (United States)

    Pratt, Sarah I; Jerome, Gerald J; Schneider, Kristin L; Craft, Lynette L; Buman, Matthew P; Stoutenberg, Mark; Daumit, Gail L; Bartels, Stephen J; Goodrich, David E


    Adults with serious mental illness die more than 10 years earlier than the average American. Premature mortality is due to the high prevalence of preventable diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Poor lifestyle behaviors including lack of exercise and physical inactivity contribute to the epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease observed among adults with serious mental illness. Not surprisingly, people with serious mental illness are among the most costly consumers of health services due to increased visits for poorly managed mental and physical health. Recent studies have demonstrated that exercise interventions based on community mental health settings can significantly improve physical and mental health in people with serious mental illness. However, current funding regulations limit the ability of community mental health settings to offer exercise programming services to people with serious mental illness. Policy efforts are needed to improve the dissemination and sustainability of exercise programs for people with serious mental illness.

  14. "Just Piles of Rocks to Developers but Places of Worship to Native Americans" - Exploring the Significance of Earth Jurisprudence for South African Cultural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matome M Ratiba


    Full Text Available Throughout the years cultural communities across the world have borne witness to many unending attempts at the destruction of their places of worship. This endemic problem has arisen in a number of places, such as in the USA and in most of the world's former colonies. Having been colonised, South African cultural communities have experienced the same threats to their various sacred sites. This article seeks to argue and demonstrate that cultural communities in South Africa stand to benefit from the properly construed and rich earth jurisprudence arising out of the courtroom experiences of some of the cultural communities identified elsewhere in the world. It also proposes several arguments peculiar to South Africa which could be advanced by cultural communities seeking to protect their sacred lands.

  15. 76 FR 11929 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8629 of February 28, 2011 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011 By the... immigrants built strong communities and helped forge our country's future. During Irish-American Heritage... communities across our country celebrate Irish-American Heritage Month and St. Patrick's Day, our Nation...

  16. Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women. (United States)

    Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G


    Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.

  17. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.


    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  18. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities (United States)

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun


    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  19. The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities (United States)

    Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.


    This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

  20. The Virtues of Cultural Resonance, Competence, and Relational Collaboration with Native American Indian Communities: A Synthesis of the Counseling and Psychotherapy Literature (United States)

    Trimble, Joseph E.


    The article extends the scholarship, observations, and recommendations provided in Joseph Gone's article, "Psychotherapy and Traditional Healing for American Indians: Prospects for Therapeutic Integration" (2010 [this issue]). The overarching thesis is that for many Indian and Native clients, interpersonal and interethnic problems can emerge when…

  1. Involving Parents in a Community-Based, Culturally Grounded Mental Health Intervention for American Indian Youth: Parent Perspectives, Challenges, and Results (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica; LaNoue, Marianna; Lee, Christopher; Freeland, Lance; Freund, Rachel


    An important predictor of youth well-being and resilience is the presence of nurturing adults in a youth's life. Parents are ideally situated to fulfill this role but often face challenges and stressors that impede their ability to provide adequate support and guidance. American Indian parents may also be affected by intergenerational transmission…

  2. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Findings from a Community-Based Cultural Mental Health Intervention for American Indian Youth and Their Families (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica; LaNoue, Marianna; Lee, Christopher; Freeland, Lance; Freund, Rachel


    Through a CBPR partnership, university and American Indian (AI) tribal members developed and tested "Our Life" intervention to promote mental health of AI youth and their families by addressing root causes of violence, trauma, and substance abuse. Based on premises that well-being is built on a foundation of traditional cultural beliefs and…

  3. Towards creating an inclusive community of researchers: the first three years of the North American association for environmental education research symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, R.B.; Brody, M.; Dillon, J.; Hart, P.; Krasny, M.; Monroe, M.; Russell, J.; Wals, A.E.J.


    This article uses a series of interlinked, personal vignettes to discuss the first three years of the North American Association for Environmental Education research symposium, from the perspectives of the key organizers. Seven challenges in the field of environmental education research are identifi

  4. Towards Creating an Inclusive Community of Researchers: The First Three Years of the North American Association for Environmental Education Research Symposium (United States)

    Meyers, Ronald B.; Brody, Michael; Dillon, Justin; Hart, Paul; Krasny, Marianne; Monroe, Martha; Russell, Constance; Wals, Arjen


    This article uses a series of interlinked, personal vignettes to discuss the first three years of the North American Association for Environmental Education research symposium, from the perspectives of the key organizers. Seven challenges in the field of environmental education research are identified in a recent historical context, and we…

  5. The Community Psychology Evaluation Nexus (United States)

    Sheldon, Jeffrey A.; Wolfe, Susan M.


    In 2012, the American Evaluation Association (AEA) added community psychology (CP) to its roster of topical interests groups (TIG). One of the highlights of the CP TIG program at the 2012 AEA Conference and the genesis of this "American Journal of Evaluation" Forum was a panel of accomplished community psychologists and evaluation…

  6. 3 CFR 8361 - Proclamation 8361 of April 14, 2009. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2009 (United States)


    ... the United States of America A Proclamation A common heritage, an interconnected world, and shared goals and values unite the Pan American community. As a proud member of this group of countries, the... in the Organization of American States to advance a common future. The Pan American community...

  7. Victims and Survivors: Native American Women Writers, Violence against Women, and Child Abuse. (United States)

    Hendrickson, Roberta Makashay


    Overviews the works of Native American women writers whose writings reflect contemporary American Indian life, particularly the violence and abuse experienced by American Indian women and children from within and outside their communities. Suggests that this trend toward violence in American Indian communities is connected to present-day racism…

  8. A community-integrated home based depression intervention for older African Americans: descripton of the Beat the Blues randomized trial and intervention costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitlin Laura N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is the principle setting for depression treatment; yet many older African Americans in the United States fail to report depressive symptoms or receive the recommended standard of care. Older African Americans are at high risk for depression due to elevated rates of chronic illness, disability and socioeconomic distress. There is an urgent need to develop and test new depression treatments that resonate with minority populations that are hard-to-reach and underserved and to evaluate their cost and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Beat the Blues (BTB is a single-blind parallel randomized trial to assess efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in 208 African Americans 55+ years old. It involves a collaboration with a senior center whose care management staff screen for depressive symptoms (telephone or in-person using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Individuals screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 5 on two separate occasions over 2 weeks are referred to local mental health resources and BTB. Interested and eligible participants who consent receive a baseline home interview and then are randomly assigned to receive BTB immediately or 4 months later (wait-list control. All participants are interviewed at 4 (main study endpoint and 8 months at home by assessors masked to study assignment. Licensed senior center social workers trained in BTB meet with participants at home for up to 10 sessions over 4 months to assess care needs, make referrals/linkages, provide depression education, instruct in stress reduction techniques, and use behavioral activation to identify goals and steps to achieve them. Key outcomes include reduced depressive symptoms (primary, reduced anxiety and functional disability, improved quality of life, and enhanced depression knowledge and behavioral activation (secondary. Fidelity is enhanced through procedure manuals and staff

  9. In Our Own Words: Community Story Traditions To Prevent and Heal Substance Abuse. A Teacher's Guide with Examples from Native American and Rural Contexts. (United States)

    Tierney, Michael

    As the national war on drugs continues, children and youth are told to "just say no" but are seldom given the information and skills to sort out the mixed signals coming from peers, adults, and the mass media. This guidebook presents examples of three approaches to community "storytelling" projects through which children and…

  10. Towards Biogeochemical Modeling of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane: Characterization of Microbial Communities in Methane-bearing North American Continental Margin Sediments (United States)

    Graw, M. F.; Solomon, E. A.; Chrisler, W.; Krause, S.; Treude, T.; Ruppel, C. D.; Pohlman, J.; Colwell, F. S.


    Methane advecting through continental margin sediments may enter the water column and potentially contribute to ocean acidification and increase atmospheric methane concentrations. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by syntrophic consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (ANME-SRB), consumes nearly all dissolved methane in methane-bearing sediments before it reaches the sediment-water interface. Despite the significant role ANME-SRB play in carbon cycling, our knowledge of these organisms and their surrounding microbial communities is limited. Our objective is to develop a metabolic model of ANME-SRB within methane-bearing sediments and to couple this to a geochemical reaction-transport model for these margins. As a first step towards this goal, we undertook fluorescent microscopic imaging, 16S rRNA gene deep-sequencing, and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of sediments from the US Pacific (Washington) and northern Atlantic margins where ANME-SRB are present. A successful Illumina MiSeq sequencing run yielded 106,257 bacterial and 857,834 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from 12 communities from the Washington Margin using both universal prokaryotic and archaeal-specific primer sets. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of cells of the ANME-2c lineage in the sequenced communities. Microbial community characterization was coupled with measurements of sediment physical and geochemical properties and, for samples from the US Atlantic margin, 14C-based measurements of AOM rates and 35S-based measurements of sulfate reduction rates. These findings have the potential to increase understanding of ANME-SRB, their surrounding microbial communities, and their role in carbon cycling within continental margins. In addition, they pave the way for future efforts at developing a metabolic model of ANME-SRB and coupling it to geochemical models of the US Washington and Atlantic margins.

  11. Oversight on Community Services Administration, Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment, and Adoption Opportunities, and Native American Programs Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Oversight hearings were conducted on April 23, 1981 in reference to social service block grants for the Community Services Administration, child abuse prevention and treatment and adoption programs, and Native American Programs Act. Testimonies for support of block grants advocated ability of States to decide how program resources can best be…

  12. "It Really Is Not Just Gay, but African American Gay": The Impact of Community and Church on the Experiences of Black Lesbians Living in North Central Florida. (United States)

    Walsh, Clare F


    The experiences of Black lesbians highlight the unique circumstance found at the intersection of sexuality, race, and gender. However, most sexuality research tends to focus on White lesbians and White gay men, and most race research tends to focus on Black heterosexuals. Furthermore, research on the Black gay community tends to focus on those living in the Northeast or on the West Coast, neglecting experiences of those living in the more politically, socially, and religiously conservative South. This article draws on data obtained from semistructured interviews with 12 Black lesbians living in north central Florida, exploring their perspectives as they negotiate a social world of intersecting oppressions. Participants especially highlight how they contextualized their sexuality in racialized terms and negotiated it in racially defined communities.

  13. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB


    Full Text Available Richard B FrancoeurSchool of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples; expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring. Novel components of two related community-oriented programs, which may be hosted outside of safe medication dispensing centers, are also suggested and described: (1 developing medication purchasing cooperatives (ie, to help patients, families, and health institutions afford the costs of medications, including tamper- or abuse-resistant/deterrent drug formulations; and (2 expanding the role of inner-city methadone maintenance treatment programs in palliative care (ie, to provide additional patient monitoring from a second treatment team focusing on narcotics addiction, and potentially, to serve as an untapped source of opioid medication for pain that is less subject to abuse

  14. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction


    Francoeur RB


    Richard B FrancoeurSchool of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at th...

  15. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction. (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B


    This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples); expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring. Novel components of two related community-oriented programs, which may be hosted outside of safe medication dispensing centers, are also suggested and described: (1) developing medication purchasing cooperatives (ie, to help patients, families, and health institutions afford the costs of medications, including tamper-or abuse-resistant/deterrent drug formulations); and (2) expanding the role of inner-city methadone maintenance treatment programs in palliative care (ie, to provide additional patient monitoring from a second treatment team focusing on narcotics addiction, and potentially, to serve as an untapped source of opioid medication for pain that is less subject to abuse, misuse, or diversion).

  16. Image Making of Arab Americans: Implications for Teachers in Diverse Settings. (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media…

  17. Keep It Up: development of a community-based health screening and HIV prevention strategy for reaching young African American men. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann


    This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions.

  18. Perceptions of High Achieving African American/Black 10th Graders from a Low Socioeconomic Community Regarding Health Scientists and Desired Careers (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi


    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058

  19. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning. (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha


    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  20. The Third Era of American Higher Education (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.


    Past changes are traced and future fundamental changes anticipated in our American universities and colleges. A chief reason for future change will be the difference in relationships of the adult community to post-secondary institutions. (EA)

  1. American Association of Colleges of Nursing (United States)

    ... Interprofessional Education Public Health Nursing QSEN Module Series NURSING SHORTAGE RESOURCES About the Nursing Shortage I mpact ... Social Media Communities American Association of Colleges of Nursing One Dupont Circle, NW Suite 530 Washington, DC ...

  2. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiestand Shelby J.


    Full Text Available A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2, and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  3. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis. (United States)

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  4. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni


    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  5. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni


    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  6. American ginseng (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. ...

  7. Association and ancestry analysis of sequence variants in ADH and ALDH using alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample. (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Gizer, Ian R; Libiger, Ondrej; Bizon, Chris; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Schork, Nicholas J; Ehlers, Cindy L


    Higher rates of alcohol use and other drug-dependence have been observed in some Native American (NA) populations relative to other ethnic groups in the US. Previous studies have shown that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes may affect the risk of development of alcohol dependence, and that polymorphisms within these genes may differentially affect risk for the disorder depending on the ethnic group evaluated. We evaluated variations in the ADH and ALDH genes in a large study investigating risk factors for substance use in a NA population. We assessed ancestry admixture and tested for associations between alcohol-related phenotypes in the genomic regions around the ADH1-7 and ALDH2 and ALDH1A1 genes. Seventy-two ADH variants showed significant evidence of association with a severity level of alcohol drinking-related dependence symptoms phenotype. These significant variants spanned across the entire 7 ADH gene cluster regions. Two significant associations, one in ADH and one in ALDH2, were observed with alcohol dependence diagnosis. Seventeen variants showed significant association with the largest number of alcohol drinks ingested during any 24-hour period. Variants in or near ADH7 were significantly negatively associated with alcohol-related phenotypes, suggesting a potential protective effect of this gene. In addition, our results suggested that a higher degree of NA ancestry is associated with higher frequencies of potential risk variants and lower frequencies of potential protective variants for alcohol dependence phenotypes.

  8. Counseling Considerations among Arab Americans. (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Hakim-Larson, Julie


    This article describes a focus group interview conducted with a group of therapists in a large-scale, comprehensive family service agency in an Arab American community. The interview format was semistructured, and the results confirmed what little was already known about the population and supplemented that body of knowledge with updated…

  9. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition. (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  10. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺


    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  11. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  12. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.


    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  13. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.


    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  14. Design of a trial to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacists and community health promoters working with African-Americans and Latinos with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Ben S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and the lack of patients reaching recommended therapeutic goals, novel models of team-based care are emerging. These teams typically include a combination of physicians, nurses, case managers, pharmacists, and community-based peer health promoters (HPs. Recent evidence supports the role of pharmacists in diabetes management to improve glycemic control, as they offer expertise in medication management with the ability to collaboratively intensify therapy. However, few studies of pharmacy-based models of care have focused on low income, minority populations that are most in need of intervention. Alternatively, HP interventions have focused largely upon low income minority groups, addressing their unique psychosocial and environmental challenges in diabetes self-care. This study will evaluate the impact of HPs as a complement to pharmacist management in a randomized controlled trial. Methods/Design The primary aim of this randomized trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists and HPs on diabetes behaviors (including healthy eating, physical activity, and medication adherence, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. A total of 300 minority patients with uncontrolled diabetes from the University of Illinois Medical Center ambulatory network in Chicago will be randomized to either pharmacist management alone, or pharmacist management plus HP support. After one year, the pharmacist-only group will be intensified by the addition of HP support and maintenance will be assessed by phasing out HP support from the pharmacist plus HP group (crossover design. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, program and healthcare utilization data will be incorporated into cost and cost-effectiveness evaluations of pharmacist management with and without HP support. Discussion The study will evaluate an innovative, integrated

  15. Prospective validation of American Diabetes Association risk tool for predicting pre-diabetes and diabetes in Taiwan-Taichung community health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A simple diabetes risk tool that does not require laboratory tests would be beneficial in screening individuals at higher risk. Few studies have evaluated the ability of these tools to identify new cases of pre-diabetes. This study aimed to assess the ability of the American Diabetes Association Risk Tool (ADART to predict the 3-year incidence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in Taiwanese. METHODS: This was a 3-year prospective study of 1021 residents with normoglycemia at baseline, gathered from a random sample of residents aged 40-88 years in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The areas under the curve (AUCs of three models were compared: ADART only, ADART plus lifestyle behaviors at baseline, and ADART plus lifestyle behaviors and biomarkers at baseline. The performance of ADART was compared with that of 16 tools that had been reported in the literature. RESULTS: The AUCs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 0.60 (0.54-0.66 for men and 0.72 (0.66-0.77 for women in model 1; 0.62 (0.56-0.68 for men and 0.74 (0.68-0.80 for women in model 2; and 0.64 (0.58-0.71 for men and 0.75 (0.69-0.80 for women in model 3. The AUCs of these three models were all above 0.7 in women, but not in men. No significant difference in either women or men (p = 0.268 and 0.156, respectively was observed in the AUC of these three models. Compared to 16 tools published in the literature, ADART had the second largest AUC in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: ADART is a good screening tool for predicting the three-year incidence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in females of a Taiwanese population. The performance of ADART in men was similar to the results with other tools published in the literature. Its performance was one of the best among the tools reported in the literature.

  16. Civil Rights Issues Facing Arab Americans in Michigan. (United States)

    Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics…

  17. Characteristics of Older Georgians Receiving Older Americans Act Nutrition Program Services and Other Home- and Community-Based Services: Findings from the Georgia Aging Information Management System (GA AIMS). (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sun; Shannon, Jerry; Brown, Arvine


    This descriptive study examined characteristics of older Georgians receiving Older Americans Act Nutrition Program Services and other home- and community-based services (HCBS) using state aging administrative data (N = 31,341, mean age: 76.6 ± 9.2 y, 71.2% female, 52.3% White). Home-delivered meals (HDM) was used most frequently. The characteristics of older Georgian HCBS participants varied by the type and number of HCBS received. Those receiving HDM and other in-home and caregiving services were more likely to show poorer sociodemographic, economic, and functional characteristics, and food insecurity. Those receiving multiple HCBS were most vulnerable, but showed lower level of food insecurity than those receiving single HCBS, suggesting potential combined benefits of receiving multiple programs. This study underscores the importance of documenting dynamic needs for HCBS, especially HDM, among vulnerable older adults as part of standard administrative process to identify those at high risk of institutionalization, optimize HCBS delivery and coordination, and maximize HCBS benefits.

  18. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  19. Mental Health and the Elderly: Issues in Service Delivery to the American Indian and the Hispanic Communities. Part II. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Denver, Colorado). (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This field hearing by the House Select Committee on Aging produced testimony on the mental health problems and service delivery needs of American Indian and Hispanic American elderly. A director of research and two American Indian advocates: (1) pointed out the high rate of depression among Indian elderly due to physical impairments and deprived…

  20. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  1. African Americans and the medical establishment. (United States)

    Smith, C


    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  2. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders. (United States)

    Woody, Imani


    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  3. Normative Changes in Ethnic and American Identities and Links with Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.


    Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…

  4. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  5. Infant Feeding Practices: Perceptions of Native American Mothers and Health Paraprofessionals (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Calcatera, Mary; Carpenter, Amanda


    Objective: To ascertain infant feeding practices and to explore the feasibility of an in-home feeding intervention with Native American Indian (NAI) mothers in six Native American communities in the United States (US). Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Six Native American communities in the Midwest region of the United States.…

  6. Tarrant County Junior College District, Exploring America's Communities. Progress Report. (United States)

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    In 1996, Tarrant County Junior College District participated in the American Association of Community Colleges' Exploring America's Communities project, which works to strengthen the teaching and learning of American history, literature, and culture at U.S. community colleges. The primary goals included the following: (1) to develop an inclusive,…

  7. On the Relationship Between the Identity and the Community of Practice in Meaning Construction---Contrastive Analysis of Mandela's Eulogy by Chinese and American Leaders%意义建构中的认同与实践共同体的关系研究--对比分析中美领导人的曼德拉悼词

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "Community of practice"is put forward in the wave of social constructivism, highlighting the interaction between the individual and the society. In the same community of practice, cognition of the community is shared among the members, and community identity that fits it is built in the community. In addition, the members' community identity varies with the change of such communities of practice. Through the contrastive analysis of the speech by American and Chinese leaders at Mandela's memorial service, it could be found that different communities of practice influence their language performance in different ways, from which it could be concluded that the relationship between the community identity and the community itself takes on the feature of being multi-leveled and dynamic.%实践共同体的提出是在社会建构主义浪潮中孕育而生的,强调个体与社会环境的互动性。同一实践共同体中,成员共享对团体的认识,建构符合共同体认识的认同;随着成员所参加的实践共同体的改变,其认同也在不断发生着变化。通过对比分析中美领导人在曼德拉追悼会上的演讲,可以发现不同的实践共同体以不同表现形式影响着他们的语言表达,从而得出认同与实践共同体之间的关系具有多层次和动态性的特点。

  8. Thought on Studentsf Communicating Skill Training at American Community Colleges%美国社区学院学生交流沟通能力培养引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    交流沟通能力是从事职业活动所需的综合行为能力,是高职学生适应今后不断发展变化的工作任务而获得的跨专业、多功能和不受时间限制的一种基础能力。随着我国经济社会的飞速发展和经济全球化的到来,这种能力的培养对学生的未来发展显得十分重要。通过在美国社区学院的学习培训,借鉴美国社区学院在学生交流沟通能力方面的培养经验,结合我国高职院校的特点,应积极探索和实践加强学生交流沟通能力的培养。%Communicating skill is the comprehensive skill required for future professional activities, the basic skill which is of cross-ma- jors, multi-functional, and no-time limiting for the higher vocational students to cater for the changes in jobs. With rapid development of our country and globalization in economy, it is more and more important to develop this skill for students' future. After study in A- merican Community Colleges, learning American successful experience in training students" communicating skills, according to the fea- tures of Chinese higher vocational colleges, the author puts forward to explore and strengthen students" communicating skills develop- ment in practice actively.

  9. On Response of American Community College to Challenge of Economic Crisis%经济危机背景下美国社区学院的发展趋势及启示研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在经济危机的冲击下,美国社区学院面临着生源减少、毕业率低、经费减少、教学质量降低等挑战。美国社区学院积极进行应对,包括:改革教学模式,开设远程教育;增加学士学位,强化转学教育;改革招生制度,凸显生源多源化;开源节流,强化管理。美国社区学院的发展启示我们需从以下几方面着手:改革教育模式,挖掘潜能,增加生源;加强内外合作,提高竞争力,吸引资金;扩大影响,确保教学质量,提高公信力。%With the advent of economic crisis, the enrollment of American community college has greatly decreased, in addition to graduates' low employment rate, shrunk fund and fallen teaching quality. In response, they reformed the teaching mode, provided distance learning program, increased degree programs and invested greater efforts on credit transferring system. Meanwhile, they reformed enrollment system to attract students from different sources, attracted investment while reduced cost, and improved management. The paper holds that these measures are very effective and suggests that Chinese colleges reform training mode, exploit their own potential to increase enrollment, strengthen cooperation with industries and other colleges to enhance competitiveness, attract more investment by extending their influence, improving teaching quality and public prestige.

  10. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns. (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B


    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  11. American shad in the Columbia River (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.


    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  12. University Communities and the Next American Upgrade (United States)

    Levin, Blair


    Knowledge is humanity's first and final frontier. From the Edenic exodus to flights beyond earth, mythic narratives reveal that going where no one has gone before to learn what no one has known before drives people like no other quest. That quest, for many millennium largely driven by spiritual needs, has become core to economic and social…

  13. Native Americans with Diabetes (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  14. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources. (United States)

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie


    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

  16. Electric Substations, This is a ESRI feature class of American Transmission Company's Rock County electrical sub station sites, Published in 2006, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Substations dataset as of 2006. It is described as 'This is a ESRI feature class of American Transmission Company's Rock County electrical sub station...

  17. Competence, Self-Esteem, and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of Ecological Risk and Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American and European American Youth (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Swenson, Rebecca R.


    Structural equation modeling was used to test [Sandler, "American Journal of Community Psychology" 29: 19-61.] a theoretical model of risk and resilience in an urban sample of African American and European American adolescents. The aims of the present study were to examine whether self-system processes (i.e., competence, self-esteem, and coping…

  18. 75 FR 67907 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2010 (United States)


    ... American Heritage Month, we honor and celebrate their importance to our great Nation and our world. America... communities face stark realities, including disproportionately high rates of poverty, unemployment, crime,...

  19. Superintendent Leadership and Community Engagement: A Study of Convergence as Perceived by Community Leaders (United States)

    DiStefano, Salvatore P.


    The role of the community in public education is rooted in the earliest beginnings of the American educational system. This exploratory and quantitative study examined what the superintendent does to lead the school district regarding community engagement, and also examined community member perceptions of that engagement. This was based on…

  20. Arab Americans: A Comparative Critical Analysis of Leading Reference Sources. (United States)

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.


    Examines eight reference sources on Arab Americans to investigate how complete the information is on various facets of Arab American presence, history, community life, heritage preservation, organizations, and the press, concluding that the reference sources complement each other, but taken together, they do not cover the entire multidimensional…

  1. New Interpretations of Native American Literature: A Survival Technique. (United States)

    Buller, Galen


    Uses examples from the work of several Native American authors, including N. Scott Momaday and Leslie Silko, to discuss five unique elements in American Indian literature: reverence for words, dependence on a sense of place, sense of ritual, affirmation of the need for community, and a significantly different world view. (SB)

  2. Filipino Americans and Racism: A Multiple Mediation Model of Coping (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.


    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…

  3. American Counseling in the Mind of a Chinese Counselor. (United States)

    Zhang, Weijun


    Illustrating three instances he encountered here in the United States, the Chinese counselor argues that American counseling is deeply rooted in rugged individualism, and often at the expense of the family and community. The suitability of American counseling for other cultures is thus questioned. (Author/NB)

  4. African-American Biography. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  5. Individualistic and Collectivistic Worldviews: Implications for Understanding Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in African Americans and British Caribbean Americans (United States)

    Hunter, Carla D.


    Cultural worldviews and perceived racial discrimination were examined among Americans (n = 106) and British Caribbean Americans (n = 95), both of African descent, who were recruited through university student organizations, community organizations, and snowball sampling. Consistent with public perceptions of differences in the experience of race…

  6. The Destruction of American Indian Families. (United States)

    Unger, Steven, Ed.

    Responding to the need for a comprehensive source of information regarding the separation of American Indian children from their families, this book presents essays which: examine the Indian child-welfare crisis in contemporary, legal, and historical perspectives; document the human cost of the crisis to Indian parents, children, and communities;…

  7. Agricultura Apoiada pela Comunidade: poderia a experiência dos agricultores americanos ser útil para os agricultores urbanos brasileiros? Community Supported Agriculture: could the experience of American farmers be useful to Brazilian urban farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Castelo Branco


    ão principal para isso foi a impossibilidade deles garantirem a produção. Pesquisas posteriores deverão avaliar se a melhoria do sistema de produção poderia levar esses agricultores a se engajarem neste tipo de projeto.Community Supported Agriculture (CSA is an alternative food market used in Europe and in the USA. In this alternative market, farmers offer their production to consumers in the form of shares some months before they begin to produce their crops. Sometime later, during some months, consumers will receive the goods. Nowadays, several countries have a significant portion of their population that lives in poverty. Several public policies have been designed to reduce poverty in these countries and the stimulus to urban agriculture is one of these policies. However, poor urban farmers frequently have difficulties to purchase the inputs to continue with their food production. The continuous support of the local government associated to the continuous support of the local community could help those farmers to maintain their urban production. And for those poor urban farmers a CSA could be an alternative way of organization. The objective of this work was to get some information of CSAs from USA and find whether consumers and urban farmers from a poor Brazilian town would like to be engaged in this type of project. American CSAs generally occupied an area smaller than 2 ha, offered consumers different types of vegetables for at least four months and most of them used practices of organic production. However, there were several difficulties to run this project and the most important ones were planning and maintaining the production system. Some consumers from a town in Brazil were willing to engage in a CSA project mainly because they would receive fresh and organic products. Yet, poor urban farmers from this town did not show willingness to engage in a CSA project. Their main reason was that they were not able to control their production system. Further research

  8. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system. (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L


    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  9. Common Ground. Perspectives on Affirmative Action...and Its Impact on Asian Pacific Americans. (United States)

    Lew, Gena A., Ed.

    This collection of policy papers is intended to educate and inform business and community leaders, policymakers, the Asian Pacific community, and the general public about the complex issues and far-reaching implications of the affirmative action debate on Asian Pacific Americans as well as all Americans. Essays are grouped into sections on…

  10. The Urban Los Angeles American Indian Experience: Perspectives from the Field (United States)

    Ledesma, Rita


    This article reports on the findings from two studies conducted in the Los Angeles urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) community. The research investigated the relationship between the American Indian and Alaska Native cultural values and the social problems that challenge the urban Native community in the greater Los Angeles and Orange…

  11. Breast Cancer--Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indian Women (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche


    A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…

  12. Community Background Reports: Three Boarding Schools (Phoenix Indian School, Phoenix, Arizona; Theodore Roosevelt School, Fort Apache, Arizona; Chemawa Indian School, Salem, Oregon). National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 15, Final Report. (United States)

    Wesemann, Ralph E.; And Others

    Three Bureau of Indian Affairs off-reservation boarding schools (Phoenix Indian School in Phoenix, Arizona; Theodore Roosevelt School in Fort Apache, Arizona; and Chemawa Indian School in Salem, Oregon) are the subjects for this report, which is a part of the National Study of American Indian Education. Brief descriptions of the physical plant,…

  13. Boston: An Urban Community. Boston and the American Revolution; The Leaders, the Issues and the Common Man. Boston's Architecture: From First Townhouse to New City Hall. Boston's Artisans of the Eighteenth Century. Annotated Reading Lists. (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C.; And Others

    These three annotated reading guides were developed for courses offered at the Boston Public Library under the National Endowment for the Humanities Library Learning Program. The first lists 32 selected recent works of major importance covering the areas of colonial society, political structure, and the American Revolution. The 27 titles cited in…

  14. A Call for Scientifically-Rigorous, Community-Based "Actionable Intelligence" to Promote the Academic Achievement of African American Boys: An Introduction to Fantuzzo, LeBoeuf, Rouse, and Chen (2012) and Commentaries (United States)

    McWayne, Christine M.


    This introduction briefly summarizes the featured article and commentaries making up this commissioned set of papers on the topic of the Black-White achievement gap and, more specifically, risk and protective factors for young African American boys' school success. Each paper highlights important considerations for advancing scholarship, practice,…

  15. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review. (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S


    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  16. Telephone surveys underestimate cigarette smoking among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope eLandrine


    Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.

  17. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010 (United States)

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.


    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  18. Women in Community Psychology: The Trailblazer Story (United States)

    Ayala-Alcantar, Christina; Stritto, Mary Ellen Dello; Guzman, Bianca L.


    This article is an archival document which chronicles a herstory project organized and directed by the Society for Community Research and Action (Division 27 of the American Psychological Association) Women's Committee. The experiences of 55 trailblazing women in the field of community psychology are examined, and the authors' journey in…

  19. Community Colleges Can Rescue the Bicentennial (United States)

    Kilar, Jeremy W.


    Community colleges--with their link between culture and community--are natural places for citizen involvement in the American Bicentennial celebration. Activities already undertaken by some junior colleges include the recording of local histories, workshops for teachers, art shows, readers' theaters, and folk science lectures. (Author/NHM)

  20. The School as a Democratic Community (United States)

    Quinn, Brandy


    Schools may be able to play a particular role in instilling a strong American identity in young people. They can do this by actively practicing democratic community within the school. This practice of democratic community is key to the development of an individual identity that prioritizes the interdependent relationship between individual and…

  1. Nursing care community health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Acosta-Salazar


    Full Text Available Process Nursing Care (PAE is a systematic tool that facilitates the scientificity of care in community practice nurse, the application of scientific method in community practice, allows nursing to provide care in logical, systematic and comprehensive reassessing interventions to achieve the proposed results. It began with the valuation of Marjory Gordon Functional Patterns and then at the stage of diagnosis and planning North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC is interrelate. It is a descriptive and prospective study. Diagnosis was made by applying the instruments measuring scale of the socio-demographic characteristics, symptom questionnaire for early detection of mental disorders in the community and appreciation for functional patterns. The PAE includes more frequent diagnoses, criteria outcomes, indicators, interventions and activities to manage community issues. alteration was evidenced in patterns: Adaptation and Stress Tolerance, Self-perception-Self-concept-, Role-Relationships, sleep and rest and Perception and Health Management. A standardized NANDA-NIC-NOC can provide inter care holistic care from the perspective of community mental health with a degree of scientific nature that frames the professional work projecting the individual, family and community care.

  2. American Vitiligo Research Foundation (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation 2017 AVRF Calendars Order your calendar with ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  3. American Hospice Foundation (United States)

    American Hospice Foundation Skip to content Home Caregiving Learning About Hospice Grief Grieving Children Grief at School Grief at ... for all who come after us. The American Hospice Foundation (AHF) closed its doors in June 2014. ...

  4. Obesity and Hispanic Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. Obesity and Asian Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  6. American Society of Echocardiography (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  7. American Urogynecologic Society (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Asthma and Hispanic Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2014, 2.1 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  9. Increasing US health plan coverage for exercise programming in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness: a position statement from the Society of Behavior Medicine and the American College of Sports Medicine


    Pratt, Sarah I.; Jerome, Gerald J; Schneider, Kristin L; Craft, Lynette L.; Buman, Matthew P; Stoutenberg, Mark; Daumit, Gail L.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Goodrich, David E.


    Adults with serious mental illness die more than 10 years earlier than the average American. Premature mortality is due to the high prevalence of preventable diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Poor lifestyle behaviors including lack of exercise and physical inactivity contribute to the epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease observed among adults with serious mental illness. Not surprisingly, people with serious mental illness are among the most c...

  10. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study


    Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Deborah A. Cohen; Davis, Sally M


    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...

  11. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  12. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  13. The epidemiology of mental illness in Afro-Americans. (United States)

    Williams, D H


    The epidemiologic study of mental illness among Afro-Americans has progressed since the antebellum period when the rate of mental illness among free Afro-Americans living in the North was inflated to justify continued slavery. Community-wide surveys conducted after World War II demonstrated that when socioeconomic variables were controlled, the rate of mental illness among Afro-Americans was no higher than that of other groups. The rates of mental illness and substance abuse of Afro-Americans vary according to socioeconomic class and are also related to differential family structure, early performance in school, and antisocial behavior of fathers. Despite progress, undersampling of middle-class Afro-Americans and poor, unemployed, young, urban Afro-American males are consistent deficiencies of surveys that even the ambitious NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program seems to share.

  14. Fear of Crime among African-American Males in Two American Cities: A Multivariate Analysis. (United States)

    Parker, Keith D.; Wright, Earl II; Wingren, Jennifer


    Examines the distribution of fear of crime and the influence of selected predictors of fear of crime among African American males from two large U.S. cities. Survey data indicated that about three-quarters of the respondents did not view fear of crime as problematic in their communities. Results supported a relationship between fear of crime, age,…

  15. 叙事策略的转变与华裔群体构建——从《女勇士》到《孙行者》%Transition of Narrative Strategy and Creating of a Chinese American Community ---The Woman Warrior versus Tripmaster Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The gender politics in The Woman Warrior reinforces to some extent the division among Chinese Americans. Well established in the American canon, Kingston's horizon is broadened, so she shows great concerns for the creating of a Chinese American community in her work Tripmaster Monkey. In narrative strategy, TripmasterMonkey adopts the cross-gender complex voices replacing the individual female voice in The Woman Warrior. Under the manipulation of the female authorial persona, Kingston herself, through incorporating the voices of the omniscient female narrator Kuanyin and also the male protagonist Wittman, without silencing the male voices or sacrificing the feminist interests, Kingston incorporates almost all the voices in the Chinese American community. With the crossgender complex narrative voices, Tripmaster Monkey deconstructs the binary oppositions as male and female, provides an imaginary space for the possible reconciliation of gender, and moves from a politics of opposition to a politics of coalition; TripmasterMonkey strongly expresses the ideas about the creating of an all-inclusive and harmonious Chinese American community.%《女勇士》的性别政治在某种程度上加速了华裔群体的分裂,而随着地位的确立和写作视野的开阔,汤亭亭在《孙行者》中关注华裔群体的建设。在叙事策略上,《孙行者》用跨性别的复合式的多重叙事声音替代了《女勇士》中个人型的女性叙事声音。在汤亭亭这个自身隐含作者的操纵之下,通过神秘叙事者观音、男主人公惠特曼的声音,《孙行者》既未湮没男性的声音也未牺牲女性的利益,而是融人华裔群体内各种声音。通过跨性别的复合式叙事策略,《孙行者》消解了性别的二元对立,提供了两性和解的想象空间,使男女两性从政治对抗走向政治联盟成为可能。《孙行者》表达了对建设一个兼容并包的和谐的华裔群体社会的强烈愿望。

  16. 社会资本视域下美国社区公民参与的衰落及其对中国的启示∗--以帕特南«独自打保龄球:美国社区的衰落与复兴»为中心的分析%The Decline of American Community Citizen Participation from the Perspective of Social Capital and Its Inspiration to China:Analysis on Robert D.Putnam's Bowling Alone:The Collapse and Revival of American Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the late Twentieth Century,due to economic pressure,urban expansion,electronic enter-tainment,intergenerational replacement and other reasons, American social capital continued to drain,community participation had been decaying.This would have far reaching consequences of edu-cation,social security,public health,economic development and democratic politics in the United States.To save the civil society and increase the social capital reserves and promote social connections and citizen participation of Americans,full range of reforms must be made to education,workplace, urban planning,religion,communication technology and government in the United States.Although there is a big gap between the development of civil society in China and the United States,the initia-tive of the United States to create social capital and revitalize citizen participation has important refer-ence for community construction in China.%20世纪后期,由于经济压力、城市扩张、电子娱乐、代际更替等原因,美国的社会资本不断流失,社区参与持续衰减。这将对美国的教育、社会安全、公共健康、经济发展以及民主政治带来深远的不利后果。为拯救美国的公民社会,美国人必须对教育、工作场所、城市规划、宗教、通讯技术和政府等进行全方位的改革,增加社会资本的储备,增进美国人的社会联系和公民参与。虽然中国公民社会的发展与美国差距甚远,但美国创造社会资本、振兴社区公民参与的举措对中国的社区建设具有重要的借鉴意义。

  17. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis (United States)

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen


    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  18. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor


    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  19. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence (United States)

    Perlstein, Linda


    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  20. Premise and Promise: Developing New Pathways for Community College Students (United States)

    McClenney, Kay; Dare, Donna; Thomason, Susan


    Ensuring that community colleges can better support students in pursuit and completion of college credentials is a central focus of the American Association of Community Colleges' 21st-Century Commission on the Future of Community Colleges. Recently, many institutions have worked to improve the college entry experience, but too often, student…

  1. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  2. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement. (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise


    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  3. The Search for the Great Community: The Multicultural Community and Its Problems. Draft. (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    This paper addresses issues surrounding the ideal of community in American undergraduate education and the challenge of multiculturalism in the context of a feminist interpretation of the pragmatism of John Dewey. A contradictory relationship is seen to exist between higher education's definition of community and multiculturalism; and this paper's…

  4. What North America's skeleton crew of megafauna tells us about community disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Matt


    Functional trait diversity is increasingly used to model future changes in community structure despite a poor understanding of community disassembly's effects on functional diversity. By tracking the functional diversity of the North American large mammal fauna through the End...

  5. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students. (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E


    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  6. Community psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter


    Kapitlet giver en intriduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning......Kapitlet giver en intriduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning...

  7. 美国图书馆社区参与视角下的服务设计研究%Study on American Libraries’ Service Design From Community Engagement Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    《IMLS焦点:社区参与》报告及马里兰大学《重新展望图书馆学硕士项目:发现、问题和思考》报告揭示了图书馆服务的社区参与趋势。社区参与视角下的图书馆服务呈现人本化、开放性、民主化、创新型的发展趋势,如洛杉矶公共图书馆社区参与实证。文章提出了解社区的多元化需求、发展社区合作、提升社区沟通与交流、强化服务及项目的评估和再评估是图书馆社区参与服务的关键。%The reports of IMLS Focus:Community Engagement and Re-Envisioning the MLS:findings, issues, and considerations reflect the community engagement trend in library services. With community engagement, library services have many new charac-ters such as user-centered, open-minded, democratized and innovation related. This article gives an example of Los Angeles pub-lic library’s service practices, including understanding community’s needs, building capacity with partnerships, emphasis on communication and reassessing for success. These are the key factors for community engagement.

  8. Brand Community.


    Muniz, Albert M, Jr; O'Guinn, Thomas C


    This article introduces the idea of brand community. A brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. Grounded in both classic and contemporary sociology and consumer behavior, this article uses ethnographic and computer mediated environment data to explore the characteristics, processes, and particularities of three brand communities (those centered on Ford Bronco, Macintosh, and Saab). These bran...

  9. Angoon, Alaska. National Study of American Indian Education, Series 1, No. 19, Final Report. (United States)

    Connelly, John; Barnhardt, Ray

    Part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this community background report describes the Tlingit community of Angoon, Alaska. Demographic characteristics and historical background of the community are presented. Religious and economic climates are discussed. Educational development is traced from missionary influence, through Bureau…

  10. Fight the Good Fight: Leaders Share Strategies and Programs Proven to Get Community Colleges the Help They Need (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen


    Lynette Brown-Snow, vice president of marketing and government relations for the Community College of Philadelphia, is one of several community college leaders across the country who have taken up one of the challenges proffered by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) in its 2012 report, "Reclaiming the American Dream:…

  11. Training African-American residents in the 20th century. (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith


    needed not only to serve minority populations but also to serve as mentors and role models for prospective and current students. The first African-American resident to graduate from the Bellevue Residency Program did indeed treat the underserved, as Dr. Vincent founded the Vincent Sanatorium, dedicated to treating African-American patients, and training African-American nurses and doctors. Over the course of the 20th century, Bellevue Hospital has trained increasing numbers of African-American physicians. It is hoped that, like their predecessor, Dr. Vincent, they will provide care to underserved communities and to the community as a whole, as well as serve as role models for generations to come.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.


    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  13. South American regionalism: explaining the foundation of UNASUR


    Linke-Behrens, Luisa


    As the first exclusively South American cooperation scheme and the new centerpiece of post-hegemonic regionalism in the region, the foundation of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) has recently attracted scholarly attention. While this event has been studied by means of descriptive narratives and frequently from the angle of post-hegemonic approaches, this paper draws on neofunctionalism, intergovernmentalism, the regional powers approach, and the security community approach to expl...

  14. Qualitative study among African American parents to inform an intervention to promote adoption of the dietary guidelines for Americans food and phyical activity recommendations (United States)

    This qualitative study was conducted to enable the research team to culturally tailor an intervention to increase adherence to the dietary guidelines for Americans (DGA) in African American parents and their children living in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) Communities. Focus group results guided the...

  15. Community capacity for cancer prevention. (United States)

    Ransom, Pamela E; Wei, Ying; Stellman, Steven D


    We pilot-tested a street-level study of availability of physical resources to assess ethnic disparities in community capacity for cancer prevention in forty Brooklyn, NY, census tracts with high proportions of White, African American, or Jamaican immigrant populations. Interns with GIS maps made street-level inventories of food retailers, fast-food restaurants, and commercial exercise facilities. Availability was quantified as resources per capita or square mile. Median income-adjusted number of supermarkets, greengrocers and fast-food restaurants per square mile was significantly higher in Jamaican than in African American or White tracts. Bodegas per capita was greatest in African American tracts, with no significant differences among the population groups in availability of health food stores, or commercial exercise venues.

  16. Service-Learning in Community College Nursing Education. (United States)

    Holloway, Anne Safran


    A community college nursing program in Hawaii partners with the American Red Cross in service learning projects that prepare nursing students as AIDS prevention educators. Flexibility and partner commitment eased the challenges of time constraints, funding gaps, and workloads. (SK)

  17. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  18. Writing American Indian History (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.


    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  19. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  20. Teaching American Indian Architecture. (United States)

    Winchell, Dick


    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  1. The Japanese American Story. (United States)

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  2. Word on the Street: Engaging Local Leaders in a Dialogue About Prostate Cancer Among African Americans. (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Francis, Linda E


    African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community-campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities' inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men's cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general.

  3. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  4. Contribution of job satisfaction to happiness of Asian Americans. (United States)

    Weaver, C N


    Many demographic and labor force characteristics, such as family income, educational attainment, and occupation, correlated with job satisfaction. Since Asian Americans are more like Euro-Americans than African Americans in most of these characteristics, it seems reasonable to predict that their job satisfaction would be high as for Euro-Americans rather than low as for African Americans. Yet research of Weaver and Hinson showed that the opposite is true. One explanation for this unexpected result is that Asians do not think of jobs as a source of happiness but simply as a means of earning money to underwrite other aspects of their lives, such as the well-being of their families, which are the main sources of their happiness. The hypothesis was tested that job satisfaction does not contribute to the happiness of Asian Americans in comparison to satisfaction from other domains of their lives. Analysis was conducted of the attitudes of Asian-American (n = 160), African-American (n = 602), and Euro-American (n = 6,477) workers who responded to 22 surveys drawn from 1972 to 1998, each of which was representative of the labor force of the USA. The hypothesis was supported by the finding that the partial correlation of job satisfaction and global happiness with satisfaction in seven other domains of life (marriage, financial condition, community, nonwork activities, family, health and physical condition, and friendships) held constant was significant for Euro-American women and men but not for Asian Americans or African Americans of either sex. And, the same result occurred when global happiness was regressed on job satisfaction net the effects of satisfaction in other seven domains.

  5. Huelga Schools in Houston: Community-Based Education in the Struggle for Legal Recognition, 1970 (United States)

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.


    This essay provides an overview of the huelga schools established in Houston, Texas, in 1970. For 2 years, from 1970 to 1972, the Mexican American community opposed the Houston Independent School District's plan to integrate the schools by pairing so-called White Mexican Americans with African American students. While they protested this decision,…

  6. Periodicals of Interest to a Spanish-Speaking Community. (United States)

    Tucson Public Library, AZ.

    The document gives a partial listing of magazines of special interest to the Mexican American and Spanish speaking community in Tucson, Arizona. The journals are grouped in 4 broad categories: there are 8 listings for popular journals (women's magazines, home decoration, and crafts); 12 for news; 8 for Mexican American cultural studies; and 9…

  7. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel


    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  8. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai


    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  9. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi


    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  10. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families. (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D


    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  11. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders. (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R


    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  12. Family Role Structure and Food-Related Roles in Mexican-American Families. (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A.; And Others


    The cultural, behavioral, and sociopsychological dimensions of role structures were examined in this study of food-related roles of Mexican-American families (N=141 females interviewed) living in South Texas border communities. (DS)

  13. 1995 Quantitative Survey of the Corals of American Samoa (NODC Accession 0001972) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of coral communities was carried out in the American Samoa Archipelago to assess the current status of coral reefs and provide a rigorous quantitative...

  14. Quantitative survey of the corals of American Samoa, 1995 (NODC Accession 0001972) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of coral communities was carried out in the American Samoa Archipelago to assess the current status of coral reefs and provide a rigorous quantitative...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜


    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  16. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca


    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  17. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  18. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls’ Eating Disorder Risk


    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine


    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  19. 美国社区学院的治理结构及启示——“高职院校领导海外培训项目”赴美研修报告%The Governance Structure of American Community Colleges and its Inspiration --The Report on Visiting America for Vocational Education Leadership Training Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Learning from the unique governance structure of American Community Colleges, and comparing with the higher vocational education in China, this report aims to absorb experiences and enrich the development approaches of our higher vocational education. Accelerating the comprehensive reform of the higher vocational education participated by the local government, exploring how to convert the existing "Single Regulator" pattern into "Multi-governance" structure, and defining clearly the status, rights and liabilities of governments, markets, communities, agents, industries and enterprises, it is designed to bring about the multiple interchange structure by strengthening the functions of government co-ordination and reforming higher vocational college's organizational structure.%借鉴美国社区学院独具特色的治理结构,与我国高职教育相比较,力求从中汲取经验,丰富我国高职教育的发展途径。通过积极开展地方政府促进高等职业教育发展综合改革,探索将原有的单一"管制"模式转换为多元"治理"结构,明确政府、市场、社区、中介、行业、企业的地位和权责,通过强化政府统筹职能、改造高职院校的组织结构以形成多元立交的格局。

  20. Community History. (United States)

    Lewis, Helen M.


    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  1. Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students' Academic Performance (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.


    The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…

  2. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  3. Help-Seeking Behaviors and Depression among African American Adolescent Boys (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Korr, Wynne S.; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J.


    This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions…

  4. Discourses about Gender among Hmong American Policymakers: Conflicting Views about Gender, Culture, and Hmong Youth (United States)

    Ngo, Bic; Leet-Otley, Jill


    In this article, we draw on research with Hmong American community members to contribute to a more complex understanding of Hmong culture. Specifically, in a critical discourse analysis of interviews with 3 influential Hmong American politicians, we highlight the divergent perspectives on early marriage, Hmong gender norms, and the struggles of…

  5. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2. (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  6. Native American Students' Experiences of Cultural Differences in College: Influence and Impact (United States)

    Clark, Leslie E.


    The culture of most colleges and universities is very different for Native American students with close ties to their traditional communities. "Traditional," in a Native American sense, means multiple interconnections of emotional, physical, intellectual, and spiritual identity that combine to define expectations for the Native American…

  7. Making a New and Pliable Professor: American and Soviet Transformations in German Universities, 1945-1990 (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia


    This article discusses the history of American and Soviet transformations in German universities during the period of the Cold War, 1945-1990. Both American and Soviet policies were resisted by the university community, particularly by the conservative German professoriate, in both parts of the divided Germany. The article shows how and why both…

  8. The Relationships between Mexican American Acculturation, Cultural Values, Gender, and Help-Seeking Intentions (United States)

    Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; Atkinson, Donald R.


    This study examined the relationships between Mexican acculturation, cultural values, gender, and help-seeking intentions among Mexican American community college students. Findings suggest that as Mexican Americans lose their culture of origin and increase their generational status, their attitudes toward help seeking become less favorable. This…

  9. The New Life--La Vida Neuva: The Mexican Americans Today. (United States)

    Dobrin, Arnold

    Emphasizing present-day Chicanos, this book relates the "new life" of Mexican Americans throughout the United States but with particular reference to the Southwest. A view of Mexican American communities and their peoples' feelings about prejudice, education, and politics is presented. The book contains narrative sketches on individuals involved…

  10. The Trickster Figure in African-American Teaching: Pre- and Postdesegregation. (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes


    Explores African American cultural performance as it exists in education. It focuses on the trickster performance and reveals this community tradition in action through research, designed to increase the recognition and use of cultural performance in schools and create an enhanced learning environment, and conducted with African American educators…

  11. Delivering Clinical Services to Vietnamese Americans: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists. (United States)

    Saenz, Terry Irvine; Huer, Mary Blake; Doan, Julie Huong Diem; Heise, Melinda; Fulford, Lana


    This article summarizes what is known about: (1) Vietnamese history and immigration patterns; (2) probable demographics of consumers within the Vietnamese American community who would need speech-language services; (3) the culture and structure of the Vietnamese-American family; and (4) traditional Vietnamese medical practices. Six principles for…

  12. Culture, Psychological Characteristics, and Socioeconomic Status in Educational Program Development for Native Americans. (United States)

    Antell, Will

    Addressed to educators who have the responsibility for developing curriculums or educational programs that will serve Native American students, the document does not present new information on the status of education in Native American communities. Rather, it discusses ways in which available information, such as the 1928 Meriam Report, can be…

  13. Process Evaluation of a Store-Based Environmental Obesity Intervention on Two American Indian Reservations (United States)

    Curran, Sarah; Gittelsohn, Joel; Anliker, Jean; Ethelbah, Becky; Blake, Kelly; Sharma, Sangita; Caballero, Benjamin


    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are widespread in American Indian communities. Inadequate access to healthy food on many reservations has led to a high-fat, high-sugar diet. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of the process evaluation of a food store-based program to improve diet on two American Indian…

  14. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober


    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  15. Physician scientist research pathway leading to certification by the American Board of Pathology. (United States)

    Weiss, Sharon W; Johnson, Rebecca L


    In 2014, the American Board of Pathology, in response to the pathology community, approved a physician scientist research pathway (PSRP). This brief report summarizes the history of and objectives for creating the physician scientist research pathway and the requirements of the American Board of Pathology for the certification of physician scientist research pathway trainees.

  16. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  17. The North American ALMA Science Center (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC


    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  18. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films


    Beta Setiawati


    The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discove...

  19. American Nephrology Nurses' Association (United States)

    ... Help Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses' Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic ... Activities CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education ...

  20. American Academy of Audiology (United States)

    ... Tools Publications Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures Multimedia Guidelines and Standards ... INVEST IN YOUR FUTURE Registration and housing for Academy members is OPEN NOW. SUBMIT YOUR POSTER IDEA ...

  1. American Migraine Foundation (United States)

    ... YouTube Follow us on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY About Migraine Patient Registry Corporate Roundtable ... YouTube Follow us on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Freedom From Pain The American Migraine ...

  2. American Lung Association (United States)

    ... Latest News American Lung Association Pledges to Fight Trump Administration Assault on Clean Air and Climate Protections March 28, 2017 In response to President Trump's announcement on climate change, Harold P. Wimmer, National ...

  3. American Association of Orthodontists (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  4. American Sleep Apnea Association (United States)

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  5. American Geriatrics Society (United States)

    ... Travel Award for Research Symposium on Pharmacotherapy and Older Adults with CVD November 10th, 2016 Need Help Understanding MACRA? Check Out this Free Toolkit ... © 2016 The American Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy . Copyright & Permissions . Disclaimer .

  6. General American: An Ambiguity (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.


    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  7. American Samoa Longline Logbook (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test the...

  8. Pan American Health Organization (United States)

    Google Tag Pan American Health Organization | Organización Panamericana de la Salud Skip to content English Español Menu Home Health Topics Programs Media Center Publications Data Countries and Centers About PAHO question  ...

  9. American Sleep Association (United States)

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  10. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  11. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  12. The Formation of American Hegemonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays, American culture permeates in our life. It seems that all the things in the world are in relation to the United States. This thesis discusses hegemonism in America from three aspects: the definition of hegemony, the origin of American hegemony and the interaction between American values. The purpose of this thesis is to get a comprehensive understanding of American hegemonism,

  13. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  14. American Outlaws in Australia



    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  15. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei


    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  16. Family and Community Involvement: Reaching Out to Diverse Populations = La participacion de la familia y la comunidad: El acercamiento a las diversas poblaciones. (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This handbook, in English and Spanish, is designed for educators who want to develop meaningful parent and community involvement in public education in culturally and linguistically diverse communities. The advice of leaders of Hispanic, African American, Native American, and Asian communities is incorporated into five strategies to help develop…

  17. Imagining Postnationalism: Arts, Citizenship Education, and Arab American Youth (United States)

    El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu


    This article explores an Arab American community arts organization as a site for promoting youth civic participation and social activism. Studying a citizenship education project outside the school walls, and focusing on the arts as a medium for this work, foregrounds the role of the symbolic for engaging youth as active participants in democratic…

  18. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women. (United States)

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  19. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick


    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  20. Acculturation and Smoking Behavior in Asian-American Populations (United States)

    Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Su, Xuefen; Shive, Steven E.; Lan, Yajia


    The relationship between acculturation and smoking behavior was examined in four Asian-American groups that included recent immigrants and US-born Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese and Cambodians residing in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The study was part of a community-based, comprehensive cross-sectional study designed to…

  1. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.


    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  2. Regional Integration Through Law: the Central American and Caribbean Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore


    . The two Court have also borrowed key jurisprudential principles from the CJEU with the goal of expanding the reach of Central American and Caribbean Community laws. Despite this, both Courts have thus far failed to foster supranationality in their respective systems. This is because the conditions...

  3. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law. (United States)

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  4. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations. (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  5. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.


    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  6. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.


    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen


    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  8. Community Education and the Urban Indian. (United States)

    Lockart, Barbetta L.

    Because the circumstances and problems of the urban American Indian are unique and are not being met by public education and service agencies, urban Indians across the nation have joined together within their communities and taken steps to help address their special social, educational, cultural, economic, and political needs. The establishment of…

  9. InsPiration of Credit Transfer System of American Community College on Credit Recognition Design of China's Credit Bank%美国社区学院学分转换制度对学分银行学分认证设计的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲芳; 江颖


    Credit transfer system of American community college is the bridge between senior high school education and undergraduate education or other education. With its development,the credit of the learners can be transferred from community colleges to universities,from vocational ed-ucation to academic education,distance education,adult education and non-academic education, which greatly lower the entrance of universities,offering opportunities to those disadvantaged groups to accept all types of higher education. China's credit bank is similar to credit transfer institution of American community college,we can learn some experience from it:1. Establishing national policies and laws;2. Establishing allies of credit bank certification,signing cooperation agreement;3. For-mulating standardized credit bank curriculum system;4 . Guaranteeing qualification of credit certifi-cation;5. Defining type and field of credit certification and transferring.%美国社区学院学分转换制度是高中教育与四年制本科教育或与其他教育类型之间的沟通桥梁。它几经变迁,使学习者获得的学分能从社区学院转向四年制大学,从职业教育转向普通学术教育、远程教育、成人教育或非学历教育。它具有以下特点:政策支持、互签协议、课程编码、转换限定和多领域兑换,降低了大学的入学门槛,为每个美国公民开启机会之门,使许多弱势阶层的人能够接受各种类型高等教育。我国的学分银行学分认证与学分转换制度有相似之处,可以从中得到借鉴,进行学分银行的学分认证设计,包括:1.建立国家层面的政策和法规;2.建立学分银行认证联盟,签订合作协议;3.制定标准化的学分银行课程体系;4.确保学分互认的质量水准和含金量;5.明确学分互认的认证类型与范围。

  10. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.


    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  11. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  12. Public-Private Honors Success at Community Colleges of Spokane (United States)

    Avery, Lisa


    In this article, the author explores the steep budget cuts in recent years, and how this has affected the number of honors students that can be served at community colleges in the United States. This was true in Spokane, Washington, where, prior to working with "American Honors," community colleges had struggled for many years to provide…

  13. The Educational Journey of a Latina Feminist Community Psychologist (United States)

    Guzman, Bianca


    This narrative describes how my educational journey led me to become a Latina feminist community psychologist. My experiences as a Central American woman living in the United States has made me deeply committed to feminist community values and the importance of social justice. Throughout the journey, I connect how immigration status, culture, and…

  14. Natural Communities (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  15. When the Present Took Precedence over the Past: Social Adjustment and the Mainstreaming of American Jewish History in the Supplementary School (United States)

    Krasner, Jonathan


    This paper traces the mainstreaming of American Jewish history and social studies in the American Jewish school curricula, a process which began in the 1920s and picked up momentum in the mid-late 1930s and 1940s. From the beginning, the "raison d'etre" for teaching American Jewish history and community studies was articulated in terms of…

  16. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth. (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda


    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  17. Responding to the Challenge of a Changing American Economy: 1985 Progress Report on the Sears Partnership Development Fund. (United States)

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    In 1985, the Sears-Roebuck Foundation awarded the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC) and the Association of Community College Trustees (ACCT) a 2-year, $950,180 grant, known as the Partnership Development Fund, to enhance collaboration between community, technical, and junior colleges and business/industry/labor, public…

  18. Community concepts. (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony


    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  19. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.


    Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in Cincinnati is a very serious problem, with more than half of the respondents indicating that in the past 3 years violence in Cincinnati stayed the same. More importantly, these findings emphasize that the riots in Cincinnati is not a central event in the African American community, instead for some, it represents another example of why violence always seem to exist and there is a low morale among the African American community and police officers.

  20. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health. (United States)

    Samari, Goleen


    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  1. American Physical Therapy Association (United States)

    Join/Renew Find a PT APTA Communities Related Organizations Store Login | Profile Search Prospective Students Current Students New Professionals PTAs Educators About Us Membership & Benefits Vision & Strategic ...

  2. The degree of community engagement: empirical research in Baltimore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung PARK


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate influential factors that affect the levels of community engagement. Factors include community-level characteristics as well as demographic features of individuals in the community of Baltimore City. The study examines various community factors that affect the level of community engagement in the urban area, such as the level of homeownership, socioeconomic factors such as income and education, and demographic factors such as race, age, and sex. Findings from the study indicate that various factors from the social-cum-ethnic stratification influence the degree of community engagement in this urban area. Specifically, communities with high income levels and high levels of homeownership are more likely to induce residents to participate in their community. With regard to demographic factors, African-Americans and persons over the age of 65 years old are more willing to engage in community activities.

  3. Media and cultural influences in african-american girls' eating disorder risk. (United States)

    Jones, Lakaii A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine


    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

  4. The American Armies: 1993 (United States)


    terrorism and crime that accompany it. The dynamic of the U.S. relationship with Latin American countries has also changed. This is most evident in...have already found it.... The inter-American order was not built by hatred and terror . It has been paved by the endless and effective work of men of...Peru’s armed forces." They also discuss the collapsed talks between former President Bush and Mr. Fujimori over attempts to get coca farmers to grow other


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With China’s open door policy advocating that Chinese people study abroad, primarily in English-speaking countries, a text tailored to preparing these students is needed. Modern American English, (MAE) composed jointly by Chinese and American linguists, attempts to fill the void. The book’s introduction states a twofold purpose: to help Chinese students learn situational English and to introduce Western culture and society. By assessing MAE’s strength’s and weaknesses it is my intention to provide the publisher with some feedback that may be of some help for forthcoming revisions.




    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  7. Enhancing recruitment of African-American families into genetic research: lessons learned from Project SuGar. (United States)

    Spruill, Ida J


    Despite some recruitment success in biomedical research among minorities, participation by African-American families into research, specifically genetic research, is lower than Caucasian families (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189-190, 2008). Such low participation rates by African-Americans prevent the exploration of specific ethnic differences in patterns of diseases and diminish the identification of specific disease risks among ethnic groups (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189-190, 2008). Although African-Americans are heterogeneous, few studies exist to describe effective recruitment strategies across diverse African-American populations, and even fewer studies share effective strategies for the enrollment of African-American families into genetic research. A process evaluation of recruitment strategies used by Project SuGar (a community-based genetic research study focusing on families affected by type 2 diabetes) to enroll African-American families into genetic research was conducted. Our goal was to enroll 400 affected African-American families, and our results yielded 672 families, (n=672). Our success can be attributed to the formation of a Citizen Advisory Committee, recruitment style, flexible protocol, and formal agreement with community health centers. We found that African-American families will participate in research and that providing tangible benefits to the community and utilizing a sense of patience can enhance positive recruitment results. Data from this study may be used to recruit geographically isolated families into genetic research.

  8. Community Structure Detection Algorithm Based on the Node Belonging Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to identify communities in complex networks based on the node belonging degree. First, we give the concept of the node belonging degree, and then determine whether a node belongs to a community or not according to the belonging degree of the node with respect to the community. The experiment results of three real-world networks: a network with three communities with 19 nodes, Zachary Karate Club and network of American college football teams show that the proposed algorithm has satisfactory community structure detection.  

  9. Earthquake Impact on Miami Haitian Americans: The Role of Family/Social Connectedness (United States)

    Allen, Andrea; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Schmitz, Susan; Hausmann, Vicky; Shultz, James M.


    Individuals who are indirectly exposed to disasters may be affected psychologically. The impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake reverberated throughout the Haitian American community in Miami, Florida. Many within the community held strong transnational family and friendship bonds to their homeland. We examined associations between indicators of…

  10. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators (United States)

    Weichel, Derek


    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  11. 20 CFR 668.510 - What services may INA grantees provide to the community at large under section 166? (United States)


    ...) Strengthen the capacity of Native American-controlled institutions to provide education and work-based..., or similar activities to further the economic and social development of Native American communities... community at large under section 166? 668.510 Section 668.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  12. Racism? Administrative and Community Perspectives in Data-Driven Decision Making: Systemic Perspectives versus Technical-Rational Perspectives (United States)

    Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Jennings, Michael E.; Briscoe, Felecia; Oleszweski, Ashley M.; Abdi, Nimo


    This case study describes tensions that became apparent between community members and school administrators after a proposal to close a historically African American public high school in a large urban Southwestern city. When members of the city's longstanding African American community responded with outrage, the school district's…

  13. Predictors of wellness and American Indians. (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia S; Nandy, Karabi


    Wellness is an important American Indian (AI) concept, understood as being in balance with one's body, mind, and environment. Wellness predictors are reported in this paper within the context of health. A cross-sectional randomized household survey of 457 AI adults at 13 rural health care sites in California was conducted. Measures included wellness perceptions, barriers, health status/health conditions, spirituality, cultural connectivity, high-risk behaviors and abuse history. Statistical analysis obtained the best predictive model for wellness. Predictors of wellness were general health status perception, participation in AI cultural practices and suicide ideation. Significant differences in wellness status were observed depending on experience of adverse events in childhood and adulthood (neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). Cultural connectivity (speaking tribal language, participating in AI practices, and feeling connected to community) was also associated with perceptions of wellness. Recommendations are for culturally-appropriate education and interventions emphasizing community and cultural connectivity for improving wellness status.

  14. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... and explores how different meanings of the term become the focal points for political power struggles around identity and resources in Cape Town. Empirically, the paper focuses on two groups within the Cape Town polity: local level state representatives within city council and local residents involved in what...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  15. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten


    . These results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also......Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge...

  16. Community involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available Community involvement is the main theme of Health Year. Governments have a responsibility for the health of their people, and in this country under the present 3-tier system of government, the responsibility for the rendering of health services is divided between central, provincial and local government. However, under our democratic system, all people have the right to, and it is indeed their duty, to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of services to meet their health needs. Ultimately, through involvement of individuals, families and communities, greater self-reliance is achieved leading to greater responsibility being assumed by people for their own health.

  17. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (United States)

    ... the field of sleep medicine. Join the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to further your career and ... MD Sept. 21 - As president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, I am keenly aware of ...

  18. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans. (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S


    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  19. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  20. Relaciones Entre Psicología Social Comunitaria, Psicología Crítica y Psicología de la Liberación: Una Respuesta Latinoamericana Relations Between Community-Social Psychology, Critical-Social Psychology, and Social Psychology of Liberation: A Latin American Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Montero


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se plantea la idea de que la psicología social comunitaria, la psicología social crítica y la psicología social de la liberación configuraron una forma de respuesta neoparadigmática (las dos primeras surgen en América Latina en los años 70, la tercera es delineada en los ochenta, concebida en función de las necesidades de las sociedades latinoamericanas, expresada en mutuas influencias. Para ello se realizó una investigación analítica y comparativa en literatura latinoamericana concerniente a las tres áreas, buscando las características identificadoras principales de esos movimientos, las similitudes y las diferencias. Los resultados aquí presentados muestran la influencia que ha existido entre los tres ámbitos y cómo se complementan, comparten fuentes, objetivos y conceptos.In this paper it is argued that Community-Social Psychology; Critical-Social Psychology and, Social Psychology of Liberation configured a neo-paradigmatic (the two former being born in the seventies, the latter in the eighties response to the problems and needs suffered by societies in Latin America, expressed through mutual influences between the three movements. To reach this conclusion an analytical-comparative research was carried out in the Latin American literature concerning the three areas, looking for the main characteristics identifying each one, for their similarities and their differences. The results show the influence between them, as well as similarities in sources, some objectives and concepts.

  1. American Academy of Ophthalmology (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  2. Delusion of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Martin Eden by Jack London and The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzergald are both stories describing the delusion of American dream. They share much in common for they are discussing the same themes actually. By analyzing the two protagonists’life experience and deaths respectively,we try to explore the profound meaning hidden under the surface.

  3. Arab American Voices. (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  4. Saga of American Sport. (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; Smith, Ronald A.

    This history of sports and athletic activities in America covers a time span from the close of the sixteenth century to the present time. It is divided into three major sections. The first, "Colonial and Early American Sport," narrates the early moral and ethical attitudes of the Puritans and follows the changes in attitudes and introduction of…

  5. American Sign Language (United States)

    ... combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and ... their eyebrows, widening their eyes, and tilting their bodies forward. Just as with other languages, specific ways of expressing ideas in ASL vary ...

  6. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu


    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  7. American Board of Surgery (United States)

    ... Suite 860 Philadelphia, PA 19103 215.568.4000 Facebook Twitter Site Map © 2003-2017 American Board of Surgery, Inc. All rights reserved. Training & Certification Toggle navigation arrow Becoming Certified Dates & Fees Taking a Computer Exam International Training & Visas For Residency & Fellowship Programs ...

  8. American Society of Neuroradiology (United States)

    ASNR American Society of Neuroradiology Forgot username or password ? .: International Day Of Radiology :. Tues, Nov 8 is International Day of Radiology. ... you celebrate, #neurorad? #IDoR2016 Once again, the European Society of Radiology has created a wonderful ... Tues, Nov ...

  9. The American Oyster. (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  10. Grant Wood: "American Gothic." (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.


    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  11. English for American Indians. (United States)

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  12. Latin American cheeses (United States)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  13. BYD's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.

  14. The Ground Zero Mosque Controversy: Implications for American Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyakat Takim


    Full Text Available The controversy surrounding the “ground zero mosque” is part of a larger debate about the place of Islam in U.S. public space. The controversy also reveals the ways in which the boundaries of American identity continue to be debated, often through struggles over who counts as a “real” American. It further demonstrates the extent to which Islam is figured as un-American and militant, and also the extent to which all Muslims are required to account for the actions of those who commit violence under the rubric of Islam. This paper will discuss how, due to the events of September 11, 2001, Muslims have engaged in a process of indigenizing American Islam. It will argue that the Park51 Islamic Community Center (or Ground Zero mosque is a reflection of this indigenization process. It will go on to argue that projects such as the Ground Zero mosque which try to establish Islam as an important part of the American religious landscape and insist on the freedom of worship as stated in the U.S. constitution, illustrate the ideological battlefield over the place of Islam in the U.S. The paper will also examine the possible ramifications of building the Park51 Islamic Community Center including how this will shape the role that Islam plays in the socio-political lives America Muslims.

  15. University-School-Community Partnership as Vehicle for Leadership, Service, and Change: A Critical Brokerage Perspective (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney; Miller, Peter; Lovelace, Temple S.


    Using a critical brokerage perspective to advance theoretical insights in the development of a community university partnership and understanding of the organizational embeddedness of a community empowerment agency in Pittsburgh, PA, USA, this article suggests that partnerships between American universities and communities are perfect vehicles for…

  16. Where It All Comes Together: How Partnerships Connect Communities and Schools (United States)

    Blank, Martin J.; Villarreal, Lisa


    The modern-day community schools movement reached a new plateau in 2008 when Randi Weingarten made community schools a central element of her platform as the new president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). The AFT's action was a milestone on a journey that began a decade earlier, when advocates for community schools determined that it…

  17. Frequency and Citations of Published Authors in Two Community Psychology Journals (United States)

    Pokorny, Steven B.; Adams, Monica; Jason, Leonard A.; Patka, Mazna; Cowman, Shaun; Topliff, Annie


    The current study examined the development of community psychology through publications in the main journals of the field, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" (AJCP) and "Journal of Community Psychology" (JCP). The investigation assessed which individuals played a major role in shaping the field through their publications by recording…

  18. A Confluence of Community: Gathering the Waters of the Rio Grande. (United States)

    Smith, Craig


    A Gathering of Waters is a community-based art and activism project to raise awareness that the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo is a desperately endangered river, connect communities dependent on the river, and galvanize those communities into action. Activities provided actual and symbolic experiences of river water for American Indian, Hispanic, Anglo, and…

  19. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community. (United States)

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan


    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  20. The In-Between People: Community Health Workers in the Circle of Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Community Health Workers in Native American and Latino communities help bridge the gap between communities and the health care system.  Created: 1/1/2006 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.