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Sample records for american cockroach periplaneta

  1. Isocoumarins from American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and their cytotoxic activities.

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    Luo, Shi-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Liang-Liang; Peng, Qun-Long; Song, Cai-Lu; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-06-01

    Four new isocoumarins (1-4), along with three known ones (5-7), were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the whole body of the traditional Chinese insect medicine, American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The structures with absolute configurations of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods in combination with X-ray diffraction experiment and CD analyses. Compounds 3-5 showed significant cytotoxic activities in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values in the ranges 6.41-23.91 μM and 6.67-39.07 μM, respectively.

  2. Primary integumentary allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

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    George, J F; Howcroft, T K; Karp, R D

    1987-04-01

    Previous reports have failed to demonstrate integumentary allograft rejection in insects. We realized however, that these studies may not have fully appreciated the structure of the insect exoskeleton. Since the subcuticlar epidermal layer constitutes the only living tissue associated with insect integument, its destruction would indicate that the animal recognized and responded to the foreign tissue. Thus, we investigated allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by observing the fate of the epidermal portion of the integument. Each animal in a pair received a 3 X 4-mm integumentary allograft from its partner, as well as a 3 X 4-mm control autograft. The transplants were then examined histologically for signs of epidermal destruction at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10-70 days (in 10-day increments) posttransplantation. The results indicated that significant rejection of the allografts began by day 3, with peak reactivity occurring by day 7 when 92% of the grafts were scored as rejected. At later periods (greater than 20 days), the graft sites showed signs of repopulation by host epidermal cells. The allograft reaction was found to lag behind the xenograft reaction, which showed peak activity after only 1 day posttransplantation. Even so, allograft rejection in this insect occurred quite rapidly (as compared with some other invertebrates), and would appear to be due to a cytotoxic reaction against the epidermal layer.

  3. Transplantation immunity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana: the rejection of integumentary grafts from Blatta orientalis.

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    Karp, R D; Meade, C C

    1993-01-01

    The results from several previous studies have indicated that the American cockroach is able to respond to integumentary xenografts, but doubt remained as to whether cockroaches could effectively discriminate between self and allogeneic differences. This was emphasized by the fact that while one study reported that Periplaneta americana responded to grafts donated by the closely related genus Blatta orientalis, the data reported elsewhere, using a different assay system, found no such reactivity. Since we have subsequently reported, using a direct histological assay, that Periplaneta can in fact recognize and destroy integumentary allografts, we initiated a study to hopefully sort out the enigma presented by previous data using Blatta as a transplant donor. Integument from Blatta orientalis was transplanted orthotopically onto Periplaneta americana, and at various time points post-transplant, scored histologically for the survival of the subcuticular epidermal layer. The results clearly demonstrated that Periplaneta reacted to the Blatta tissue, because approximately 82% of the grafts had the epidermal layer destroyed by day 7 posttransplant. The kinetics of the response to Blatta was more in line with our allograft data, which would be in agreement with other work indicating that the closer the donor and recipient are on the phylogenetic tree, the less intense the reactivity to the foreign transplant.

  4. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus under various dietary conditions

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    Paul A. Ayayee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, fed low-quality (LQD and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA. We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus.

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    In-Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, Gene Ontology (GO, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  6. Observation on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid

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    R. Srinivasan

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid. This gregarious female parasitoid infected and or oviposited in only one host and caused 100 por cento mortality of the infected host. However, increase in parasitoid density decreased the progeny production and influenced the sex ratio. The progenies produced were male biased. When host preference was tested by offering oothecae of different species of cockroaches, T. hagenowii showed a predilection towards the oothecae of P. americana, suggestings its host specificity.

  7. Observation on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid.

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    Srinivasan, R; Panicker, K N

    1994-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the host parasitoid interaction between Periplaneta americana, the American cockroach and Tetrastichus hagenowii, an oothecal parasitoid. This gregarious female parasitoid infected and or oviposited in only one host and caused 100% mortality of the infected host. However, increase in parasitoid density decreased the progeny production and influenced the sex ratio. The progenies produced were male biased. When host preference was tested by offering oothecae of different species of cockroaches. T. hagenowii showed a predilection towards the oothecae of P. americana, suggesting its host specificity.

  8. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

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    Sanaz Akbari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate.Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods.Results: The analytical profile index (API kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y.intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional platingmethod revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2. 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequencewas identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species.Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively.

  9. Isolation and Purification of an Antibacterial Protein from Immune Induced Haemolymph of American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

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    Hamid Reza Basseri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial peptides play a role as effectors substances in the immunity of vertebrate and inverte­brate hosts. In the current study, antimicrobial peptide was isolated from the haemolymph of the American cock­roach, Periplaneta americana.Methods: Micrococcus luteus as Gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria were candi­date for injection. Induction was done by injecting both bacteria into the abdominal cavity of two groups of cock­roaches separately. The haemolymphs were collected 24 hours after post injection and initially tested against both bacteria. Subsequently, the immune induced haemolymph was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity.Results: The non-induced haemolymph did not show any activity against both bacteria whereas induced haemo­lymph exhibited high activity against M. luteus but did less against E. coli. Two fractions showed antibacterial activ­ity against M. luteus. Finally the molecular weight of the isolated antibacterial proteins were determined as 72 kDa and 62 kDa using SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: Induced haemolymph of American cockroaches has the ability to produce peptides to combat against Gram-positive bacteria when an immune challenge is mounted. Further work has to be done to sequence of the pro­tein, which it would be advantageous.

  10. Mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

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    Webster, Matthew R.; De Vita, Raffaella; Twigg, Jeffrey N.; Socha, John J.

    2011-09-01

    Insects breathe using an extensive network of flexible air-filled tubes. In some species, the rapid collapse and reinflation of these tubes is used to drive convective airflow, a system that may have bio-inspired engineering applications. The mechanical behavior of these tracheal tubes is critical to understanding how they function in this deformation process. Here, we performed quasi-static tensile tests on ring sections of the main thoracic tracheal trunks from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) to determine the tracheal mechanical properties in the radial direction. The experimental findings indicate that the stress-strain relationships of these tracheal tubes exhibit some nonlinearities. The elastic modulus of the linear region of the stress-strain curves tubes was found to be 1660 ± 512 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength, ultimate strain and toughness were found to be 23.7 ± 7.33 MPa, 2.0 ± 0.7% and 0.207 ± 0.153 MJ m-3, respectively. This study is the first experimental quantification of insect tracheal tissue, and represents a necessary step toward understanding the mechanical role of tracheal tubes in insect respiration.

  11. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

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    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2 to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  12. Catechol conjugation with hemolymph proteins and their incorporation into the cuticle of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana

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    Bailey, W.D.; Kimbrough, T.D.; Mills, R.R. [Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-2012 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Newly ecdysed American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (six to last instar)were injected with radioactive dopamine. In addition, the reinjection of radiolabeled protein of any size resulted in the incorporation of the label into the newly sclerotized cuticle. Hemolymph proteins were synthesized in vivo using [{sup 14}C]leucine and subsequently double labeled in vivo with [{sup 3}H]dopamine. After sclerotization (7 h post-ecdysis) the cuticle was extirpated, hydrolyzed and counted. An identical ratio of {sup 14}C to {sup 3}H was found in cuticle extracts as in the double-labeled hemolymph proteins, suggesting that the phenol-bound protein was incorporated in the cuticle unchanged. It appears that the catechol bound to the proteins exists as a {beta}-glucoside. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana

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    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case. PMID:26559671

  14. Immunocytochemical demonstration of proopiomelanocortin- and other opioid-related substances and a CRF-like peptide in the gut of the american cockroach, Periplaneta americana L.

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    Schols, D; Verhaert, P; Huybrechts, R; Vaudry, H; Jégou, S; De Loof, A

    1987-01-01

    Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, we showed the presence of peptides which are immunologically resembling mammalian corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF)-, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-, beta-endorphin (beta-END)-, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-, methionine-enkephalin (met-ENK)- and leucine enkephalin (leu-ENK)- like immunoreactivity in hundreds to thousands of endocrine cells and nerve fibers in the midgut of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. In the cockroach hindgut no immunoreactive cell bodies could be observed, although nerve fibers were clearly noticed to be recognized by antisera to CRF, ACTH1-24, ACTH11-24 and beta-END. Nothing is exactly known as to the function(s) of the demonstrated materials, but one can speculate that these numerous immunoreactive cells, might have important paracrine and/or endocrine functions in the insect physiology.

  15. Characterization of an Invertebrate-Type Dopamine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

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    Britta Troppmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2 from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  16. One antenna, two antennae, big antennae, small: total antennae length, not bilateral symmetry, predicts odor-tracking performance in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana.

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    Lockey, Jacob K; Willis, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Determining the location of a particular stimulus is often crucial to an animal's survival. One way to determine the local distribution of an odor is to make simultaneous comparisons across multiple sensors. If the sensors detect differences in the distribution of an odor in space, the animal can then steer toward the source. American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, have 4 cm long antennae and are thought to track odor plumes using a spatial sampling strategy, comparing the amount of odor detected between these bilateral sensors. However, it is not uncommon for cockroaches to lose parts of their antennae and still track a wind-borne odor to its source. We examined whether bilateral odor input is necessary to locate an odor source in a wind-driven environment and how the loss of increasing lengths of the antennae affects odor tracking. The tracking performances of individuals with two bilaterally symmetrical antennae of decreasing length were compared with antennal length-matched individuals with one antenna. Cockroaches with one antenna were generally able to track an odor plume to its source. In fact, the performances of unilaterally antennectomized individuals were statistically identical to those of their bilaterally symmetrical counterparts when the combined length of both antennae equaled the length of the single antenna of the antennectomized individuals. This suggests that the total length of available antennae influences odor tracking performance more than any specific piece of antenna, and that they may be doing something more complex than a simple bilateral comparison between their antennae. The possibility of an antenna-topic map is discussed. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Cloning and characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Cockroaches have long been used as insect models to investigate the actions of biologically active neuropeptides. Here, we describe the cloning and functional expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of an adipokinetic hormone (AKH) G protein-coupled receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta...

  18. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

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    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  19. Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica) as potential vectors of the pathogenic bacteria found in nosocomial infections.

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    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Hassanzadeh, J; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2010-09-01

    Although it has been difficult to prove the direct involvement of cockroaches (i.e. insects of the order Blattaria) in the transmission of pathogenic agents to humans, such insects often carry microorganisms that are important in nosocomial infections, and their medical importance in the spread of bacteria cannot be ruled out. In houses and institutions with poor standards of hygiene, heavy infestations with cockroaches, such as the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), can occur. In the present study, cockroaches (126 B. germanica and 69 P. americana) were collected from four buildings (three public training hospitals and one house) in central Tehran, Iran. Each insect was processed, under sterile conditions, so that the bacteria on its external surfaces and in its alimentary tract and faecal pellets could be isolated and identified. The oldest and largest of the three hospitals sampled (a 1400-bed unit built 80 years ago) appeared to be the one most heavily infested with cockroaches, and cockroaches from this hospital accounted for most (65.4%) of the isolates of medically important bacteria made during the study. No significant difference was found between the percentages of P. americana and B. germanica carrying medically important bacteria (96.8% v. 93.6%; P>0.05). At least 25 different species of medically important bacteria were isolated and identified, and at least 22 were Gramnegative. The genus of enteric bacteria most frequently isolated from both cockroach species, at all four collection sites, was Klebsiella. The cockroaches from each hospital were much more likely to be found contaminated with medically important bacteria than those from the house. The hospital cockroaches were also more likely to be carrying medically important bacteria internally than externally (84.3% v. 64.1%; Pcockroaches and nosocomial infections, are discussed.

  20. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, and the phylogenetic position of termites.

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    Xiao, Bo; Chen, Ai-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Hu, Chao-Chao; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-04-01

    The mitochondrial genomes are one of the most information-rich markers in phylogenetics. The relationships within superorder Dictyoptera have been debated in the literature. However, the closely related termites (Isoptera) are retained as unranked taxon within the order Blattaria (cockroaches). In this work, we sequenced the complete mitogenomes of two cockroaches, reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and attempted to infer the phylogenetic position of termites in Blattaria more reliably. The complete mtDNA nucleotide sequences of the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) are 15,025 and 15,584 bp in size, respectively. The genome shares the gene order and orientation with previously known Blattaria mitogenomes. Most tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, but the tRNA-Ser (AGN) of P. americana appears to be missing the dihydrouridine arm. Using nucleotide and amino acid sequences as phylogenetic markers, we proposed that termites should be treated as a superfamily (Termitoidea) of cockroaches. We suggested that Polyphagoidea was the sister group of Termitoidea in Blattaria and supported that the suborder Caelifera is more closely related to the Phasmatodea than to the suborder Ensifera of Orthoptera.

  2. Fourier domain OCT imaging of American cockroach nervous system

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    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study we demonstrate results of structural Fourier domain OCT imaging of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana L. (American cockroach). The purpose of this research is to develop an OCT apparatus enabling structural imaging of insect neural system. Secondary purpose of the presented research is to develop methods of the sample preparation and handling during the OCT imaging experiments. We have performed imaging in the abdominal nerve cord excised from the American cockroach. For this purpose we have developed a Fourier domain / spectral OCT system operating at 820 nm wavelength range.

  3. Parasites of Periplaneta americana linnaeus "domestic cockroach" from Ica.

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    Mary Fernádez B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 244 specimens of Periplaneta americana Linnaeus from 13 localities of Ica were studied. Nematodes and protozoa were identified. They are Lophomonas blattarum, Leptomonas sp., Leidynema appendiculatum and Hammerschmidtiella diesingi. Also, parasites of man were found, three of which are pathogenic: Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp.

  4. 三种物质的含水率对室内饲养的美洲大蠊产卵选择性的影响%EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE THREE KINDS OF MATERIAL ON EGG-LAYING SELECTIVITY OF LABORATORY AMERICAN COCKROACH (PERIPLANETA AMERICANA)

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    吴珍泉; 詹仁添; 吴迅; 郭芙蓉

    2012-01-01

    The egg-laying place preference of American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) are tested by supplying 3 kinds of material with different moisture content in the lab. The results showed that the cockroaches prefer to lay their eggs in dry powder soil ( less than 0. 1 mm in diameter). The higher moisture content of soil and sand, the less fecundity of cockroaches. The moisture content of sawdust does not affect the oviposition preference of cockroaches.%本文研究了室内饲养的美洲大蠊对3种不同含水率的材质的产卵喜好性.结果表明蟑螂比较喜欢在干燥的土壤中产卵,土壤和沙的含水率越高,蟑螂的产卵量越少,木削的含水率40%以下不影响蟑螂的产卵选择.3种物质中蟑螂在沙子中产卵量较少.

  5. Grooming behavior in American cockroach is affected by novelty and odor.

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    Zhukovskaya, Marianna I

    2014-01-01

    The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor.

  6. Functional analysis of Scr during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

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    Hrycaj, Steven; Chesebro, John; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2010-05-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana represents a basal insect lineage that undergoes the ancestral hemimetabolous mode of development. Here, we examine the embryonic and post-embryonic functions of the hox gene Scr in Periplaneta as a way of better understanding the roles of this gene in the evolution of insect body plans. During embryogenesis, Scr function is strictly limited to the head with no role in the prothorax. This indicates that the ancestral embryonic function of Scr was likely restricted to the head, and that the posterior expansion of expression in the T1 legs may have preceded any apparent gain of function during evolution. In addition, Scr plays a pivotal role in the formation of the dorsal ridge, a structure that separates the head and thorax in all insects. This is evidenced by the presence of a supernumerary segment that occurs between the labial and T1 segments of RNAiScr first nymphs and is attributed to an alteration in engrailed (en) expression. The fact that similar Scr phenotypes are observed in Tribolium but not in Drosophila or Oncopeltus reveals the presence of lineage-specific variation in the genetic architecture that controls the formation of the dorsal ridge. In direct contrast to the embryonic roles, Scr has no function in the head region during post-embryogenesis in Periplaneta, and instead, strictly acts to provide identity to the T1 segment. Furthermore, the strongest Periplaneta RNAiScr phenotypes develop ectopic wing-like tissue that originates from the posterior region of the prothoracic segment. This finding provides a novel insight into the current debate on the morphological origin of insect wings.

  7. Identification and characterization of antibacterial compound(s) of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salwa Mansur; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Ong, Seng-Kai; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Anwar, Ayaz; Heard, Peter J; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a significant threat to human health, contributing to more than 17 million deaths, annually. With the worsening trends of drug resistance, there is a need for newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. We hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments are potential sources of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of microbes, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances. Here, we characterized antibacterial properties in extracts of various body organs of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and showed potent antibacterial activity in crude brain extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. The size-exclusion spin columns revealed that the active compound(s) are less than 10 kDa in molecular mass. Using cytotoxicity assays, it was observed that pre-treatment of bacteria with lysates inhibited bacteria-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Using spectra obtained with LC-MS on Agilent 1290 infinity liquid chromatograph, coupled with an Agilent 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer, tissues lysates were analysed. Among hundreds of compounds, only a few homologous compounds were identified that contained the isoquinoline group, chromene derivatives, thiazine groups, imidazoles, pyrrole-containing analogs, sulfonamides, furanones, and flavanones and known to possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, and analgesic properties. Further identification, characterization, and functional studies using individual compounds can act as a breakthrough in developing novel therapeutics against various pathogens including superbugs.

  8. Cloning of PaAtg8 and roles of autophagy in adaptation to starvation with respect to the fat body and midgut of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Takeda, Makio

    2014-05-01

    Starvation, in particular amino acid deprivation, induces autophagy in trophocytes (adipocytes), the major component of the fat body cell types, in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the fat body of cockroach has two additional cell types: urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles as a nitrogen resource and mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, which can synthesize amino acids from the metabolites of the stored uric acid. These cells might complement the roles of autophagy in recycling amino acids in the fat body or other organs of cockroaches under starvation. We investigate the presence of autophagy in tissues such as the fat body and midgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, under starvation by immunoblotting with antibody against Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein required for the formation of autophagosomes and by electron microscopy. Corresponding changes in acid phosphatase activity were also investigated as representing lysosome activity. Starvation increased the level of an autophagic marker, Atg8-II, in both the tissues, extensively stimulating the formation of autophagic compartments in trophocytes of the fat body and columnar cells of the midgut for over 2 weeks. Acid phosphatase showed no significant increase in the fat body of the starved cockroaches but was higher in the midgut of the continuously fed animals. Thus, a distinct autophagic mechanism operates in these tissues under starvation of 2 weeks and longer. The late induction of autophagy implies exhaustion of the stored uric acid in the fat body. High activity of acid phosphatase in the midgut of the fed cockroaches might represent enhanced assimilation and not an autophagy-related function.

  9. Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and its residue on environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penggunaan insektisida secara intensif tidak hanya memberikan dampak pada spesies target, namun juga pada spesies non-target dan lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penilaian pengaruh residu deltametrin terhadap kecoa (Periplanetaamericana, ikan lele (Clarias batrachus, dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus. Selain itu laju infiltrasi residu pada tipe tanah dengan komposisi tanah yang berbeda juga diukur. Metode: Percobaan dilakukan terhadap kecoa yang dikembangbiakan  di laboratorium di Institut Pertanian Bogor. Perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan dan lima taraf konsentrasi deltamethrin: 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v dilakukan untuk mengukur pengaruh residu terhadap kecoa selama 24 dan 48 jam. Penentuan LC  dilakukan dengan analisis Probit. Konsentrasi letal yang didapatkan kemudiandiujikan kepada ikan lele dan nila dengan metode semprot. Untuk perbandingan, uji efek organofosfat dengan konsentrasi 1 ppm dan 10 ppm dilakukan melalui metode soaking kepada dua jenis ikan tersebut. Laju infiltrasi residu pada tiga tipe komposisi tanah diukur menggunakan lysimeter. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LC50 residu deltamethrin terhadap kecoa tercapai pada konsentrasi 0,2% pada 24-jam perlakuan. Lima puluh persen ikan nila mati pada perlakuan deltamethrin0,2% selama 24 jam. Laju infiltrasi residu lebih tinggi pada jenis tanah berpasir (5 ml/menit dibandingkan jenis tanah yang didominasi tanah liat. Kesimpulan: Selain memiliki efek mematikan pada kecoa, Deltamethrin 0,2% mencemari tanah dan air, serta membunuh ikan nila (O. niloticus. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9Kata kunci: deltamethrin, efek residu, P. americana, O. niloticus, tanahAbstractBackground: Intensive use of chemical insecticides not only affect the targetspecies, but also non-target species and environment. In this study, we examined residual effect of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, catfishes (Clarias batrachus and nile

  10. Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and its residue on environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penggunaan insektisida secara intensif tidak hanya memberikan dampak pada spesies target, namun juga pada spesies non-target dan lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penilaian pengaruh residu deltametrin terhadap kecoa (Periplanetaamericana, ikan lele (Clarias batrachus, dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus. Selain itu laju infiltrasi residu pada tipe tanah dengan komposisi tanah yang berbeda juga diukur. Metode: Percobaan dilakukan terhadap kecoa yang dikembangbiakan  di laboratorium di Institut Pertanian Bogor. Perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan dan lima taraf konsentrasi deltamethrin: 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v dilakukan untuk mengukur pengaruh residu terhadap kecoa selama 24 dan 48 jam. Penentuan LC  dilakukan dengan analisis Probit. Konsentrasi letal yang didapatkan kemudiandiujikan kepada ikan lele dan nila dengan metode semprot. Untuk perbandingan, uji efek organofosfat dengan konsentrasi 1 ppm dan 10 ppm dilakukan melalui metode soaking kepada dua jenis ikan tersebut. Laju infiltrasi residu pada tiga tipe komposisi tanah diukur menggunakan lysimeter. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LC50 residu deltamethrin terhadap kecoa tercapai pada konsentrasi 0,2% pada 24-jam perlakuan. Lima puluh persen ikan nila mati pada perlakuan deltamethrin0,2% selama 24 jam. Laju infiltrasi residu lebih tinggi pada jenis tanah berpasir (5 ml/menit dibandingkan jenis tanah yang didominasi tanah liat. Kesimpulan: Selain memiliki efek mematikan pada kecoa, Deltamethrin 0,2% mencemari tanah dan air, serta membunuh ikan nila (O. niloticus. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9Kata kunci: deltamethrin, efek residu, P. americana, O. niloticus, tanahAbstractBackground: Intensive use of chemical insecticides not only affect the targetspecies, but also non-target species and environment. In this study, we examined residual effect of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, catfishes (Clarias batrachus and nile

  11. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response.

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    Jianhua Zhang

    Full Text Available The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes, detoxification (37 genes and oxidative stress response (16 genes were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments.

  12. Nonlinear cable properties of the giant axon of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, I; Parnas, I

    1985-05-01

    The steady state nonlinear properties of the giant axon membrane of the cockroach Periplaneta americana were studied by means of intracellular electrodes. The resistivity of this membrane markedly decreases in response to small subthreshold depolarizations. The specific slope resistance is reduced by twofold at 5 mV depolarization and by a factor of 14 at 20 mV depolarization. As a result, the spatial decay, V(X), of depolarizing potentials is enhanced when compared with the passive (exponential) decay. This enhancement is maximal at a distance of 1-1.5 mm from a point of subthreshold (0-20 mV) depolarizing perturbation. At that distance, the difference between the actual potential and the potential expected in the passive axon is approximately 30%. The effects of membrane rectification on V(X) were analyzed quantitatively with a novel derivation based on Cole's theorem, which enables one to calculate V(X) directly from the input current-voltage (I0-V) relation of a long axon. It is shown that when the experimental I0-V curve is replotted as (I0Rin)-1 against V (where Rin is the input resistance at the resting potential), the integral between any two potentials (V1 greater than V2) on this curve is the distance, in units of the resting space constant, over which V1 attenuates to V2. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental V(X) and the predicted value based solely on the input I0-V relation. The results demonstrate that the rectifying properties of the giant axon membrane must be taken into account when the electrotonic spread of even small subthreshold potentials is studied, and that, in the steady state, this behavior can be extracted from measurements at a single point. The effect of rectification on synaptic efficacy is also discussed.

  13. OCT detection of neural activity in American cockroach nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyńska, Iwona; Wyszkowska, Joanna; Bukowska, Danuta; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    We show results of a project which focuses on detection of activity in neural tissue with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) methods. Experiments were performed in neural cords dissected from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Functional OCT imaging was performed with ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT system (axial resolution 2.5 μm). Electrical stimulation (voltage pulses) was applied to the sensory cercal nerve of the neural cord. Optical detection of functional activation of the sample was performed in the connective between the terminal abdominal ganglion and the fifth abdominal ganglion. Functional OCT data were collected over time with the OCT beam illuminating selected single point in the connectives (i.e. OCT M-scans were acquired). Phase changes of the OCT signal were analyzed to visualize occurrence of activation in the neural cord. Electrophysiology recordings (microelectrode method) were also performed as a reference method to demonstrate electrical response of the sample to stimulation.

  14. Cellular Defence Reaction of American Cockroach,Periplaneta americana to Metarhizium anisopliae Isolate CQMa102%美洲大蠊血细胞对金龟子绿僵菌CQMa102菌株的免疫反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 殷幼平

    2003-01-01

    将蜚蠊的非致病菌--金龟子绿僵菌(Metarhizium anisopliae)CQMa102菌株的分生孢子注入美洲大蠊(Periplaneta americana)血腔后,诱导了蜚蠊血淋巴强烈的免疫反应,其血细胞数量发生了显著变化,血细胞通过吞噬作用及形成结节使绿僵菌孢子钝化,萌发受到抑制,或被彻底分解;注射高浓度孢子时,蜚蠊的免疫体系受到严重破坏,容易感染细菌而死亡;但注射低浓度孢子却能够增强蜚蠊的免疫机能.生理盐液也能诱导蜚蠊血淋巴的免疫反应.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INFECTIONS OF THE AMERICAN COCKROACHES IN PAVEH CITY, KERMANSHAH PROVINCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji

    2016-02-01

    American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary.

  16. Research on Antimicrobial Activity by Periplaneta american Cockroach Skimmed Cream and Active Carbon Material in vitro%美洲大蠊脱脂膏及其活性炭脱色物体外抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪文; 耿玲; 刘光明; 李冬梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate antibacterial activity by Periplaneta americana skimmed cream and active carbon material, and compare the effect of intensity between P. americana skimmed cream and active carbon material. Method; The P. americana skimmed cream was decolored with active carbon and solid bleaching material was obtained after freeze-drying. The antibacterial activity of them against Slaphylococcus aureus ( 5. aureas) , Slaphylococcus albus ( 5. albus ) , Escherichia coli ( E. coli) , Shigella dysenteriae ( S. dysenteriae ) , Salmonella Paratyphi ( 5. paratyphi A) , S. paratyphi B, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) , Bacillus bacteria (B. subtilis) , Proteus {P. vulgaris) , Candida albicans (C. albicans) , S. aureus ( ATCC 25923) , E. coli ( ATCC 25922) in vitro was observed, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Result; In all experimental strains, only skimmed cream had some antibacterial effect, S. albus. MIC values of 31. 25 g ?L , on the other multiple strains of bacteria had no antibacterial activity, active carbon material and antibacterial against S. aureus 25923, C. albicans, no antibacterial activity against many other strains of bacteria had antibacterial activity, in which the S. albus and P. aeruginosa antimicrobial was better, the MIC was 15. 63, 62. 5g ?L-1, respectively. Conclusion: P. americana contains antimicrobial active ingredients, compared with active carbon material and skimmed cream, antibiotic effect of active carbon material is better than that of skimmed cream.%目的:探讨美洲大蠊脱脂膏及其活性炭脱色物的体外抗菌作用.对比了美洲大蠊脱脂膏及其活性炭脱色物的抗菌谱和抗菌强弱.方法:美洲大蠊脱脂膏用活性炭脱色后进行冷冻干燥得到固体脱色物,然后用脱脂膏和脱色物对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureas)、白色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus albus)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、痢疾志贺菌(Shigella dysenteriae)、

  17. Distinct localization of FMRFamide- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like material in the brain, retrocerebral complex and suboesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhaert, P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; De Loof, A

    1985-01-01

    One bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) antiserum and two FMRFamide antisera were applied in the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical technique on a complete series of sections of brains, suboesophageal ganglia (SOG), corpora cardiaca (CC) and corpora allata of Periplaneta american...

  18. Cockroaches (periplaneta americana and blattella germanica: reservoirs of multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

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    E.P. Udoinyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological examination of external surfaces and internal guts of Periplaneta americana and Blattela germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using disc diffusion methods. Of the 317 bacteria isolated from the external surfaces and internal guts of P. americana, 275 (86.8% were Gram-negative bacilli, while 42 (13.2% were Gram-positive bacteria. Of the 204 bacterial isolates from B. germanica, 175 (85.8% were Gram negative, while 29 (14.2% were Gram positive bacteria. The bacteria isolated were Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia spp. Among the Gram positive bacteria, only 75.8% S. aureus and 76.5% B. cereus were sensitive to Streptomycin and Gentamycin, while their resistance profiles to antibiotics in decreasing order were as follows: Chloramphenicol (41.7%, Amoxicillin (40.3%, Streptomycin (36.1%, Tetracycline (36.0%, Erythromycin (35.5%, Gentamicin (34.0%, Penicillin (34.6%, Cephalothin (27.8%, Sulfamethoxazole (23.4%, Ciprofloxacin (18.4% and Levofloxacin (17.7%. Less than 50% of E. cloacae and Providencia spp were resistant to Streptomycin, while ˂ 40% of P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to Chloramphenicol. Of the 353 (67.8% multi drug resistant bacteria, 121 (23.2% were resistant to 3 antibiotics, 232 (65.7% were resistant to 4-10 antibiotics. The antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. and P. mirabilis had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR indexes ranging from 0.27 to 0.82. These findings suggest cockroaches in Uyo as potential vectors of medically important multiple drug-resistant bacteria.

  19. Nitric oxide synthase histochemistry in insect nervous systems: Methanol/formalin fixation reveals the neuroarchitecture of formaldehyde-sensitive NADPH diaphorase in the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Swidbert R; Elphick, Maurice R

    2002-06-24

    Formaldehyde-insensitive NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd) activity is used widely as a histochemical marker for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS). However, in several insects including the cockroach Periplaneta americana, NOS is apparently formaldehyde-sensitive; NADPHd fails to reveal neuron morphology and results in faint generalized staining. Here we have used a novel fixative, methanol/ formalin (MF), to reveal for the first time the neuroarchitecture of NADPHd in the cockroach, with intense selective staining occurring in neurons throughout the brain and thoracic ganglia. Immunocytochemical and histochemical analysis of cockroach and locust nervous systems indicated that neuronal NADPHd after MF fixation can be attributed to NOS. However, NADPHd in locust glial and perineurial cells was histochemically different from that in neurons and may thus be due to enzymes other than NOS. Histochemical implications of species-specific enzyme properties and of the transcriptional complexity of the NOS gene are discussed. The present findings suggest that MF fixation is a valuable new tool for the comparative analysis of the neuroarchitecture of NO signaling in insects. The Golgi-like definition of the staining enabled analysis of the NADPHd architecture in the cockroach and comparison with that in the locust. NADPHd in the tactile neuropils of the thoracic ganglia showed a similar organization in the two species. The olfactory glomeruli of the antennal lobes were in both species densely innervated by NADPHd-positive local interneurons that correlated in number with the number of glomeruli. Thus, the NADPHd architectures appear highly conserved in primary sensory neuropils. In the cockroach mushroom bodies, particularly dense staining in the gamma-layer of the lobes was apparently derived from Kenyon cells, whereas extrinsic arborizations were organized in domains across the lobes, an architecture that contrasts with the previously described tubular compartmentalization of

  20. Identification of cockroach aeroallergens from living cultures of German or American cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, R M; Burks, W; Williams, L W; Milne, D E; Brenner, R J

    1993-01-01

    The Air Sentinel and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were used to capture airborne particles over living colonies of German or American cockroaches. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels revealed protein bands at 80, 55, 36, and several bands below the 33-kD marker. SDS-PAGE/immunoblots of PTFE eluates from German cockroach colonies incubated with serum from cockroach-sensitive individuals revealed IgE-binding bands with apparent molecular weights of 36 and 80 kD. Only the 36-kD allergen and allergens below the 33-kD marker were evident in the American PTFE eluate. ELISA analysis with a monoclonal antibody assay identified the presence of both Bla g I and Bla g II in the German PTFE eluate. No Bla g I or Bla g II could be identified in the American PTFE eluate. These studies demonstrate that in addition to Bla g I and Bla g II, several other aerosolized allergens become airborne over cockroach colonies and may be important in the environment where cockroaches are abundant.

  1. Profile of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from cockroaches (Periplaneta americana in a Brazilian health care institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinésia Aparecida Prado

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches carry microorganisms to sterilized materials, equipment and non-contaminated food in hospitals and in homes. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. We isolated and identified microorganisms from living cockroaches captured from a Brazilian health care institution and we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Following collection, cockroaches were immobilized at 4ºC for 10 to 20 minutes, immersed in 0.8% saline solution and then homogenized. Next, the suspension was seeded in culture media: brain and heart agar infusion, MacConkey agar, Naito agar, and they were incubated for up to 48 hours at 37ºC. Sabouraud agar cultures were incubated at ambient temperature. The microbial colonies were analyzed with a stereomicroscope to count and phenotypically identify the colony-forming units (cfu. The discdiffusion method was used to determine the profile of susceptibility to antimicrobials. Among the 103 cockroaches analyzed, fungi were found in 97%, enterobacteria in 74.6% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS in 25.40%. Among the enterobacteria, 96% were resistant to gentamicin, 84% to ampicillin, 75.3% to caphalothin, 66.7% to ampicillin-sulbactam, 50% to aztreonam and 30% to chloramphenicol. Among the CNS, 61% were resistant to oxacillin. We concluded that cockroaches carry organisms associated with nosocomial infections and that are resistant to antimicrobials. This fact contributes to the epidemiological chain, complicating therapeutics, and consequently, medical costs are increased.

  2. Profile of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from cockroaches (Periplaneta americana in a Brazilian health care institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinésia Aparecida Prado

    Full Text Available Cockroaches carry microorganisms to sterilized materials, equipment and non-contaminated food in hospitals and in homes. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. We isolated and identified microorganisms from living cockroaches captured from a Brazilian health care institution and we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Following collection, cockroaches were immobilized at 4ºC for 10 to 20 minutes, immersed in 0.8% saline solution and then homogenized. Next, the suspension was seeded in culture media: brain and heart agar infusion, MacConkey agar, Naito agar, and they were incubated for up to 48 hours at 37ºC. Sabouraud agar cultures were incubated at ambient temperature. The microbial colonies were analyzed with a stereomicroscope to count and phenotypically identify the colony-forming units (cfu. The discdiffusion method was used to determine the profile of susceptibility to antimicrobials. Among the 103 cockroaches analyzed, fungi were found in 97%, enterobacteria in 74.6% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS in 25.40%. Among the enterobacteria, 96% were resistant to gentamicin, 84% to ampicillin, 75.3% to caphalothin, 66.7% to ampicillin-sulbactam, 50% to aztreonam and 30% to chloramphenicol. Among the CNS, 61% were resistant to oxacillin. We concluded that cockroaches carry organisms associated with nosocomial infections and that are resistant to antimicrobials. This fact contributes to the epidemiological chain, complicating therapeutics, and consequently, medical costs are increased.

  3. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae against Periplaneta americana(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ling A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory."nMethods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme."nResults: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same con­centrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cock­roaches. Treatment with Resigen (R at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the fe­males, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach."nConclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peri­patetic americana. "nKeywords: Piper aduncum essential oil, Periplaneta americana, Adults, Nymphs

  4. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae against Periplaneta americana(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ling A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory.Methods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme.Results: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same con­centrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cock­roaches. Treatment with Resigen (R at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the fe­males, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach.Conclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peri­patetic americana.

  5. The Distribution and Movement of American Cockroaches in Urban Niches of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John C; Rabito, Felicia A; Werthmann, Derek; Fox, Mark

    2017-10-01

    American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes. Cockroaches released into yards were collected in the homes, suggesting that yards, rather than sewers, are a more important source niche. A field trial applying boric acid granules to the yard was performed in an effort to reduce entry of cockroaches. There was a significant reduction in the cockroach antigen collected in intervention homes compared with controls.

  6. Variation in the mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Winston R.; Webster, Matthew R.; Socha, John J.; De Vita, Raffaella

    2014-05-01

    The insect cuticle serves the protective role of skin and the supportive role of the skeleton while being lightweight and flexible to facilitate flight. The smart design of the cuticle confers camouflage, thermo-regulation, communication, self-cleaning, and anti-wetting properties to insects. The mechanical behavior of the internal cuticle of the insect in tracheae remains largely unexplored due to their small size. In order to characterize the material properties of insect tracheae and understand their role during insect respiration, we conducted tensile tests on ring sections of tracheal tubes of American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). A total of 33 ring specimens collected from 14 tracheae from the upper thorax of the insects were successfully tested. The ultimate tensile strength (22.6 ± 13.3 MPa), ultimate strain (1.57 ± 0.68%), elastic modulus (1740 ± 840 MPa), and toughness (0.175 ± 0.156 MJ m-3) were measured. We examined the high variance in mechanical properties statistically and demonstrated that ring sections excised from the same trachea exhibit comparable mechanical properties. Our results will form the basis for future studies aimed at determining the structure-function relationship of insect tracheal tubes, ultimately inspiring the design of multi-functional materials and structures.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhma Syed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach.These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical.Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05.Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance.

  8. Structure of tracheae and the functional implications for collapse in the American cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Matthew R; Socha, John J; Teresi, Luciano; Nardinocchi, Paola; De Vita, Raffaella

    2015-12-01

    The tracheal tubes of insects are complex and heterogeneous composites with a microstructural organization that affects their function as pumps, valves, or static conduits within the respiratory system. In this study, we examined the microstructure of the primary thoracic tracheae of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The organization of the taenidia, which represents the primary source of structural reinforcement of the tracheae, was analyzed. We found that the taenidia were more disorganized in the regions of highest curvature of the tracheal tube. We also used a simple finite element model to explore the effect of cross-sectional shape and distribution of taenidia on the collapsibility of the tracheae. The eccentricity of the tracheal cross-section had a stronger effect on the collapse properties than did the distribution of taenidia. The combination of the macro-scale geometry, meso-scale heterogeneity, and microscale organization likely enables rhythmic tracheal compression during respiration, ultimately driving oxygen-rich air to cells and tissues throughout the insect body. The material design principles of these natural composites could potentially aid in the development of new bio-inspired microfluidic systems based on the differential collapse of tracheae-like networks.

  9. Colocalization of allatotropin and tachykinin-related peptides with classical transmitters in physiologically distinct subtypes of olfactory local interneurons in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusca, Debora; Schachtner, Joachim; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2015-07-01

    In the insect antennal lobe different types of local interneurons mediate complex excitatory and inhibitory interactions between the glomerular pathways to structure the spatiotemporal representation of odors. Mass spectrometric and immunohistochemical studies have shown that in local interneurons classical neurotransmitters are likely to colocalize with a variety of substances that can potentially act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. In the antennal lobe of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been identified as the potential inhibitory transmitter of spiking type I local interneurons, whereas acetylcholine is most likely the excitatory transmitter of nonspiking type IIa1 local interneurons. This study used whole-cell patch clamp recordings combined with single-cell labeling and immunohistochemistry to test if the GABAergic type I local interneurons and the cholinergic type IIa1 local interneurons express allatotropin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides (TKRPs). These are two of the most abundant types of peptides in the insect antennal lobe. GABA-like and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-like immunoreactivity were used as markers for GABAergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. About 50% of the GABA-like immunoreactive (-lir) spiking type I local interneurons were allatotropin-lir, and ∼ 40% of these neurons were TKRP-lir. About 20% of nonspiking ChAT-lir type IIa1 local interneurons were TKRP-lir. Our results suggest that in subpopulations of GABAergic and cholinergic local interneurons, allatotropin and TKRPs might act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. To unequivocally assign neurotransmitters, cotransmitters, and neuromodulators to identified classes of antennal lobe neurons is an important step to deepen our understanding of information processing in the insect olfactory system.

  10. Distribution of serotonergic and dopaminergic nerve fibers in the salivary gland complex of the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnel Dana

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cockroach salivary gland consists of secretory acini with peripheral ion-transporting cells and central protein-producing cells, an extensive duct system, and a pair of reservoirs. Salivation is controled by serotonergic and dopaminergic innervation. Serotonin stimulates the secretion of a protein-rich saliva, dopamine causes the production of a saliva without proteins. These findings suggest a model in which serotonin acts on the central cells and possibly other cell types, and dopamine acts selectively on the ion-transporting cells. To examine this model, we have analyzed the spatial relationship of dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve fibers to the various cell types. Results The acinar tissue is entangled in a meshwork of serotonergic and dopaminergic varicose fibers. Dopaminergic fibers reside only at the surface of the acini next to the peripheral cells. Serotonergic fibers invade the acini and form a dense network between central cells. Salivary duct segments close to the acini are locally associated with dopaminergic and serotonergic fibers, whereas duct segments further downstream have only dopaminergic fibers on their surface and within the epithelium. In addition, the reservoirs have both a dopaminergic and a serotonergic innervation. Conclusion Our results suggest that dopamine is released on the acinar surface, close to peripheral cells, and along the entire duct system. Serotonin is probably released close to peripheral and central cells, and at initial segments of the duct system. Moreover, the presence of serotonergic and dopaminergic fiber terminals on the reservoir indicates that the functions of this structure are also regulated by dopamine and serotonin.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes in American cockroach ovaries and testes by suppression subtractive hybridization and the prediction of its miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Sun, Shu-Hong; Lu, Yong; Ma, Fei; Li, Bin

    2013-11-01

    Studies on the cockroach have contributed to our understanding of several important developmental processes, especially those that can be easily studied in the embryo. However, our knowledge on late events such as gonad differentiation in the cockroach is still limited. The major aim of the present study was to identify sex-specific genes between adult female and male Periplaneta americana. Two cDNA libraries were constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method; a total of 433 and 599 unique sequences were obtained from the forward library and the reverse library, respectively, by cluster assembly, and sequence alignment of 1,032 expressed sequence tags. The analysis of the differentially expressed gene functions allowed these genes to be categorized into three groups: biological process, molecular function, and cellular component. The differentially expressed genes were suggested to be related to the development of the gonads of P. americana. Twelve differentially expressed genes were randomly selected and verified using relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Meanwhile, by adopting a range of filtering criteria, we predicted two potential microRNA sequences for P. americana, pam-miR100-3p and pam-miR7. To confirm the expression of potential microRNAs (miRNAs) in American cockroach, a qRT-PCR approach was also employed. The data presented here offer the insights into the molecular foundation of sex differences in American cockroach, and the first report for the miRNAs in this species. In addition, the results can be used as a reference for unraveling candidate genes associated with the sex and reproduction of cockroaches.

  12. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  13. Investigation on American cockroaches medically important bacteria in Khorramshahr hospital, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate American cockroaches' infection to various bacteria in Khorramshahr Vali-e-Asr hospital, which was done in 2008. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 20 American cockroaches were caught via direct collection. Medically important bacteria were extracted from their outer surface of bodies by standard procedures. Results: Culturing outer surface wash of cockroaches resulted in the separation of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Proteus and Streptococcus. The main common bacteria were Klebsiella (35% and Pseudomonas (30%. Also, results of culture media showed that about 90% of cockroaches infected to at least one bacterium. Conclusions: American cockroaches can transmit pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria, therefore their presence in hospitals may be a sanitation challenge. It is recommended to assess plans in purpose to combat these pests in the hospitals.

  14. Afro-Asian cockroach from Chiapas amber and the lost Tertiary American entomofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Cifuentes-Ruiz, Paulina; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Čiampor, Fedor; Vega, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Cockroach genera with synanthropic species (Blattella, Ectobius, Supella, Periplaneta, Diploptera and ?Blatta), as well as other insects such as honeybees, although natively limited to certain continents nowadays, had circumtropic distribution in the past. The ease of their reintroduction into their former range suggests a post-Early Miocene environmental stress which led to the extinction of cosmopolitan Tertiary entomofauna in the Americas, whilst in Eurasia, Africa and Australia this fauna survived. This phenomenon is demonstrated here on a low diversity (10 spp.) living cockroach genus Supella, which is peculiar for the circumtropical synanthropic brownbanded cockroach S. longipalpa and also for its exclusively free-living cavicolous species restricted to Africa. S. (Nemosupella) miocenica sp. nov. from the Miocene amber of Chiapas in Mexico is a sister species to the living S. mirabilis from the Lower Guinea forests and adjacent savannas. The difference is restricted to the shape of the central macula on the pronotum, and size, which may indicate the around-Miocene origin of the living, extremely polymorphic Supella species and possibly also the isochronic invasion into the Americas. The species also has a number of characteristics of the Asian (and possibly also Australian) uniform genus Allacta (falling within the generic variability of Supella) suggesting Supella is a direct ancestor of the former. The present species is the first significant evidence for incomplete hiati between well defined cockroach genera — a result of the extensive fossil record of the group. The reported specimen is covered by a mycelium of a parasitic fungus Cordyceps or Entomophthora.

  15. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE crossreactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-qing; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; Michael Dho Spangfort; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients.Methods The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches.Results Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females.Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients,88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der P sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach.Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  16. amylase from cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2008 Academic Journals ... 1Laboratoire de Biochimie et Technologie des Aliments de l'Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences et ..... At this step of the purification process, the enzyme.

  17. Efficacy of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi against Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubner-Campos, Rayssa Fátima; Leles, Renan Nunes; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Luz, Christian

    2013-12-01

    The American cockroach Periplaneta americana, one of the worlds' most important urban insect pests was tested with entomopathogenic fungi. Most promising Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium robertsii and Beauveria bassiana killed nymphs (≥ 81.7% mortality, 25 days after treatment), and these fungi developed on all dead insects. Other fungi tested were less virulent (Metarhizium frigidum and Purpureocillium lilacinum) or avirulent (Isaria cateniobliqua, Isaria farinosa, Simplicillium lanosoniveum, Sporothrix insectorum and Tolypocladium cylindrosporum). Intrageneric and intraspecific variability of fungal activity was detected. Adults were highly susceptible, and oothecae proved to be more resistant than nymphs and adults to infection with M. anisopliae IP 46. Findings of the study underscore the potential of fungi as biocontrol agents against this pest.

  18. Stress-resolved and cockroach-friendly piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R.; Lee, H.; Butler, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Yi, J.; Vinson, B.; Liang, H.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate effects of bending stress on piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a polymer sensor. The sensor was designed and fabricated into a special size and shape so that it can be attached to small insects, such as the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) to measure the insects' locomotion. The performance of the sensor is studied using a controlled linear stage to buckle the sensor mimicking the bending of the sensor due to the leg movements of cockroaches. For comparison, a roach robot was used for multi-leg study. Results indicate that buckling motion of the sensor produce an output that is different from regular stretching effect. The sensor-generated charge depends on the localized stress distribution and dipole alignment. This paper discusses the methods of characterization of piezoelectricity useful for insect applications.

  19. [Investigation on species composition of cockroaches and bacteria-carrying on their bodies in five cities of Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Zi; Cui, Yu-Bao; Yang, Wen; Rao, Lang-Yu; Pan, Wan; Chen, Jin-Long

    2008-02-28

    "ZA-type" cages were used to capture cockroaches in 267 sites of 5 cities in Hainan. Species were identified and bacteria were isolated by routine method. 441 cockroaches were collected and identified as five species belonging to two genera, 75.3% being Periplaneta americana. More cockroaches were found in sewerage. Bacteria were detected from 82.4% of cockroaches, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp, Bacillus proteus and sort of mycetes. Therefore, the dominant species is Periplaneta americana in Hainan, and the high bacteria-carrying behavior of cockroaches indicates its importance in disease transmission.

  20. Cockroaches as carriers of fungi of medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, A A; Lemos, J A; Prado, M A; Pimenta, F C; Gir, E; Silva, H M; Silva, M R R

    2006-01-01

    The fungal pathogenic flora of the external surface of 103 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) collected from the intensive care unit of a hospital were investigated. In this study, a high percentage of test cockroaches (93.2%) were found to carry fungi of medical importance. The main fungi isolated were species of Candida, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Information about the carriage of pathogenic fungi by cockroaches in hospital environment is scanty. The results suggest that cockroaches can play a role in dissemination of fungi, which they can carry on their external surface.

  1. Preparation and identification of Per a 5 as a novel American cockroach allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ji-Fu; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Dongning; Gao, Peisong; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from various arthropods can elicit allergic reactions. In the present study, Per a 5, a GST, was cloned from American cockroach (CR) and expressed in both baculovirus-infected insect cell (iPer a 5) and E. coli expression (bPer a 5) systems. The secondary structures were predicted to be 45.93 and 8.69% of α-helix β-sheets in iPer a 5 and 42.54 and 8.49% of α-helix and β-sheets in bPer a 5, respectively. It is found that 4 out of 16 (25%) sera from American CR allergy patients reacted to both bPer a 9 and iPer a 9 as assessed by ELISA and Western blotting analysis, confirming that Per a 5 is not a major allergen of American CR. Induction of upregulated expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized human basophils (sera from American CR allergy patients) by approximately up to 4.5- and 3.2-fold indicates that iPer a 5 and bPer a 5 are functionally active. Recombinant Per a 5 (rPer a 5) should be a useful tool for studying and understanding the role of Per a 5 in CR allergy.

  2. The Effect of Age on a Visual Learning Task in the American Cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sheena; Strausfeld, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal modifications that accompany normal aging occur in brain neuropils and might share commonalties across phyla including the most successful group, the Insecta. This study addresses the kinds of neuronal modifications associated with loss of memory that occur in the hemimetabolous insect "Periplaneta americana." Among insects that display…

  3. Effects of toxin huwentoxin-Ⅲ from the venom of the Chinese bird spider, Ornithoctonus huwena (Araneae: Theraphosidae) on neuronal voltage-gated ion channels in cockroach Periplaneta americana%虎纹捕鸟蛛毒素虎纹毒素-Ⅲ对美洲蜚蠊神经细胞电压门控离子通道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞兰; 梁宋平

    2009-01-01

    Huwentoxin-Ⅲ purified from the venom of the Chinese bird spider, Ornithoctonus huwena (Wang et al.), is an insect neurotoxic peptide. The effects of huwentoxin-Ⅲ on neuronal voltage-gated ion channels were studied by using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Huwentoxin-Ⅲ specifically inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels in dorsal unpaired median neurons of adult cockroach Periplaneta americana (IC50≈1.106 μmol/L) while having no evident effect on voltage-gated potassium channels. HWTX-Ⅲ inhibited insect voltage-gated sodium channels through a novel mechanism distinctive from other spider toxins, did not affect the activation and inactivation kinetics, and not evidently shift the steady-state inactivation curve. Thus, its specificity and novel mechanism on insect neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels make it an interesting tool for investigating the multiple molecular forms of voltage-gated sodium channels and exploiting new and safe insecticides.%HWTX-Ⅲ是从中国虎纹捕鸟蛛Ornithoctonus huwena粗毒中分离纯化到的一种昆虫神经多肽.通过应用全细胞膜片钳技术研究了HWTX-Ⅲ对美洲蜚蠊Periplaneta americana神经细胞电压门控离子通道的影响.发现HWTX-Ⅲ特异性地抑制美洲蜚蠊背侧不成对中间(dorsal unpaired median,DUM)神经细胞的电压门控钠通道(IC50≈1.106μmol/L),而对电压门控钾通道没有明显的影响.HWTX-Ⅲ通过一种新型的不同于其他蜘蛛毒素的机制抑制昆虫电压门控钠通道,它不影响通道的激活与失活动力学,也不明显地漂移稳态失活曲线.HWTX-Ⅲ对昆虫神经细胞电压门控钠通道的特异性与新型作用机制为研究电压门控钠通道分子结构的多样性以及开发新的安全的杀虫剂提供有用的工具.

  4. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-18

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination.

  5. In silico epitope prediction, expression and functional analysis of Per a 10 allergen from the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xunliang; Guo, Miao; Jin, Min; Chen, Hao; Li, Yanming; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Cockroach (CR) allergies caused by the American cockroach hyave been recognized to be repsonsible for IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. Per a 10 is one of the recognized main allergens of the American CR. In a previous study, we examined another American CR allergen, Per a 9 in patients with CR allergies and examined epitope sequences in this allergen. In the present study, we aimed to examine epitope sequences in the Per a 10 allergen. for this purpose, the Per a 10 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. Our results revealed that 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sera from patients with American CR allergies reacted to Per a10, as assessed by ELISA, confirming that Per a 10 is a major allergen of the American CR. Our results also revealed that the expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized basophils (obtained sera of patients with American CR allergies) was increased by approximately 2.3-fold, indicating that recombinant Per a 10 is functionally active. In addition, 3 immunoinformatics tools, namely the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the peptides and the results revealed 8 peptides (2–12, 55–67, 98–120, 125–133, 149–160, 170–182, 201–208 and 223–227) as potential B cell epitopes of the Per a 10 allergen. Moreover, Per a 10 was predicted to have 3 T cell epitope sequences, namely 83–92, 139–147 and 162–170. The findings of our study on the CR allergen may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccine for the prevention and/or treatment of CR allergies. PMID:27840898

  6. Cockroaches (Insecta, Blattodea from caves of Polillo Island (Philippines, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian C. Lucanas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches collected during a protracted series of fieldwork in several limestone caves in Polillo Island, Philippines were taxonomically studied. A new species of Nocticola (Nocticolidae, N. gonzalezi Lucañas & Lit, sp. n., is described. The male of Periplaneta banksi Hanitsch (Blattidae is described for the first time. Altogether, the present cave cockroach fauna of the island consists of six species.

  7. Effects of phosphine on the neural regulation of gas exchange in Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, James D; Haritos, Victoria S; Cooper, Paul D

    2008-04-01

    Phosphine is used for fumigating stored commodities, however an understanding of the physiological response to phosphine in insects is limited. Here we show how the central pattern generator for ventilation in the central nervous system (CNS) responds to phosphine and influences normal resting gas exchange. Using the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, that perform discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) at rest, we simultaneously measure ventilatory nervous output from the intact CNS, VCO(2) and water loss from live specimens. Exposure to 800 ppm phosphine at 25 degrees C for 2 h (n=13) during recording did not cause any mortality or obvious sub-lethal effects. Within 60 s of introducing phosphine into the air flow, all animals showed a distinct CNS response accompanied by a burst release of CO(2). The initial ventilatory response to phosphine displaced DGE and was typically followed by low, stable and continuous CO(2) output. CNS output was highest and most orderly under normoxic conditions during DGE. Phosphine caused a series of ventilatory CNS spikes preceding almost complete cessation of CNS output. Minimal CNS output was maintained during the 2 h normoxic recovery period and DGE was not reinstated. VCO(2) was slightly reduced and water loss significantly lower during the recovery period compared with those rates prior to phosphine exposure. A phosphine narcosis effect is rejected based on animals remaining alert at all times during exposure.

  8. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-06

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular cloning of Per a 1 and definition of the cross-reactive Group 1 cockroach allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, E; Pomés, A; Vailes, L D; Arruda, L K; Chapman, M D

    1999-05-01

    Sensitization to allergens produced by German and American cockroaches is strongly associated with the cause of asthma. Most of the cockroach allergens identified to date have been species specific. The aim of this study was to identify and sequence cross-reactive cockroach allergens. A Periplaneta americana cDNA library was screened with IgE antibody from patients in the United States who were allergic to cockroach and who were sensitized to Blattella germanica. A cDNA clone was isolated that contained an 870-bp sequence with a 695-bp open reading frame, encoding a 231 amino acid protein, molecular weight 26.2 kd. Plaque immunoassays using anti-Bla g 1 and anti-Per a 1 mAbs and a panel of human IgE antibodies showed that the protein expressed by these clones was Per a 1. Sequence homology searches showed that Per a 1 was homologous to 5 previously reported, but unidentified, sequences from B germanica and P americana. These sequences encoded proteins with multiple molecular sizes containing approximately 100 amino acid repeats. The Per a 1 sequence also showed 31% identity to a mosquito precursor protein, ANG12, which may be involved in digestion. The Per a 1 cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris to produce purified recombinant allergen (yield, 14 mg/L). The results define the molecular structure and antigenic relationships between a new family of cross-reactive "Group 1" allergens produced by both P americana and B germanica. These recombinant allergens and specific mAbs will provide tools to improve the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases caused by cockroaches.

  10. Cockroaches ’ bacterial infections in wards of hospitals, Hamedan city, west of Iran

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    Nejati Jalil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between different species of cockroaches with their bacterial infection in different wards of Hamedan county hospitals, western Iran. Methods: Using sticky trap, hand collection and glass trap, 250 cockroaches were collected from 14 wards of 5 hospitals. After having their identification determined by detection key, all of them were used to isolate bacteria from cuticle and alimentary tract. Results: From four identified species, Blatella germanica were the most common in all of the wards (88.8% and next was the Periplaneta Americana (8%. 20 bacteria species isolated from cockroaches' surface and 21 from digestive organ. Escherichia coli were the most predominant bacteria isolated from external surface (26.5 % as well as alimentary tract (30.8%. The frequency of investigated bacteria on cockroaches' body surface was not significantly different between Periplaneta Americana and Blattella germanica except for Kllebsiella oxytoca (P<0.001 and Providensia Spp (P=0.035. Also, frequency of detected bacteria in cockroaches' digestive organ was not significantly different between these two species. Furthermore, the frequency of bacteria isolated from the cockroaches' external surface was not significantly different from that of digestive organ except for shigella disantery (P<0.001, Pseudomonas aeroginosa (P<0.001 and Klebsiella oxytoca (P=0.01 3. Conclusions: Since cockroaches can carry pathogenic bacteria, so their existence in the hospitals could be a serious public health problem. It is suggested to compile programs in order to control cockroaches especially in the hospitals.

  11. THE PAINT FORMULATION IN LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN USAGE AS P. americana COCKROACH CONTROL MEASURES

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    Lulus Susanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKecoa adalah salah satu jenis serangga yang dianggap kotor dan merupakan seranggavektor. Scbagian besar kecoa yang ditemukan di sekitar pemukiman adalah Periplanetaamericana, Periplaneta brunea, Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supellalongipalpa, Neostylopiga rhombifoUa dan Nauphaeta cinerea. Beberapa kecoa juga dapatmenularkan virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit dan jamur.Pengcndalian kecoa secara fogging dengan menggunakan insektisida masih kurangefektif dan praktis, sehingga dibutuhkan alternatif pengcndali. Dalam rangka untuk mencarimetode alternatif pengcndalian kecoa, maka akan dilakukan percobaan menggunakan cat kayuyang ditambahkan dengan insektisida.Dalam penelitian ini, insektisida cat kayu menggunakan bahan aktif Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. Pertama-tama dibuat beberapa solusi dari cat insektisida dalam dosis banyak. Kemudiancat papan kayu lapis. Setelah kcring sekitar satu hari, kemudian melakukan pengujian bioassayterhadap kecoa {Periplaneta americana . Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kayuinsektisida cat dengan dosis minimal 1,591% efektif untuk membunuh kecoa hingga 95%.Kata kunci: kecoa, cat berinsektisida, lambdacyhalothrinABSTRATCCockroaches are still considered to be disgusting insects and vector. Mostlycockroaches that are found around the resident, such as Periplaneta americana, Periplanetabrunea,Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supella longipalpa, NeostylopigarhombifoUa and Nauphaeta cinerea. There are can transmit virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit andfungi.The methods for cocroaches control by using the fogging with insecticide is still lesseffective and practical, so it will need a controlling alternative. In order to find the alternativemethods for control the cockroach, it will conduct an experiments using impregnated paint woodby insecticide.In this research, insecticide paint wood using an active materials Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. For the first, it make some solution from insecticide paint in

  12. Olfactory discrimination of structurally similar alcohols by cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakura, M; Okada, R; Mizunami, M

    2002-11-01

    The capability of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to discriminate odors of structurally similar aliphatic alcohols was studied by using an operant conditioning paradigm. Cockroaches were trained to discriminate three odors: one odor associated with sucrose solution (reward) and two odors associated with NaCl solution (non-reward). After training, their odor preferences were tested by counting the number of visits to each odor source. We tested the capability of cockroaches to discriminate (1) three normal aliphatic alcohols with different numbers of carbon (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), (2) three C6 aliphatic alcohols (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol), (3) binary mixtures of two of these three alcohols and their components, and (4) 1-hexanol solution of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 micro g micro l(-1)). Cockroaches exhibited higher preferences for the odors associated with reward in these tests, and we therefore conclude that cockroaches can discriminate these odors. However, discrimination of 1-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol and their binary mixture was imperfect, in that some statistical tests suggested significant level of discrimination but other tests did not. In addition, the cockroaches learned to associate a 1-hexanol solution of the highest or lowest concentration with sucrose reward but failed to learn to associate 1-hexanol of an intermediate concentration with reward.

  13. Pathogenicity of Aspergillus westerdijkiae to females and oothecae of Periplaneta Americana

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    Mariah Valente Baggio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cockroach control is performed by the application of chemical insecticides which exert high selective pressure on populations and introduces synthetic substances in the environment, motivating the search for other methods of control such as entomopathogenic fungi. The objectives of this study were to investigate the pathogenicity of the JAB 42 Aspergillus westerdijkiae to females and oothecae of Periplaneta americana and to demonstrate its mechanism of action on oothecae. Suspensions containing 106 to 108 conidia/ml were used to infect females and oothecae. Mortality and other variables such as scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate the mechanism of action of the fungus. The isolated JAB 42 A. westerdijkiae is pathogenic to oothecae of P. americana, with low capacity to kill females. Adhesion, germination, penetration and extrusion of the fungus on the cockroach oothecae were observed.

  14. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  15. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from cockroaches in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Residents in long-term care facilities and nursing homes have a relative higher risk for infections. The nocturnal and filthy habits of cockroaches may be ideal disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms in these institutions. This study was designed to determine the infestation and vector potential of cockroaches under this institutional environment. Cockroaches were collected from 69 long-term care facilities and nursing homes in Kaohsiung City. Risk factors related to cockroach infestation were determined by questionnaire survey. In addition, bacteria were isolated and identified from the alimentary tract and external surface of these insects. Antibiotic resistances of these microorganisms were then determined. Cockroach infestation was found in 45 (65.2%) institutions and 558 cockroaches (119 Periplaneta americana and 439 Blattella germanica) were collected. A significant association was found between cockroach infestation and indoor environmental sanitation. From 250 adult cockroaches, 38 species of gram-negative bacteria, 20 species of glucose non-fermenter bacilli and 6 species of gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Moreover, antibiotic resistances were found among the bacteria isolated. These findings indicate that cockroaches have the potential in transmitting pathogenic bacteria with multidrug resistances in long-term care facilities and nursing homes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae): A Reservoir of Pathogenic Microbes in Human-Dwelling Localities in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memona, H; Manzoor, F; Anjum, A A

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat. Relative abundance and frequency were measured for each bacterial species on external and internal surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitations, two major species of cockroaches were isolated, i.e., Periplaneta americana (P. americana) and Blattella germanica (B. germanica). Out of 240 cockroaches collected, 167 were P. americana and 73 were B. germanica. In total, 11 bacterial species were isolated, but no different bacterial load in each habitat was observed. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the external surface of cockroaches was found to be Escherichia coli (10.31%). In contrast, the most common isolate from the internal gut tract of cockroaches was found to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with relative frequency of 19.96%. Jaccard's index of similarity of bacterial species found on cockroaches was highest (0.3125) in houses, whereas Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity was highest for hospitals (0.2174). The highest Shannon-Wiener's diversity index value was found in bacteria on cockroaches collected from the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (2.610632). No Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia were found in the digestive tract of any cockroach. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  17. Comparative repellent properties of certain chemicals against mosquitoes, house flies and cockroaches using modified techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, P H; Tungikar, V B; Sharma, R N

    1994-09-01

    Several terpenoids were assessed for their repellent/toxic properties against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), house flies (Musca domestica) and cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). Impregnated wide mesh netting was used in the case of the Dipterans, while treated filtered paper was employed for the bioassays with cockroaches. Persistence of the repellent chemicals was studied. Doses ranged from 5-20 gm/M2 for the Dipterans and 25-100 mg per 4 x 4 cm filter paper for the cockroaches. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) offered the maximum protection of the chemicals tested against mosquitoes but was not so effective against house flies and cockroaches. Citral and Eugenol were effective against all the three test insects. Other test compounds afforded varying degrees of protection. Application strategy and utility of the findings are discussed.

  18. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  19. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.

  20. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed.

  1. Identification of two capa cDNA transcripts and detailed peptidomic characterization of their peptide products in Periplaneta americana

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    Susanne Neupert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first CAPA peptides of insects were identified from Periplaneta americana using extracts of 8000 abdominal perisympathetic organs. The corresponding gene of cockroaches and other basal insects, however, remained undiscovered. Here we identified two capa cDNA transcripts of P. americana. Single cell mass spectrometry of capa neurons in abdominal ganglia yielded a complete coverage of the precursor sequences of both transcripts; with intermediates of precursor processing more prominent in somata than in perisympathetic organs. The processing of the CAPA precursor in P. americana is compared with that in the beetle Tribolium castaneum which was re-evaluated in this study.

  2. Effect of certain entomopathogenic fungi on oxidative stress and mortality of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Abhilasha; Lone, Yaqoob; Wani, Owais; Gupta, U S

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Hirsutella thompsonaii on Periplaneta americana. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii were cultured at 28±1°C on potato carrot agar and M. anisopliae was cultured at 28±1°C on potato dextrose agar for 14days. Conidial suspensions of fungi were given to cockroaches through different routes. M. anisopliae shows high virulence against adult cockroaches and mortality ranges from 38.65% to 78.36% after 48h. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonii show less virulence compared to M. anisopliae. We also investigated the effect of these three fungi on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and catalase in different tissues of the insect to gain an understanding of the different target site. The result suggested that the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and level of malondialdehyde varies in different organs and through different routes of exposure. Based on mortality percentages, all tested fungi had high potentials for biocontrol agents against P. americana. Our study reveals for the first time that I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii fungal infections initiate oxidative stress in the midgut, fat body, whole body and hemolymph of cockroach thereby suggesting them to be the target organs for oxidative damage.

  3. Serine phosphorylation of CAPA pyrokinin in cockroaches-a taxon-specific posttranslational modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    In insects, posttranslational modifications of neuropeptides are largely restricted to C- and N-terminal amino acids. The most common modifications, N-terminal pyroglutamate formation and C-terminal α-amidation, may prevent a fast degradation of these messenger molecules. This is particularly important for peptide hormones. Other common posttranslational modifications of proteins such as glycosylation and phosphorylation seem to be very rare in insect neuropeptides. To check this assumption, we used a computer algorithm to search an extensive data set of MALDI-TOF mass spectra from cockroach tissues for ion signal patterns indicating peptide phosphorylation. The results verify that phosphorylation is indeed very rare. However, a candidate was found and experimentally verified as phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin (GGGGpSGETSGMWFGPRL-NH2) in the cockroach Lamproblatta albipalpus (Blattidae, Lamproblattinae). Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation site as Ser(5). Phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin was then also detected in most other cockroach lineages (e.g. Blaberidae, Polyphagidae) but not in closely related blattid species such as Periplaneta americana. This is remarkable since the sequence of CAPA pyrokinin is identical in Lamproblatta and Periplaneta. A consensus sequence of CAPA pyrokinins of cockroaches revealed a conserved motif that suggests phosphorylation by a Four-jointed/FAM20C related kinase.

  4. The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2017-10-07

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.

  5. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

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    Sarinho E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  6. A survey on species and prevalence rate of bacterial agents isolated from cockroaches in three hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Ali Akbar Karimi; Vatani, Hadi

    2009-04-01

    The presence of cockroaches has health implications, such as nosocomial infection, as the insects move freely from areas within and around hospitals that may harbor pathogenic organisms. The goals of the present study were to determine species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches found in three Tehran hospitals, and to determine distribution of potential vectors by species and sex. The study is descriptive laboratory research. A total of 305 cockroaches from three species were trapped and identified: Periplaneta americana (65.6%), Blatella germanica (12.1%), and Blatta orientalis (22.3%). From these potential vectors, 19 species of bacteria were isolated and identified. After transportation of cockroaches to the laboratory, separation of the whole-homogenized suspension of each species was carried out. Identification of the isolated bacteria was performed according to Burgey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th Edition. The most common species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Group D, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus vulgaris. No statistical significance was found between sex and species of cockroach carrying bacteria (p > 0.05), but significance was found for sex in Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus non-group A&B (p < 0.05).

  7. Molecular cloning, expression, IgE binding activities and in silico epitope prediction of Per a 9 allergens of the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiwei; Chen, Hao; Jin, Min; Xie, Hua; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Per a 9 is a major allergen of the American cockroach (CR), which has been recognized as an important cause of imunoglobulin E-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. However, it is not neasy to obtain a substantial quantity of this allergen for use in functional studies. In the present study, the Per a 9 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. It was found that 13/16 (81.3%) of the sera from patients with allergies caused by the American CR reacted to Per a 9, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming that Per a 9 is a major allergen of CR. The induction of the expression of CD63 and CCR3 in passively sensitized basophils (from sera of patients with allergies caused by the American CR) by approximately 4.2-fold indicated that recombinant Per a 9 was functionally active. Three immunoinformatics tools, including the DNASTAR Protean system, Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the potential B cell epitopes, while Net-MHCIIpan-2.0 and NetMHCII-2.2 were used to predict the T cell epitopes of Per a 9. As a result, we predicted 11 peptides (23–28, 39–46, 58–64, 91–118, 131–136, 145–154, 159–165, 176–183, 290–299, 309–320 and 338–344) as potential B cell linear epitopes. In T cell prediction, the Per a 9 allergen was predicted to have 5 potential T cell epitope sequences, 119–127, 194–202, 210–218, 239–250 and 279–290. The findings of our study may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccines to combat CR-induced allergies. PMID:27840974

  8. Species Diversity and Distributional Pattern of Cockroaches in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Memona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are found as the most common urban pests of tropical countries, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying microbes and allergens, acting as vector for various patho­gens of diseases. The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in various human dwelling local­ities of urban area of district Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: Cockroaches were collected randomly by hand, food baited and sticky traps throughout the year. Four species of cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana (P. amercana, Blattella germanica (B. germanica, Blatta orientalis (B. orientalis, and Blatta lateralis (B. lateralis were collected and identified from the study site.Results: B. germanica was the most dominant indoor species with highest diversity indices in study areas. Overall cockroach species diversity was highest in July–September, 2013 with highest Simpson index of diversity and Shan­non index as well. P. americana was found second broadly distributed in the study area followed by B. orientalis and B. lateralis were intermediately distributed in residential areas and narrowly distributed in hospitals. Residential ar­eas and hospitals were highly infested with B. germanica followed by P. americana. Population index of B. ger­manica for hospitals was double than residential areas. B. lateralis was observed as displacing B. orientalis in out­door habitat through competing with its habitat and food sources.Conclusion: The infestation rate of different species depends on availability of food sources, sanitary conditions and climatic conditions. Cockroach infestation can be controlled with knowledge about their biology and behavior, at­tention to sanitation and effective use of commercial insecticides.

  9. Fine structural description of the compound eye of the Madagascar 'hissing cockroach' Gromphadorhina portentosa(Dictyoptera: Blaberidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monalisa Mishra; Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow

    2008-01-01

    The compound eyes of the wingless adults of the Madagascar' hissing cockroach' Gromphador hina portentosa Sachum, 1853 were examined by light and electron microscopy.Each eye contains 2 400-2 500 mostly hexagonal facets. However, irregularities affecting both shape and size of the ommatidia are relatively common, especially towards the margins of the eye. An individual ommatidium of this eucone type of apposition eye contains eight retinula cells, which give rise to a centrally-fused, tiered rhabdom. The distal end of the latter is funnel-shaped and accommodates the proximal end of the cone in its midst. Further below, the rhabdom (then formed by the rhabdomeres of four retinula cells) assumes a squarish profile with microvilli aligned in two directions at right-angle to each other. Cross sections through the proximal regions of the rhabdom display triangular rhabdom outlines and microvilli (belonging to 3-4 retinula cells different from those involved in the squarish more distal rhabdom) that run in three directions inclined to one another by 120°. Overall the organization of the eye conforms to the orthopteroid pattern and particularly closely resembles that of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. However, since G.portentosa possesses fewer ommatidia, this could be a consequence of its inability to fly. On the other hand, the large size of the facets and the voluminous rhabdoms suggest considerable absolute sensitivity and an ability to detect the plane of linearly polarized light. Based on the pattern of rnicrovillus orientations in combination with the crepuscular lifestyle G. portentosa leads and the habitat it occurs in, the prediction is made that this insect uses its green receptors for e-vector discrimination in the environment of down-welling light that reaches the forest floor.

  10. EEK--A Cockroach!

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Julien, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Students from thirteen fifth-grade classrooms from six different elementary schools investigate the preferred escape routes of cockroaches. These identified routes of 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-degrees are the research findings of Paolo Dominici, an Italian scientist. The students used rubber cockroaches and lizards to map out these escape routes.…

  11. Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, H

    2017-05-11

    Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Frequency of sensitization to mites, cockroach and shrimp in adults with respiratory allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Gaspar-López, Arturo; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel; Segura-Méndez, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to mites and cockroach are a common cause of respiratory allergy, especially in children. There is little information about its cross-reactivity with shrimp, which is common in adult patients. To determine the frequency of sensitization to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cockroach species Periplaneta americana, in adult patients attending to a third level hospital and to determine the frequency of sensitization to shrimp in patients with positive skin test to house dust mite and/or cockroach, in patients with clinical manifestations suggestive of allergy to shrimp. A retrospective study was done in which results were reviewed of 672 patients clinical records, attending to the Allergy and Clinical Immunology department in a third level hospital, those patients with positive skin test results to Dermatophagoides and/or Periplaneta americana were investigated for sensitization to shrimp through Prick-to-Prick test. Data from 672 patients were obtained, 69.8% (469) males, with a mean age of 33.5 years. Dermatophagoides positivity was 72.2% (486/672), and its relationship with other invertebrates that also have tropomyosin was 5.6% (4.9% with cockroach and 0.74% with shrimp). In our population, house dust mite sensitization was similar to that reported in the international literature. There was low positivity to cockroach, probably due to geographical conditions. There is very little information about shrimp's cross-reactivity with Dermatophagoides, despite its clinical significance, which requires more specific studies such as measurement of specific IgE to tropomyosin.

  13. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  14. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae) against Periplaneta americana (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling A, I; Sulaiman, S; Othman, H

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory. The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R) 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme. Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same concentrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cockroaches. Treatment with Resigen (R) at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the females, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach. Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peripatetic americana.

  15. Octopamine partially restores walking in hypokinetic cockroaches stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Glusman, Jose Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

    2007-12-01

    When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain.

  16. Molecular cloning, expression, IgE binding activities and in silico epitope prediction of Per a 9 allergens of the American cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiwei; Chen, Hao; Jin, Min; Xie, Hua; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Per a 9 is a major allergen of the American cockroach (CR), which has been recognized as an important cause of imunoglobulin E-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. However, it is not neasy to obtain a substantial quantity of this allergen for use in functional studies. In the present study, the Per a 9 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. It was found that 13/16 (81.3%) of the sera from patients with allergies caused by the American CR reacted to Per a 9, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming that Per a 9 is a major allergen of CR. The induction of the expression of CD63 and CCR3 in passively sensitized basophils (from sera of patients with allergies caused by the American CR) by approximately 4.2-fold indicated that recombinant Per a 9 was functionally active. Three immunoinformatics tools, including the DNAStar Protean system, Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the potential B cell epitopes, while Net-MHCIIpan-2.0 and NetMHCII-2.2 were used to predict the T cell epitopes of Per a 9. As a result, we predicted 11 peptides (23-28, 39-46, 58-64, 91-118, 131-136, 145-154, 159-165, 176-183, 290-299, 309-320 and 338-344) as potential B cell linear epitopes. In T cell prediction, the Per a 9 allergen was predicted to have 5 potential T cell epitope sequences, 119-127, 194-202, 210-218, 239-250 and 279-290. The findings of our study may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccines to combat CR-induced allergies.

  17. Infestation of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in the human dwelling environments: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the "22 common pest" or "22 dirty" species named as "group I". They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades

  18. Pheromones of cockroaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.; Ritter, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The article presents a review of the bíological significance and the chemistry of several pheromones of cockroaches. The data given are in part based on our own work, and in part taken from the literature.

  19. Pheromones of cockroaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.; Ritter, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The article presents a review of the bíological significance and the chemistry of several pheromones of cockroaches. The data given are in part based on our own work, and in part taken from the literature.

  20. Efficacy of fipronil gel over imlprothrin +cypermethrin aerosol in control of cockroaches (Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cockroaches are offensive pests visually and expel unpleasant smelling secretion that spoils the flavor of food and environment. This trial was done to test Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% developed by Parijat Industries (India Pvt. Ltd. for its efficacy against Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica, under field conditions in certain catering establishments of a city in Uttar Pradesh. Material and Methods: Ten catering establishments with high infestation based on pretreatment cockroach density assessment (Four for fipronil gel, four for imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol and two without any treatment to act as a control were considered for inclusion in trial. Single application of fipronil gel/ imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol was used as crack and crevice treatment. The visual assessment data for cockroach density in treatment and control catering establishments were considered for computation of percent reduction of cockroach infestation in the respective catering establishments. Results: Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.0% at the end of 12 weeks whereas it was 20% in imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol treated areas. Differences were found statistically significant. However, imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol was more effective (52.0% in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to fipronil gel (47.8% but its efficacy started declining after 5th week onwards. Interpretation and Conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% for control of cockroaches in catering establishments. The application Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% was found more convenient to both operators and clients and there was minimal disruption at workplace.

  1. Isolation and primary structure of two peptides with cardioacceleratory and hyperglycemic activity from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, R M; Jamieson, G C; Kalish, F; Kramer, S J; McEnroe, G A; Miller, C A; Schooley, D A

    1984-01-01

    Two cardioacceleratory peptides from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana have been purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, Based on analysis of the intact factors and their chymotryptic fragments, we have assigned the primary structure of these octapeptides as pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-1, and pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-2. They represent new members of a family of invertebrate peptides that includes locust adipokinetic hormone and crustacean red-pigment concentrating hormone. Both peptides show adipokinetic activity in grasshoppers and hyperglycemic activity in cockroaches. One of these peptides (CC-2) has provocative sequence homology with the NH2-terminal portion of glucagon. Images PMID:6591205

  2. Self-righting behavior of cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wohrl, Toni; Lam, Han; Full, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Small insects must be able to right themselves from an upside-down orientation to survive. Previous studies described diverse self-righting strategies in insects. Here, we compare the self-righting behaviors in three cockroach species on a flat, rigid ground to begin to reveal what governs the choice of dominant behaviors. All species self-righted successfully (75 +/- 11 % probability) and quickly (as low as 140 ms and typically within 2 s). The smallest winged American cockroach, which has the most elongate, least flattened body, and longest legs, primarily pushed legs against the ground to roll its body to the side to self-right (relative frequency = 93%). The largest wingless Madagascar hissing cockroach with the shortest legs primarily (84%) hyperextended body to roll to the side and then rubbed its legs on the ground to self-right. The intermediate winged discoid cockroach, which has the least elongate, most flattened body, more often (57%) abducted wings and flexed body to raise center of mass and reduce ground contact and rotated about the wing edges to self-right. We hypothesize that, given morphological and physiological constraints, the gravitational potential energy landscape resulting from the animals' body/appendage-ground interaction governs their dominant behaviors. Our study provides inspiration for robotics, as many current terrestrial robots have rigid, cuboidal bodies which hinder self-righting.

  3. A single intervention for cockroach control reduces cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito, Felicia A; Carlson, John C; He, Hua; Werthmann, Derek; Schal, Coby

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to cockroaches is an important asthma trigger, particularly for children with asthma living in inner cities. Integrated pest management is the recommended approach to cockroach abatement; however, it is costly and difficult to implement. The impact of reducing cockroach exposure on asthma outcomes is not known. We sought to test the use of a single intervention, insecticidal bait, to reduce cockroach exposure in the home of children with asthma in New Orleans and to examine the impact of cockroach reduction on asthma outcomes. One hundred two children aged 5 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial testing the use of insecticidal bait on cockroach counts and asthma morbidity. Homes were visited 6 times and asthma symptoms were assessed every 2 months. After adjustment, intervention homes had significantly fewer cockroaches than did control homes (mean change in cockroaches trapped, 13.14; 95% CI, 6.88-19.39; P Children in control homes had more asthma symptoms and unscheduled health care utilization in the previous 2 weeks (1.82, 95% CI, 0.14-3.50, P = .03; 1.17, 95% CI, 0.11-2.24, P = .03, respectively) and a higher proportion of children with FEV1 of less than 80% predicted (odds ratio, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.60-20.57; P = .01) compared with children living in intervention homes. Previous research has demonstrated improvement in asthma health outcomes using multifaceted interventions. The strategic placement of insecticidal bait, which is inexpensive, has low toxicity, and is widely available, resulted in sustained cockroach elimination over 12 months and was associated with improved asthma outcomes. This single intervention may be an alternative to multifaceted interventions currently recommended to improve asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Characteristics of Cockroach Allergens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chii-Huei Wu; Mey-Fann Lee

    2005-01-01

    Cockroaches, commonly found in urban dwellings worldwide, have long been considered vectors of various infectious diseases and cockroach allergens are one of the major etiologic risk factors for IgE-mediated allergic respiratory illness throughout the world. A high prevalence of cockroach hypersensitivity in atopic (20-55 %) and asthmatic (49-60%) populations has been documented. Cockroach allergens with molecular weights ranging from 6 to 120 kD have been identified by various standard immunochemical techniques. This article covers the characteristics of major cockroach allergens that have been purified, sequenced, cloned, and produced as recombinant proteins.

  5. Context-dependent olfactory learning monitored by activities of salivary neurons in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent discrimination learning, a sophisticated form of nonelemental associative learning, has been found in many animals, including insects. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for monitoring this form of nonelemental learning in rigidly restrained insects for investigation of underlying neural mechanisms. We report context-dependent olfactory learning (occasion-setting problem solving) of salivation, which can be monitored as activity changes of salivary neurons in immobilized cockroaches, Periplaneta americana. A group of cockroaches was trained to associate peppermint odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) while vanilla odor was presented alone without pairing with the US under a flickering light condition (1.0 Hz) and also trained to associate vanilla odor with sucrose reward while peppermint odor was presented alone under a steady light condition. After training, the responses of salivary neurons to the rewarded peppermint odor were significantly greater than those to the unrewarded vanilla odor under steady illumination and those to the rewarded vanilla odor was significantly greater than those to the unrewarded peppermint odor in the presence of flickering light. Similar context-dependent responses were observed in another group of cockroaches trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. This study demonstrates context-dependent olfactory learning of salivation for the first time in any vertebrate and invertebrate species, which can be monitored by activity changes of salivary neurons in restrained cockroaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive cockroach swarm algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obagbuwa, Ibidun C.; Abidoye, Ademola P.

    2017-07-01

    An adaptive cockroach swarm optimization (ACSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper to strengthen the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm. The ruthless component of CSO algorithm is modified by the employment of blend crossover predator-prey evolution method which helps algorithm prevent any possible population collapse, maintain population diversity and create adaptive search in each iteration. The performance of the proposed algorithm on 16 global optimization benchmark function problems was evaluated and compared with the existing CSO, cuckoo search, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithms.

  7. Pavlov's cockroach: classical conditioning of salivation in an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Watanabe

    Full Text Available Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of the mammalian brain. We previously reported that, in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, salivary neurons that control salivation exhibited increased responses to an odor after conditioning trials in which the odor was paired with sucrose solution. However, no direct evidence of conditioning of salivation was obtained. In this study, we investigated the effects of conditioning trials on the level of salivation. Untrained cockroaches exhibited salivary responses to sucrose solution applied to the mouth but not to peppermint or vanilla odor applied to an antenna. After differential conditioning trials in which an odor was paired with sucrose solution and another odor was presented without pairing with sucrose solution, sucrose-associated odor induced an increase in the level of salivation, but the odor presented alone did not. The conditioning effect lasted for one day after conditioning trials. This study demonstrates, for the first time, classical conditioning of salivation in species other than dogs and humans, thereby providing the first evidence of sophisticated neural control of autonomic function in insects. The results provide a useful model system for studying cellular basis of conditioning of salivation in the simpler nervous system of insects.

  8. Cockroaches keep predators guessing by using preferred escape trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, P.; Booth, D.; Blagburn, J.M.; Bacon, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Anti-predator behaviour is vital for most animals, and calls for accurate timing and swift motion. While fast reaction times [1] and predictable, context-dependent, escape initiation distances [2] are common features of most escape systems, previous work has highlighted the need for unpredictability in escape directions, in order to prevent predators from learning a repeated, fixed pattern [3–5]. Ultimate unpredictability would result from random escape trajectories. Although this strategy would deny any predictive power to the predator, it would also result in some escape trajectories towards the threat. Previous work has shown that escape trajectories are in fact generally directed away from the threat, although with a high variability [5–8]. However, the rules governing this variability are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate tha t individual cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, a much studied model prey species [9–14]) keep each escape unpredictable by running along one of a set of preferred trajectories at fixed angles from the direction of the threatening stimulus. These results provide a new paradigm for understanding the behavio ural strategies for escape responses, underscoring the need to revisit the neural mechanisms controlling escape directions in the cockroach and similar animal models, and the evolutionary forces driving unpredictable, or “protean” [3], anti-predator behaviour. PMID:19013065

  9. Enzymatic activities of allergen extracts from three species of dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chungryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-06-01

    Allergen extracts from dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean homes were used to evaluate their enzymatic activity as they are believed to influence allergenicity. Allergen extracts were prepared from 3 dust mite species (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and 3 cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa) maintained in the Korea National Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank. Proteins were extracted in PBS after homogenization using liquid nitrogen. The activities of various enzymes were investigated using the API Zym system. No significant difference in phosphatase, lipase, or glycosidase activity was observed among the 6 allergen extracts, but much difference was observed in protease activity. Protease activity was assessed in more detail by gelatin zymography and the EnzChek assay. Extract from T. putrescentiae showed the highest protease activity, followed by those of the cockroach extracts. Extracts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed only weak protease activity. Gelatinolytic activity was detected mainly in a 30-kDa protein in D. farinae, a 28-kDa protein in D. pteronyssinus, a > 26-kDa protein in T. putrescentiae, a > 20-kDa protein in B. germanica, and a > 23-kDa protein in P. americana and P. fuliginosa. The information on various enzymatic activities obtained in this study may be useful for future studies. In particular, the strong protease activity found in cockroach extracts could contribute to sensitization to cockroach allergens, which is known to be associated with the development of asthma.

  10. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

  11. The Calcium-dependent Potassium Current in Olfactory Interneurons of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana

    OpenAIRE

    Schleicher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system of insects has already served as a suitable model to investigate mechanisms of general information processing. Thus, insect olfactory neurons were used to study physiology, transmitter content, from that evoked currents as well as sensory processing on a network level. As an important step towards understanding how distinct electrophysiological properties of neurons are generated by intrinsic currents, I used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to analyze biophysical and ph...

  12. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-07-01

    Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations.

  13. Interplay between a Wnt-dependent organiser and the Notch segmentation clock regulates posterior development in Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Chesebro

    2012-12-01

    Sequential addition of segments in the posteriorly growing end of the embryo is a developmental mechanism common to many bilaterians. However, posterior growth and patterning in most animals also entails the establishment of a ‘posterior organiser’ that expresses the Caudal and Wnt proteins and has been proposed to be an ancestral feature of animal development. We have studied the functional relationships between the Wnt-driven organiser and the segmentation mechanisms in a basal insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Here, posteriorly-expressed Wnt1 promotes caudal and Delta expression early in development to generate a growth zone from which segments will later bud off. caudal maintains the undifferentiated growth zone by dampening Delta expression, and hence Notch-mediated segmentation occurs just outside the caudal domain. In turn, Delta expression maintains Wnt1, maintaining this posterior gene network until all segments have formed. This feedback between caudal, Wnt and Notch-signalling in regulating growth and segmentation seems conserved in other arthropods, with some aspects found even in vertebrates. Thus our findings not only support an ancestral Wnt posterior organiser, but also impinge on the proposals for a common origin of segmentation in arthropods, annelids and vertebrates.

  14. 高校图书馆蟑螂种群结构及生态习性调查研究%Population structure and ecological habits of cockroaches in university library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生吉; 孙恩涛; 赵金红; 湛孝东

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究安徽省高校图书馆内蟑螂种群构成及生态特征.方法采用药激法和诱捕法捕获蟑螂标本,调查蟑螂的种群构成.同时,动态观察图书馆内蟑螂的栖息场所、夜间活动规律和季节消长等生态习性.结果共捕获蟑螂2 046只,经鉴定属于3科3属6种,以美洲大蠊为优势种,占80.25%.侵害率最高的是库房,卫生间蟑螂平均密度最高,为7.64只/间.图书馆内蟑螂21:00出现活动,24:00和凌晨1:00达高峰,至6:00活动终止;美洲大蠊活动最高峰在5月份前后.结论安徽省高校图书馆蟑螂孳生情况较严重,美洲大蠊为优势种,是防治的主要对象.%Objective To survey the structure and ecological habits of cockroaches, so as to provide evidences for cockroaches control in the library. Methods Catching cockroaches by sticky traps method and the medicine stir up method. Moreover, suitable habitats, nocturnal habits, seasonal fluctuations of cockroaches were studied by dynamic observation. Results 2 046 cockroaches were caught. They were belonged to 3 families, 3 genera and 6 species. Periplaneta americana was the predominant species, which accounted for 80. 25%. The highest infestation rate in storeroom, and cockroach mean density was the highest,its over 7.64 pieces per apartment in toilet. In the library, cockroaches began to be active at 21 o'clock, increased at 24 o'clock and reached a maximum peak at 1 o'clock, then subsided gradually to hiding at 6 o'clock. In addition, the active peak of cockroaches appeared in May in a year round. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches were higher in the library. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken in Periplaneta americana control, which is the dominant species in university library in Anhui Province.

  15. Adaptation as a mechanism for gain control in cockroach ON and OFF olfactory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Maria; Tichy, Harald

    2012-02-01

    In many sensory systems adaptation acts as a gain control mechanism that optimizes sensory performance by trading increased sensitivity to low stimulus intensity for decreased sensitivity to high stimulus intensity. Adaptation of insect antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) has been studied for strong odour concentrations, either pulsed or constant. Here, we report that during slowly oscillating changes in the concentration of the odour of lemon oil, the ON and OFF ORNs on the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana adapt to the actual odour concentration and the rate at which concentration changes. When odour concentration oscillates rapidly with brief periods, adaptation improves gain for instantaneous odour concentration and reduces gain for the rate of concentration change. Conversely, when odour concentration oscillates slowly with long periods, adaptation increases gain for the rate of change at the expense of instantaneous concentration. Without this gain control the ON and OFF ORNs would, at brief oscillation periods, soon reach their saturation level and become insensitive to further concentration increments and decrements. At long oscillation periods, on the other hand, the cue would simply be that the discharge begins to change. Because of the high gain for the rate of change, the cockroach will receive creeping changes in odour concentration, even if they persist in one direction. Gain control permits a high degree of precision at small rates when it counts most, without sacrificing the range of detection and without extending the measuring scale.

  16. Cellular elements for seeing in the dark: voltage-dependent conductances in cockroach photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmela Iikka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of voltage-dependent conductances in sensory information processing is well-established in insect photoreceptors. Here we present the characterization of electrical properties in photoreceptors of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana, a nocturnal insect with a visual system adapted for dim light. Results Whole-cell patch-clamped photoreceptors had high capacitances and input resistances, indicating large photosensitive rhabdomeres suitable for efficient photon capture and amplification of small photocurrents at low light levels. Two voltage-dependent potassium conductances were found in the photoreceptors: a delayed rectifier type (KDR and a fast transient inactivating type (KA. Activation of KDR occurred during physiological voltage responses induced by light stimulation, whereas KA was nearly fully inactivated already at the dark resting potential. In addition, hyperpolarization of photoreceptors activated a small-amplitude inward-rectifying (IR current mediated at least partially by chloride. Computer simulations showed that KDR shapes light responses by opposing the light-induced depolarization and speeding up the membrane time constant, whereas KA and IR have a negligible role in the majority of cells. However, larger KA conductances were found in smaller and rapidly adapting photoreceptors, where KA could have a functional role. Conclusions The relative expression of KA and KDR in cockroach photoreceptors was opposite to the previously hypothesized framework for dark-active insects, necessitating further comparative work on the conductances. In general, the varying deployment of stereotypical K+ conductances in insect photoreceptors highlights their functional flexibility in neural coding.

  17. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  18. Occupational health risks due to shipboard cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Latza, Ute; Baur, Xaver

    2008-05-01

    In various investigated populations, sensitization to cockroaches was observed in 8% of screened subjects from temperate climatic zones and in 36% of those from tropical zones. Because of the numerous hiding places and food storages aboard a ship the crews can be highly exposed to cockroaches. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches and potentially associated health risks in seafarers. In July 2005, a total of 145 seamen sailing under the German flag were recruited from a medical surveillance program for a cross-sectional study (response 95.4%). A standardized interview and a skin prick test (SPT) with nine common inhalant allergens and a cockroach extract (Blatella germanica) were performed. In cockroach-sensitized seafarers total and cockroach-specific IgE was measured and lung function tests conducted. In total, 39 seamen (26.9%) were cockroach-sensitized according to SPT results. Presence of cockroach sensitization in seamen from the tropical zone (37.3%) was significantly higher than in seamen from the temperate zone (21.3%) (odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04-4.66). The prevalence of sensitization to any of the other nine common allergen mixtures tested was lower (between 2.1 and 12.4%). Neither current or past cockroach exposure on board nor cumulative cockroach exposure and time since last cockroach exposure were associated with cockroach sensitization. Among cockroach SPT-positive seamen, cockroach-specific IgE was detected in 52.8%. Five out of 37 (13.5%) SPT-positive seamen exhibited an obstructive ventilation pattern. The prevalence of work-related atopic symptoms was 9.0% (n = 13). These symptoms were not related to cockroach sensitization. The high prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches among seamen in the presented study emphasizes the strong sensitization potency of these insects. Longitudinal studies and bronchial cockroach challenge tests are necessary to assess the clinical relevance of

  19. Deterministic Assembly of Complex Bacterial Communities in Guts of Germ-Free Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Thompson, Claire L; Hofer, Markus J; Brune, Andreas

    2015-12-11

    The gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. However, the factors shaping the microbial community structure remain poorly understood. Because termites cannot be raised under axenic conditions, we established the closely related cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a germ-free model to study microbial community assembly and host-microbe interactions. In this study, we determined the composition of the bacterial assemblages in cockroaches inoculated with the gut microbiota of termites and mice using pyrosequencing analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Although the composition of the xenobiotic communities was influenced by the lineages present in the foreign inocula, their structure resembled that of conventional cockroaches. Bacterial taxa abundant in conventional cockroaches but rare in the foreign inocula, such as Dysgonomonas and Parabacteroides spp., were selectively enriched in the xenobiotic communities. Donor-specific taxa, such as endomicrobia or spirochete lineages restricted to the gut microbiota of termites, however, either were unable to colonize germ-free cockroaches or formed only small populations. The exposure of xenobiotic cockroaches to conventional adults restored their normal microbiota, which indicated that autochthonous lineages outcompete foreign ones. Our results provide experimental proof that the assembly of a complex gut microbiota in insects is deterministic. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Protease activity in cockroach and basidiomycete allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E

    1993-01-01

    Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.

  1. Polymorphisms in IL12A and cockroach allergy in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Amy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL12A has been implicated in T-cell development and may thus influence the development of atopy and allergic diseases. Methods We tested for association between four linkage disequilibrium (LD-tagging SNPs (rs2243123, rs2243151, rs668998, and rs17826053 in IL12A and asthma and allergy-related (serum total and allergen-specific IgE, and skin test reactivity [STR] to two common allergens phenotypes in two samples: 417 Costa Rican children with asthma and their parents, and 470 families of 503 white children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP. The analysis was conducted using the family-based association test (FBAT statistic implemented in the PBAT program. Results Among Costa Rican children with asthma, homozygosity for the minor allele of each of two SNPs in IL12A (rs2243123 and rs2243151 was associated with increased risks of STR to American cockroach (P ≤ 0.03 for both SNPs, STR to German cockroach (P ≤ 0.01 for both SNPs, and having a positive IgE to German cockroach (P IL12A was inversely associated with STR to German cockroach (P = 0.03 and homozygosity for the minor allele of SNP rs17826053 in IL12A was associated with increased risks of STR to American cockroach (P = 0.01 and STR to German cockroach (P = 0.007. There was no significant association between any SNP in IL12A and asthma, STR to dust mite, or total IgE in Costa Rica or CAMP. Conclusion Our findings suggest that variants in IL12A influence cockroach allergy among children with asthma.

  2. Prussakas on kõva hammustaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel "Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana" on ilmunud ajakirjas PLOS ONE November 11, 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141226

  3. Prussakas on kõva hammustaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel "Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana" on ilmunud ajakirjas PLOS ONE November 11, 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141226

  4. Transcriptome analysis and RNA interference of cockroach phototransduction indicate three opsins and suggest a major role for TRPL channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S French

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of insect phototransduction is based on a small number of species, but insects occupy many different visual environments. We created the retinal transcriptome of a nocturnal insect, the cockroach, Periplaneta americana to identify proteins involved in the earliest stages of compound eye phototransduction, and test the hypothesis that different visual environments are reflected in different molecular contributions to function. We assembled five novel mRNAs: two green opsins, one UV opsin, and one each TRP and TRPL ion channel homologs. One green opsin mRNA (pGO1 was 100-1000 times more abundant than the other opsins (pGO2 and pUVO, while pTRPL mRNA was 10 times more abundant than pTRP, estimated by transcriptome analysis or quantitative PCR (qPCR. Electroretinograms were used to record photoreceptor responses. Gene-specific in vivo RNA interference (RNAi was achieved by injecting long (596-708 bp double-stranded RNA into head hemolymph, and verified by qPCR. RNAi of the most abundant green opsin reduced both green opsins by more than 97% without affecting UV opsin, and gave a maximal reduction of 75% in ERG amplitude seven days after injection that persisted for at least 19 days. RNAi of pTRP and pTRPL genes each specifically reduced the corresponding mRNA by 90%. Electroretinogram reduction by pTRPL RNAi was slower than for opsin, reaching 75% attenuation by 21 days, without recovery at 29 days. pTRP RNAi attenuated ERG much less; only 30% after 21 days. Combined pTRP plus pTRPL RNAi gave only weak evidence of any cooperative interactions. We conclude that silencing retinal genes by in vivo RNAi using long dsRNA is effective, that visible light transduction in Periplaneta is dominated by pGO1, and that pTRPL plays a major role in cockroach phototransduction.

  5. The response of dietary stressed Periplaneta americana to chronic intake of pure aflatoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, G C; Sherertz, P C; Mills, R R

    1976-04-01

    In general these studies seem to indicate that adult male P. americana are not particularly sensitive, toxicologically, to aflatoxin B1, even when maintained on a marginally inadequate diet containing a low level of sucrose and no protein. Also they may be capable of detecting low levels of aflatoxin B1 in their diet (12 mug/ml) and seem not to concentrate aflatoxin B1 in their bodies. Even in dietary stressed conditions adult male American cockroaches showed a very limited potential as a bioassay organism for this toxin. Actually it appears that they may be quite resistant to the toxin. Currently there is no definite answer as to the advantages or disadvantages of insufficient dietary proteins or even carbohydrates providing protection against this toxin. The results show that the toxin would not be an effective cockroach-killing agent and thus could not serve as a bioassay system. However, this insect could serve as a model system in further investigating the mode of action and possible detoxification of aflatoxin B1.

  6. Preferensi Kecoa Amerika Periplaneta americana (L. (Blattaria: Blattidae terhadap Berbagai Kombinasi Umpan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERMA AMALIA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, most cockroach control in urban environment relies on bait application. Aversion of some commercial bait by cockroach cause failure to control cockroach problems. Developing local bait can improve this situation. This research was aimed to find proper combination of some cockroach diet to be formulated in effective bait. Research was conducted in Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University, since November 2007-March 2008. Combination of peanut butter, chicken egg, and strawberry jam seem to be a candidate of effective bait for local cockroach.

  7. Comparative mites and cockroaches sensitization study in three cities of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Galván, Mario; Guerrero Núñez, Belinda; Ramírez Aragón, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico there are few research papers dealing with mites and cockroaches sensibilizing in patients suffering from respiratory allergies and even less susceptibility comparative studies to the same between cities having different climatic and geographic characteristics. To research in a prospective study skin sensibilizing to eighy different mites and two cockroaches species in patients with respiratory allergies in three cities of Mexico: Monterrey, NL, Tampico, Tamps., and Irapuato, Gto., in order to determine if there are sensibilizing differences due to climatic and geographic conditions. Skin tests were performed by scarification in 58 patients suffering diverse respiratory allergies such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and combinations of the same. Tests were performed on 18 patients from Monterrey, 20 from Tampico and 20 from Irapuato. Mites used were: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescientiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Euroglyphus maynei, Acarus siro, Dermatophagoides microceras and 2 cockroaches species, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica. Of the total 58 patients, the most important and frequent reactions were produced by D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and E. maynei, which were found in 40, 33 and 32 patients respectively, then D. microceras in 21 patients, A. siro in 18, and B. tropicalis in 13 patients. In Tampico, the mite with the most frequent susceptibility was E. maynei, in Monterrey and Irapuato the most relevant were D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, respectively. In Tampico, B. tropicalis was positive in 8 patients vs only 4 in Monterrey and 1 in Irapuato. The skin response to cockroaches was not important and the city with most positives was Irapuato with 6 patients responding to B. germanica, and 3 to P. americana; in Tampico 5 patients reacted to P. americana and 3 to B. germanica, and in Monterrey skin reactivity was slight and only 2

  8. 信阳市蟑螂密度监测及侵害现况的调查研究%Investigation and research on the density of cockroaches and disoperation in Xinyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑华; 方世民; 徐威; 张英

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解信阳市蟑螂种类、密度、季节消长情况,为信阳市消灭蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 用粘捕法进行调查.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1 328只,其中德国小蠊1 193只,美洲大蠊135只,平均侵害率为7.36%,密度为0.65只/张.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,活动高峰在夏秋季,宾馆和餐饮单位密度较高,应加强蟑螂监测和防制工作.%Objective To understand the type, density and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach in Xinyang City and provide scientific basis for the elimination of cockroach. Method Sticky traps method. Results We had captured 1 328 cockroaches in all kinds of environments, among which 1 193 were blattella germanica and 135 were periplaneta americana. The average disoperation rate was 7. 36% , and the density was 0. 65 cockroach per piece of paper. Conclusions Blattella germanica was the predominant species, and was active in summer and autumn. There were high density of cockroaches in hotels and restaurants, therefore, this units should strengthen the monitor and control of cockroach.

  9. The Fear of Cockroaches Questionnaire (FCQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Scandola, Michele; Bastinelli, Alessia; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Fear of Cockroaches Questionnaire (FCQ) in general Italian population. The FCQ is an 18-item self-report questionnaire assessing fear of cockroaches. It was translated in Italian and modified as a cockroach adaption of the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire. Data obtained from 329 (mean age 24.21 ± 4.08 years) undergraduates revealed that the FCQ allowed discrimination between high fear and low fear subjects. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a mono-fac...

  10. 医院蟑螂侵害调查与防治研究%Investigation and control of cockroaches in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪玲; 刘增加; 史锋庆; 付清海; 张文香; 温煜; 胡淑芳; 雷光文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the degree of cockroaches invasion in hospital, and formulate the control measures. Methods Investigating cockroaches invasion situation by eye and using insecticide trap method, using glue trap to determine the density of cockroaches. Results The invasion rate of cockroaches adult and nymph was 10.27% which was three times more than the national standard. 73% departments exceeded the provided standard, neurosurgery and general surgery department reached nearly 7 times. The positive density index was 12. 02 pieces per room. The egg positive rate was 2. 74% which exceeded the national standards. Two kinds of cockroaches were investigated, they were Blattella geunanica (55. 3% ) and Periplaneta japonica(4A. 7% ). Conclusion The invasion situation of cockroaches is serious in hospitals. It is necessary to control cockroaches and eliminate breeding ground combined with environmental features.%目的 探讨医院蟑螂侵害度,制定防治措施.方法 采用目测法、药驱法调查蟑螂侵害情况,粘捕法测定密度.结果 蟑螂成、若虫侵害率10.27%,超过国家标准3倍,超标的科室占73%,其中神经外科和普通外科超标近7倍.阳性密度指数为12.02只/间,卵荚阳性率为2.74%,均超过国家标准.查见蟑螂种群2种,德国小蠊占55.3%,日本大蠊占44.7%.结论 医院内蟑螂危害严重,应结合医院环境及功能特点采取防治措施,消灭蟑螂孳生地.

  11. Efficacy of 2%deltamethrin insect?resistant mat against cockroach%2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫对蜚蠊的灭效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾乐乐; 张海洋; 朱长强; 郑剑; 贾德胜; 黎胜; 谭伟龙; 姜志宽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of 2% deltamethrin insect?resistant mat against cockroach in the lab and field. Methods Carrying on with the method of GB/T 13917.1-2009 to observe the efficacy of 2% deltamethrin insect?resistant mat against cockroach in the laboratory and conducting an experiment against cockroach in a major hospital ward in Nanjing. Results The laboratory test showed that KT50 of insect?resistant mat was 13.4 min against Periplaneta americana and 9.6 min against Blattella germanica. The mortality was 100% after 72 h. No large numbers of dead cockroach appeared after 1 d, 3 d and 7 d. After 30 d, the declining rate of density was 43.1%, 68.5% after 60 d. Conclusion The 2%deltamethrin insect?resistant mat has better effects on killing cockroach in the laboratory. Short term efficacy against cockroach was not obvious, but it can be used with the quick killing insects against cockroach in hospital.%目的 观察2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫对蜚蠊的防治效果.方法 依照GB/T 13917.1-2009,观察2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫的实验室灭蠊效果,选取南京市某三甲医院的某个病区观察现场灭蠊效果.结果 防虫垫实验室药效实验中,室温存放2年的2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫对美洲大蠊的半数致死时间(KT50)为13.4 min,对德国小蠊的KT50为9.6 min,72 h死亡率为100%.现场实验,施放1、3、7 d均只出现少量蜚蠊死亡,30 d后蜚蠊密度下降率为43.1%,60 d后密度下降率为68.5%.结论 2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫实验室存放2年对两种蜚蠊仍有较好的杀灭效果,现场杀灭德国小蠊,短期效果不明显,与快速灭蠊药剂配合使用可作为医院长效灭蠊产品.

  12. Hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptides decrease levels of the glycolytic signal fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in cockroach fat body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker; Wegener

    1998-05-21

    In cockroach fat body, trehalogenesis and glycolysis compete for glucose phosphates as common substrates. During trehalogenesis, glycolysis is inhibited, although the mechanism responsible for this is not known. Incubation of the isolated fat body from the Argentine cockroach Blaptica dubia with an extract of the corpora cardiaca containing as little as 0.005 gland equivalents ml-1 of incubation medium increased the release of trehalose (anthrone-positive material) from the tissue by more than 100 %. The content of the glycolytic activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was decreased by up to 50 %. A decapeptide was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of B. dubia and shown to be identical to the naturally occurring Blaberus discoidalis hypertrehalosaemic peptide (Bld HrTH), which was also found in the corpora cardiaca. Synthetic Bld HrTH at 2 nmol l-1 and above increased trehalose production and decreased the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to the same extent as did corpus cardiacum extract. The octapeptides Periplaneta americana cardioacceleratory hormones I and II (Pea CAH-I and Pea CAH-II) also had a significant effect on both parameters. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is a potent activator of phosphofructokinase from cockroach fat body if the enzyme is assayed at near-physiological concentrations of substrates and effectors. It is suggested that, because of the decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels in the fat body, the activity of the key glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase is diminished. This can explain the inhibition of glycolytic flux by hypertrehalosaemic peptides which alters the balance of glucose metabolism in favour of trehalose formation.

  13. Metabolic stasis in an ancient symbiosis: genome-scale metabolic networks from two Blattabacterium cuenoti strains, primary endosymbionts of cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domenech, Carmen Maria; Belda, Eugeni; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Peretó, Juli; Latorre, Amparo

    2012-01-18

    Cockroaches are terrestrial insects that strikingly eliminate waste nitrogen as ammonia instead of uric acid. Blattabacterium cuenoti (Mercier 1906) strains Bge and Pam are the obligate primary endosymbionts of the cockroaches Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, respectively. The genomes of both bacterial endosymbionts have recently been sequenced, making possible a genome-scale constraint-based reconstruction of their metabolic networks. The mathematical expression of a metabolic network and the subsequent quantitative studies of phenotypic features by Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) represent an efficient functional approach to these uncultivable bacteria. We report the metabolic models of Blattabacterium strains Bge (iCG238) and Pam (iCG230), comprising 296 and 289 biochemical reactions, associated with 238 and 230 genes, and 364 and 358 metabolites, respectively. Both models reflect both the striking similarities and the singularities of these microorganisms. FBA was used to analyze the properties, potential and limits of the models, assuming some environmental constraints such as aerobic conditions and the net production of ammonia from these bacterial systems, as has been experimentally observed. In addition, in silico simulations with the iCG238 model have enabled a set of carbon and nitrogen sources to be defined, which would also support a viable phenotype in terms of biomass production in the strain Pam, which lacks the first three steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. FBA reveals a metabolic condition that renders these enzymatic steps dispensable, thus offering a possible evolutionary explanation for their elimination. We also confirm, by computational simulations, the fragility of the metabolic networks and their host dependence. The minimized Blattabacterium metabolic networks are surprisingly similar in strains Bge and Pam, after 140 million years of evolution of these endosymbionts in separate cockroach lineages. FBA performed on the

  14. Ocorrência de Aprostocetus hagenowii (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoide de ootecas da barata americana, no Rio Grande do Sul Occurrence of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of the american cockroach oothecae at Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência do parasitoide Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg, 1952 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae em ooteca de Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattodea: Blattidae, no extremo Sul do Brasil. As ootecas foram coletadas no mês de dezembro de 2007, no campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (31°48'34"S, 52°25'42"O, Município do Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. Após a coleta, as ootecas foram acondicionadas individualmente em tubos de ensaio, sendo posteriormente mantidas em câmara climatizada a 25°C, com umidade relativa =70%, até a eclosão das ninfas ou emergência dos parasitoides. Uma das ootecas estava parasitada e apresentou 89 parasitoides (79 fêmeas e 10 machos; a referida ocorrência constitui o primeiro registro para o Sul do Brasil. O conhecimento das regiões de ocorrência dos inimigos naturais de P. americana é de grande importância para se traçar uma estratégia de controle das populações desse blatódeo.It is reported the occurrence of the parasitoid Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg, 1952 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in oothecae of Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattodea: Blattidae at the extreme southern Brazil. The oothecae were collected in December of 2007 at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas (31°48'34"S, 52°25'42"W, city of Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. After the collection the oothecae were placed individually in glass vials maintained in acclimatized chamber at 25°C, with relative air humidity =70% until the eclosion of the nymphs or the emergence of the parasitoids. The infested ootheca presented 89 parasitoids (79 females and 10 males. The referred occurrence represents the first report to southern Brazil. Knowing the regions of occurrence of the natural enemies of P. americana is of great importance when developing a control strategy to the populations of the blatod.

  15. 过敏性哮喘患者蟑螂抗原皮肤反应性调查%Survey on Reactivity of Cockroach Allergy in Out- Patients with Allergic Asthma Through Skin Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金德; 许以平; 曹兰芳; 尹洪云; 汪玮弛; 姚苏航

    2001-01-01

    Objective To roughly evaluate the prevalence of cockroach allergy in outpatients with allergic asthma or rhinitis, and to compare the positive reactivity from two different kinds of cockroaches, i.e. Periplaneta fuliginosa and Periplaneta americana. Methods The positive rates of the skin prick test using cockroach body extract in 212 cases of pediatric out-patients with allergic asthma or rhinitis, and the positive reactivity of intradermal test in 34 cases of adult asthmatic out-patients, were carefully com- pared and statistically analyzed, respectively. Results The positive rate of cockroach allergy in pediatric patients was 28.7 %, which was the fourth one among all the allergens used and the third to the allergens of two kinds of mites (Der p. and Der f., 89.6% ) among the aeroallergens. The positive rate of cock- roach allergy in adults was 17.7 % and a strict concordance between two kinds of cockroaches was seen. Conclusion Cockroach allergens were common among aeroallergens and were the third to the two kinds of mites. Reactivity of patients with asthma to allergens from Periplaneta fuliginosa and Periplaneta americana is in strict accordance.%目的对门诊蟑螂过敏性哮喘发病情况进行粗略判断,并以对黑胸大蠊与美洲大蠊抗原皮肤反应性作一比较。方法回顾分析212例有14种抗原(皮肤点刺试验)资料的过敏性哮喘及过敏性鼻炎患儿蟑螂抗原皮试结果;总结34例成人过敏性哮喘患者上述两种蟑螂抗原皮试(皮内试验)结果。结果有皮试资料的212例患儿中,蟑螂抗原皮肤点刺试验阳性61例,阳性率28.7%,占14种抗原皮试结果的第4位。而就气传变应原相比较,排在屋尘螨及粉尘螨(均为89.6%)之后,居第3位;34例成人患者中,蟑螂抗原皮内试验阳性6例,阳性率17.7%。黑胸大蠊与美洲大蠊抗原皮试阳性结果一致。结论蟑螂是门诊过敏性哮喘及过敏性鼻炎患儿常见致敏原

  16. Baratas (Insecta, Blattaria sinantrópicas na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Synantropic cockroaches (Insecta, Blattaria from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A coleta de baratas na cidade de Manaus resultou em seis espécies associadas às habitações, estabelecimentos comerciais e educacionais, sendo quatro predominantemente dentro das habitações, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758, P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 e duas fora das habitações, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 e Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868. P. americana foi comum tanto interna como externamente às instalações urbanas; P. australasiae foi predominante em barcos; P. surinamensis e B. parabolicus foram invasoras ocasionais de residências na estação chuvosa. São apresentadas fotos coloridas, em tamanho natural, para reconhecimento das espécies.Collection of cockroaches from Manaus resulted in six species associated to human house, commercial buildings and educational buildings, being four species found predominantly indoor, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 and P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 and two species found predominantly outdoor, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868 the latter two occasionally house-infesting species in the rainy season. P. americana was common either indoor and outdoor and P. australasiae infesting mainly boats. Color figures in natural size are presented for all species in order to help their identification.

  17. Vectorial Potential of Cockroaches in Transmitting Parasites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of parasites of ... vectored by the cockroaches in the study area. MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... bacteria isolated from body surface of German.

  18. Effect of American cockroach extract on NF-κB andα-SMA expression in CCl4 caused liver fibrosisrat model%美洲大蠊提取物对肝纤维化大鼠NF-κB和α-SMA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽辉; 李武; 马得宏; 陈一晖; 王宏图; 张禄; 徐雪美; 冉慧粉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨美洲大蠊提取物(APA)对实验性肝纤维化组织中核转录因子-κB(NF-κB)和α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-SMA)表达的影响,并观察 APA的抗纤维化疗效。方法采用四氯化碳复制大鼠肝纤维化模型,同时用0.5 g/kg的 APA灌胃治疗,测定血清中丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、清蛋白(Alb)水平。免疫组化测定肝组织中NF-κB和α-SMA表达的水平,并以光镜观察肝病理组织学改变,进行炎性活动度分级及纤维化分期。结果 APA可以降低血清中 ALT、AST和肝组织中 NF-κB、α-SMA的水平,APA组和三七丹参组与模型组相比血清中 Alb水平差异有统计学意义,用药后的肝脏细胞变性坏死及纤维化程度明显降低。结论 APA具有一定的抗纤维化作用,机制可能与其抑制肝组织中 NF-κB和α-SMA的表达有关。%Objective To investigate the effect of American cockroach extract on the expression of NF-κB andα-SMA in experi-mental liver fibrosis tissue,and to observe its antifibrotic efficacy.Methods The rat model of hepatic fibrosis was duplicated by car-bon tetrachloride and simultaneously given with American cockoach extract 0.5 g/kg by lavage.The level of serum alanine amin-otransferase enzyme (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST)and albumin (Alb)were determined.The expression levels of NF-κB and a-SMA in liver tissue were determined by the immunohistochemical method and the liver histological changes were observed by light microscopy for conducting the grading of inflammatory activity and the fibrosis classification.Results American cockroach extract could reduce serum ALT,AST and liver tissue NF-κB andα-SMA levels.The serum Alb level had significant difference a-mong the APA group,Pseudo-ginseng Danshen group and the model group.The degeneration and necrosis of liver cells and the fi-brosis degree after medication were significantly reduced

  19. Investigation on cockroach population distribution and its infestation situation in Yichun city in 2008%2008年宜春市蜚蠊种群分布及侵害状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠英; 龙海; 龙奇达; 何秋霞; 程小军; 高华兵

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握宜春市蜚蠊种群分布、季节消长及侵害状况,为科学防治提供依据.方法 采用粘捕法调查,将捕获蜚蠊进行分类鉴定.结果 宜春市有2种蜚蠊分布,其中德国小蠊为优势种,占59.13%;黑胸大蠊占40.87%.6-8月为蜚蠊活动高峰期.以农贸市场密度最高,其他依次为餐饮店、居民区、宾馆、医院.结论 德国小蠊现已成为宜春市主要优势种,应将其列为今后防治的重点.%Objective To grasp the populatian distribution and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach and its infectation situation in Yichun. Methods Cockroach were collected by baits and traps, and then identified. Results There were 2 species of cockroaches. Blattella germanica was the dominant species, accounting for 59.13%. Periplaneta fuliginosa accounted for 40.87%. The activity peak of the cockroach was from June to August. The order of cockroach distributed in different areas was farm produce trade market, restaurant, residential area, hotel and hospital. Conclusion B. germanica was the dominant species in Yichun, which suggested that we should put the emphasis on the control of it in the future.

  20. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Stress Protein Response as a Biochemical Water Quality Biomonitoring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    responses have been seen in the laboratory rat and American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Heat shock proteins 110, 74, and 64 were synthesized in...optical nerves of the laboratory rat , and hsp’s 83, 70, and 68 were synthesized in the nerve cords of the cockroach (Tytell and Barbe, 1987; Ruder et al

  1. Investigating cockroach allergens: aiming to improve diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomés, Anna; Arruda, Luisa Karla

    2014-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy.

  2. Cockroach as the Earliest Eusocial Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter VR(S)ANSK(Y)

    2010-01-01

    A completely preserved cockroach Sociala perlucida gen.et sp.nov.(Blattida:Socialidae fam.nov.) is described from the Mesozoic (Albian Early Cretaceous) amber of Archingeay in France.It is categorized within the new family Socialidae,originating from the Mesozoic cockroach family Liberiblattinidae,and representing the sister group to the most basal known eutermite families.Numerous direct and indirect morphological evidence (such as a unique narrow body and pronotum with reduced coloration,legs without carination and with numerous sensiilar pitts (forelegs) as adaptations to life in nests analogical to the living termitophillous species;enlarged head,long paips for communication,a general venation modified in a direction towards termites (subcosta and radial vein [R] approximated,R branches approximated,simplified,cross-veins reduced),and possibly also the development of the breaking forewing sutura for detaching wings after marriage flight),suggest its eusociai mode of life.Thus,the first eusociality originated within cockroaches,prior to giving birth to termites;termites and Cryptocercus are not directly related.The group of eusocial cockroaches makes termite morphotaxon polyphyletic,but also in this case,the erection of a new order for mastotermites (including Cratomastotermitidae) and/or the inclusion of eusocial,morphological cockroaches within termites appears counterproductive,thus an example of such a general exception to the taxonomical procedure is provided.

  3. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  4. Determination of Median Lethal Dose of Selenocosmia Jiafu Crude Venom on American Cockroach and Mouse%家福捕鸟蛛粗毒对美洲蜚蠊和小鼠半致死剂量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝暾; 肖震; 黄艳; 刘中华

    2015-01-01

    家福捕鸟蛛是一种生活在中国广西、云南等省山区,中等个体,产毒量较大蜘蛛新种.研究发现它的毒液中含有许多不同活性的成分.为了更好地开发利用该种生物资源,评估其毒性大小,测定了家福捕鸟蛛粗毒对美洲蜚蠊和小鼠的半致死剂量.家福捕鸟蛛粗毒对美洲蜚蠊具有较强的毒性,低剂量的粗毒对美洲蜚蠊具有一定的毒性,高剂量的粗毒能够使美洲蜚蠊在几分钟内致死.家福捕鸟蛛粗毒对美洲蜚蠊的半致死剂量为85.90μg∕g.但家福捕鸟蛛粗毒对小鼠的毒性较弱,当注射剂量达到10 mg∕kg 体重时小鼠未见明显的中毒症状.当注射的粗毒剂量达到46.30 mg∕kg 时小鼠在24 min 内死亡.家福捕鸟蛛粗毒可能主要是一类选择性作用于昆虫的蜘蛛毒素.%Selenocosmia jiafu (S .jiafu) is recently identified as a new species of spider in China .These medium bodied venomous spiders are distributed mainly in the hilly areas of southwest of China ,mostly at Yunnan and Guangxi Province .The venom of this spider contains many components with different types of biological activity . In order to explore the utility of this rich source and assess the crude venom’s toxicity , Median lethal dose of S . jiafu crude venom on Cockroach and mouse was determinate . Toxicity experiments revealed that Intra - abdominal injection of the crude venom had severe toxic effects on cockroaches and caused death at higher concentrations within minutes .The LD50 of crude venom on cockroach was 85.90 μg∕g body weight .Its effect on mice was elusive .There was no observable symptom or behavioral change detected after intra - peritoneal injection of the crude venom even at doses up to 10 mg∕kg body weight .The mouse died after being injected the crude venom of the dose of 46.30 mg∕kg body weight within 24 minutes .The data indicated that the S .jiafu crude venom was a kind of spider toxins affecting on

  5. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.

  6. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  7. Intersegmental coordination of cockroach locomotion: adaptive control of centrally coupled pattern generator circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eFuchs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally-generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left-right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss our results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast-slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegmental

  8. Local enhancement promotes cockroach feeding aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Communication and learning from each other are part of the success of animal societies. Social insects invest considerable effort into signalling to their nestmates the locations of the most profitable resources in their environment. Growing evidence also indicates that insects glean such information through cues inadvertently provided by their conspecifics. Here, we investigate social information use in the foraging decisions by gregarious cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.. Individual cockroaches given a simultaneous choice in a Y-olfactometer between the odour of feeding conspecifics and the mixed odour of food plus non-feeding conspecifics showed a preference for the arm scented with the odour of feeding conspecifics. Social information (the presence of feeding conspecifics was produced by cockroaches of all age classes and perceived at short distance in the olfactometer arms, suggesting the use of inadvertently provided cues rather than signals. We discuss the nature of these cues and the role of local enhancement (the selection of a location based on cues associated with the presence of conspecifics in the formation of feeding aggregations in B. germanica. Similar cue-mediated recruitments could underpin a wide range of collective behaviours in group-living insects.

  9. A Cockroach-Like Hexapod Robot for Natural Terrain Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Neuroethology. Birch, M. C, Quinn, R. D., Zill , S. N., Ritzmann, R. E. (1998) "A Model Cockroach Leg for Sensori-motor Studies," The Fifth International...S.N. Zill , R.E. Ritzmann, (1998). Kinematics and leg muscle activity in cockroaches climbing over obstacles. The Fifth International Congress of

  10. Fauna parasitaria de Periplaneta americana Linnaeus en un distrito de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    José Iannacone; Kenneth Velásquez; Anita Arrascue

    2014-01-01

    Se investigaron algunos aspectos de los componentes comunitarios e infracomunitarios de la parasitofauna de Periplaneta americana en 100 especímenes colectados en buzones del distrito de Pueblo Libre, Lima, Perú, en invierno, entre agosto y setiembre de 1996. De todos los hospederos muestreados 67 fueron machos y 33 hembras; 19 adultos y 81 niñas; luego de las necropsias, se observaron cinco tipos de parásitos con la prevalencia e intensidad de infección respectiva: Cephalobellus tipulae (Nem...

  11. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  12. Biogeography and Phylogeny of Wood-feeding Cockroaches in the Genus Cryptocercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoto Maekawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsocial, xylophagous cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus exhibit a disjunct distribution, with representatives in mature montane forests of North America, China, Korea and the Russian Far East. All described species are wingless and dependent on rotting wood for food and shelter at all stages of their life cycle; consequently, their distribution is tied to that of forests and strongly influenced by palaeogeographical events. Asian and American lineages form distinct monophyletic groups, comprised of populations with complex geographic substructuring. We review the phylogeny and distribution of Cryptocercus, and discuss splitting events inferred from molecular data.

  13. Treating cockroach phobia with augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa; García-Palacios, Azucena

    2010-09-01

    In vivo exposure is the recommended treatment of choice for specific phobias; however, it demonstrates a high attrition rate and is not effective in all instances. The use of virtual reality (VR) has improved the acceptance of exposure treatments to some individuals. Augmented reality (AR) is a variation of VR wherein the user sees the real world augmented by virtual elements. The present study tests an AR system in the short (posttreatment) and long term (3, 6, and 12 months) for the treatment of cockroach phobia using a multiple baseline design across individuals (with 6 participants). The AR exposure therapy was applied using the "one-session treatment" guidelines developed by Ost, Salkovskis, and Hellström (1991). Results showed that AR was effective at treating cockroach phobia. All participants improved significantly in all outcome measures after treatment; furthermore, the treatment gains were maintained at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up periods. This study discusses the advantages of AR as well as its potential applications.

  14. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  15. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Durán

    Full Text Available For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.

  16. Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived strains. On analysis using primer 208, 4 specific bands at positions of 1,235, 1,138, 1,068, and 303 bp were commonly detected in 15 of the 45 cockroach-derived (33.3%) and 10 of the 21 patient urine-derived (47.6%) strains, in a total of 25 of 66 strains (37.8%). On cluster analysis, 12 (48.5%) and 16 (66.7%) clusters were grouped based on a homology of 89% or greater, using primer 272 and primer 208, respectively, showing that primer 208 was suitable for the confirmation of diversity. Seven patterns were clustered based on 100% homology using either primer, and 6 of these consisted of only cockroach-derived strains. In the individual groups with 100% homology, all strains in the group were isolated at an identical site during the same period. P. aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches showed diverse genotypes suggesting several sources of contamination, indicating the necessity for investigating infection control targeting cockroaches inhabiting hospitals.

  17. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a "cockroach diet" was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a "mouse diet", the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species.

  18. How cockroaches exploit tactile boundaries to find new shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-10-23

    Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls.

  19. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species. PMID:27706376

  20. Contribution of potassium conductances to a time-dependent transition in electrical properties of a cockroach motoneuron soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J D; Pitman, R M

    1999-05-01

    Contribution of potassium conductances to a time-dependent transition in electrical properties of a cockroach motoneuron soma. The cell body of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) fast coxal depressor motoneuron (Df) displays a time-dependent change in excitability. Immediately after dissection, depolarization evokes plateau potentials, but after several hours all-or-none action potentials are evoked. Because K channel blockers have been shown to produce a similar transition in electrical properties, we have used current-clamp, voltage-clamp and action-potential-clamp recording to elucidate the contribution of different classes of K channel to the transition in electrical activity of the neuron. Apamin had no detectable effect on the neuron, but charybdotoxin (ChTX) caused a rapid transition from plateau potentials to spikes in the somatic response of Df to depolarization. In neurons that already produced spikes when depolarized, ChTX increased spike amplitude but did not increase their duration nor decrease the amplitude of their afterhyperpolarization. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) (which selectively blocks transient K currents) did not cause a transition from plateau potentials to spikes but did enhance oscillations superimposed on plateau potentials. When applied to neurons that already generated spikes when depolarized, 4-AP could augment spike amplitude, decrease the latency to the first spike, and prolong the afterhyperpolarization. Evidence suggests that the time-dependent transition in electrical properties of this motoneuron soma may result, at least in part, from a fall in calcium-dependent potassium current (IK,Ca), consequent on a gradual reduction in [Ca2+ ]i. Voltage-clamp experiments demonstrated directly that outward K currents in this neuron do fall with a time course that could be significant in the transition of electrical properties. Voltage-clamp experiments also confirmed the ineffectiveness of apamin and showed that ChTX blocked most of IK

  1. Mechanical properties of the cuticles of three cockroach species that differ in their wind-evoked escape behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Clark

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The structural and material properties of insect cuticle remain largely unexplored, even though they comprise the majority (approximately 80% of animals. Insect cuticle serves many functions, including protection against predatory attacks, which is especially beneficial to species failing to employ effective running escape responses. Despite recent advances in our understanding of insect escape behaviors and the biomechanics of insect cuticle, there are limited studies on the protective qualities of cuticle to extreme mechanical stresses and strains imposed by predatory attacks, and how these qualities vary between species employing different escape responses. Blattarians (cockroaches provide an appropriate model system for such studies. Wind-evoked running escape responses are strong in Periplaneta americana, weak in Blaberus craniifer and absent in Gromphodorhina portentosa, putting the latter two species at greater risk of being struck by a predator. We hypothesized that the exoskeletons in these two larger species could provide more protection from predatory strikes relative to the exoskeleton of P. americana. We quantified the protective qualities of the exoskeletons by measuring the puncture resistance, tensile strength, strain energy storage, and peak strain in fresh samples of thoracic and abdominal cuticles from these three species. We found a continuum in puncture resistance, tensile strength, and strain energy storage between the three species, which were greatest in G. portentosa, moderate in B. craniifer, and smallest in P. americana. Histological measurements of total cuticle thickness followed this same pattern. However, peak strain followed a different trend between species. The comparisons in the material properties drawn between the cuticles of G. portentosa, B. craniifer, and P. americana demonstrate parallels between cuticular biomechanics and predator running escape responses.

  2. Investigation on the population construction and infestation of cockroach in the hospital%医院蟑螂种群构成及侵害状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝顶; 姜海; 孙恩涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查芜湖市医院内蟑螂种群构成及侵害状况,为蟑螂的有效防治提供科学依据. 方法 用诱捕法和药激法捕获蟑螂,并进行种类鉴定、计数及数据分析.结果 共捕获蟑螂574只,分类鉴定为美洲大蠊、黑胸大蠊、澳洲大蠊和德国小蠊;医院内各生境类型均有蟑螂孳生繁衍,其中门诊部、住院部和食堂内蟑螂以德国小蠊为优势种,行政办公室以美洲大蠊为优势种.医院蟑螂平均侵害率为80.33%( 294/366),平均孳生密度为1.57只/间;其中医院食堂蟑螂侵害最严重,侵害率为100% (54/54),与门诊部、住院部和行政办公室相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且蟑螂平均孳生密度为4.74只/间;住院部普通病房受嫜螂侵害最严重,侵害率为93.65%(59/63),与高干病房、值班室、ICU和手术室相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且蟑螂平均孳生密度为1.71只/间.结论 芜湖市医院蟑螂侵害状况较为普遍,其中医院食堂和住院部普通病房内蟑螂侵害严重,蟑螂防治工作十分紧迫.%Objective To survey the population construction and infestations of cockroaches in different habitat, so as to provide evidences for cockroaches control in the hospital. Methods To catch cockroaches by the sticky traps method and the medicine stir up method, and the cockroaches were isolated, identified and counted. Results 574 cockroaches were caught. They were resided respectively in 2 families, 2 genera and 4 species, namely Periplaneta. americana, P. fuliginosa, P. australariae and Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were caught in different habits. In the outpatient department, inpaticnt department and canteen, the preponderant species of species composing was B. germanica. With the difference, P. americana was the predominant cockroach breed in the office of hospital administration. The average infestation rate reached 80. 33 % (294/366) , and the average density of cockroaches was 1. 57

  3. Differential actions of fipronil and dieldrin insecticides on GABA-gated chloride channels in cockroach neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xilong; Salgado, Vincent L; Yeh, Jay Z; Narahashi, Toshio

    2003-09-01

    Fipronil and dieldrin are known to inhibit GABA receptors in both mammals and insects. However, the mechanism of selective toxicity of these insecticides between mammals and insects remains to be seen. One possible mechanism is that insect GABA receptors are more sensitive than mammalian GABAA receptors to fipronil and dieldrin. We examined differential actions of fipronil and dieldrin on GABA-gated chloride channels in insects and compared them with the data on mammalian GABAA receptors. Neurons were acutely dissociated from the American cockroach thoracic ganglia, and currents evoked by GABA were recorded by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. GABA-evoked currents were carried by chloride ions, blocked by picrotoxinin, but not by bicuculline. Fipronil inhibited GABA currents with an IC50 value of 28 nM, whereas dieldrin exhibited a dual action potentiation with an EC50 value of 4 nM followed by inhibition with an IC50 value of 16 nM. Fipronil and dieldrin acted on the resting receptor at comparable rates, whereas fipronil blocked the activated receptor 10 times faster than dieldrin. Fipronil inhibition was partially reversible, whereas dieldrin inhibition was irreversible. Fipronil was 59 times more potent on cockroach GABA receptors than on rat GABAA receptors. However, the potentiating and inhibitory potencies of dieldrin in cockroach GABA receptors were comparable with those in rat GABAA receptors. It was concluded that the higher toxicity of fipronil in insects than in mammals is due partially to the higher sensitivity of GABA receptors. The mechanism of dieldrin's selective toxicity must lie in factors other than the sensitivity of GABA receptors.

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of Periplaneta fuliginosa densonucleosis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We have cloned the replicative form of the Periplaneta fuliginosa densonucleosis virus (Pf DNV) genome and determined its complete sequence.The sequence has 5454 nucleotides (nt),the genome consists of an internal unique sequence flanked by inverted terminal repeats (201 nt).The first 122 nt at the 5' end and the terminal 122 nt at the 3'end of both plus and minus strands can fold into a typical hairpin structure.The genome contains seven major open reading frames (ORFs).The plus strand has 4 ORFs occupying the 5' half of the plus strand,whereas the others span the 5' half of the minus strand.Two potential promoters were found at map units (m.u.) 3 and 97.Computer analysis of sequence homologies with other parvoviruses suggests that the plus strand of Pf DNV encodes very likely the nonstructural proteins and the minus strand probably encodes the structural proteins.

  5. Mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatfeng, Y M; Usuanlele, M U; Orukpe, A; Digban, A K; Okodua, M; Oviasogie, F; Turay, A A

    2005-12-01

    Cockroaches (Diploptera punctata) are basically tropical insects and will do their best to find a home that is both warm and moist. Their involvement in the transmission of tropical diseases is poorly investigated in Africa. A study on the bacterial, fungal and parasitic profile of cockroaches trapped in and around houses in Ekpoma was carried out using standard microbiological techniques. Of a total of 234 cockroaches trapped from different sites (toilets, parlours, kitchens and bedrooms) in houses with pit latrines and water system, the bacterial, fungal and parasitic isolates were identical irrespective of the site, these included: E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serretia marcescens, S. aureus, S. feacalis, S. epidermidis, Aeromonas sp, Candida sp, Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, cysts of E. hystolitica, oocysts of C. parvum, C. cayetenensis and Isospora belli, cysts of Balantidium coli, ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunalae, Enterobius vermicularis, ova Trichuris trichura, larva of Strongyloides stercoralis. Cockroaches trapped in the toilets of houses with pit latrines had a mean bacterial and parasites count of 12.3 x 10(10) org/ml and 98 parasites/ml respectively, while those trapped in the houses with water system had a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 89.5 x 10(7) org/ml and 31 parasites/ml respectively. A bacterial count of 78.9 x 10(7) org/ml was recorded from cockroaches trapped from the kitchens of houses with pit latrines. On the other hand a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 23.7 x 10(6) org/ml and 19 parasites/ml were recorded from kitchens of houses with water system. Cockroaches represent an important reservoir for infectious pathogens, therefore, control of cockroaches will substantially minimise the spread of infectious diseases in our environment.

  6. Cockroaches that lack Blattabacterium endosymbionts: the phylogenetically divergent genus Nocticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan; Beninati, Tiziana; Stone, Fred; Walker, James; Sacchi, Luciano

    2007-06-22

    Phylogenetic relationships among termites, mantids and the five traditionally recognized cockroach families have been the subject of several studies during the last half-century. One cockroach lineage that has remained notably absent from such studies is the Nocticolidae. This group of small, elusive surface- and cave-dwelling species from the Old World Tropics has been proposed to represent an additional family. Using molecular sequences, we performed an initial phylogenetic examination of Nocticola spp. The hypothesis that they are phylogenetically divergent was confirmed from the analyses of three genes and a combined dataset. To supplement our phylogenetic analyses, we attempted to amplify 16S rRNA from the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti, present in all cockroaches studied to date. Unexpectedly, amplification was unsuccessful in all Nocticola spp. examined. This result was confirmed by microscopic examinations of fat body tissue. These Nocticola spp. are the first cockroaches found to be uninfected by B. cuenoti, which raise questions about when the bacterium first infected cockroaches.

  7. Mite and cockroach proteases activate p44/p42 MAP kinases in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiaoyuan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms underlying epithelial cell activation by indoor inhaled antigens are poorly understood. Methods In this study, we investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in A549 epithelial cells upon exposure to antigens of house dust mite (HDMA, German cockroach (GCA, and American cockroach (ACA. Results Each of these antigens induced a significant increase in IL-8 levels compared to the medium control. Exposure of A549 cells to these antigens induced the phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPKs within 5 minutes, which reached a peak at 25 minutes later and reached baseline levels at 1 hour after exposure. PD98059, a MEK1 inhibitor, significantly decreased phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAPKs and IL-8 production. Exposure of A549 cells with antigens, which had been preincubated with different protease inhibitors, also resulted in a reduction of both MAPK phosphorylation and IL-8 production. Conclusion Thus, proteolytic antigens present in HDMA, GCA and ACA activate the p44/42 MAPKs airway epithelial cells, which lead to elevated IL-8 production and initiation of the inflammatory cascade.

  8. Modelling active antennal movements of the American cockroach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pequeno-Zurro, Alejandro; Nitschke, Jahn; Szyszka, Paul

    2017-01-01

    and the spatial properties of encountered odorant concentrations. Video recordings reveal that the animal’s antennae exhibit systematic movements in the presence of behaviourally relevant odorants. We hypothesise a dynamic coupling between the left and right antenna modulated by odour stimulation. To test this we......, coupled Hopf oscillator to model antennal movements in response to odorant concentration, using this map for sensory drive signals for the model. We present simulation results of antennal movements in response to odorant concentrations....

  9. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  10. ANALYSIS ON THE COCKROACH FAUNA TRAITS OF WUXI FROM 2006 TO 2009%无锡市2006~2009年蜚蠊群落特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈元; 陈继平; 兰策介; 杨维芳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解无锡市蜚蠊群落的动态特征.为灭蟑工作控制提供依据.[方法]采用粘蟑纸法从2006-2009年对全市5种环境类型中的蜚蠊进行连续监测,并对监测结果进行统计分析.[结果]2006-2009年无锡市蜚蠊密度和侵害率的平均值分别为1.44只/张和23.75%,种类主要为德国小蠊、美洲大蠊和黑胸大蠊,其中德国小蠊为绝对优势种.蜚蠊常年都有发生,其中7-10月为密度高、活动频繁,密度、侵害率与气温显著相关(P<0.01).经群落相似性分析(Similarity=-85%,Stress=0.06),5种环境类型分为两组,第1组为农贸市场、餐饮店和宾馆,蜚蠊密度与侵害率都较高;第2组为医院和居民住房,蜚蠊密度与侵害率都较低.[结论]德国小蠊是无锡市灭蟑的主要种类,农贸市场、餐饮店和宾馆是开展灭蟑工作的主要环境类型.%[Objective] To know the changing traits of cockroach in Wuxi, and get information for cockroach control.[Methods ] Sticky trap method was used to monitor the cockroach in 5 habitat types from 2006 to 2009, and analyzed monitoring data. [ Results] From 2006 to 2009, the mean value of cockroach density and infestation rate was 1.44 (ind/p) and 23.75% , respecitvely. Cockroach fauna was composed of Blattella germaruca, Periplaneta amencana and P. fuliginosa. B. germanica was the absolutely dominant species. Cockroach could be trapped every month. The high density and frequent movement period was from July to October. Density and infertation rate had significant association with air temperature (P < 0.01). 5 habitat types were divided into 2 groups by fauna similarity analysis ( Similarity=85% , Stress=0.06). The first group was composed of farm produce market, eating house and hotel, and had high density and infestation rate. The second group contained hospital and houses, and had low density and infestation rate. [Conclusion] B. germanica was the firstly species to control. The farm produce market

  11. Cockroach density and invasion situation in 2010 of Mianyang City%绵阳市2010年蜚蠊种群密度及侵害现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒亚; 谭刚; 郑幸福; 史映红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the cockroaches invasion situation in Mianyang City, and provide scientific basis for cockroaches control. Method According to Vector biological monitoring scheme in China and 2010 vector biological monitoring implementation scheme of Mianyang. Selecting Daximen district, Youxian district and Gaoshui district as monitoring points, and cockroaches densities were detected by sticky traps method. Results They were 3 kinds of cockroaches in Mianyang, they were Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and smoky brown cockroach, the proportions of them were 96. 18, 2.09% and 1. 73% , respectively. Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density of cockroaches in farm products markets was 0. 85, in repast was 0. 87, hospital was 0. 11, hotel was 0. 23, dweller house was 0. 28. The repasts density was the highest The infestation rate in farm products markets was 16. 36% , catering trade was 9. 30% , hospital was 6. 38% , hotel was 4. 72% , dweller houses was 2. 62% , the infestation rate of farm products markets was the highest Conclusions Grasping the cockroaches density in Mianyang could provide scientific basis for developing comprehensiveness prevention control measures.%目的 通过了解绵阳市蜚蠊侵害情况,为防治蜚蠊提供科学的方法.方法 按照《全国病媒生物监测方案》和《绵阳市2010年病媒生物监测实施方案》,选取大西门片区、游仙片区和高水片区设置监测点,采用粘捕法测定蜚蠊密度.结果 绵阳市蜚蠊主要有德国小蠊、美洲大蠊和黑胸大蠊,分别占96.18%、2.09%和1.73%,德国小蠊为优势种.各类生境蜚蠊密度分别为农贸市场0.85只/张、餐饮0.87只/张、医院0.11只/张、宾馆0.23只/张、居民区0.28只/张,餐饮密度最高.各类生境蜚蠊侵害率分别为农贸市场的16.36%、餐饮占9.30%、医院占6.38%、宾馆占4.72%、居民区占2.62%,农贸市场侵害率最高.结论 掌握绵阳市

  12. Species clarification of Ogasawara cockroaches which inhabit Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, N; Kawakami, Y; Banzai, A; Ooi, H K; Uchida, A

    2015-03-01

    The so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" were examined by morphological observations and by breeding experiments to elucidate their actual taxonomical status. Fourteen groups (isolate) of "Ogasawara cockroaches" collected from Iwoto-A, Iwoto-B, Hahajima, Chichijima, Nishijima, Nakodojima, Tokunoshima-A, Tokunoshima-B, Okinawato- A, Okinawa-B, Amamiooshima, Miyakojima, Ishigakijima and Hawaii, were bred and passaged in our laboratory. Cockroaches collected from the field were first reared individually and the sexes of their offspring examined. Cockroaches collected from Iwoto, Tokushima and Okinawa, were found to consist of two groups; those whose offspring were all female and the other whose offspring consist of both male and female. Cross-breeding experiments showed that individuals from the group that did not produce any male but only female offspring were parthenogenetic. On the contrary, the group that have bisexual individuals produced both male and female offspring in a ratio of 1:1. Our results show that the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" consist of 2 species, namely, Pycnoscelus surinamensis and Pycnoscelus indicus. There are areas in which both species co-habitated together and there are also areas in which either only one of the two species can be found. The group that reproduces only female offspring and only through parthenogenesis was identified as P. surinamensis. The group that reproduces heterosexually and produce male and female offspring was identified as P. indicus. Thus, the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" found in Japan actually consist of 2 species, namely, P. surinamensis and P. indicus, which can be differentiated using the solitary breeding method to demonstrate parthenogenesis in the former and the need for sexual reproduction in the latter.

  13. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  14. Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2009-06-01

    Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

  15. The evaporative function of cockroach hygroreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Tichy

    Full Text Available Insect hygroreceptors associate as antagonistic pairs of a moist cell and a dry cell together with a cold cell in small cuticular sensilla on the antennae. The mechanisms by which the atmospheric humidity stimulates the hygroreceptive cells remain elusive. Three models for humidity transduction have been proposed in which hygroreceptors operate either as mechanical hygrometers, evaporation detectors or psychrometers. Mechanical hygrometers are assumed to respond to the relative humidity, evaporation detectors to the saturation deficit and psychrometers to the temperature depression (the difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures. The models refer to different ways of expressing humidity. This also means, however, that at different temperatures these different types of hygroreceptors indicate very different humidity conditions. The present study tested the adequacy of the three models on the cockroach's moist and dry cells by determining whether the specific predictions about the temperature-dependence of the humidity responses are indeed observed. While in previous studies stimulation consisted of rapid step-like humidity changes, here we changed humidity slowly and continuously up and down in a sinusoidal fashion. The low rates of change made it possible to measure instantaneous humidity values based on UV-absorption and to assign these values to the hygroreceptive sensillum. The moist cell fitted neither the mechanical hygrometer nor the evaporation detector model: the temperature dependence of its humidity responses could not be attributed to relative humidity or to saturation deficit, respectively. The psychrometer model, however, was verified by the close relationships of the moist cell's response with the wet-bulb temperature and the dry cell's response with the dry-bulb temperature. Thus, the hygroreceptors respond to evaporation and the resulting cooling due to the wetness or dryness of the air. The drier the ambient air

  16. Pengamatan Beberapa Aspek Biologis Periplaneta bronnea Bunneister ( Blattaria; Blattidae di Laboratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardjan Soekirno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan tertiadap beberapa aspek biologis Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister telah dilakukan sejak bulan Juni 1984 di Laboratorium Entomotogi Puslit Ekologi Kesehatan, Badan Litbangkes, Jakarta. Spesimen diperoleh dari hasil penangkapan kecoa/lipas/coro di dalam rumah dan dipelihara di laboratorium. Pemeiiharaan dilakukan dengan dua cara, yaitu secara individu dan secara koloni. Tempat pemeliharaan berupa plastik transparan berbentuk tabung atau mangkuk dengan berbagai ukuran, yaitu dengan garis tengah 3 cm dan tinggi 6 cm sampai garis tengah 26 cm dan tingginya 26 cm serta diberi sekatan kayu didalamnya dan ditutup dengan kain/kawat kasa.Pemeiiharaan secara individu menghasilkan kapsul telur dan tiap kapsul telur diketahui waktu ditetakkannya, masa inkubasi sampai menetas, perkembangan nimfa sampai mencapai stadium dewasa. Pemeiiharaan secara koloni merupakan lanjutan dan pemeliharaan secara individu, karena satu individu betina dapat menghasilkan banyak kapsul telur, kemudian dipelihara dalam satu tempat yang lebih besar. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa jumlah kapsul telur yang dihasilkan oleh satu ekor P.brunnea betina mencapai 30 buah; tiap kapsul telur berisi 24 telur; rata-rata 20 telur dapat menetas menjadi nimfa, 10 nimfa diantaranya dapat mencapai stadium dewasa.Masa inkubasi kapsul telur dalam kondisi laboratorium dengan suhu rata-rata 29 derajat Celsius dan kelembaban rata-rata 78 % mencapai 40 hari, stadium nimfanya mencapai 5 sampai 6 bulan, sehingga daur hidup P.brunnea mencapai 7 bulan. Perbandingan jenis kelamin yang diperoleh dari hasil pemeliharaan P.brunnea secara koloni menunjukkan tidak ada beda nyata.

  17. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  18. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  19. Termite Proteins Cross-React with Cockroach Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp are among a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergy, and shrimp allergens have been demonstrated to cross-react with arthropod proteins, such as those from cockroaches. Edible insects are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have a high nutrition value....

  20. Cockroaches as pollinators of Clusia aff. sellowiana (Clusiaceae) on inselbergs in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H G; Teichert, Holger

    2008-09-01

    A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. The results suggest that the plant-cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species.

  1. Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotedar, R.; Shriniwas, U. B.; Verma, A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi. PMID:1879483

  2. New species of Hammerschmidtiella Chitwood, 1932, and Blattophila Cobb, 1920, and new geographical records for Severianoia annamensis Van Luc & Spiridonov, 1993 (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in Ohio and Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Ramon A

    2017-01-26

    Two new species of thelastomatid nematodes parasitic in the hindgut of cockroaches are described. Hammerschmidtiella keeneyi n. sp. is described from a laboratory colony of Diploptera punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822) from a facility in Ohio, U. S. A. This species is characterized by having females with a short tail and males smaller than those described from other species. The new species also differs from others in the genus by a number of differing measurements that indicate a distinct identity, including esophageal, tail, and egg lengths as well as the relative position of the excretory pore. Blattophila peregrinata n. sp. is described from Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) and Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) in a greenhouse from Ohio, U.S.A. and from wild P. surinamensis in southern Florida, U.S.A. This species differs from others in the genus by having a posteriorly directed vagina, vulva in the anterior third of the body, no lateral alae in females, and eggs with an operculum. In P. surinamensis from southern Florida, an additional species, Severianoia annamensis Van Luc & Spiridonov, 1993 was found and did not co-parasitize the host with B. peregrinata n. sp. Blattophila peregrinata n. sp. and S. annamensis also occur in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, indicating that these have a widespread global range.

  3. Fauna parasitaria de Periplaneta americana Linnaeus en un distrito de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos aspectos de los componentes comunitarios e infracomunitarios de la parasitofauna de Periplaneta americana en 100 especímenes colectados en buzones del distrito de Pueblo Libre, Lima, Perú, en invierno, entre agosto y setiembre de 1996. De todos los hospederos muestreados 67 fueron machos y 33 hembras; 19 adultos y 81 niñas; luego de las necropsias, se observaron cinco tipos de parásitos con la prevalencia e intensidad de infección respectiva: Cephalobellus tipulae (Nematoda (38% y 3,5; Leidynema appendiculatum (Nematoda (35% y 2,85; Thelastoma bulhoesi (Nematoda (1% y 7; Monliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala (2% y 1,5 y Pimeliaphilus cunliffei (Acarina (62% y 2,06. P. cunliffei es considerada una especie primaria, mientras C. tipulae y L. appendiculatum son especies secundarlas, y M. moniliformis y T bulhoesi son especies satélites. C. tipulae y L. appendiculatum tienen valores más altos de frecuencia de dominancia. En general, se observa a nivel de componentes comunitarios e infracomunitarios una ausencia de correlación entre la intensidad y prevalencia de parásitos y el tamaño y sexo del hospedero. La diversidad de especies de parisitos es baja H' = 0,397 ± 0,45. C. Tipulae y L. appendiculatum muestran una covariación y asociación interespecífica negativa. T bulhoesi y P cunliffei son nuevos registros para el Perú.

  4. Active antennal movement in cockroaches - towards understanding multimodal exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pequeno-Zurro, Alejandro; Nitschke, Jahn; Szyszka, Paul

    The long and highly mobile cockroach antennae are multifunctional sensory appendages incorporating two of the most fundamental senses – olfaction and touch. Previous laboratory experiments with cockroaches in unisensory tasks have demonstrated the animal’s ability to perform antenna-dependent tasks...... experimental and computational approach to investigate how active antennal movement affects sensory acquisition in a multimodal environment. We characterize the relationship between antennal searching movement and the spatial and temporal properties of encountered odour concentrations, which will serve...... as the basis for a future extension to study olfactory-tactile integration. When presented with a behaviourally relevant odour antennae exhibited systematic movements, and there appears to be a dynamic modulation of coupling between the left and right antenna. In order to gain insight into the coordination...

  5. De novo transcriptome of the Hemimetabolous German cockroach (Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp were generated via pyrosequencing the mixed cDNA library from different life stages of German cockroach including maturing oothecae, nymphs, adult females and males. The raw reads were de novo assembled to 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons with high-quality unique sequences. These sequences were annotated and classified functionally in terms of BLAST, GO and KEGG, and the genes putatively coding detoxification enzyme systems, insecticide targets, key components in systematic RNA interference, immunity and chemoreception pathways were identified. A total of 3,601 SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats loci were also predicted. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The whole transcriptome pyrosequencing data from this study provides a usable genetic resource for future identification of potential functional genes involved in various biological processes.

  6. Cockroaches breathe discontinuously to reduce respiratory water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R

    2009-09-01

    The reasons why many insects breathe discontinuously at rest are poorly understood and hotly debated. Three adaptive hypotheses attempt to explain the significance of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), whether it be to save water, to facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. Comparative studies favour the water saving hypothesis and mechanistic studies are equivocal but no study has examined the acclimation responses of adult insects chronically exposed to a range of respiratory environments. The present research is the first manipulative study of such chronic exposure to take a strong-inference approach to evaluating the competing hypotheses according to the explicit predictions stemming from them. Adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) were chronically exposed to various treatments of different respiratory gas compositions (O(2), CO(2) and humidity) and the DGC responses were interpreted in light of the a priori predictions stemming from the competing hypotheses. Rates of mass loss during respirometry were also measured for animals acclimated to a range of humidity conditions. The results refute the hypotheses of oxidative damage and underground gas exchange, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that DGCs serve to reduce respiratory water loss: cockroaches exposed to low humidity conditions exchange respiratory gases for shorter durations during each DGC and showed lower rates of body mass loss during respirometry than cockroaches exposed to high humidity conditions.

  7. Reversible brain inactivation induces discontinuous gas exchange in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2013-06-01

    Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand.

  8. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    release of sterile males into natural populations of the German cockroach. Submitted to Entomologia exp. & Appl. Feb., 1981. A first draft was...populations of the German cockroach. Subm. Entomologia Exp. & Appl. Feb., 1981. aEight other publications of earlier research on this Contract have

  9. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  10. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  11. Microbial Carriage of Cockroaches at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B.; Donkor, Eric S.; Attah, Simon K.; Duedu, Kwabena O.; Afutu, Emmanuel; Boamah, Isaac; Olu-Taiwo, Michael; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital. PMID:24137051

  12. Monitoring of cockroach density and seasonal fluctuation in Haikou City%2009~2010年海口市蟑螂种群密度及季节消长监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓花; 陈永薇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解海口市蟑螂种类、密度、季节消长情况,为海口市的蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法分别在居民住宅、餐饮、宾馆、农贸市场和医院等不同环境中进行蟑螂种群分布、密度、季节消长情况调查.结果 海口市蟑螂种群有德国小蠊、美洲大蠊、澳洲大蠊和斑蠊,其中德国小蠊为海口市的优势种群.海口市区蟑螂密度较高[4],全年平均达到2.76只/张,栖息场所蟑螂密度以餐饮业密度最高,达5.86只/张,宾馆次之,达3.26只/张,农贸市场、医院和居民较低,分别为1.16只/张、0.55只/张、0.34只/张.蟑螂一年四季均有活动,8月份蟑螂密度最高,1月份蟑螂密度最低.结论 海口市蟑螂种群发生了明显变化,尤其是德国小蠊侵害严重,应加强蟑螂密度和抗药性等监测,根据监测结果,及时预警预报,提出科学合理的防治措施.%Objective To survey the cockroach species,the density and the seasonal fluctuation and provide scientific basis for elimination cockroach in Haikou. Methods The population distribution,density and seasonal flunctuation of cockroach were suveyed using night sticky trap method in residential areas,hotels,eating houses,markets and hospitals. Results There were four cockroachs species in Haikou:the German cockroach,the American cockroach,the Australian cockroach and the Neostylopyga rhombifolia. The German cockroach was predominant. The cockroach density was high with average density of 2.76/nights and the numbers of cockroadch in eating houses,hotel,market,hospital,residential areas were 5.86/ night,3.26/night, 1.16/night,0.55/night and 0.34/night. The cockroach density was the highest in August and the lowest in January. Conclusion The population and density of cockroach in Haikou varied and integrated monitoring and eliminating measures be adopted to control the pervalence of cockroad.

  13. Research on data storage CockroachDB Docker application technology%数据存储CockroachDB应用技术Docker的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷雨

    2015-01-01

    CockroachDB将构造一个伸缩性强、分布式的数据库,使用Docker来自动化、流程化开发、测试和部署过程.且不需要安装任何程序就可以学习到如何部署Cockroach,并且在任何系统中部署可靠的、最小化的容器.

  14. Medically Important Parasites Carried by Cockroaches in Melong Subdivision, Littoral, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Atiokeng Tatang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%, Trichuris (11.97%, Capillaria (6.16%, Toxocara (4.86%, Hook Worm (4.86%, and Eimeria (2.73%. The parasites were more recorded on the external surface (54.27% of cockroaches than in the internal surface (GIT, 38.51%. The same tendency was obtained between sexes with female cockroaches having a higher transport rate (36.69%. Cockroaches caught in toilets carried more parasites (31.99% as compared to those from kitchens (22.63% and houses (11.14%. Almost all encountered parasites were recognized as responsible of zoonosis and they can be consequently released in nature by hosts and easily disseminated by cockroaches as mechanical vectors. Sanitary education, reenforcement of worms’ eradication programs, and the fight against these insects remain a necessity in the Mélong Subdivision.

  15. Gut Bacterial Community of the Xylophagous Cockroaches Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Llorens, Carlos; Comas, Jaume; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana are two distantly related xylophagous and subsocial cockroaches. Cryptocercus is related to termites. Xylophagous cockroaches and termites are excellent model organisms for studying the symbiotic relationship between the insect and their microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the diversity of metagenomic gut communities of C. punctulatus and P. boleiriana, and thereby to identify possible shifts in symbiont allegiances during cockroaches evolution. Our results revealed that the hindgut prokaryotic communities of both xylophagous cockroaches are dominated by members of four Bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Other identified phyla were Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, candidatus Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7), and Acidobacteria, each of which represented 1-2% of the total population detected. Community similarity based on phylogenetic relatedness by unweighted UniFrac analyses indicated that the composition of the bacterial community in the two species was significantly different (P cockroach species clustered with sequences previously described in termites and other cockroaches, but not with those from other animals or environments. These results suggest that, during their evolution, those cockroaches conserved several bacterial communities from the microbiota of a common ancestor. The ecological stability of those microbial communities may imply the important functional role for the survival of the host of providing nutrients in appropriate quantities and balance.

  16. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.

  17. Physiology of environmental adaptations and resource acquisition in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Donald E

    2015-01-07

    Cockroaches are a group of insects that evolved early in geological time. Because of their antiquity, they for the most part display generalized behavior and physiology and accordingly have frequently been used as model insects to examine physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved with water balance, nutrition, reproduction, genetics, and insecticide resistance. As a result, a considerable amount of information on these topics is available. However, there is much more to be learned by employing new protocols, microchemical analytical techniques, and molecular biology tools to explore many unanswered questions.

  18. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  19. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran. Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method. Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas. Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  20. Advanced morphology and behaviour of extinct earwig-like cockroaches (Blattida: Fuziidae fam. nov.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Liang, Jun-Hui; Ren, Dong

    2009-12-01

    We describe the extinct cockroach family Fuziidae fam. nov., represented by Fuzia dadao gen. et sp. nov. from the ?Bathonian (168 Ma) Middle Jurassic sediments of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Males are characterized by unique, long and narrow bodies with a notch on forceps of earwig-like cerci, which attaches to the long external ovipositor during courtship. In a combination with the presence of male tergal glands, it appears the most advanced form of reproduction in the nearly 300 Myr history of long external ovipositor-bearing cockroaches. Its advanced morphology significantly supports attribution of living and fossil cockroaches within a single order Blattida.

  1. Chemical disguise of myrmecophilous cockroaches and its implications for understanding nestmate recognition mechanisms in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Volker; Dani, Francesca R; Calamai, Luca; Turillazzi, Stefano; Bohn, Horst; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2016-08-05

    Cockroaches of the genus Attaphila regularly occur in leaf-cutting ant colonies. The ants farm a fungus that the cockroaches also appear to feed on. Cockroaches disperse between colonies horizontally (via foraging trails) and vertically (attached to queens on their mating flights). We analysed the chemical strategies used by the cockroaches to integrate into colonies of Atta colombica and Acromyrmex octospinosus. Analysing cockroaches from nests of two host species further allowed us to test the hypothesis that nestmate recognition is based on an asymmetric mechanism. Specifically, we test the U-present nestmate recognition model, which assumes that detection of undesirable cues (non-nestmate specific substances) leads to strong rejection of the cue-bearers, while absence of desirable cues (nestmate-specific substances) does not necessarily trigger aggression. We found that nests of Atta and Acromyrmex contained cockroaches of two different and not yet described Attaphila species. The cockroaches share the cuticular chemical substances of their specific host species and copy their host nest's colony-specific cuticular profile. Indeed, the cockroaches are accepted by nestmate but attacked by non-nestmate ant workers. Cockroaches from Acromyrmex colonies bear a lower concentration of cuticular substances and are less likely to be attacked by non-nestmate ants than cockroaches from Atta colonies. Nest-specific recognition of Attaphila cockroaches by host workers in combination with nest-specific cuticular chemical profiles suggest that the cockroaches mimic their host's recognition labels, either by synthesizing nest-specific substances or by substance transfer from ants. Our finding that the cockroach species with lower concentration of cuticular substances receives less aggression by both host species fully supports the U-present nestmate recognition model. Leaf-cutting ant nestmate recognition is thus asymmetric, responding more strongly to differences than to

  2. Skin sensitization to cockroach allergens: a nationwide, multi-center survey on bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis among outpatients%全国多中心支气管哮喘与过敏性鼻炎门诊患者对蟑螂变应原皮肤反应性的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝清; 李靖; 钟南山

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of allergy to two common species of cockroaches(Periplaneta americana and Blatteila germaniea) among outpatients with bronchial asthma(asthma) and allergic rhinitia from an epidemiological perspective,and to provide evidences for further research on insecthypersensitivity. Methods A total of 6081 outpatients with asthma and allergic rhinitis, registered to clinicsof respiratory diseases, pediatrics or allergic diseases in 25 Three Grade-A hospitals, were included in thestudy. These patients were studied using a standardized questionnaire and skin prick tests for cockroachallergens. Results Among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis, response to one of the cockroachescorrelated well with that to another,as did the grades of response ( P <0.001). The overall rate of responseto Periplaneta americana was 26.34% vs 19.37% to Blattella germanica. Higher rate of response was foundin the south as compared with northern and eastern regions of China. In those allergic to cockroach,grade 2reactions appeared predominant, with strong-positive outcomes seen only in rare cases. Positive allergy toPeriplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was identified in 28% and 19% of males vs 25% and 15% offemales,30% and 24% of adults vs 23% and 14% of children,respectively. About 90% cockroach-allergicpatients concurrently tested positive to house dust mites. Conclusions Cockroach appears to be one of majorallergens among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. The rate of response is higher with Periplanetaamericana than with Blattella germaniea. Higher prevalence of allergy to cockroach is found in males than infemales,and in adults than in children. Cross-reactions may be implied between antigens of cockroach andhouse dust mite.%目的 探讨支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)和过敏性鼻炎患者对常见蟑螂(美洲大蠊和德国小蠊)的过敏水平及一些流行病学的特点,同时比较对不同品种蟑螂间的研究,为深

  3. The Use of Double Translocations to Control Populations of the German Cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-19

    indicates a catchability of 91.13%. A third sample would be predicted to yield approximately one cockroach if this catchability is relatively constant...nymphs. The second catch was comprised of 37 individuals. This is indicative of a catchability of 88.18%. An estimated third sample would be five residual...assumption that catchability will remain constant between captures. As we can • distinguish cockroaches entering the population between captures by

  4. Microbial organisms carried by brown-banded cockroaches in relation to their spatial distribution in a hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guyader, A.; Rivault, C.; Chaperon, J

    1989-01-01

    A simultaneous study of cockroach (Supella supellectilium) distribution and of associated carried bacterial flora has been made in the main hospital in Rennes (France). Wild cockroaches carry a high number of bacterial species that can be related to the normal environmental flora and a contaminant flora acquired from particular environments. The diversity of carried bacterial species reveals a proximity factor between continguous floors of the building which leads us to suppose that cockroach...

  5. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  6. Do Quiescence and Wasp Venom-Induced Lethargy Share Common Neuronal Mechanisms in Cockroaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Stav; Libersat, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism.

  7. Study on the Soluble Protein Antigens Derived from Four Developmental Stages of Periplaneta fuliginosa%黑胸大蠊不同发育阶段可溶性蛋白抗原的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍锐; 汪世平; 李文凯; 吴仕筠; 吕志跃; 彭选楚; 何卓

    2004-01-01

    目的了解黑胸大蠊的不同发育阶段蛋白质抗原的免疫生化特性.方法采用十十烷基硫酸钠聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)对黑胸大蠊不同发育阶段可溶性蛋白质组分进行分离鉴定并通过酶联免疫印迹(ELIB)技术分析不同发育阶段抗原的免疫学特性.结果四种抗原蛋白经SDS-PAGE后银染色,均得到清晰的蛋白显色带.卵抗原、若虫抗原、雄成虫抗原、雌成虫抗原分别可见13、28、26、41条蛋白区带,其中主带分别为2、10、10、13条,分子量大多位于10~97kDa范围.具有免疫原性的蛋白质大多分布在43kDa以上分子量范围,四种抗原组分相互之间有交叉抗原的存在.结论不同发育阶段黑胸大蠊的蛋白质组分从卵-若虫-成虫出现次第增多现象并趋于复杂化,这对研究黑胸大蠊的发育生物学特征具有一定的潜在意义.%Objective To provide experimental data for further studies on the immunobiochemical characteristics of the protein antigens from Periplaneta fuliginosa at different developmental stages. Method Four groups of soluble protein antigens of the P. filiginosa, namely, egg antigens, nymph antigens, male and female adult antigens, were analyzed with SDS-PAGE and ELIB. Results Stripes of the studied antigens were clearly displayed by silver staining after SDS-PAGE. The egg antigens, nymph antigens, male and female adult antigens revealed 13, 28, 26 and 41 bands,respectively, of which 2, 10, 10 and 13 major bands were found in the respective groups. Most protein components varied in a molecular weight range of 10 ~ 97kDa. The ELIB analysis showed that proteins with immunogenic activity were mainly distributed in a molecular weight range of higher than 43kDa. The ELIB result also showed an existence of common antigenic components among these groups. Conclusions With the development of the cockroach from egg to adult, the P. fuliginosa protein components are increasingly aggrandized in

  8. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria, Blattidae subject to various stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelio Peter Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p103 Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.

  9. Identification and tissue expression profile of genes from three chemoreceptor families in an urban pest, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; He, Ming; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; He, Peng

    2016-06-09

    Periplaneta americana is a notorious urban pest prevalent in human habitats; very little is known about its chemosensory mechanism. Employing the advanced next-generation sequencing technique, in the present study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the antennae of the adult males and females as well as their mouthparts using an Illumina platform. This resulted in the discovery of a huge number of the members of all major known chemosensory receptor families in P. americana, including 96 odorant receptors (ORs), 53 ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 33 gustatory receptors (GRs). Tissue expression profiles showed most of them mainly expressed in antennae and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the expansion in the clade distinguishing them from other functionally well-known Lepidoptera species. A high percentage of chemosensory receptor genes (ORs in particular) showing female antenna bias in mRNA expression was observed. Our results provide a basis for further investigations on how P. americana coordinates its chemosensory receptor genes in chemical communication with environments, and for development of novel pest management approaches.

  10. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  11. Study on Extraction Process of Periplaneta americana oil%美洲大蠊药材中油脂的提取工艺考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满红霞; 那凯歌; 谭巧云; 肖培云; 杨永寿

    2016-01-01

    目的:考察美洲大蠊药材中油脂的提取工艺以及皂化值的测定,为今后美洲大蠊药材中油脂的测定和开发利用提供依据。方法:以石油醚为溶剂,采用正交实验设计考察物料比、提取温度、提取时间3因素对油脂的提取率和皂化值的影响。结果:采用索氏提取法,物料比为1:15,温度80℃,时间2 h提取率最高。结论:验证性实验结果表明,该方法操作简便、结果准确,可作为美洲大蠊药材中油脂的提取方法。%〔Abstract〕Objective: Studying the extraction process of Periplaneta americana oil and determining the saponification value, to provide scientific basis for the future oil determination,exploitation and utilization. Methods:With petroleum ether as the solvent, the effects of extraction material ratio, temperature and time on the extraction rate and the saponification value were investigated by orthogonal experiment. Results: When using the method of cable extraction, the optimum conditions for Periplaneta americana lipid extraction were: extraction ratio of material to solvent: 1:15, temperature: 80 ℃, time: 2 h. Conclusion: Verification experimental results show that the method is simple and accurate, which can be used as a method for the extraction of Periplaneta americana oil.

  12. Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xue; YE Lefu; GE Feng

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance.German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system.Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital).However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats.The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface.There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction.Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats.The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there.The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.

  13. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  14. Persistence of a sugar-rejecting cockroach genotype under various dietary regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2017-04-01

    Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food. After 6 months we found significantly higher frequency of WT individuals in populations restricted to the 20% glucose food, and after 12 months all dietary treatments contained significantly more WT individuals than expected. In accompanying experiments, we found lower survival and longer development time of GA nymphs restricted to glucose-containing food. We furthermore found evidence for assortative mating of females with males from their own genotype, with significant differences within WT cockroaches. Our study shows experimental evidence that within heterogeneous populations, WT German cockroaches will over time prevail in abundance over GA individuals, even when glucose is not a dietary component.

  15. Diet specialization in an extreme omnivore: nutritional regulation in glucose-averse German cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shik, J Z; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2014-10-01

    Organisms have diverse adaptations for balancing dietary nutrients, but often face trade-offs between ingesting nutrients and toxins in food. While extremely omnivorous cockroaches would seem excluded from such dietary trade-offs, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in multiple populations have rapidly evolved a unique dietary specialization - an aversion to glucose, the phagostimulant in toxic baits used for pest control. We used factorial feeding experiments within the geometric framework to test whether glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches with limited access to this critical metabolic fuel have compensatory behavioural and physiological strategies for meeting nutritional requirements. GA cockroaches had severely constrained intake, fat and N mass, and performance on glucose-based diets relative to wild-type (WT) cockroaches and did not appear to exhibit digestive strategies for retaining undereaten nutrients. However, a GA × WT 'hybrid' had lower glucose aversion than GA and greater access to macronutrients within glucose-based diets - while still having lower intake and survival than WT. Given these intermediate foraging constraints, hybrids may be a reservoir for this maladaptive trait in the absence of positive selection and may account for the rapid evolution of this trait following bait application. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Bacterial load of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) found in hospital environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasria, Taha; Moussa, Fatima; El-Hamza, Souad; Tine, Samir; Megri, Rochdi; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2014-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are among the most common pests in public dwellings and health facilities. Their presence can raise safety concerns, especially as they maybe carriers of pathogenic organisms. Methods This study was carried out to isolate and identify the bacterial flora from German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). Cockroaches collected by hand catches from two public hospital environments in Tebessa city (northeast Algeria) were screened for microbial load from their external surfaces and alimentary tract using standard bacterial protocols. Results A total of 174 bacterial isolates were isolated from 39 German cockroach specimens. The most common and abundant bacterial species belonged to the Pseudomonas group (23.5%) and Serratia (13.2%). Pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated, as well as opportunistic pathogens like Klebsiella species and food spoilage bacteria such as Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were isolated from both external surface and digestive tract of the insect. Generalized linear models (GLM) were performed to analyze the variation of abundances and occurrences of bacterial isolates harboured by B. germanica. The GLMs revealed that the main factors affecting variation of bacterial diversity and abundance were sex and hospital (P cockroach acts as reservoir and potential vector of some bacterial pathogens. PMID:24766338

  17. Involvement of the opioid system in the hypokinetic state induced in cockroaches by a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavra, Tali; Libersat, Frederic

    2011-03-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa stings and injects venom into the cockroach brain to induce a long-lasting hypokinetic state. This state is characterized by decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli, suggesting the manipulation of a neuromodulatory system in the cockroach's central nervous system. A likely candidate is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. To explore this possibility, we injected cockroaches with different opioid receptor agonists or antagonists before they were stung by a wasp and tested the escape behavior of these cockroaches to electric foot shocks. Antagonists significantly decreased the startle threshold in stung individuals, whereas agonists led to an increased startle threshold in controls. Yet, neither agonists nor antagonists had any effect on grooming. To further characterize the interaction between the venom and opioid receptors, we used an antenna-heart preparation. In un-stung individuals external application of crude venom completely inhibits antenna-heart contractions. In stung individuals the antenna-heart showed no contractions. Although acetylcholine restored contractions, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was unable to antagonize the venom inhibition. These results suggest that the venom of A. compressa might contribute to the manipulation of cockroach behavior by affecting the opioid system.

  18. Design and Implementation of Markerless Augmented Reality Application for Cockroach Phobia Therapy Using Adaptive Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiandra Fatharany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR technology is useful for treating several psychological problems, including phobias such as fear of flying, agoraphobia, claustrophobia, and phobia to insects and small animals. However, the currently existing applications for therapy of cockroach phobia that uses AR technology are still very dependent towards the presence of markers, which might lessen the feeling of being in an actual scenario from everyday lives. In this paper, we created a system that is able to use everyday things as a replacement for markers for phobia therapy for cockroach. There are five main processes: getting the live streaming feed from camera, preprocessing, extracting the center point of the objects, tracking the marker-substitute objects, and lastly, instantiating cockroaches randomly after user lifts the objects according to the number and mode of the cockroaches, whether it is moving or not, that are predetermined by the user. The evaluation in this paper includes eight participants that are carefully selected based on their Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ score that is translated into Indonesian and modified to accommodate cockroaches instead of spiders. The results is that the system can induce anxiety level on participants with the highest score of 10, which is the highest score in Standard Unit of Discomfort scale (SUDs. While the presence and reality judgment of this paper has the highest score of 7 which is also the highest score in Slater-Usoh-Steed Questionnaire (SUS.

  19. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city. Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO. Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides. Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  20. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Checklist of Iranian Cockroaches (Blattodea with Description of Polyphaga sp as a New Species in Iran

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    SaedehSadat Hashemi-Aghdam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and orderBlattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran.Methods: An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII gene (mt-DNA COII characteristics.Results: Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecularanalysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae. With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species.Conclusion: Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented.

  2. A Checklist of Iranian Cockroaches (Blattodea) with Description of Polyphaga sp as a New Species in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and order Blattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran. Methods: An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene (mt-DNA COII) characteristics. Results: Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecular analysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae). With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species. Conclusion: Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented. PMID:26623428

  3. Conservation of fruitless' role as master regulator of male courtship behaviour from cockroaches to flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynen, Elke; Ciudad, Laura; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2011-05-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, male courtship behaviour is regulated by the fruitless gene. In D. melanogaster, fruitless encodes a set of putative transcription factors that are sex-specifically spliced. Male-specific variants are necessary and sufficient to elicit male courtship behaviour. Fruitless sequences have been reported in other insect species, but there are no data available on their functional role. In the present work, we cloned and sequenced fruitless in males of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and we studied its expression in male brain and testes. B. germanica fruitless encodes a 350-amino acid protein with BTB and Zinc finger domains typical of fruitless sequences. Upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of fruitless in B. germanica, males no longer exhibit courtship behaviour, thus implying that fruitless is necessary for male sexual behaviour in our cockroach model. This suggests that the role of fruitless as master regulator of male sexual behaviour has been conserved along insect evolution, at least from cockroaches to flies.

  4. Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract induces allergic sensitization and allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizmendi Narcy G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization to aeroallergens develops in response to mucosal exposure to these allergens. Allergic sensitization may lead to the development of asthma, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The objective of this study is to describe in detail a model of mucosal exposure to cockroach allergens in the absence of an exogenous adjuvant. Methods Cockroach extract (CE was administered to mice intranasally (i.n. daily for 5 days, and 5 days later mice were challenged with CE for 4 consecutive days. A second group received CE i.n. for 3 weeks. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR was assessed 24 h after the last allergen exposure. Allergic airway inflammation was assessed by BAL and lung histology 48 h after the last allergen exposure. Antigen-specific antibodies were assessed in serum. Lungs were excised from mice from measurement of cytokines and chemokines in whole lung lysate. Results Mucosal exposure of Balb/c mice to cockroach extract induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, AHR and cockroach-specific IgG1; however, AHR to methacholine was absent in the long term group. Lung histology showed patchy, multicentric damage with inflammatory infiltrates at the airways in both groups. Lungs from mice from the short term group showed increased IL-4, CCL11, CXCL1 and CCL2 protein levels. IL4 and CXCL1 were also increased in the BAL of cockroach-sensitized mice in the short-term protocol. Conclusions Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract in the absence of adjuvant induces allergic airway sensitization characterized by AHR, the presence of Th2 cytokines in the lung and eosinophils in the airways.

  5. Oxygen Affects Gut Bacterial Colonization and Metabolic Activities in a Gnotobiotic Cockroach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L.; Schauer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success. PMID:26637604

  6. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-15

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Detecting substrate engagement: responses of tarsal campaniform sensilla in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Duke, Elizabeth R; Neff, David; Quinn, Roger; Flannigan, Clay

    2010-06-01

    Sensory signals of contact and engagement with the substrate are important in the control and adaptation of posture and locomotion. We characterized responses of campaniform sensilla, receptors that encode forces as cuticular strains, in the tarsi (feet) of cockroaches using neurophysiological techniques and digital imaging. A campaniform sensillum on the fourth tarsal segment was readily identified by its large action potential in nerve recordings. The receptor discharged to contractions of the retractor unguis muscle, which engages the pretarsus (claws and arolium) with the substrate. We mimicked the effects of muscle contractions by applying displacements to the retractor apodeme (tendon). Sensillum firing did not occur to unopposed movements, but followed engagement of the claws with an object. Vector analysis of forces suggested that resisted muscle contractions produce counterforces that axially compress the tarsal segments. Close joint packing of tarsal segments was clearly observed following claw engagement. Physiological experiments showed that the sensillum responded vigorously to axial forces applied directly to the distal tarsus. Discharges of tarsal campaniform sensilla could effectively signal active substrate engagement when the pretarsal claws and arolium are used to grip the substrate in climbing, traversing irregular terrains or walking on inverted surfaces.

  8. A bioassay for cobra cardiotoxin activity using semi-isolated cockroach heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klowden, M J; Vitale, A J; Trumble, M J; Wesson, C R; Trumble, W R

    1992-03-01

    A semi-isolated cockroach heart preparation was used to rapidly determine the activity of cobra cardiotoxin, monitored as a direct response on heart rate. This preparation produced a dose-response curve in the presence of active cardiotoxin and demonstrated that cardiotoxin retained its biological activity after boiling, although cardiotoxin activity was destroyed by heating in the presence of dithiothreitol. Experiments that cross-linked radiolabeled cardiotoxin to solubilized cockroach heart membranes suggested that cardiotoxin bound specifically to a 59,000 mol. wt membrane protein in this tissue.

  9. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  10. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein Is Associated With Chlorpyrifos Resistance in the German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiyuan; Jiang, Chu; Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shen, Yanhui; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-15

    A principal method for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is the broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate); however, extensive and repeated application has resulted in the development of resistance to chlorpyrifos in this insect. Evidence suggests that ATP-binding cassette protein transporters, including P-glycoprotein, are involved in insecticide resistance. However, little is known of the role of P-glycoprotein in insecticide resistance in the German cockroach. Here, we developed a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of German cockroach and investigated the relationship between P-glycoprotein and chlorpyrifos resistance using toxicity assays; inhibition studies with two P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinine; P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity assays; and western blotting analysis. After 23 generations of selection from susceptible strain cockroaches, we obtained animals with high resistance to chlorpyrifos. When P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity was inhibited by verapamil and quinine, we observed enhanced susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in both control and chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroaches. No significant alterations of P-glycoprotein expression or ATPase activity were observed in cockroaches acutely exposed to LD50 doses of chlorpyrifos for 24 h, while P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity were clearly elevated in the chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroach strain. Thus, we conclude that P-glycoprotein is associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach and that elevated levels of P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity may be an important mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach.

  11. Biocontrol of the Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae, with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sharififard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formula­tions of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longi­palpa F. under laboratory and field conditions.Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml-1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs us­ing different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough path­ogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in- water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sun­flower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses.Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising al­ternative for cockroach control.  

  12. Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Choudhary, Varsha; Singh, Rajiv; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sharma, Mahender; Narula, Kusum; Agrawal, Pooja

    2010-03-01

    Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the spray insecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which can be selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies but very few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (0.01%) and imidacloprid (2.15%) gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin) and propoxur (2%) aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field. Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and houses by visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houses having high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments and houses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control). Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroid aerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil and imidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave better indications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followed for post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks. Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestation in the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction and propoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started declining after 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gel baits for control of cockroaches.

  13. [Synantropic cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) in hospital environment--microbiological hazard for patients and hospital infections risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Pancer, Katarzyna W; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Mikulak, Ewa; Laudy, Agnieszka; Podsiadło, Barbara; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine what a hazard for patients creates the presence of cockroaches in hospital environment. The probable hospital infections cases in 9 hospitals in Warsaw were found in database of the Country Hospital Morbidity Register for the year 2004 and correlation between such factors as: drug resistance of bacteria isolated from external part of cockroach's bodies, their ability to biofilm building, adherence, resistance to disinfectants, resistance of cockroaches to insecticides, infestation level vs. infections of several body systems was examined. The microbiological hazard of cockroaches in hospital environment has been proven by our findings that some of bacterial strains carried on the body of cockroaches belonged to well known species responsible for hospital infections everywhere The strains resistant to several antibiotics used in hospital and the strains able to form virulence factors were found. Some correlation was found between resistance of cockroaches for biocides and higher infestation of the hospital environment. Cockroaches infected in hospital environment might be the active carrier of bacterial strains as well as indicator of the bacterial presence on the surfaces in the hospital building not enough treated with disinfectants. On the base of our findings we may suppose that in hospital infections the role of infected cockroaches are less important than the other factors but should be not completely neglected. Surveillance and control of hospital infections should be more completed, connected not only with continuous monitoring of resistance of bacterial strains to antibiotics but also to disinfectants used in hospital as well as evaluation of infestation of the hospital environment and resistance of cockroaches to biocides.

  14. 温州市室内蜚蠊种群调查%Investigation of population of cockroaches indoors in Wenzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐毅; 倪朝荣; 庄仁莲; 曹建海; 黄周良; 陈胜则

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the population and distribution of cockroaches in Wenzhou,China.Methods The density of cockroaches was monitored by sticky-trap method in different areas and industries to analyze the population,distribution,and seasonal fluctuation of cockroaches.Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species of cockroaches indoors in Wenzhou,accounting for 97.91% of all cockroaches.For industry,the density of cockroaches was the highest in restaurants (4.28 cockroaches/trap) and farmers' markets (3.33 cockroaches/trap).For area,the density of cockroaches was the highest in Dongtou Island (5.13 cockroaches/trap).The density of cockroaches reached the peak level in June and November.Conclusion Cockroach infestation is severe indoors in Wenzhou.It is necessary to enhance the monitoring and control of cockroaches.%目的 调查分析温州市蜚蠊种群及分布特征.方法 采用粘捕法在全市按地域和行业分布进行密度监测,分析蜚蠊种群、分布、季节消长等特征.结果 温州市室内以德国小蠊为优势种群,占97.91%;密度分布以餐饮业和农贸市场为高,分别为4.28和3.33只/张;同时海岛洞头在地域分布中密度最高,为5.13只/张;季节消长呈现6月和11月双高峰.结论 温州市室内蜚蠊侵害情况严重,应加强防制工作.

  15. Taxonomic diversity of cockroach assemblages (Blattaria, Insecta of the Aptian Crato Formation (Cretaceous, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shih-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive revision of 981 specimens of fossil cockroaches from the Lower Cretaceous laminated limestones of the Crato Formation of Northeast Brazil shows that they belong to eleven taxa, including Piniblattella limai, P. magna sp. n., Perlucipecta santanensis. sp. n., Raptoblatta waddingtonae; Ocelloblattula santanensis sp. n., Elisama brevis (= E. americana, syn.n., E. hindwingnii sp. n., Ponopterix axelrodi (= P. maxima syn.n., Umenopterix burkhardi comb. n., and Cratovitisma oldreadi (Umenocoleidae = Cratovitismidae syn.n. = Ponopterixidae syn.n.. The family Ectobiidae is numerically most abundant in the assemblage of cockroaches of the Crato Formation (83 % of cockroaches, followed by Blattulidae (13 % and Umenocoleidae (4 %. 79.2 % of specimens are complete and fully articulated. Members of the family Alienopteridae are probably also present. Representatives of a relatively common Mesozoic superfamily Caloblattinoidea are missing. With the exception of the endemic genera Cratovitisma and Raptoblatta and the exclusively Gondwanan genus Ocelloblattula, all other genera were cosmopolitan. Taxonomic richness of cockroaches of the Crato Formation is thus rather low, and consists of geologically long-ranging and geographically-widespread genera, genera restricted to Gondwana, and short-ranging endemic genera found in the Crato Formation only.

  16. Baygon-A New Carbamate Insecticide and its Evaluation Against Cockroaches by a Simple New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Varma

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available Baygon a new carbamate insecticide has been tested for its efficacy against cockroaches, Periplanta americana Linn. in relation to Sumithion and Malathion by a simple technique developed by the authors. It has been found to be much superior in producing Knock-down and kill of the insects as compared to Sumithion and Malathion.

  17. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; Jong, de H.; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to id

  18. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  19. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  20. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae:Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; de Jong, Herman; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to id

  1. Diet shapes the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets.

  2. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  3. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae:Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; de Jong, Herman; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to

  4. Ecological niche models for four native cockroach species (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Ectobiinae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliberti, P.; Jong, de H.; Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Heitmans, W.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at modelling the spatial distribution of the cockroach species Capraiellus panzeri, Ectobius lapponicus, Ectobius pallidus and Ectobius sylvestris within the Netherlands and comparing the habitat preferences of these species. Maxent was used to calculate habitat suitability and to

  5. Cross-reaction between Formosan Termite(Coptotermes formosanus) Proteins and Cockroach Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible insects, such as cockroaches and termites, are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have high nutritional value. Identification of cross-reactivity between commonly consumed food proteins and edible insects is important for food safety and to enable improvements ...

  6. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid communityErik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas11US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New MexicoThe El Paso Children's He...

  7. Oxygen-induced plasticity in tracheal morphology and discontinuous gas exchange cycles in cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrim, Hamish; Matthews, Philip G D; Lemon, Sussan; White, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    The function and mechanism underlying discontinuous gas exchange in terrestrial arthropods continues to be debated. Three adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origin or maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), which may have evolved to reduce respiratory water loss, facilitate gas exchange in high CO2 and low O2 micro-environments, or to ameliorate potential damage as a result of oversupply of O2. None of these hypotheses have unequivocal support, and several non-adaptive hypotheses have also been proposed. In the present study, we reared cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea in selected levels of O2 throughout development, and examined how this affected growth rate, tracheal morphology and patterns of gas exchange. O2 level in the rearing environment caused significant changes in tracheal morphology and the exhibition of DGCs, but the direction of these effects was inconsistent with all three adaptive hypotheses: water loss was not associated with DGC length, cockroaches grew fastest in hyperoxia, and DGCs exhibited by cockroaches reared in normoxia were shorter than those exhibited by cockroaches reared in hypoxia or hyperoxia.

  8. Macrostylopyga gen. nov., a new genus of cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Anichkin, Alexandr E; Thinh, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    The genus Macrostylopyga gen. nov. and two species (M. grandis sp. nov. and M. bidupi sp. nov.) are described. A detailed morphological description with special attention to the male genitalic structures is provided. Some aspects of the evolution of wingless cockroaches are briefly discussed.

  9. Taxonomic diversity of cockroach assemblages (Blattaria, Insecta) of the Aptian Crato Formation (Cretaceous, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Wei

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive revision of 981 specimens of fossil cockroaches from the Lower Cretaceous laminated limestones of the Crato Formation of Northeast Brazil shows that they belong to eleven taxa, including Piniblattella limai, P. magna sp. n., Perlucipecta santanensis. sp. n., Raptoblatta waddingtonae; Ocelloblattula santanensis sp. n., Elisama brevis (= E. americana, syn.n.), E. hindwingnii sp. n., Ponopterix axelrodi (= P. maxima syn.n.), Umenopterix burkhardi comb. n., and Cratovitisma oldreadi (Umenocoleidae = Cratovitismidae syn.n. = Ponopterixidae syn.n.). The family Ectobiidae is numerically most abundant in the assemblage of cockroaches of the Crato Formation (83 % of cockroaches), followed by Blattulidae (13 %) and Umenocoleidae (4 %). 79.2 % of specimens are complete and fully articulated. Members of the family Alienopteridae are probably also present. Representatives of a relatively common Mesozoic superfamily Caloblattinoidea are missing. With the exception of the endemic genera Cratovitisma and Raptoblatta and the exclusively Gondwanan genus Ocelloblattula, all other genera were cosmopolitan. Taxonomic richness of cockroaches of the Crato Formation is thus rather low, and consists of geologically long-ranging and geographically-widespread genera, genera restricted to Gondwana, and short-ranging endemic genera found in the Crato Formation only.

  10. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J

    2016-02-23

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300-800 ms by compressing their body 40-60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s(-1), despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion--"body-friction legged crawling" with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces.

  12. Unidirectional Cross-Resistance in German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) Populations Under Exposure to Insecticidal Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dangsheng; McGill, Jade; Pietri, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Insect pests, including the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), are prone to the development of physiological resistance when exposed to a number of insecticide sprays, and cross-resistance is frequently observed. Toxic baits are often used as a primary method of controlling German cockroaches, also resulting in heavy selection pressure from insecticidal baits. In response to this pressure, cockroach populations have developed aversion to specific inert ingredients in bait. Here, we examined the effect of exposure to baits containing fipronil, indoxacarb, or hydramethylnon on the development of physiological resistance to the same and other insecticides in a number of German cockroach strains. We found that prolonged exposure to baits containing fipronil or indoxacarb increased physiological resistance to these compounds. However, no increase in physiological resistance against any insecticide was observed in response to exposure to hydramethylnon bait. Additionally, we found that exposure to fipronil bait increased cross-resistance to indoxacarb. On the other hand, exposure to indoxacarb bait did not increase cross-resistance to fipronil. Neither fipronil nor indoxacarb bait exposure increased resistance to hydramethylnon. Interestingly, the development of insecticide resistance in response to bait exposure was strain-dependent and influenced by bait palatability. Our results demonstrate that exposure to toxic baits, particularly those containing fipronil, plays a significant role in the development of insecticide resistance, including cross-resistance, in German cockroaches. Further, although insecticide resistance in response to baits is mediated by exposure through the oral route, the molecular mechanisms at play are likely different for each insecticide. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Pyrethroid resistance and cross-resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Appel, A G; Moar, W J; Liu, N

    2001-11-01

    A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose

  14. Phylogeny of cockroaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), with placement of aberrant taxa and exploration of out-group sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D.

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the phylogeny of cockroaches using DNA sequence data from a broad taxon sample of Dictyoptera and other non-endopterygotan insect orders. We paid special attention to several taxa in which relationships are controversial, or where no molecular evidence has been used previously......: Nocticolidae, a family of small, often cave-dwelling cockroaches, has been suggested to be the sister group of the predaceous Mantodea or of the cockroach family Polyphagidae; Lamproblatta, traditionally placed in Blattidae, has recently been given family status and placed as sister to Polyphagidae......; and Saltoblattella montistabularis Bohn, Picker, Klass & Colville, a jumping cockroach, which has not yet been included in any phylogenetic studies. We used mitochondrial (COI + COII and 16S) and nuclear (18S and 28S) genes, and analysed the data using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML...

  15. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H

    2013-01-01

    The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.

  16. The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Nathan A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50 is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was 50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1 mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates that infected hemocytes can

  17. The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50) is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches) possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates that infected hemocytes can fuse while flowing through the insect’s open

  18. Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Agrawal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the sprayinsecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which canbe selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies butvery few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil(0.01% and imidacloprid (2.15% gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13%allethrin and propoxur (2% aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field.Methods: Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and housesby visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houseshaving high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments andhouses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control. Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroidaerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil andimidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave betterindications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followedfor post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks.Results: Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestationin the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation upto 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction andpropoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroachdensity by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started decliningafter 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test.Conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gelbaits for control of cockroaches.

  19. Descripción de Thelastoma domesticus sp. nov. (Oxyurida, Thelastomatidae parásita de ninfas Periplaneta americana (Blattodea, Blattidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora B. Camino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thelastoma domesticus sp. nov. se halló parasitando a ninfas de Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 en la ciudad de La Plata, Província de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en el presente trabajo se describe e ilustra. Esta especie nueva se caracteriza por tener en la boca un estoma simple de paredes gruesas, fuertemente cuticularizada formando tres pares de nodulos en dos filas, sin dientes, el poro excretor es posterior, se ubica al comienzo del intestino, el macho presenta una distribución particular de las papilas genitales: un par grande de papilas preanales y tres pares posanales agrupadas, de las cuales el segundo par se encuentra desplazado lateralmente, configurando así con las otras papilas posanales un círculo.

  20. Physicochemical conditions, metabolites and community structure of the bacterial microbiota in the gut of wood-feeding cockroaches (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Eugen; Lampert, Niclas; Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Brune, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    While the gut microbiota of termites and its role in symbiotic digestion have been studied for decades, little is known about the bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of the distantly related wood-feeding cockroaches (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae). Here, we show that physicochemical gut conditions and microbial fermentation products in the gut of Panesthia angustipennis resemble that of other cockroaches. Microsensor measurements confirmed that all gut compartments were anoxic at the center and had a slightly acidic to neutral pH and a negative redox potential. While acetate dominated in all compartments, lactate and hydrogen accumulated only in the crop. The high, hydrogen-limited rates of methane emission from living cockroaches were in agreement with the restriction of F420-fluorescent methanogens to the hindgut. The gut microbiota of both P. angustipennis and Salganea esakii differed strongly between compartments, with the highest density and diversity in the hindgut, but similarities between homologous compartments of both cockroaches indicated a specificity of the microbiota for their respective habitats. While some lineages were most closely related to the gut microbiota of omnivorous cockroaches and wood- or litter-feeding termites, others have been encountered also in vertebrates, reinforcing the hypothesis that strong environmental selection drives community structure in the cockroach gut.

  1. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  2. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John

    2013-01-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical envir...

  3. Laboratory investigations on the effect of selected disinfectants on survival of the cockroaches Blattella germanica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racewicz, M

    1983-01-01

    It was ascertained that lysol 2% and 5% showed the most toxic effect in control of cockroaches in the contact method (23.3% and 95.5% mortality after 24 hours of exposure), and that chloramine 1%, 3% and 5% was the most effective food poison (after 19 days exposure 100% of the insects died). When injecting disinfectant into the body cavity, the cockroaches showed a ten times higher sensibility to formalin and chloramine than to lysol. The use, however, of disinfectant in the contact method (particularly lysol 2%) together with an insecticide based on propoxur, allowed to reduce its dose to a half, what gave better results than the use of an insecticide alone in a normal dose.

  4. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JHs are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT. As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway.

  5. Ovicidal activity of noviflumuron when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J Edward

    2005-06-01

    Ovicidal activity of the benzoylphenylurea noviflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory on three adult groups (virgin females, virgin males, and fertilized, nongravid females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), through ingestion of treated bait. Novifumuron caused significant ovicidal effects at concentrations ranging from 10 to 5000 ppm after 5-d feeding exposure to virgin and fertilized females. Untreated females produced little or no viable oothecae when mated with virgin males that had previously ingested bait (5-d exposure) with 1000 ppm or 5000 ppm noviflumuron. The highest tested concentration of noviflumuron (5000 ppm) caused 100% ovicidal activity through two ovarian cycles for all three adult groups. Noviflumuron seems to have broader ovicidal activity against B. germanica than reported for other benzoylphenylurea insecticides and can potentially impact cockroach populations through a combination of nymphal mortality and ovicidal activity.

  6. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... in detoxifcation of chlorpyrifos, glutathione-S-transferase, was measured. Individual cockroaches were exposed for 20 min on a glass-surfaces treated with 1.14 ...  g/cm2 of chlorpyrifos. There was no difference in glutathione-S-transferase activity of susceptible or resistant strains after the treatment. The heat...... production increased in the susceptible strain ...  30 min after exposure and declined again after ... 120 min to the basal level. The energetic cost of the exposure to the insecticide corresponds ... 5 h of normal metabolism. There were no signifcant differences in heat production after toxic treatment...

  7. [Characteristics of bacteria isolated from body surface of German cockroaches caught in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Ewa; Pancer, Katarzyna; Kochman, Maria; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Sawicka, Bozena; Rabczenko, Daniel; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify bacterial flora from external parts of German cockroaches caught in hospitals. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the most important groups of antimicrobial agents was also examined. 80 strains of bacteria were isolated, among them 34 strains of Gram-positive cocci and 31 strains of Gram-negative rods. One of isolated strains of Citrobacter freundii and two strains of Serratia liquefaciens showed ESBL mechanism of resistance and extended level of AmpC--type beta-lactamases. Two Staphylococcus strains (S. epidermidis and S. equorum) were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (MLSB mechanism of resistance). Such strains, resistant to antibiotics and chemiotherapeutics may be reservoirs of resistance genes which can be transmitted into other bacteria. Presence of such pathogens on the body surface of German cockroaches, very mobile insects, might create conditions for easy dissemination of them in hospital environment.

  8. Diversity of Trypanosomatids in Cockroaches and the Description of Herpetomonas tarakana sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Kostygov, Alexei; Havlová, Jolana; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Ševčíková, Tereza; Lukeš, Julius; Ševčík, Jan; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we surveyed six species of cockroaches, two synanthropic (i.e. ecologically associated with humans) and four wild, for intestinal trypanosomatid infections. Only the wild cockroach species were found to be infected, with flagellates of the genus Herpetomonas. Two distinct genotypes were documented, one of which was described as a new species, Herpetomonas tarakana sp. n. We also propose a revision of the genus Herpetomonas and creation of a new subfamily, Phytomonadinae, to include Herpetomonas, Phytomonas, and a newly described genus Lafontella n. gen. (type species Lafontella mariadeanei comb. n.), which can be distinguished from others by morphological and molecular traits. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Field trial on the control effect of fipronil bait against German cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Han-Il; Lee, In-Yong; Jeon, Soung-Hoo

    2006-01-01

    A field trial on the control effect of fipronil poison bait against German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) was carried out at different restaurant types in Sinchon, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Monitoring was performed applying food baited traps for 2 days per week. Reduction rates of German cockroaches by applying fipronil baits were 90.9% at Korean restaurants, 96.4% at Chinese restaurants, and 89.4% in beer hall kitchens after 4 weeks of the treatment. Overall average of the reduction rate was 93.9%. As the natural reduction rate at untreated restaurants was 11.5% after 4 weeks, a correction of the average reduction rate by applying the Abbot formula was 93.1%. PMID:16969066

  10. A wasp manipulates neuronal activity in the sub-esophageal ganglion to decrease the drive for walking in its cockroach prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Gal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile 'zombie', incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG. A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1 Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2 injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3 artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4 spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the

  11. A Wasp Manipulates Neuronal Activity in the Sub-Esophageal Ganglion to Decrease the Drive for Walking in Its Cockroach Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Ram; Libersat, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Background The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile ‘zombie’, incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG). A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. Methodology and Principal Findings We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1) Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2) injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3) artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4) spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. Conclusions and Significance We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the SEG, the

  12. Cross-reactivity between cockroach and ladybug using the radioallergosorbent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew T; Levin, Todd; Dolen, William

    2009-11-01

    Home infestations from Harmonia axyridis (ladybug) occur throughout the United States. IgE-mediated sensitization with allergic disease has been reported. The prevalence of ladybug sensitization has been studied by questionnaire and allergy testing in patients diagnosed as having allergic disease. Cross-reactivity with cockroach exists. To determine the prevalence of ladybug specific IgE in the general population by specific IgE immunoassay and to examine cross-reactivity to cockroach. An experimental solid phase for use in immunoassay was prepared using a ladybug extract, and performance characteristics were determined. Serum samples from 100 adult blood bank donors were tested using the ladybug specific IgE immunoassay. Known ladybug IgE-positive serum samples obtained from symptomatic patients were used to study crossreactivity with German cockroach by specific IgE immunoassay inhibition. The mean background response of the assay solid phase was 51 fluorescent units with an analytical cutoff of 59 fluorescent units. It was estimated that a response of 88 fluorescent units corresponds to a specific IgE concentration of 0.1 kUa/L. The extinction dilution curve was linear to 0.1 kUa/L. The assay cutoff was set at 0.1 kUa/L. Of the 100 blood donor serum samples, 10 were positive for ladybug specific IgE. Inhibition assays revealed partial cross-reactivity with German cockroach. Although an immunoassay solid phase prepared with ladybug whole body extract will identify persons in a general population sensitized to epitopes found in the extract, clinicians performing allergy testing using whole body ladybug extract should be aware that a positive result may or may not indicate that exposure to actual ladybug allergens is causing sensitization.

  13. Neuromechanical response of musculo-skeletal structures in cockroaches during rapid running on rough terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, S; Full, R J

    2008-02-01

    A musculo-skeletal structure can stabilize rapid locomotion using neural and/or mechanical feedback. Neural feedback results in an altered feedforward activation pattern, whereas mechanical feedback using visco-elastic structures does not require a change in the neural motor code. We selected musculo-skeletal structures in the cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) because their single motor neuron innervation allows the simplest possible characterization of activation. We ran cockroaches over a track with randomized blocks of heights up to three times the animal's ;hip' (1.5 cm), while recording muscle action potentials (MAPs) from a set of putative control musculo-skeletal structures (femoral extensors 178 and 179). Animals experienced significant perturbations in body pitch, roll and yaw, but reduced speed by less than 20%. Surprisingly, we discovered no significant difference in the distribution of the number of MAPs, the interspike interval, burst phase or interburst period between flat and rough terrain trials. During a few very large perturbations or when a single leg failed to make contact throughout stance, neural feedback was detectable as a phase shift of the central rhythm and alteration of MAP number. System level responses of appendages were consistent with a dominant role of mechanical feedback. Duty factors and gait phases did not change for cockroaches running on flat versus rough terrain. Cockroaches did not use a follow-the-leader gait requiring compensatory corrections on a step-by-step basis. Arthropods appear to simplify control on rough terrain by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds and distributed mechanical feedback to stabilize the body.

  14. Endotoxin Is Not Essential for the Development of Cockroach Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cockroach (CR) is an important inhalant allergen and can induce allergic asthma. However, the mechanism by which CR induces airway allergic inflammation and the role of endotoxin in CR extract are not clearly understood in regards to the development of airway inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether endotoxin is essential to the development of CR induced airway allergic inflammation in mice. Materials and Methods Airway allergic inflammation was induced by intranasal administ...

  15. "I Go to Get Away from the Cockroaches:" Educentricity and the Politics of Education in Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Talking to young men in an Irish prison we discover that cockroaches are a day to day fact of life. We discuss how best to deal with them and someone says that while in [name of prison] he used to put his socks over the bottom of his jeans so that they wouldn't be able to run up his trousers while he was asleep. Someone else tells me he used to…

  16. Lack of repellency of three commercial ultrasonic devices to the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG; BHADRIRAJU SUBRAMANYAM

    2006-01-01

    Three commercial ultrasonic devices (A, B, and C) were tested for their ability to repel the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in Plexiglas(R) enclosures. Device A generated peak frequencies at 26 kHz and 34 kHz, and produced a 95 ± 1 dB sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm distance (0 dB = 20 log10[20 μPa/20μPa]). Device B generated peak frequencies at 27 kHz and 35 kHz, and produced a 92 ±4 dB SPL. Device C generated a wide range of frequencies between 28-42 kHz and produced an 88 ± 2 dB SPL. Ultrasound from any of the three devices did not demonstrate sufficient repelling ability against the German cockroach in the tests. The result failed to provide evidence that ultrasonic technology could be used as an effective pest management tool to repel or eliminate the German cockroach.

  17. Analysis of Cockroach Fauna and Frequency in Human Residential Habitats of North of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani R.1 PhD,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Considering the medical significance of cockroaches as insect vectors of food toxicities, and triggering allergy in respiratory system and skin, this survey was conducted to study the frequency of infestation and their effective factors in Shahin Shahr, Iran. Materials & Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 2010 in Shahin Shahr, Isfahan, Iran. Data gathering instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire regarding to the research aims. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using Chi square and Fisher exact tests. Findings 675 of 1000 studied houses (67.5% were infested by all life stages of the cockroaches and 32.5% had no infestation. 46% of infested houses had few, 30% had medium and 24% had high infestation. the bathrooms and toilets were recognized as the most infested places (41%. There were significant relationships between infestation of houses and the age of building (p<0.001, the type of building (p=0.009 and the education level of the family (p<0.001. Significant difference was found between houses equipped their doors and windows by tulles and without tulles (p=0.03. Most infection was found in houses sheltering 5 and more people (72.3%. Significant correlation was found between the infection and the number of family members (p=0.0012. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches in Shahin Shahr houses is high and is mostly of P. americana species.

  18. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  19. Computational optimization for S-type biological systems: cockroach genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2013-10-01

    S-type biological systems (S-systems) are demonstrated to be universal approximations of continuous biological systems. S-systems are easy to be generalized to large systems. The systems are identified through data-driven identification techniques (cluster-based algorithms or computational methods). However, S-systems' identification is challenging because multiple attractors exist in such highly nonlinear systems. Moreover, in some biological systems the interactive effect cannot be neglected even the interaction order is small. Therefore, learning should be focused on increasing the gap between the true and redundant interaction. In addition, a wide searching space is necessary because no prior information is provided. The used technologies should have the ability to achieve convergence enhancement and diversity preservation. Cockroaches live in nearly all habitats and survive for more than 300 million years. In this paper, we mimic cockroaches' competitive swarm behavior and integrated it with advanced evolutionary operations. The proposed cockroach genetic algorithm (CGA) possesses strong snatching-food ability to rush forward to a target and high migration ability to escape from local minimum. CGA was tested with three small-scale systems, a twenty-state medium-scale system and a thirty-state large-scale system. A wide search space ([0,100] for rate constants and [-100,100] for kinetic orders) with random or bad initial starts are used to show the high exploration performance.

  20. Parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in farmed cockroaches and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Wang, Yan-Bing; Zeng, Hui; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal insects have been widely used to cure human diseases for ages. Nevertheless, knowledge about the toxic chemicals accumulated in medicinal insects and their effects on human health was insufficient. In the present study, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nine halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) were determined in farmed medicinal cockroaches to address this issue. Total concentrations of PAHs in young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults ranged from 162 to 1025, 252 to 967, and 267 to 1168 ng/g, respectively. Levels of the sum of HPAHs varied from 0.84 to 9.17, 1.86 to 5.21, and 1.01 to 8.60 ng/g for young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults, respectively. The daily intake and excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were calculated for people who take cockroach-related drugs. Our results indicated that females and children have slightly higher exposure levels from the perspectives of gender and age, respectively. The estimated excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were both lower than the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk with the medicinal cockroach consumption.

  1. Cockroaches that exchange respiratory gases discontinuously survive food and water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic rate and respiratory gas exchange patterns vary significantly both between and within species, even after a number of biotic and abiotic factors are taken into account. This suggests that such variation is of evolutionary importance, but the life history implications of this variation remain relatively poorly characterized. In the present study, we examine the effect of metabolic variation on starvation and desiccation resistance in the speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. We also compare the starvation and desiccation resistance of individuals that exchange respiratory gases continuously with those that breathe discontinuously. We show that metabolic rate has no effect on survival during food and water restriction, but cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) live longer than those that do not and those provisioned with water lived longer than those that were not. This finding represents the first demonstration that DGCs confer a fitness benefit, and supports the oldest hypothesis for the evolution of DGCs (which suggests that DGCs arose or are maintained to reduce respiratory water loss) as we also reveal reduced water loss (both respiratory and total) in cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Effect of shear forces and ageing on the compliance of adhesive pads in adult cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanmin; Robinson, Adam; Viney, Christine; Federle, Walter

    2015-09-01

    The flexibility of insect adhesive pads is crucial for their ability to attach on rough surfaces. Here, we used transparent substrates with micropillars to test in adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) whether and how the stiffness of smooth adhesive pads changes when shear forces are applied, and whether the insect's age has any influence. We found that during pulls towards the body, the pad's ability to conform to the surface microstructures was improved in comparison to a contact without shear, suggesting that shear forces make the pad more compliant. The mechanism underlying this shear-dependent increase in compliance is still unclear. The effect was not explained by viscoelastic creep, changes in normal pressure, or shear-induced pad rolling, which brings new areas of cuticle into surface contact. Adhesive pads were significantly stiffer in older cockroaches. Stiffness increased most rapidly in cockroaches aged between 2.5 and 4 months. This increase is probably based on wear and repair of the delicate adhesive cuticle. Recent wear (visualised by Methylene Blue staining) was not age dependent, whereas permanent damage (visible as brown scars) accumulated with age, reducing the pads' flexibility. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. New predatory cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter

    2015-04-01

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.

  4. Functional symbiosis and communication in microbial ecosystems. The case of wood-eating termites and cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-09-01

    Animal hosts typically have strong specificity for microbial symbionts and their functions. The symbiotic relationships have enhanced the limited metabolic networks of most eukaryotes by contributing several prokaryotic metabolic capabilities, such as methanogenesis, chemolithoautotrophy, nitrogen assimilation, etc. This review will examine the characteristics that determine bacterial "fidelity" to certain groups of animals (e.g., xylophagous insects, such as termites and cockroaches) over generations and throughout evolution. The hindgut bacteria of wood-feeding termites and cockroaches belong to several phyla, including Proteobacteria, especially Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Spirochetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria, as detected by 16S rRNA. Termites effectively feed on many types of lignocelluloses assisted by their gut microbial symbionts. Although the community structures differ between the hosts (termites and cockroaches), with changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, the composition of the bacterial community could reflect at least in part the host evolution in that the microbiota may derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor. Therefore, factors other than host phylogeny, such as diet could have had strong influence in shaping the bacterial community structure. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  5. When males whistle at females: complex FM acoustic signals in cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Aubin, Thierry

    2006-10-01

    Male cockroaches of the species Elliptorhina chopardi expel air through a pair of modified abdominal spiracles during courtship. This air expulsion simultaneously produces air and substrate-borne vibrations. We described and compared in details these two types of vibrations. Our analysis of the air-borne signals shows that males can produce three categories of signals with distinct temporal and frequency parameters. “Pure whistles” consist of two independent harmonic series fast frequency modulated with independent harmonics that can cross each other. “Noisy whistles” also possess two independent voices but include a noisy broad-band frequency part in the middle. Hiss sounds are more noise-like, being made of a broad-band frequency spectrum. All three call types are unusually high in dominant frequency (>5 kHz) for cockroaches. The substrate-borne signals are categorised similarly. Some harmonics of the substrate-borne signals were filtered out, however, making the acoustic energy centered on fewer frequency bands. Our analysis shows that cockroach signals are complex, with fast frequency modulations and two distinct voices. These results also readdress the question of what system could potentially receive and decode the information contained within such complex sounds.

  6. Pushing versus pulling: division of labour between tarsal attachment pads in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter

    2008-06-07

    Adhesive organs on the legs of arthropods and vertebrates are strongly direction dependent, making contact only when pulled towards the body but detaching when pushed away from it. Here we show that the two types of attachment pads found in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea), tarsal euplantulae and pretarsal arolium, serve fundamentally different functions. Video recordings of vertical climbing revealed that euplantulae are almost exclusively engaged with the substrate when legs are pushing, whereas arolia make contact when pulling. Thus, upward-climbing cockroaches used front leg arolia and hind leg euplantulae, whereas hind leg arolia and front leg euplantulae were engaged during downward climbing. Single-leg friction force measurements showed that the arolium and euplantulae have an opposite direction dependence. Euplantulae achieved maximum friction when pushed distally, whereas arolium forces were maximal during proximal pulls. This direction dependence was not explained by the variation of shear stress but by different contact areas during pushing or pulling. The changes in contact area result from the arrangement of the flexible tarsal chain, tending to detach the arolium when pushing and to peel off euplantulae when in tension. Our results suggest that the euplantulae in cockroaches are not adhesive organs but 'friction pads', mainly providing the necessary traction during locomotion.

  7. 2012 Linfen city cockroach density monitoring survey report%2012年临汾市蟑螂密度监测调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董献民; 尹保行; 连颜芳; 李芳; 石瑞

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解临汾市城区蟑螂侵害状况。方法2012年将粘捕法捕获的蟑螂进行分类,统计数量。结果临汾市蟑螂以德国小蠊为优势种,总侵害率为80.8%,餐饮业蟑螂侵害率高达89.1%,居民区侵害率为86.7%,宾馆侵害率为62.1%。蟑螂平均密度为3.8只/张。结论临汾市蟑螂侵害严重,防制蟑螂工作应尽快落实。%Objective To understand the the Linfen City cockroach infringement situation. Methods 2012 sticky recapture method to capture cockroaches Classification, Statistics quantity. Results Linfen City cockroach German cockroach is the dominant species. Total infringement of 80.8.The restaurant industry cockroaches infringement rate up to 89.1%, neighborhoods infringe 86.7%, was 62.1%of hotel infringement. The average density of the cockroach 3.8/Zhang. Conclusion Serious infringement of Linfen City cockroach control cockroaches must be implemented as soon as possible.

  8. Survey of Susceptibility of Cockroaches To Pyrethroids Insecticides in sari Hospital in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati, Ph.D

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: The medical importance of cockroaches is much greater than what has generally been realized. They are known to carry pathogenic viruses and bacteria such as escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and salmonella species including S.typhi and S.typhimurium. As a result, their eradication is very important.Materials and Methods: One of the best and effective ways of controlling cockoaches is thought to be the chemical method, which is performed by insecticides. It should be stated that the chemical treatment must be combined with enviromental sanitation, otherwise, the results will not be satisfactory. This study was carried out by using four different insecticides like: Permethrin 0.92% Deltamethrin 0.98% and Supermithrin 0.92% to evaluate their susceptibility and resistance.In this study, the cockroaches were collected from Imam Khomeini and Boo Ali Hospitals in Sari and were tested by different cocentrations of above -mentioned insecticides. Susecptibility of cockroaches was performed according to the standards of World Health Organization (W.H.O.Results: In this study, all the strains of cockroaches were exposed to the concentration of the above-mentioned insecticides through surface contact method. Imam Khomeini strain showed the LT50 of 20/24, 19/30, 19/64 minutes and Boo Ali hospitals 19/87, 17/6, 18/66 minutes. For susceptible strain, 8/89, 8/8, 8/64 minutes were obtained to Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Sumithrin respectively. On the other hand, LT90 for Imam Khomeini strain were 42/91, 41/21, 37/38 minutes and Boo Ali hospitals 42/59, 40/88, 34/05 minutes. For susceptible strain, 17/58, 18/43, 17/28 minutes were obtained to Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Supermithrin respectively. In surface contact, the resistance ratio (RR to pyrethroids insecticides (Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Supermithrin of BoAli hospitals strain was 2/23, 2 and 2/15 respectively, while this ratio for Imam Khomeini strain was 2/2, 2

  9. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  10. Identification and characterization of uncoupling protein 4 in fat body and muscle mitochondria from the cockroach Gromphadorhina cocquereliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2011-12-01

    We have identified and characterized an uncoupling protein in mitochondria isolated from leg muscle and from fat body, an insect analogue tissue of mammalian liver and adipose tissue, of the cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana (GcUCP). This is the first functional characterization of UCP activity in isolated insect mitochondria. Bioenergetic studies clearly indicate UCP function in both insect tissues. In resting (non-phosphorylating) mitochondria, cockroach GcUCP activity was stimulated by the addition of micromolar concentrations of palmitic acid and inhibited by the purine nucleotide GTP. Moreover, in phosphorylating mitochondria, GcUCP activity was able to divert energy from oxidative phosphorylation. Functional studies indicate a higher activity of GcUCP-mediated uncoupling in cockroach muscle mitochondria compared to fat body mitochondria. GcUCP activation by palmitic acid resulted in a decrease in superoxide anion production, suggesting that protection against mitochondrial oxidative stress may be a physiological role of UCPs in insects. GcUCP protein was immunodetected using antibodies raised against human UCP4 as a single band of around 36 kDa. GcUCP protein expression in cockroach muscle mitochondria was significantly higher compared to mitochondria isolated from fat body. LC-MS/MS analyses revealed 100% sequence identities for peptides obtained from GcUCP to UCP4 isoforms from D. melanogaster (the highest homology), human, rat or other insect mitochondria. Therefore, it can be proposed that cockroach GcUCP corresponds to the UCP4 isoforms of other animals.

  11. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangye Li

    Full Text Available An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS, which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP based brain-computer interface (BCI was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  12. Derived, still living cockroach genus Cariblattoides (Blattida: Blattellidae) from the Eocene sediments of Green River in Colorado, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Vr(s)ansk(y); Lubomir Vidli(c)ka; Fedor (C)iampor Jr; Finnegan Marsh

    2012-01-01

    Cariblattoides labandeirai sp.n.from the Eocene sediments of Green River in Colorado,USA bear only two plesiomorphies,but also several significant autapomorphies within the advanced and highly derived living cockroach genus.Thus,Cariblattoides with extant occurrence in the Caribbean and South America was historically common in the Nearctic,and represents important evidence for the occurrence of derived living genera of cockroaches ~50 Ma ago.Generally,the vast majority of living genera were absent during the Palaeocene,thus the diversification of most living cockroach lineages near the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary must have been extremely rapid.Females of living C.suave,the type species,have identical (sophisticated) coloration of pronotum,but the most related living taxa are C.piraiensis and C.fontesi from Brazil (supported by phylogenetical analysis).

  13. Sensory arsenal on the stinger of the parasitoid jewel wasp and its possible role in identifying cockroach brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Ram; Kaiser, Maayan; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The parasitoid jewel wasp uses cockroaches as live food supply for its developing larva. To this end, the adult wasp stings a cockroach and injects venom directly inside its brain, turning the prey into a submissive 'zombie'. Here, we characterize the sensory arsenal on the wasp's stinger that enables the wasp to identify the brain target inside the cockroach's head. An electron microscopy study of the stinger reveals (a) cuticular depressions innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron, which are presumably campaniform sensilla; and (b) dome-shaped structures innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron and 4-5 chemosensory neurons, which are presumably contact-chemoreceptive sensilla. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings from stinger afferents show increased firing rate in response to mechanical stimulation with agarose. This response is direction-selective and depends upon the concentration (density) of the agarose, such that the most robust response is evoked when the stinger is stimulated in the distal-to-proximal direction (concomitant with the penetration during the natural stinging behavior) and penetrating into relatively hard (0.75%-2.5%) agarose pellets. Accordingly, wasps demonstrate a normal stinging behavior when presented with cockroaches in which the brain was replaced with a hard (2.5%) agarose pellet. Conversely, wasps demonstrate a prolonged stinging behavior when the cockroach brain was either removed or replaced by a soft (0.5%) agarose pellet, or when stinger sensory organs were ablated prior to stinging. We conclude that the parasitoid jewel wasp uses at least mechanosensory inputs from its stinger to identify the brain within the head capsule of the cockroach prey.

  14. Effectiveness of an integrated pest management intervention in controlling cockroaches, mice, and allergens in New York City public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-08-01

    Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

  15. Enterobacteriáceas en partes externas del estadío adulto de Periplaneta americana “cucaracha” capturadas en el mercado Modelo, Iquitos, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xandrix Augusto Ruiz Cabezas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio, determinó la presencia de Enterobacteriáceas en partes externas del estadío adulto de Periplaneta americana “cucaracha” capturadas en el mercado Modelo de la ciudad de Iquitos. Fueron colectados un total de 68 “cucarachas”, y luego cada una fue depositada en un frasco estéril y trasladadas vivas para el análisis respectivo al laboratorio de Investigación de la Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas; después del aislamiento, las colonias observadas fueron sometidas a pruebas de identificación bioquímica tales como: Prueba de oxidasa, utilización de glucosa, lactosa y sacarosa (agar TSI, pruebas VP-RM, indol, hidrólisis de la úrea. La prevalencia de Enterobacteriáceas se determinó utilizando el método estadístico de distribución de frecuencias y la prueba no paramétrica de Chi cuadrado para prueba de hipótesis. De las 68 cucarachas analizadas se aislaron 118 colonias caracterizadas como lactosa positiva y lactosa negativa, representando el 71 % y 29 % respectivamente de las muestras analizadas.  Finalmente, se aisló e identificó 5 cepas bacterianas, categorizadas en 5 géneros: Providencia (25%, Edwardsiella (9%, Citrobacter (14%, Enterobacter (31% y Klebsiella (21%.

  16. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  17. Wood-feeding cockroaches as models for termite evolution (Insecta: Dictyoptera): Cryptocercus vs. Parasphaeria boleiriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Nalepa, Christine; Lo, Nathan

    2008-03-01

    Isoptera are highly specialized cockroaches and are one of the few eusocial insect lineages. Cryptocercus cockroaches have appeared to many as ideal models for inference on the early evolution of termites, due to their possible phylogenetic relationship and several shared key attributes in life history. Recently, Pellens, Grandcolas, and colleagues have proposed the blaberid cockroach Parasphaeria boleiriana to be an alternative model for the early evolution in termites. We compare the usefulness of Cryptocercus and P. boleiriana as models for termite evolution. Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera (1) can both feed on comparatively recalcitrant wood, (2) have an obligate, rich and unique hypermastigid and oxymonadid fauna in the hindgut, (3) transfer these flagellates to the next generation by anal trophallaxis, (4) have social systems that involve long-lasting biparental care, and, finally, (5) are strongly suggested to be sister groups, so that the key attributes (1)-(4) appear to be homologous between the two taxa. On the other hand, P. boleiriana (1) feeds on soft, ephemeral wood sources, (2) shows no trace of the oxymonadid and hypermastigid hindgut fauna unique to Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera, nor does it have any other demonstrated obligate relationship with hindgut flagellates, (3) is likely to lack anal trophallaxis, (4) has only a short period of uniparental brood care, and (5) is phylogenetically remote from the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade. These facts would argue against any reasonable usage of P. boleiriana as a model for the early evolution of Isoptera or even of the clade Cryptocercus+Isoptera. Cryptocercus thus remains an appropriate model-taxon-by-homology for early termite evolution. As compared to P. boleiriana, some other Blaberidae (such as the Panesthiinae Salganea) appear more useful as model-taxa-by-homoplasy for the early evolution of the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade, as their brooding behavior is more elaborate than in P. boleiriana.

  18. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: a practice parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-10-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Spinosad affects chemical communication in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbachi, Wafa; Bensafi, Hanene; Adjami, Yasmine; Ouakid, Mohamed L; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Everaerts, Claude

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide, derived from fermentation by the soil-dwelling actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is used to control a variety of insects. Spinosad kills a wide range of insect pests when ingested or topically applied, by overexciting the nervous system, yet is harmless to mammals and many predatory insects. Other modes of action of this insecticide have not been documented. Here, we report that a non-lethal dose of spinosad causes adult male and female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, to exhibit altered responses to their aggregation pheromone as well as to have a changed cuticular hydrocarbon profile.

  20. [Severianoia blapticola sp. n. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae): a new nematode species from blaberid cockroaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeeva, E A

    2009-01-01

    A new nematode species of the genus Severianoia (Schwenk, 1926) Travassos, 1929, S. blapticola sp. n., is described from the hind gut of cockroach Blaptica dubia (Serville, 1839) from laboratory culture. The main morphological feature of S. blapticola sp. n. is the presence of columnar cuticular structures of different height on the ventral side of male posterior end. In the gut of B. dubia these nematodes coexist with another thelastomatid genus, Cranifera Kloss, 1960 [C. cranifera (Chitwood, 1932) Kloss, 1960]. Males of C. cranifera are characterized by the presence of cloacal projection and columnar structures on both dorsal and ventral sides of male posterior end.

  1. Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) parasitizing the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. parasitizing ectobiid cockroaches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans.

  2. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria.

  3. 蟑螂驱避剂的研究现状%The research status of cockroach repellent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雅红; 肖义军

    2016-01-01

    蟑螂是一类常见的病媒昆虫,目前主要采取化学杀虫剂的办法来防治,但存在污染环境和抗药性问题,在某些场合还存在不适合使用杀虫剂的问题。采用驱避剂驱赶昆虫来防治蟑螂是一种值得探索的方法。驱避剂是一类能引起害虫产生忌避作用的化学物质,驱避剂的使用历史悠久。文中就近年来蟑螂驱避剂的研究现状进行综述。%Cockroaches are a class of common insect vectors. At present, chemical pesticides is a mainly measure to combat with cockroaches, but environmental pollution and resistance are the problems that difficult to solve. Some occasions there is a problem for the use of pesticides which is not allowed. Driven by the use of insect repellents to control cockroaches is a method worth explor-ing. Repellents are a class chemical substances that can cause pest shelter, and the use of repellent has a long history. This paper summarizes recent research on the status of the cockroach repellent.

  4. Aromatic hexamerin subunit from adult female cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) : Molecular cloning, suppression by juvenile hormone, and evolutionary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroz, RC; Beintema, JJ; Stam, WT; Bradfield, JY

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to identify several polypeptides that are strongly suppressed by juvenile hormone (JH) in fat body of adult female Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches, we have cloned a cDNA representing a polypeptide member of the hexamerin family of arthropod serum proteins. The deduced primary translati

  5. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.

  6. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Velez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard, 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.

  7. Molecular mimicry between cockroach and helminth glutathione S-transferases promotes cross-reactivity and cross-sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. We investigated the molecular and structural similarities between Bla g 5, a major glutathione-S transferase (GST) allergen of cockroaches, and the GST of Wucherer...

  8. The Cockroach Origin of the Termite Gut Microbiota: Patterns in Bacterial Community Structure Reflect Major Evolutionary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Carsten; Köhler, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Termites digest wood and other lignocellulosic substrates with the help of their intestinal microbiota. While the functions of the symbionts in the digestive process are slowly emerging, the origin of the bacteria colonizing the hindgut bioreactor is entirely unknown. Recently, our group discovered numerous representatives of bacterial lineages specific to termite guts in a closely related omnivorous cockroach, but it remains unclear whether they derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor or were independently selected by the gut environment. Here, we studied the bacterial gut microbiota in 34 species of termites and cockroaches using pyrotag analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Although the community structures differed greatly between the major host groups, with dramatic changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, we found that the majority of sequence reads belonged to bacterial lineages that were shared among most host species. When mapped onto the host tree, the changes in community structure coincided with major events in termite evolution, such as acquisition and loss of cellulolytic protists and the ensuing dietary diversification. UniFrac analysis of the core microbiota of termites and cockroaches and construction of phylogenetic tree of individual genus level lineages revealed a general host signal, whereas the branching order often did not match the detailed phylogeny of the host. It remains unclear whether the lineages in question have been associated with the ancestral cockroach since the early Cretaceous (cospeciation) or are diet-specific lineages that were independently acquired from the environment (host selection). PMID:24487532

  9. 菏泽市蜚蠊侵害现状调查%Heze City cockroach invasion situation investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维英; 刘素芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解菏泽市城区蜚蠊的侵害状况,分析蜚蠊传播的影响因素,防止与蜚蠊相关的虫媒传染病的发生流行.方法 选择农贸市场1处、餐饮2处、宾馆1处、医院1家和居民区1个,应用粘捕法进行密度监测,统计数量并分类鉴定.结果 菏泽市蜚蠊以德国小蠊为优势种群,没有发现其它种类的蜚蠊.在调查的165个监测点中,134个监测点有蜚蠊滋生,阳性率81.2%,虫密度8.75只/间.结论 菏泽市的蜚蠊侵害以医院、宾馆、居民住宅为主,餐饮行业侵害率较低,农贸市场没有发现蜚蠊侵害.%Objective About Heze City cockroach invasion situation and analysis of factors influencing the spread of cockroaches, prevent the occurrence of epidemic associated with cockroach insect borne infectious diseases.Method 1 farmers'markets, 2 restaurants, 1 hotels, 1 hospitals and 1 residential areas, the application of sticky trap method for density monitoring, statistics and classification of identification.Result Heze City cockroach Blattella germanica was the dominant species, no other species was found. In a survey of 165 monitoring points, 134 monitoring points,there are cockroaches breeding,the positive rate was 81.2%, 8.75/insect density.Conclusion Heze City of cockroaches in hospitals,hotels,residential based,catering industry infestation rate is low,farmers market found no cockroaches.

  10. Mineral oil and aliphatic alcohols: toxicity and analysis of synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, S R; O'Brien, T E

    2011-10-01

    Two mineral oils and 12 linear primary alcohols were studied, alone and in combination, to determine their contact toxicity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). The more toxic oil, PD23 (LD50 = 1.45 mg per cockroach) was used for combination studies. Alcohols with carbon chain lengths of C3 and C8 through C12 were the most toxic, with LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg. C1 (methanol) and C14 (1-tetradecanol) were least toxic, with LD50 values of 2.35 and 1.75 mg, respectively. Eight of the 12 combinations of a nonlethal dose of PD23 oil with an LD10 dose of alcohol produced significantly greater mortality than predicted under the assumption of additive effects. A sample of five synergistic oil + alcohol combinations, covering most of the alcohol carbon chain length range over which synergy occurred, was further studied by calculating LD50 values for three fixed mixture ratios (80:20, 50:50, and 20:80) of each combination. Results were analyzed using both graphical techniques (isobole analysis) and by nonlinear regression. At least one, but not necessarily all, of the three fixed ratio combinations of each oil + alcohol pairing indicated synergy. The conclusions drawn from the isobole and regression analyses were consistent.

  11. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhak David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity. Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  12. Subsocial Cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea Mate Indiscriminately with Kin Despite High Costs of Inbreeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchebti, Sofia; Durier, Virginie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Rivault, Colette; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Many animals have evolved strategies to reduce risks of inbreeding and its deleterious effects on the progeny. In social arthropods, such as the eusocial ants and bees, inbreeding avoidance is typically achieved by the dispersal of breeders from their native colony. However studies in presocial insects suggest that kin discrimination during mate choice may be a more common mechanism in socially simpler species with no reproductive division of labour. Here we examined this possibility in the subsocial cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, a model species for research in sexual selection, where males establish dominance hierarchies to access females and control breeding territories. When given a binary choice between a sibling male and a non-sibling male that had the opportunity to establish a hierarchy prior to the tests, females mated preferentially with the dominant male, irrespective of kinship or body size. Despite the lack of kin discrimination during mate choice, inbred-mated females incurred significant fitness costs, producing 20% less offspring than outbred-mated females. We discuss how the social mating system of this territorial cockroach may naturally limit the probability of siblings to encounter and reproduce, without the need for evolving active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, such as kin recognition. PMID:27655156

  13. Foot Morphology and Substrate Adhesion in the Madagascan Hissing Cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Casteren, Adam; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Insects are successful terrestrial organisms able to locomote over a wide range of obstacles and substrates. This study investigated how foot morphology (tarsal structure) correlates with substrate adhesion and ecological niche in the Madagascan hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa Schaum (Blattaria: Blaberidae). Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of the different structures of the tarsus of G. portentosa was analysed. Using an Instron® universal testing machine, a series of peak force experiments were then conducted to record the force required to lift the cockroaches off different substrates. G. portentosa was pulled off 10 different substrates, which consisted of smooth Perspex; Perspex scored at 1cm intervals; Perspex hatched at 1 cm, 0.5 cm, and 1 mm intervals; Perspex abraded with fine grade sandpaper; Perspex abraded with coarse grade sandpaper; wood; glass; and Teflon. A clear relationship was seen where an increase in scoring on the Perspex caused a decrease in adhesive ability of G. portentosa. This may be due to there being adequate contact area for the attachment of the pads and to allow the claws to engage. The results obtained suggest that to achieve the greatest adhesion to substrates, G. portentosa uses a combined effect of both adhesive pads and pretarsal claws. Adhesion to a wide range of substrates appears to be an adaptation to life as a wingless forest floor dweller. PMID:20575737

  14. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jonathan C; Herrera, María; Bustamante, Mauricio; Shingiro, Aristide; Bowen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled) and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration) to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa) in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V) and current (50-150 μA) pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s) but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s). Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm) could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  15. The Effects of Maekmoondong-Tang on Cockroach Extract-Induced Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maekmoondong-tang (MMDT has long been used in Asian countries to treat respiratory diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects on asthma are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of MMDT in a cockroach allergen (CKA-induced animal model of allergic asthma. After being challenged with CKA, the number of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was evaluated. The Th2 specific cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were also analyzed in BALF along with IgE levels in serum. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. In addition, airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed by noninvasive plethysmography. The cellular profiles and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly decreased in the MMDT-treated groups compared with the cockroach extract-injected (CKA groups. In addition, the IgE, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels were significantly decreased in the MMDT group. MMDT treatment also significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. These results demonstrated that MMDT significantly reduced the hallmark signs of asthma: elevated serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The remarkable antiasthmatic effects of MMDT suggest its therapeutic potential in allergic asthma treatment.

  16. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Erickson

    Full Text Available Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V and current (50-150 μA pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s. Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  17. Linear alcohol ethoxylates: insecticidal and synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G

    2007-06-01

    Sixteen linear ethoxylated alcohol surfactants (AEOs) were studied to determine their contact insecticidal activity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Within groups of AEOs of equal carbon chain length, insecticidal activity, measured as LT50 values (in minutes) and 24-h mortality after treatment, was inversely related to the amount of ethoxylation. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of the AEO and contact toxicity. The AEO with the lowest HLB value, Tomadol 23-1 (HLB = 3.7), produced the greatest 24-h cockroach mortality. The contact activity of Tomadol 23-1 was evaluated against a wide range of other insect species. Most species were killed within 24 h by direct exposure (1-4 microl of a 50% ethanol solution) to Tomadol 23-1 or by spray exposure to an aqueous solution. Tomadol 23-1, at a sublethal concentration, was tested in combination with representative members of the carbamate, nicotinoid, organophosphate, pyrethrum, pyrethroid, and pyrrole insecticide classes. Significant synergism was demonstrated in combinations of Tomadol 23-1 and chlorfenapyr, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and pyrethrum. Tomadol 23-1 significantly reduced the insecticidal activity of propoxur, suggesting antagonism. The insecticidal activity of Tomadol 23-1 was synergized by coapplication with a sublethal amount of piperonyl butoxide, indicating the involvement of cytochrome P450 microsomal monooxygenases in insect metabolism of AEO surfactants.

  18. Central and peripheral neurotoxicity induced by the Jack Bean Urease (JBU) in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazoni, Thiago; de Avila Heberle, Marines; Perin, Ana Paula Artusi; Zanatta, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Polyana Veloso; Dos Santos, Fabiola Duarte Machado; de Almeida, Carlos Gabriel Moreira; Vaz Breda, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Douglas Silva; Pinto, Paulo Marcos; da Costa, Jaderson Costa; Carlini, Celia Regina; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2016-08-10

    Ureases of Canavalia ensiformis are natural insecticides with a still elusive entomotoxic mode of action. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity induced by Jack Bean Urease (JBU) in Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier). To carry out this study we have employed biochemical and neurophysiological analysis of different cockroach organ systems. The injection of the insects with JBU (0.75-6μg/g animal), although not lethal within 24h, caused significant inhibition of the brain acetylcholinesterase activity (60±5%, pcockroaches (pcockroaches, an effect prevented by bicuculline (5μg/g) (pcockroaches probably by interfering with the cholinergic neurotransmission. The neuromuscular blocking activity of JBU suggests an interplay between acetylcholine and GABA signaling. The search for novel natural molecules with insecticide potential has become a necessity more than an alternative. Understanding the mode of action of candidate molecules is a crucial step towards the development of new bioinsecticides. The present study focused on the neurotoxicity of Canavalia ensiformis urease, a natural insecticide, in cockroaches and revealed interferences on the cholinergic, octopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways as part of its entomotoxic mode of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research Advance of Glycobiology of Cockroach%蟑螂糖生物学的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭; 彭丽

    2011-01-01

    With the development of molecular biology and related science and technology, glycobiology taken sugar chain as the main study subject is accelerating it development, and the amazing secret of many sugar chains has been revealed.Human is no longer just understand carbohydrate as the body's structure and energy soerce.Cockroaches is one of the oldest and the most vital insect groups on earth.In recent years,by taken amino acids and mucopolysaccharides of cockroaches as the main raw materials, a series of insects'medicine have been developed successfully.This has changed the traditional view of human on cockroaches, and also increased the value of cockroaches glycobiology.International advances of the research on cockroach glycobiology are reviewed in this paper.%随着分子生物学的兴起和科学技术的发展,以糖链为主要研究对象的糖生物学时代正在加速到来,并揭示出许多糖链的惊人奥秘,人类已不再把糖类仅仅作为机体的结构和能源物质来认识.蟑螂是地球上最古老、生命力最强的昆虫类群之一.近年来,以蟑螂体内氨基酸和黏多糖为主要原料的系列昆虫药先后研制成功,改变了人类对蟑螂的传统看法,也提高了蟑螂糖生物学的研究价值.

  20. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  1. Endogenous and environmental factors influence the dietary fractionation of 13C and 15N in hissing cockroaches Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-01-01

    Since DeNiro and Epstein's discovery that the (13)C and (15)N isotopic signatures of animals approximate those of their respective diets, the measurement of stable isotope signatures has become an important tool for ecologists studying the diets of wild animals. This study used Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) to examine several preexisting hypotheses about the relationship between the isotopic composition of an animal and its diet. Contrary to my predictions, the results revealed that the tissues of adult cockroaches raised for two generations on a diet of known isotopic composition did not demonstrate enrichment of heavy stable isotopes. Moreover, the (15)N signatures of cockroaches were neither influenced by periods of rapid growth (i.e., 300-fold increase in dry body mass over 120 d) nor by imposed periods of starvation lasting up to 80 d. The offspring born to mothers raised on known diets were enriched in (15)N. Diet-switching experiments showed that turnover times of (13)C were highly correlated with age and ranged from 9 to 10 d to 60 to 75 d in subadults and adults, respectively. Adults subjected to diet switches differed from the subadults in that the adults achieved equilibrated isotopic signatures that were shifted approximately 1.0 per thousand toward their respective original diets. Lipid fractions of adult cockroaches averaged 2.9 per thousand more depleted in (13)C than in lipid-free fractions, but no changes in (13)C were observed in aging adults. Exposure to reduced ambient temperature from 33 degrees C to 23 degrees C over 120 d did not influence isotopic signatures of tissues. Overall, the results of this study reveal that different endogenous and exogenous factors can influence the isotopic signatures of cockroaches. These findings reinforce the need to conduct controlled studies to further examine environmental factors that influence the relationships between the isotopic signatures of animals and their diets.

  2. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis

  3. The First Report of Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa, in Ahvaz, South-western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vazirianzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa is known as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in urban environments, but its role is not well documented regarding the carriage of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach in Ahvaz, south west of Iran.Totally 39 cockroaches were collected from kitchen area of houses and identified. All specimens were cultured to isolate the bacterial agents on blood agar and MacConky agar media. The microorganisms were identified using necessary differential and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for isolated organisms by Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion according to NCLI guideline, using 18 antibiotics.From the 39 collected S. langipalpa, 179 bacterial agents were isolated, 92 of alimentary ducts and 87 of external body surfaces. Isolated bacteria from cockroaches were identified as Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species. The pattern resistance rates were determined for gram negative bacilli and gram positive cocci regarding 18 antibiotics.The brown-banded cockroach can be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of contacting human environment to drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, the potential of removing this insect should be improved. This is the first original report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach of Iran.

  4. Mixing realities? An application of augmented reality for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, C M; Juan, M C; Baños, R M; Alcañiz, M; Guillén, V; Rey, B

    2005-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) refers to the introduction of virtual elements in the real world. That is, the person is seeing an image composed of a visualization of the real world, and a series of virtual elements that, at that same moment, are super-imposed on the real world. The most important aspect of AR is that the virtual elements supply to the person relevant and useful information that is not contained in the real world. AR has notable potential, and has already been used in diverse fields, such as medicine, the army, coaching, engineering, design, and robotics. Until now, AR has never been used in the scope of psychological treatment. Nevertheless, AR presents various advantages. Just like in the classical systems of virtual reality, it is possible to have total control over the virtual elements that are super-imposed on the real world, and how one interacts with those elements. AR could involve additional advantages; on one side it could be less expensive since it also uses the real world (this does not need to be modeled), and it could facilitate the feeling of presence (the sensation of being there), and reality judgment (the fact of judging the experience as real) of the person since the environment he or she is in, and what he or she is seeing is, in fact the "reality." In this paper, we present the data of the first case study in which AR has been used for the treatment of a specific phobia, cockroaches phobia. It addresses a system of AR that permits exposure to virtual cockroaches super-imposed on the real world. In order to carry out the exposure, the guidelines of Ost with respect to "one-session treatment" were followed. The results are promising. The participant demonstrated notable fear and avoidance in the behavioral avoidance test before the treatment, and not only was an important decrease in the scores of fear and avoidance observed after the treatment, but also the participant was capable of approaching, interacting, and killing live

  5. 舰船蟑螂化学防治策略研究%Cockroaches chemical control strategies in ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锦程; 郝蕙玲; 运太来

    2011-01-01

    Objective To approach the chemical control strategies for cockroaches in ship. Methods The chemical control strategies frequently used at present were taken into consideration with respects to their merits and demerits, and the effects of various combination of chemical control methods on long-term cockroach control were judged through field experiments. Results Smoke fog and poison bait were ideal for control of cockroaches in ship. Furthermore, the cockroach densities decreased strikingly and their relapses were not observed under the combination of these two treatments, which maintained for 5 months at low densities with rational treatments. Conclusion Density monitoring is advised to be established to control cockroaches effectively in ship,and according to various hazard scales, the corresponding chemical control strategies, in addition to rational administration, are adopted for effectively persistent control of cockroaches in ship in advance.%目的 探讨舰船蟑螂化学防治策略.方法 分析舰船上常用化学防治手段的优劣,通过试验研究,评判几种化学防治方法的不同组合对于舰船蟑螂的长期控制效果.结果 烟雾法和毒饵较为适合舰船蟑螂的控制,它们的组合可显著控制蟑螂密度及其反弹速度,处置措施合理,可维持5个月的低密度水平.结论 舰船蟑螂危害的有效控制必须建立定期的密度监测机制,根据不同危害等级采取相应的化学防治手段,科学合理用药,以实现舰船蟑螂防控的预见性、有效性和可持续性.

  6. Oral toxicity, formulation effects, and field performance of flufenoxuron against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B L; Appel, A G; Demark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1992-08-01

    Laboratory and field studies on the benzoylphenyl urea (BPU) chitin synthetase inhibitor flufenoxuron (DPX EY-059) showed great potential for its use in suppressing infestations of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). When fed continuously to fifth (last) instars, the LC50 of flufenoxuron was estimated at 0.82 ppm (95% FL, 0.76-0.87 ppm). A rating scale specific for BPU effects was developed and shown to be positively correlated with the insect's exposure to concentration of flufenoxuron. Manipulating the particle size of wettable powder formulations of flufenoxuron significantly altered their activity in contact bioassays. Larger particles (volume mean diameter, 12.2 mu; range, 10-20 mu) were more active. Field trials in multifamily housing with this wettable powder formulation at 0.033 and 0.066% (AI) achieved high level (greater than 80%) population suppression within 8 wk of treatment. The potential for the use of flufenoxuron in B. germanica management programs is discussed.

  7. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  8. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    production increased in the susceptible strain ...  30 min after exposure and declined again after ... 120 min to the basal level. The energetic cost of the exposure to the insecticide corresponds ... 5 h of normal metabolism. There were no signifcant differences in heat production after toxic treatment......The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... in any of the resistant strains. It was shown that measurement of heat production is a sensitive method to prove toxic reactions after exposure to a low dose of insecticide. The use of microcalorimetry as a promising biomarker technology was shown....

  9. Tergal and pleural structures contribute to the formation of ectopic prothoracic wings in cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Neto, Moysés

    2016-01-01

    Wings were a fundamental morphological innovation for the adaptive radiation of insects, the most diversified group among all animals. Pterygote insects have two pairs of wings, the mesothoracic (T2) forewings and the metathoracic (T3) hindwings, whereas the prothorax (T1) is wingless. Using RNA interference approaches, we have found that the gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) determines the wingless identity of T1 in the cockroach Blattella germanica. Interference of Scr triggers the formation of ectopic wing structures in T1, which are formed from the expansion of the latero-posterior region of the pronotum, along with a contribution of the epimeron, a pleurite of T1. These data support the theory of a dual origin for insect wings, from pronotal (tergal origin theory) and pleural (pleural origin theory) structures and genes. PMID:27853616

  10. [Cockroaches and co. The role of health pests as allergen source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T

    2014-05-01

    In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens.

  11. Light-mimicking cockroaches indicate Tertiary origin of recent terrestrial luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Chorvát, Dušan; Fritzsche, Ingo; Hain, Miroslav; Ševčík, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Bioluminescence is a common feature of the communication and defence of marine organisms, but this phenomenon is highly restricted in the terrestrial biota. Here, we present a geographical distribution of only the third order of luminescent insects—luminescent cockroaches, with all 13 known and/or herein reported new living species (based on deposited specimens). We show that, for the first time, photo-characteristics of three examined species are nearly identical with those of toxic luminescent click beetles, which they mimic. These observations are the evidence for the mimicry by light—a new type of defensive, Batesian and interordinal mimicry. Our analysis surprisingly reveals an evolutionary novelty of all living luminescent insects, while in the sea (and possibly in the soil) luminescence is present also phylogenetically in very primitive organisms.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Alguri, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5% , 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.

  13. Testing decreasing variabililty of cockroach forewings through time using four Recent species: Blattella germanica,Polyphaga aegyptiaca, Shelfordella lateralis and Blaberus craniifer, with implications for the study of fossil cockroach forewings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Vr(s)ansk(y) (2000) considered there is decreasing variability in the forewings of cockroaches through time,based on a study of fossil and Recent species.This study tests his theory,based on a study of four Recent species of cockroaches:Blattella germanica (Blattellidae),Polyphaga aegyptiaca (Polyphagidae),Shelfordella lateralis (Blattidae) and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae).The new results,based on the coefficient of variation (CV) of the number of veins,indicate that Recent species can be more variable than fossil species and therefore do not support the theory.The results also show that at least 30 complete wings of the same species are required for a reliable CV value that is comparable between species.

  14. Hypersensitivity to house dust mite and cockroach is the most common allergy in north of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Khademloo, Mohammad; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Rafiei, Alireza; Masiha, Farzad

    2010-12-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are among the most common diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to detect, by skin prick test, aeroallergens in allergic patients in Sari, Mazandaran in north of Iran. This is a prospective study of skin prick test of aeroallergens in asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination with clinical diagnosis. Three hundred and seventy five cases aged between 5 to 50 years, were referred to Tooba and Boo-Ali allergic centers of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences between December 2006 and July 2009. The aeroallergens studied included house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), cockroaches, feather, aspergillus, Alternaria, pigweed, nettle, oak and maple. Of the studied individuals, 175 cases were males (46.7%) and 200 were females (53.3%), of which 156 (n=41.5%) reacted to allergen extracts. In asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination, the respective positive percentages were 26.6%, 22.9%, and 32.6% for Dermatophagoides farinae; 26.6%, 25.3%, and 23.3% for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 12.7%, 17.4%, and 11.6% for cockroaches and 16.5%, 4.7%, and 7.0% for the feather. Other allergens were positive up to 5 percent. Total IgE levels were elevated in 56.4%, 53% and 60.5% of asthmatic, allergic rhinitis and the combination group, respectively. Eosinophils count was elevated in 40.5%, 33.2% and 37.2% of the same groups, respectively. The hypersensitivity to house dust mites is very common in north of Iran which may be attributed to the warm and humid weather of this area.

  15. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica populations from within buildings to across continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L Vargo

    Full Text Available Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents. About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species.

  16. Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2010-07-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a major residential pest with the potential to vector various pathogens and produce and disseminate household allergens. Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation of this important pest is critical to efforts to eradicate infestations, yet little is known in this regard. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation within and among 18 apartments from six apartment complexes located in Raleigh, NC. No departure from panmixia was found between rooms within apartments, indicating that active dispersal resulting in gene flow may occur among rooms within apartment units. Alternatively, aggregations within apartments may exist in relative isolation under a metapopulation framework, derived from a recent, common source. Thus, in the event of population control practices leading to incomplete cockroach eradication within an apartment, recolonization of shelters and rooms is likely to occur from a genetically similar aggregation. A pattern of isolation-by-distance across the six apartment complexes indicated that dispersal was more common within complexes than among them, and F statistics suggested greater genetic similarity between apartments in a single building than between separate buildings of an apartment complex. Similarly, neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses were able to cluster only those apartments that were within a single building, indicating higher dispersal with associated gene flow within buildings than between them. The lack of any broader connectivity, as indicated by significant F(ST) and G-tests suggests that human-mediated dispersal of B. germanica between buildings of an apartment complex or between complexes occurs infrequently enough to have negligible effects on gene flow.

  17. Methoprene-tolerant (Met knockdown in the adult female cockroach, Diploptera punctata completely inhibits ovarian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Marchal

    Full Text Available Independent of the design of the life cycle of any insect, their growth and reproduction are highly choreographed through the action of two versatile hormones: ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JH. However, the means by which JH can target tissues and exert its pleiotropic physiological effects is currently still not completely elucidated. Although the identity of the one JH receptor is currently still elusive, recent evidence seems to point to the product of the Methoprene-tolerant gene (Met as the most likely contender in transducing the action of JH. Studies on the role of this transcription factor have mostly been focused on immature insect stages. In this study we used the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata, a favorite model in studying JH endocrinology, to examine the role of Met during reproduction. A tissue distribution and developmental profile of transcript levels was determined for Met and its downstream partners during the first gonadotropic cycle of this cockroach. Using RNA interference, our study shows that silencing Met results in an arrest of basal oocyte development; vitellogenin is no longer transcribed in the fat body and no longer taken up by the ovary. Patency is not induced in these animals which fail to produce the characteristic profile of JH biosynthesis typical of the first gonadotropic cycle. Moreover, the ultrastructure of the follicle cells showed conspicuous whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum and a failure to form chorion. Our study describes the role of Met on a cellular and physiological level during insect reproduction, and confirms the role of Met as a key factor in the JH signaling pathway.

  18. 浅谈部队的蟑螂防治工作%A discussion about cockroach control in military camps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩招久; 姜志宽; 钱万红; 陈超

    2012-01-01

    In military camps,there are many special sites unique to common public places,where cockroaches may breed and hide actually or potentially . In this article,the situation and strategies of cockroach control in military camps are discussed.%部队营区场所复杂多样,存在很多蟑螂可能孳生与栖息不同于普通公共场所的特殊场所,给蟑螂防治工作提出了更高要求.笔者针对性地对部队蟑螂防治工作的形势与策略进行了讨论.

  19. Classifying the bacterial gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches: A curated phylogenetic reference database (DictDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Lampert, Niclas; Rohland, Jeffrey; Boga, Hamadi; Meuser, Katja; Brune, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in sequencing technology have given rise to a large number of studies that assess bacterial diversity and community structure in termite and cockroach guts based on large amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Although these studies have revealed important ecological and evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota, classification of the short sequence reads is limited by the taxonomic depth and resolution of the reference databases used in the respective studies. Here, we present a curated reference database for accurate taxonomic analysis of the bacterial gut microbiota of dictyopteran insects. The Dictyopteran gut microbiota reference Database (DictDb) is based on the Silva database but was significantly expanded by the addition of clones from 11 mostly unexplored termite and cockroach groups, which increased the inventory of bacterial sequences from dictyopteran guts by 26%. The taxonomic depth and resolution of DictDb was significantly improved by a general revision of the taxonomic guide tree for all important lineages, including a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the Treponema and Alistipes complexes, the Fibrobacteres, and the TG3 phylum. The performance of this first documented version of DictDb (v. 3.0) using the revised taxonomic guide tree in the classification of short-read libraries obtained from termites and cockroaches was highly superior to that of the current Silva and RDP databases. DictDb uses an informative nomenclature that is consistent with the literature also for clades of uncultured bacteria and provides an invaluable tool for anyone exploring the gut community structure of termites and cockroaches.

  20. General development situation of cockroach chemical control%蟑螂化学防治的发展概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海婴; 柳小青; 马红梅; 郑卫青

    2010-01-01

    @@ 蟑螂(cockroaches)学名蜚蠊,属于昆虫纲(Insecta)蜚蠊目(Blattaria),俗称茶婆子、偷油婆、香娘子、灶蚂子等.在昆虫中,蟑螂是最古老的种类之一,远在3.5亿年前,就已经在地球上生活了.

  1. 常州市蜚蠊种群分布及侵害调查%Investigation on the population distribution and infestation of the cockroaches in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淦; 张建陶; 王鹂; 林琴; 赵立凡

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To grasp the population distribution and infestation situation of cockroaches so as to provide evidences for scientific control of cockroach in Changzhou. METHODS Used sticky card trap method. RESULTS There were 3 species of cockroaches distributing and testing for 3 species under 2 genera, 2 families, and Blattella germanica was the dominant species, accounting for 93.39%. The infestation rate of cockroaches reached 46.98% , infestation situation of cockroaches in farm produce trade market was the most serious, the others were restaurants, supermarkets, hotels, food making rooms, bar and tea rooms, bathrooms. CONCLUSION The infestation with cockroaches is seriously in Changzhou. The effective measures should be taken to prevent and control the cockroaches.%目的 掌握常州市蜚蠊种群分布和侵害状况,为科学防制提供依据.方法 采用粘捕法.结果全市共有3种蜚蠊分布,分类鉴定为2科2属3种,优势种为德国小蠊,占93.39%.蜚蠊侵害率为46.98%,农贸市场侵害最严重,其他有餐饮业、商场超市、宾馆、食品加工厂、酒吧茶室、浴室.结论 常州市各行业蜚蠊侵害严重,应采取有效措施进行防制.

  2. 医院蟑螂密度调查及防治措施研究%Investigation on cockroach density and its killing method in the hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国生; 韩晓莉; 王喜明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To kill and control cockroaches effectively in hospital. Methods Controlling cockroaches using integrated management which included insecticides and environmental control measurement. Using cockroaches adhesive killing method. Results There were 133 rooms in the hospital. The density of cockroaches was 2.21 pieces in every room,the invasion rate was 79.69%. After management,the density reduced to 0.10 pieces in every room, the invasion rate was 1. 55% . The decline rate of cockroach density was 98. 06% after the integrated prevevtion by the combination of surrounding management and chemical pesticide application. Conclusion It is serious of cockroaches in the hospital and integrated management should be taken to control the cockroaches.%目的 有效杀灭和预防控制医院内蟑螂危害.方法 采取药物和环境综合防治措施,采取粘捕法进行蟑螂密度监测.结果 全院调查133个房间,防治前阳性房间平均密度指数为2.21只/(盒·夜),侵害率为79.69%,防治后阳性房间平均密度指数为0.10只/(盒·夜),侵害率为1.55%,医院蟑螂密度下降率为98.06%.结论 医院内蟑螂危害严重,要采取综合防治措施才可有效控制蟑螂.

  3. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Legendre

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites. Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya, a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya, which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.

  4. Integration of repellents, attractants, and insecticides in a "push-pull" strategy for managing German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalyanya, G; Moore, C B; Schal, C

    2000-05-01

    "Push-pull" is a behavior manipulation strategy in which behavior-modifying stimuli are integrated with a pest control agent. We evaluated the efficacy of an insecticide bait in combination with attractants ("pull"), repellents ("push"), or both ("push-pull") using a hydramethylnon-based bait, feces-contaminated surfaces as an attractant, and methyl neodecanamide-treated surfaces to repel cockroaches. Both adult males and first-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), chose shelters nearest the attractant-treated surfaces and farthest from the repellent-treated surfaces. Food consumption was highest from food nearest the preferred shelters, and mortality was highest when the insecticide bait was near the preferred shelter. These patterns were more apparent in first instars than in adults. Our results from large arena studies in the laboratory show that the push-pull strategy can be used to displace pests from resources or commodities that are to be protected, and simultaneously lure the pest to an attractant source coupled with a pest control agent. Concentrating cockroaches into a limited area should facilitate the precision-targeting of the pest population and promises to reduce insecticide use.

  5. Ontogeny of hemocyanin in the ovoviviparous cockroach Blaptica dubia suggests an embryo-specific role in oxygen supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Christian; Schneuer, Marco; Burmester, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    For a long time it had been assumed that specific oxygen transport proteins are absent in insects. Only recently it has been demonstrated that hemocyanins occur in the hemolymph of many ametabolous and hemimetabolous insect taxa, but not in the Eumetabola (Hemiptera+Holometabola). Therefore, the loss of respiratory hemocyanin in insects is not correlated with the evolution of an efficient tracheal system. The specific contribution of hemocyanin to oxygen supply in insects, however, has remained uncertain. Here we investigate the stage-specific expression of hemocyanin in the ovoviviparous cockroach Blaptica dubia (Blattaria), which consists of two distinct subunit types (Hc1 and Hc2). Employing quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, we showed that the expression of hemocyanin is restricted to late embryos, thus being detectable also in whole female extracts and oothecae. Hemocyanin protein is also present in 1st instar nymphs, but not in later developmental stages. The ontogeny of hemocyanin in cockroaches is distinct from that known from Zygentoma and Plecoptera, in which hemocyanin occurs in both nymphal and adult stages. Our findings suggest a specific role of hemocyanin in embryonic cockroaches, which may be related to an enhanced oxygen supply in the oothecae. For some reason, the fundamental physiological changes associated to the evolution of holometaboly have made hemocyanin unnecessary.

  6. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.

  7. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function.

  8. Cockroach Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

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  9. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  10. 重庆市蟑螂种类及其地理分布研究%Species and geographical distribution of cockroach in Chongqing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯绍全; 季恒青; 何亚明; 杜江; 赵显伦; 刘南; 朱兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species and geographical distribution of cockroach in Chongqing city. Methods Using bait trap,glue trap and medicine eliminates to catch cockroach,and bring them back to identify in laboratory. Moreover,sorting and analyzing data according to relevant literature searching. Results A total of 13 species of cockroach belonging to 8 genera of 4 branch were recorded in Chongqing city,and their geographical distribution in Chongqing city were described too. Conclusion This investigation will provide scientific basis for controlling cockroach and prevent harm of cockroach in Chongqing city.%目的 摸清重庆市蟑螂种类及其地理分布.方法采用诱捕法、粘捕法和药杀法等收集蟑螂标本进行分类鉴定,并查阅有关文献资料进行分析整理.结果发现重庆市有蟑螂13种,隶属4科8属,并对其地理分布进行了描述.结论为重庆市制定有效的蟑螂防治措施,预防和控制蟑螂的危害提供了科学依据.

  11. Toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against a field-collected strain of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, B; Limoee, M; Khodavaisy, S; Zamini, G; Izadi, S

    2015-09-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease. Thus, these two species could be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. The current study conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Conidial formulations of L. muscarium (PTCC 5184) and B. bassiana (PTCC5197) were prepared in aqueous suspensions with Tween 20. Bioassays were performed using two methods including submersion of cockroaches in conidial suspension and baiting. Data were analyzed by Probit program and LC50 and LC90 were estimated. The obtained results indicated that both fungi species were toxic against German cockroach however; Beauveria bassiana was significantly 4.8 fold more toxic than L. muscarium against German cockroach using submersion method.

  12. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  13. Effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarkets%超市蜚蠊综合防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚宏亮; 张育富; 刘大鹏; 杨维芳; 刘慧; 陈志龙; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarket. Methods Three supermarkets, two as experimental sites and one as control, were selected for test. Integrated control measures, which comprised environmental improvement assisted by chemical control, were taken in the experimental sites. The control effects were evaluated with relative density decrease rate as the indicator. Results All the cockroaches captured in the supermarkets were Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in the fresh food section, cooked food section, storehouse, bakery, food section, vegetable and fruit section, etc., while the cockroach density in the grocery section was relatively low. The cockroach densities in the two experimental sites decreased by 89.96% and 81.38% three days after integrated control measures, by 93.89% and 90.21% three weeks after the measures, and by 95.05% and 89.27% two months after the measures. Conclusion Cockroaches invade the supermarkets seriously, with B. Germanica as the dominant species. Integrated control measures can be used to quickly and effectively decrease the cockroach density in supermarket, and the control effects were durable.%目的 评价综合防治措施对超市蜚蠊的防治效果.方法 选择3家超市,其中2家作为试验场所,1家作为对照.试验场所采取环境治理为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施;以相对密度下降率为指标评价防治效果.结果 超市蜚蠊种类均为德国小蠊;主要侵害生鲜区、熟食区、库房、面包房、食品区和蔬果区等,百货区密度较低;采取综合防治措施3d后蜚蠊密度明显下降,超市A及超市B密度下降率分别为89.96%和81.38%;3周后密度下降率分别为93.89%和90.21%;2个月后密度下降率分别为95.05%和89.27%.结论 超市蜚蠊侵害严重,优势种为德国小蠊;综合防治措施可快速有效地降低蜚蠊密度,并且具有较长的持效期.

  14. 徐州市蟑螂体表带菌状况调查研究%Investigation on the condition of bacteria carried by cockroaches in Xuzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧继荣; 黄立业; 王露梅; 杨晋川

    2011-01-01

    Objective In order to understand different habitat cockroach body surface pathogen situation in urban area of Xuzhou city,and improve the conscious of cockroach's harm. Methods According to different habitats ,dividing the ensnare duration cockroach into different groups ,then testing the pathogen and its total detection of carrying pathogenic bacteria respectively Results The cockroaches transmission rate was 100% in different habitats. E. coli, mould, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella carrying rate were 60%, 100% ,40%, 20% and 20% respectively. Both Hemolytic streptococcus and shigellae infection had not been detected. Conclusion Local cockroach transmission rate is higher. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of cockroach.%目的 了解徐州市不同生境室内蟑螂体表带菌状况,提高对蟑螂危害防范意识,控制疾病传播.方法 将诱捕到的蟑螂,根据不同生境进行分组,分别检测蟑螂带菌总数及其携带致病菌情况.结果 不同生境蟑螂带菌率为100%,大肠杆菌、霉菌、铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和沙门氏菌携带率分别为60%、100%、40%、20%、20%,溶血性链球菌和志贺氏菌均未检出.结论 徐州市蟑螂带菌率较高,应加强对蟑螂的防治.

  15. A review on emerging frontiers of house dust mite and cockroach allergy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Meher, B R

    Currently, mankind is afflicted with diversified health issues, allergies being a common, yet little understood malady. Allergies, the outcome of a baffled immune system encompasses myriad allergens and causes an array of health consequences, ranging from transient to recurrent and mild to fatal. Indoor allergy is a serious hypersensitivity in genetically-predisposed people, triggered by ingestion, inhalation or mere contact of allergens, of which mite and cockroaches are one of the most-represented constituents. Arduous to eliminate, these aeroallergens pose constant health challenges, mostly manifested as respiratory and dermatological inflammations, leading to further aggravations if unrestrained. Recent times have seen an unprecedented endeavour to understand the conformation of these allergens, their immune manipulative ploys and other underlying causes of pathogenesis, most importantly therapies. Yet a large section of vulnerable people is ignorant of these innocuous-looking immune irritants, prevailing around them, and continues to suffer. This review aims to expedite this field by a concise, informative account of seminal findings in the past few years, with particular emphasis on leading frontiers like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), epitope mapping, metabolomics etc. Drawbacks linked to current approaches and solutions to overcome them have been proposed. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cockroach protease allergen induces allergic airway inflammation via epithelial cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sagar L.; Agrawal, Komal; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies. Per a 10 exposure also leads to secretion of IL-33, TSLP and intracellular Ca2+ dependent increase in ATP levels. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that Per a 10 administration in mice elevated allergic inflammatory parameters along with high levels of IL-33, TSLP, IL-1α and uric acid in the mice lungs. We next demonstrated that Per a 10 cleaves CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified B cells and CD25 (IL-2 receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified T cells in an activity dependent manner, which might favour Th2 responses. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 plays a significant role in initiation of allergic airway inflammation at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:28198394

  17. Origin of origami cockroach reveals long-lasting (11 Ma) phenotype instability following viviparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter V.; Šmídová, Lucia; Valaška, Daniel; Barna, Peter; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Takáč, Peter; Pavlik, Lubomir; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Karim, Talia S.; Zelagin, David; Smith, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA. Association of autapomorphic characters that allow for passive and active protections from parasitic insects (unique wing origami pleating identical with its egg case-attacking wasp) suggest a response to high parasitic loads. Synchronized with global reorganization of the biota, morphotype destabilization in roaches lasted approximately 11-22 Ma, including both the adaptation of novel characters and the reduction of others. Thus, while viviparity can be disadvantageous, in association with new Bauplans and/or behaviors, it can contribute to the evolution of taxa with viviparous representatives that are slightly selectively preferred.

  18. Inbred and outbred mice have equivalent variability in a cockroach allergen-induced model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaickus, Louis J; Bouchard, Jacqueline; Kim, Jiyoun; Natarajan, Sudha; Remick, Daniel G

    2010-12-01

    Outbred mice traditionally are considered to display high variability, thereby limiting their use in some studies. Researchers frequently are encouraged to use inbred strains of mice because of the greater homogeneity of these experimental animals. We compared the pulmonary inflammatory response of inbred BALB/cJ mice to that of outbred HSD-ICR mice by measuring multiple variables, including cytokines, chemokines, number of pulmonary inflammatory cells, and respiratory parameters. Cockroach allergens induced significant pulmonary inflammation in both BALB and ICR mice. Our comparisons of the coefficients of variance for 148 discrete data sets for each strain or stock indicated that BALB and ICR mice have roughly equivalent intrastrain or -stock variability in our model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation. The average coefficient of variance, calculated as the ratio of the SD to the mean of a data set, was 0.35 ± 0.34 for BALB mice compared with 0.31 ± 0.32 for ICR mice. In conclusion, inbred BALB and outbred ICR mice have roughly equivalent intrastrain or -stock variability in a murine model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation.

  19. Origin of origami cockroach reveals long-lasting (11 Ma) phenotype instability following viviparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter V; Šmídová, Lucia; Valaška, Daniel; Barna, Peter; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Takáč, Peter; Pavlik, Lubomir; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Karim, Talia S; Zelagin, David; Smith, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA. Association of autapomorphic characters that allow for passive and active protections from parasitic insects (unique wing origami pleating identical with its egg case-attacking wasp) suggest a response to high parasitic loads. Synchronized with global reorganization of the biota, morphotype destabilization in roaches lasted approximately 11-22 Ma, including both the adaptation of novel characters and the reduction of others. Thus, while viviparity can be disadvantageous, in association with new Bauplans and/or behaviors, it can contribute to the evolution of taxa with viviparous representatives that are slightly selectively preferred.

  20. Multiple evolutionary origins of Australian soil-burrowing cockroaches driven by climate change in the Neogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan; Tong, K Jun; Rose, Harley A; Ho, Simon Y W; Beninati, Tiziana; Low, David L T; Matsumoto, Tadao; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-24

    Parallel evolution is the independent appearance of similar derived phenotypes from similar ancestral forms. It is of key importance in the debate over whether evolution is stochastic and unpredictable, or subject to constraints that limit available phenotypic options. Nevertheless, its occurrence has rarely been demonstrated above the species level. Climate change on the Australian landmass over the last approximately 20 Myr has provided conditions conducive to parallel evolution, as taxa at the edges of shrinking mesic habitats adapted to drier biomes. Here, we investigate the phylogeny and evolution of Australian soil-burrowing and wood-feeding blaberid cockroaches. Soil burrowers (subfamily Geoscapheinae) are found in relatively dry sclerophyllous and scrubland habits, whereas wood feeders (subfamily Panesthiinae) are found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll. We sequenced and analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 142 specimens, and estimated the evolutionary time scale of the two subfamilies. We found evidence for the parallel evolution of soil-burrowing taxa from wood-feeding ancestors on up to nine occasions. These transitions appear to have been driven by periods of aridification during the Miocene and Pliocene across eastern Australia. Our results provide an illuminating example of climate-driven parallel evolution among species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Discontinuous gas exchange exhibition is a heritable trait in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, N G; Matthews, P G D; White, C R

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of insect respiratory gas exchange has long been an area of interest. In particular, the reason why insects from at least five orders exhibit patterns of gas exchange that include regular periods of spiracular closure has been the source of much controversy. Three adaptive hypotheses propose that these discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) evolved to either limit water loss across respiratory surfaces, facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. It is possible that DGCs evolved independently multiple times and for different reasons, but for DGCs to be a plausible target for natural selection, they must be heritable and confer a fitness benefit. In a previous study of cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, we demonstrated that DGCs are repeatable and extend survival under food and water restriction. Here, we show for the first time that DGCs are heritable, suggesting that they are a plausible target for natural selection. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Physiological Costs of Repetitive Courtship Displays in Cockroaches Handicap Locomotor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowles, Sophie L; Jepson, Natalie M

    2015-01-01

    Courtship displays are typically thought to have evolved via female choice, whereby females select mates based on the characteristics of a display that is expected to honestly reflect some aspect of the male's quality. Honesty is typically enforced by mechanistic costs and constraints that limit the level at which a display can be performed. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these costs may be energetic costs involved in the production of dynamic, often repetitive displays. A female attending to such a display may thus be assessing the physical fitness of a male as an index of his quality. Such assessment would provide information on his current physical quality as well as his ability to carry out other demanding activities, qualities with which a choosy female should want to provision her offspring. In the current study we use courtship interactions in the Cuban burrowing cockroach, Byrsotria fumigata to directly test whether courtship is associated with a signaler's performance capacity. Males that had produced courtship displays achieved significantly lower speeds and distances in locomotor trials than non-courting control males. We also found that females mated more readily with males that produced a more vigorous display. Thus, males of this species have developed a strategy where they produce a demanding courtship display, while females choose males based on their ability to produce this display. Courtship displays in many taxa often involve dynamic repetitive actions and as such, signals of stamina in courtship may be more widespread than previously thought.

  3. An augmented reality system validation for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa Maria; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a new technology in which various virtual elements are incorporated into the user's perception of the real world. The most significant aspect of AR is that the virtual elements add relevant and helpful information to the real scene. AR shares some important characteristics with virtual reality as applied in clinical psychology. However, AR offers additional features that might be crucial for treating certain problems. An AR system designed to treat insect phobia has been used for treating phobia of small animals, and positive preliminary data about the global efficacy of the system have been obtained. However, it is necessary to determine the capacity of similar AR systems and their elements that are designed to evoke anxiety in participants; this is achieved by testing the correspondence between the inclusion of feared stimuli and the induction of anxiety. The objective of the present work is to validate whether the stimuli included in the AR-Insect Phobia system are capable of inducing anxiety in six participants diagnosed with cockroach phobia. Results support the adequacy of each element of the system in inducing anxiety in all participants.

  4. Immobilizing and lethal effects of spider venoms on the cockroach and the common mealbeetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, T; Nentwig, W

    1989-01-01

    Immobilizing and lethal effects of the venoms obtained from six spider species (Brachypelma albopilosum, Atrax robustus, Cupiennius salei, Selenops mexicanus, Tegenaria atrica, Argiope bruennichi) were tested on Blatta orientalis (cockroach) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). The immobilizing effects were quantified by measuring insect locomotor activity in circle arenas observed over 72 hr after venom injection. Both insect species showed cramps, quivering and jerking of the limbs as well as flaccid paralysis after venom injection. Through relative toxicity of the venoms tested is the same in T. molitor and B. orientalis, T. molitor is absolutely less sensitive to spider venoms. The effects on locomotor activity show time characteristics specific for each venom. A dependence of the venom paralyzing effects on insect locomotor activity, low intensity of the initial excitatory phase of the venom effects and partial recovery of the insects was found with A. bruennichi and T. atrica venom. The maximal venom yields of A. bruennichi and S. mexicanus are not lethal to B. orientalis, indicating that the mere immobilizing effects of spider venoms are far more crucial to prey capture than their lethal effects. The contribution of a variety of differently acting neurotoxic components in spider venoms to the observed venom effects on insects and the significance of the venoms in spider nutrition, hunting behaviour and ecology are discussed.

  5. Insecticide resistance and nutrition interactively shape life-history parameters in German cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E.; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-06-01

    Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy.

  6. 蟑螂密度监测及侵害状况的调查与分析%Investigation and analysis of cockroach density surveillance and infestation condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵宗贤; 蔡蓉; 苏琦; 范刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解淮安市城区蟑螂种群、密度、分布、季节消长变化及侵害状况,为合理灭蟑提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法进行监测,晚放晨收,每月监测一次.结果 布放粘蟑纸6480张,回收张数6245张,阳性张数163张,粘捕蟑螂数590只,密度0.10只/张,侵害率2.52%.德国小蠊为优势种群.结论 淮安市城区蟑螂种群构成以德国小蠊为主,侵害率以农贸市场和宾馆较高,应进一步加强优势种群的监测与抗药性监测的调查研究,为制定科学合理的病媒生物防治工作提供依据.%Objective To realize the species, density, distribution, seasonal fluctuation and infestation condition of cockroach in Huaian city,and provide scientific basis for cockroach control. Methods The stick-catch method was used to survey once a month, which placed the stick-cockroach paper at night and recovered it in the next morning. Results 6 480 stick-cockroach papers had been putted on and 6 245 had been recovered. 590 cockroaches had been caught on 163 stick-cockroach papers,and the population density was 0. 10 cockroaches per paper and the infestation rate was 2. 52% . Blattella germanica was the dominant species. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the primary cockroach species of Huaian city and there is a higher infestation rate in markets and hotels. It is necessary to strengthen the investigation of dominant species and insecticide resistance surveillance, so that could provide evidence for developing scientific and rational programs for vectors prevention and control.

  7. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  8. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Marzullo

    Full Text Available Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1 the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2 the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds.First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (p<0.05 than coxa-cut legs (29% of full size at first appearance. Regenerated legs in both groups grew in size with each subsequent molt; the autotomy-removed legs grew to full size within 18 weeks, whereas coxa-cut legs took longer than 28 weeks to regrow. Removal of the metathoracic leg in both conditions did not have an effect on mortality compared to matched controls with unmolested legs.Autotomy-removed legs had lower spontaneous firing rates, similar marked increased firing rates upon tactile manipulation of tibial barbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement.It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content.

  9. 医院病房蟑螂侵害及其带菌状况%Violation and bacterial carriage state of cockroaches in a hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玉珍; 董建元; 姚慧琳; 王春梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the violation and bacterial carriage state of cockroaches in wards of a hospital (1-11 storey), and provide scientific basis for earring out comprehensive measures to eliminate the pollution of cockroaches to medical environment Methods The visual and paper sticky capture method were applied to investigate the harmful invasion of cockroaches . Cockroaches were stickily captured from each floor, and were randomly divided into 11 groups, each had 5, they were sent to the laboratory for bacterial isolation and culture, serological and biochemical testing with routine methods. Results 228 houses in wards of a hospital building were investigated, the traces of cockroaches by visual method in 171 houses were found, the positive rate was 75. 00%. There were 191 pieces of sticky cloth for sticking cockroaches, and the positive papers were 80 pieces, 243 cockroacheswere captured, violation rate of cockroaches was 41. 88%, density of cockroaches were 1. 27 per paper. Opportunistic pathogens were detected on the surface and the bodies of 11 groups of cockroaches,among which the main pathogens were Proteusspp. (14 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae(11), Escherichia co/I(7), Enterobacteragglomerates (8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa(5), Acinetobacter baumannii (3). Conclusion Cockroach is one of the factors contributing to hospital environmental surface pollution; regular killing of cockroaches and timely monitoring the environmental hygiene are important measures to prevent nosocomial infectioa%目的 了解某医院病房楼(1-11层)蟑螂侵害及其带菌状况,为开展蟑螂综合防治,消除蟑螂对医疗环境的污染提供科学依据.方法 采用目测法和粘捕法进行蟑螂侵害的调查.从每层楼粘捕到的蟑螂中随机挑选5只为一组,共11组,按常规检验方法进行细菌培养分离、血清学鉴定和生化试验.结果 调查一栋病房楼228间房屋,目测蟑迹阳性房间171间,蟑迹阳性间率为75.00%.

  10. Speciation in fractured rock landforms: towards understanding the diversity of subterranean cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Nocticolidae: Nocticola) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew J; McRAE, Jane M; Main, Dean C; Finston, Terrie L

    2017-04-04

    Three new species of subterranean cockroach of the genus Nocticola from the Pilbara region of Western Australia are described on morphological characters of males. Nocticola quartermainei n. sp., Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. occur in fractured rock landforms and have varying degrees of troglomorphies. Sequence divergence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) clearly demonstrated populations are reproductively isolated over very short distances for the highly troglomorphic Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. and conversely, there is less isolation within the same landforms for the less troglomorphic Nocticola quartermainei n. sp.

  11. Crystal Structure of a Dimerized Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 Complexed with a Monoclonal Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Alexandratos, Jerry; Wlodawer, Alexander; Wünschmann, Sabina; Kepley, Christopher L.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna (INDOOR Bio.); (VCU); (NIH)

    2008-09-03

    The crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the German cockroach allergen Bla g 2 and the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody 7C11 was solved at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Bla g 2 binds to the antibody through four loops that include residues 60-70, 83-86, 98-100, and 129-132. Cation-{pi} interactions exist between Lys-65, Arg-83, and Lys-132 in Bla g 2 and several tyrosines in 7C11. In the complex with Fab', Bla g 2 forms a dimer, which is stabilized by a quasi-four-helix bundle comprised of an {alpha}-helix and a helical turn from each allergen monomer, exhibiting a novel dimerization mode for an aspartic protease. A disulfide bridge between C51a and C113, unique to the aspartic protease family, connects the two helical elements within each Bla g 2 monomer, thus facilitating formation of the bundle. Mutation of these cysteines, as well as the residues Asn-52, Gln-110, and Ile-114, involved in hydrophobic interactions within the bundle, resulted in a protein that did not dimerize. The mutant proteins induced less {beta}-hexosaminidase release from mast cells than the wild-type Bla g 2, suggesting a functional role of dimerization in allergenicity. Because 7C11 shares a binding epitope with IgE, the information gained by analysis of the crystal structure of its complex provided guidance for site-directed mutagenesis of the allergen epitope. We have now identified key residues involved in IgE antibody binding; this information will be useful for the design of vaccines for immunotherapy.

  12. Multiplex Assay for Protein Profiling and Potency Measurement of German Cockroach Allergen Extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruna Khurana

    Full Text Available German cockroach (GCr allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency.Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts.Single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA.Chicken scFv's generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv's recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target.An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts.

  13. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongying; Yasar, Hanzey; Funk, Nico W; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.

  14. Stage-dependent tolerance of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica for dichlorvos and propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K; Wei, Xq; Zeng, Xp; Liu, T; Gao, Xw

    2010-01-01

    tage-dependent dichlorvos and propoxur tolerance in a field population of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica Linnaeus (Blatodea: Blattellidae), was investigated in the laboratory using a topical application bioassay. The results showed the 6 week-old nymphs were more tolerant to dichlorvos and propoxur than the other ages tested. LD₅₀ values of dichlorvos and propoxur for the 6 week-old nymphs were 2.003 µg per insect and 5.296 µg per insect, respectively. Tolerance ratios of 18.55-fold and 4.98-fold for LD₅₀ were obtained from 6-week-old nymphs compared to 4 week-old nymphs. The specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from 1 week-old nymphs was the highest among all tested developmental stages of nymphs and adult males and females. The specific activity of AChE decreased significantly with increasing age. The sensitivity of AChE to dichlorvos was the highest with a k(i) value of 3.12 × 10⁴ mol⁻¹min⁻¹ in the last nymphal stage of B. germanica (about 6 weeks-old). The AChE from 4 week-old nymphs was the most sensitive to propoxur, with the highest k(i) value being 2.63 × 10⁵ mol⁻¹ min⁻¹. These results indicated that the different developmental stages and sexes of B. germanica affected the inhibition of AChE by dichlorvos and propoxur.

  15. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Wei

    Full Text Available The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.

  16. FoxO is required for the activation of hypertrehalosemic hormone expression in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süren-Castillo, Songül; Abrisqueta, Marc; Maestro, José L

    2014-01-01

    FoxO proteins are a subgroup of the Forkhead-box family of transcription factors, which function as the main transcriptional effectors of the insulin receptor pathway. This pathway, activated by the binding of insulin or IGFs (or insect insulin-like peptides), promotes the phosphorylation and inactivation of FoxO because of its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The homolog of FoxO in the cockroach Blattella germanica works in a situation of nutrient shortage by inhibiting the endocrine induction of reproduction. Using Blattella germanica as a model, we studied the functions of FoxO using RNA interference methodologies. We analyzed the mRNA levels of hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) and genes related to lipolysis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and quantified triacylglycerides, glycogen and trehalose. FoxO knockdown eliminates the starvation-induced expression of HTH in the corpora cardiaca. In addition, FoxO knockdown prevents the activation of the expression of Brummer lipase, glycogen phosphorylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the fat body of starved females. Starvation-induced activation of FoxO stimulates the transcription of different genes related to catabolic processes, including HTH and genes involved in lipolysis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our results show conservation in the action of the transcription factor FoxO in the activation of catabolic processes from basal insects to vertebrates. The results also describe a new and essentially different mode of action of transcription factor FoxO, which works through the activation of neuropeptide HTH expression, which will subsequently produce its own catabolic stimulatory function. © 2013.

  17. Instantaneous kinematic phase reflects neuromechanical response to lateral perturbations of running cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzen, Shai; Burden, Samuel A; Moore, Talia Y; Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Full, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Instantaneous kinematic phase calculation allows the development of reduced-order oscillator models useful in generating hypotheses of neuromechanical control. When perturbed, changes in instantaneous kinematic phase and frequency of rhythmic movements can provide details of movement and evidence for neural feedback to a system-level neural oscillator with a time resolution not possible with traditional approaches. We elicited an escape response in cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) that ran onto a movable cart accelerated laterally with respect to the animals' motion causing a perturbation. The specific impulse imposed on animals (0.50 [Formula: see text] 0.04 m s[Formula: see text]; mean, SD) was nearly twice their forward speed (0.25 [Formula: see text] 0.06 m s[Formula: see text]. Instantaneous residual phase computed from kinematic phase remained constant for 110 ms after the onset of perturbation, but then decreased representing a decrease in stride frequency. Results from direct muscle action potential recordings supported kinematic phase results in showing that recovery begins with self-stabilizing mechanical feedback followed by neural feedback to an abstracted neural oscillator or central pattern generator. Trials fell into two classes of forward velocity changes, while exhibiting statistically indistinguishable frequency changes. Animals pulled away from the side with front and hind legs of the tripod in stance recovered heading within 300 ms, whereas animals that only had a middle leg of the tripod resisting the pull did not recover within this period. Animals with eight or more legs might be more robust to lateral perturbations than hexapods.

  18. Pyrotag sequencing of the gut microbiota of the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reveals a highly dynamic core but only limited effects of diet on community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schauer

    Full Text Available Although blattid cockroaches and termites share a common ancestor, their diets are distinctly different. While termites consume a highly specialized diet of lignocellulose, cockroaches are omnivorous and opportunistic feeders. The role of the termite gut microbiota has been studied intensively, but little is known about the cockroach gut microbiota and its function in digestion and nutrition, particularly the adaptation to different diets. Our analyses of the bacterial gut microbiota of the blattid cockroach Shelfordella lateralis combining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of their 16S rRNA genes with physiological parameters (microbial metabolites, hydrogen and methane emission indicated substantial variation between individuals but failed to identify any diet-related response. Subsequent deep-sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the colonic gut microbiota of S. lateralis fed either a high- or a low-fiber diet confirmed the absence of bacterial taxa that responded to diet. Instead, we found a small number of abundant phylotypes that were consistently present in all samples and made up half of the community in both diet groups. They varied strongly in abundance between individual samples at the genus but not at the family level. The remaining phylotypes were inconsistently present among replicate batches. Our findings suggest that S. lateralis harbors a highly dynamic core gut microbiota that is maintained even after fundamental dietary shifts, and that any dietary effects on the gut community are likely to be masked by strong individual variations.

  19. Efficacy of killing cockroaches with smoke in three different kitchens%烟剂对厨房蟑螂的灭效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫鹏; 任兴联; 宋谦; 胡和文

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察15%优士B型乳油烟剂现场灭蟑效果及影响因素.方法 现场实验观察.结果 15%优士B型乳油1∶20、1∶15、1∶10 3种稀释药液烟剂对连队、幼儿园、宾馆的厨房进行熏杀,均可以在短时间内迅速降低蟑螂密度.结论 15%优士B型乳油烟剂熏杀灭蟑效果好,影响因素较小,具有推广应用价值.%Objective To observe the efficacy of killing cockroaches on spot with 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke.Methods Experiment observing on spot.Results To kill cockroaches in company, kindergarten and hotel kitchen with 1:20,1: 15,1:10 three different diluted 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke,it could decrease the density of cockroaches rapidly in a little time.Conclusion It is an efficacy method to kill cockroaches with 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke.It is good enough to kill cockroaehes in large areas with airtight space.

  20. Investigation on the cockroach' s infestation situation in Kaifeng city%开封市蟑螂侵害状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 唐振强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand and grasp the infestation situation of cockroach in Kaifeng city and provide scientific basis for cockroach. Methods Unified stick-trap was applied in the surveillance. Results Blattella ger-manica was the absolutely dominant species in Kaifeng city, which accounted for 100%. In different places , there was the highest density index at restaurant, the following were hotel and supermarket. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species. Hotel and supermarket are the focus of the industry where cockroach breeds and does harm. And it is necessary to monitor and control cockroach in these places.%目的 了解和掌握开封市蟑螂侵害状况,为进一步防治蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 粘捕法.结果 开封市区德国小蠊为绝对优势种,占100%.不同场所中餐饮密度指数最高,其次为宾馆和超市.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮、宾馆和超市是蟑螂孳生和危害的重点行业,应加强对这些行业单位蟑螂的监测和防治.

  1. Look at That!: Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Develop and Enhance the Scientific Inquiry Skill of Observation in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students can develop and enhance their observation skills by participating in teacher-guided scientific inquiry (NRC 1996) activities where they observe animals that tend to act in known, predictable ways. Madagascar hissing cockroaches ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") are one such animal. This article presents beginning, intermediate,…

  2. The evolutionary transition from subsocial to eusocial behaviour in Dictyoptera: phylogenetic evidence for modification of the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis with a new subsocial cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellens, Roseli; D'Haese, Cyrille A; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Legendre, Frédéric; Wheeler, Ward C; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Cockroaches have always been used to understand the first steps of social evolution in termites because they are close relatives with less complex and integrated social behaviour. Termites are all eusocial and ingroup comparative analysis would be useless to infer the origin of their social behaviour. The cockroach genus Cryptocercus was used as a so-called "prototermite" model because it shows key-attributes similar to the termites (except Termitidae): wood-feeding, intestinal flagellates and subsocial behaviour. In spite of these comparisons between this subsocial cockroach and eusocial termites, the early and remote origin of eusocial behaviour in termites is not well understood yet and the study of other relevant "prototermite" models is however needed. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to validate a new "prototermite" model, Parasphaeria boleiriana which shows a peculiar combination of these key-attributes. It shows that these attributes of Parasphaeria boleiriana have an independent origin from those of other wood-eating cockroaches and termites. The case of P. boleiriana suggests that a short brood care was selected for with life on an ephemeral wood resource, even with the need for transmission of flagellates. These new phylogenetic insights modify evolutionary hypotheses, contradicting the assumption made with Cryptocercus model that a long brood care is necessary for cooperation between broods in the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis. An ephemeral wood resource is suggested to prompt generation overlap and the evolution of cooperation, even if brood care is shortened.

  3. Purification and partial genome characterization of the bacterial endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti from the fat bodies of cockroaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Akinori

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiotic relationships between intracellular bacteria and eukaryotes are widespread in nature. Genome sequencing of the bacterial partner has provided a number of key insights into the basis of these symbioses. A challenging aspect of sequencing symbiont genomes is separating the bacteria from the host tissues. In the present study, we describe a simple method of endosymbiont purification from complex environment, using Blattabacterium cuenoti inhabiting in cockroaches as a model system. Findings B. cuenoti cells were successfully purified from the fat bodies of the cockroach Panesthia angustipennis by a combination of slow- and fast-speed centrifugal fractionations, nylon-membrane filtration, and centrifugation with Percoll solutions. We performed pulse-field electrophoresis, diagnostic PCR and random sequencing of the shoutgun library. These experiments confirmed minimal contamination of host and mitochondrial DNA. The genome size and the G+C content of B. cuenoti were inferred to be 650 kb and 32.1 ± 7.6%, respectively. Conclusion The present study showed successful purification and characterization of the genome of B. cuenoti. Our methodology should be applicable for future symbiont genome sequencing projects. An advantage of the present purification method is that each step is easily performed with ordinary microtubes and a microcentrifuge, and without DNase treatment.

  4. Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosol in the control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae in cookhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Agrawal, Rina Tilak , K.K. Dutta Gupta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: A field trial was carried out in cookhouses in an urban area to evaluate theefficacy of synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin and propoxur aerosols (2% inthe control of German cockroaches (Blatella germanica.Methods: A total of six cookhouses were selected by simple random sampling method (two each forthe two insecticide treatments and two for control.Results: It was observed that 89.36–87.8 and 77.95–59.74% reductions were achieved with propoxurand synthetic pyrethroid treatment respectively by first week post-treatment. The reduction in propoxurtreated areas by eight weeks post-treatment was 82.98–76.13%, whereas the reduction in thesame time period in synthetic pyrethroid treated areas ranged from 14.36% to an increase in density bya phenomenal 157.86% in one of the treated sites.Interpretation & conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol (2% treatment oversynthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin in the control of cockroach infestation incookhouses in urban area.

  5. Cockroach control methods for departure trains in Wuhan%武汉始发列车蟑螂防治方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建国; 殷璐; 李春生; 戴兆明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To control cockroaches density on trains effectively. Methods Cockroach species and density were investigated by irritating cockroaches with pyrethrum spray. Fumigation, residual spray, gel bait,poison bait and ULV spray were used to control the cockroaches, then their control effects were studied. Results The component ratio of German cockroach on departure trains in Wuhan was 91.60% - 94.46%. Cockroach infestation rate of high grade to low grade trains increased from 6.85% to 37.69%. The one week killing rates of fumigation or residual spray treated merely were 82. 35% - 100%, but the cockroach densities restored rapidly in 2 months.While treated regularly with residual spray, gel bait and poison bait, the one week killing rates were 91.94% -100% ,and low densities of cockroach were keeped in 2 months. 48 h killing rates of emergent treat with ULV spray and fumigation were 95.83% and 87.69% respectively,it cost RMB 28 and 40 per carriage. Conclusion Cockroaches density on trains can be controlled in low level when treating regularly with residual spray, gel bait and poison bait. High density of cockroaches on trains can be cotrolled with emergent treat with ULV spray, it has advantage over fumigation both in irritation and safety.%目的 科学有效地控制列车蟑螂密度.方法 采用药激法调查列车蟑螂的种类和密度;采用烟熏、滞留喷洒、毒饵、胶饵和超低容量喷雾等方法,进行蜂螂防治效果的研究.结果 德国小蠊在武汉列车蟑螂种群构成比为91.60%~94.46% ;高等级列车至低等级列车的蟑螂侵害率依次上升为6.85%~37.69%;单纯滞留喷洒和烟熏灭蟑1周后的杀灭效果为82.35%~100%,但是2个月左右蟑螂密度迅速回升;定期采用滞留喷洒加灭蟑胶饵和毒饵法灭蟑1周后的杀灭效果为91.94%~100%,2个月后蟑螂密度持续维持较低水平;用超低容量喷雾法和烟熏法应急处理车厢的48 h杀灭率分别为95

  6. 济宁市蜚蠊侵害现况及抗药性调查%Study of cockroach infestation and insecticide resistance in the City of Jining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝学安; 梁玉民

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握济宁市蜚蠊侵害现况及其抗药性、种群分布、季节消长和密度等情况. 方法 采用粘捕法捕捉蜚蠊,调查其种类及侵害程度;采用三角烧瓶药膜接触法检测蜚蠊抗药性. 结果 本次共回收有效粘蟑纸5400张,捕获蜚蠊715只,均为德国小蠊,其中成虫421只(占58.9%),若虫294只(占41.1%);蟑螂总密度为0.13只/张,侵害率为9.11%;蜚蠊密度以5~8月最高.场所蜚蠊密度以宾馆最高,侵害率医院最高,其次是餐饮和宾馆,居民区最低.济宁市德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯已产生高抗药性,对残杀威、溴氰菊酯和敌敌畏仍然敏感. 结论 济宁市宾馆、餐饮、医院为蜚蠊高侵害场所,并有向居民区快速扩散的趋势,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合性防制措施,控制蜚蠊扩散和蔓延.%Objective To ascertain the level of cockroach infestation in the City of Jining and determine the insecticide resistance, population distribution, seasonal variations, and density of cockroaches. Methods Cockroaches caught with glue traps were used to investigate the types of cockroaches and extent of their infestation. An Erlenmeyer flask was used to expose cockroaches to a film of pesticide to test resistance. Results Five thousand four hundred sticky traps were collected and 715 cockroaches were caught. All were Blattella germanica, consisting of 421 adults (58. 9%) and 294 nymphs (41. 1%). Cockroach density was 0. 13 per trap and the rate of infestation was 9. 11%. Cockroach density peaked in May, June, July, and August. Infestation was worst in hospitals, followed by restaurants and hotels; density was lowest in residential areas. Cockroaches in the City of Jining were highly resistant to beta-cypermethrin but still suscepti-ble to propoxur, deltamethrin, and dichlorvos. Conclusion Hotels, restaurants, and hospitals were heavily infested, and infestation is rapidly spreading to residential areas. Management of key

  7. Investigation on supermarket infestation of cockroaches and the control measures%大型超市蜚蠊侵害调查与防治措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育富; 褚宏亮; 杨维芳; 刘大鹏; 陈志龙; 刘慧; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in supermarkets in Nanjing city, providing scientific basis for the control of cockroaches in supermarkets. Methods Four large supermarkets located in different positions in Nanjing city were selected and sticky trap method was applied to determine the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches. The cockroach species were identified with the number counted and the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches calculated. Results A total of 8894 cockroaches, all of which were Blattella germanica, were captured. It was found that the infestation of cockroaches in the supermarkets was serious with the encroachment rate amounting to 72.64% and the density being 16.78 per piece. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in storehouse, fresh section, deli section, produce section, food section and bakery of the supermarkets, where there were food and water. But relatively light infestation was seen in the department sections. Conclusion B. germanica has become the dominant species in the supermarkets, where infestation of cockroaches is serious, especially in the areas that are rich in food and water. Comprehensive control measures should be taken to effectively reduce the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches.%目的 了解南京市大型超市蜚蠊侵害及种群分布等情况,探讨其防治措施,为超市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据.方法 选择南京市不同方位4家大型超市,采用粘捕法调查侵害率和密度,现场鉴定蜚蠊种类并计数,了解超市不同区域的蜚蠊分布情况,并分析其原因.结果 共捕获蜚蠊8894只,均为德国小蠊;超市蜚蠊侵害严重,侵害率达72.64%,密度为16.78只/张,主要分布在食源和水源丰富的库房、生鲜区、熟食区、蔬果区、食品区和面包房,百货区蜚蠊侵害程度相对较轻.结论 德国小蠊已成为超市侵害的优势种,以食源和水源丰富的区域

  8. 某住宅楼蟑螂防治效果观察%Observation on the control efficiency against cockroaches in a residential building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 周光智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate cockroach damage and control efficiency of a residential building. Methods Kill cockroach through the methods of remained spray and gel bait, and evaluate the efficacy by damage rate and density descent rate of cockroach. Results The damage rate of cockroach was 87. 50% and 12.50% before and after controlling for 3 days, respectively. The density descent rate was 86.67% ~ 100. 00% , and there was no statistically significant difference before and after control (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The blattella gremanica damage was serious in the residential building, and the methods of remained spray and gel bait had high efficiency against cockroach.%目的 观察某部住宅楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 采用滞留喷洒和胶饵杀灭蟑螂,用蟑螂侵害率和密度下降率评价灭蟑效果.结果 蟑螂侵害率防治前为87.50%,防治后3d为12.50%(3/24),密度下降率为86.67%~100.00%,防治前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 该住宅楼德国小蠊侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著.

  9. 兰州市2006-2010年蟑螂监测结果分析%Analysis on the monitoring result of cockroaches in Lanzhou City from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守斌; 齐跃军; 金俊成

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the growth and decline rules of cockroaches in Lanzhou, and complete the national detection task. Method Sticky capture method. Results 31 258 cockroaches, were captured, and all of them were blattella germanica From 2006 to 2010, the density of cockroaches in farmers markets, hotels, restaurants, residential quarters and hospitals were 3.30 cockroaches/sheet, 4.50 cockroaches/sheet, 2.68 cockroaches/sheet, 3.86 cockroaches/sheet, and 0. 51 cockroach/sheet, respectively; and the infestation rates were 11.03% , 33. 56% , 16. 43% ; 18. 89% , and 6.02% , respectively. Conclusions Blattella germanica was -the dominant species. The density of cockroach increased from February to August each year gradually, and reached its peak in September and October. At the same time the peak of infestation rate also appeared in October. We should control the density of cockroaches by using the seasonal and climatic changes ' influence on the growth and decline of cockroaches and combining with environmental management%目的 了解兰州地区蟑螂消长规律,完成国家监测任务.方法 粘捕法.结果 捕获蟑螂31258只,均为德国小蠊,2006-2010年农贸市场、宾馆、餐饮单位、居民社区和医院蟑螂密度分别为3.30只/张、4.50只/张、2.68只/张、3.86只/张、0.51只/张,侵害率分别为11.03%、33.56%、16.43%、18.89%、6.02%.蟑螂密度每年2~8月逐步升高,9~10月出现一高峰,侵害率的高峰出现在10月.结论 应充分利用季节和气候变化规律对蟑螂消长的影响,结合环境治理开展蟑螂密度控制工作.

  10. 动车组列车蟑螂种群分布及生态习性的研究%Investigation of EMU cockroach population distribution and ecological habits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟丹; 迟淞元; 薛文根; 刘晓闪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the population distribution and habits of EMU train cockroaches,and provide scientific basis for preventing and controlling the EMU train cockroaches. Methods House sticky cockroach recapture method, tracking and observing the activities of the cockroaches. Results The cockroaches on the EMU main mostly were German cockroach. Cockroaches density index; after the waste box > after water machine > distribution room > under bar counter > spare parts storage > bathroom > storage room; treatment medicine under 90 cm, the percentage of eating by stealth was 81. 11%. Conclusion EMU cockroaches mainly distributed after the waste box, the water machine,the power distribution room and so on, the main habitat venues of cockroaches where height is less than 90 cm. The activity patterns are basically the same with the cockroaches in other places. Boarding way of the cockroaches are mainly the following four kinds; the sale of food on the dining car cargo, passengers line package, train preparedness personnel, crew members%目的 摸清动车组列车蟑螂种群分布及生态习性,为动车组列车蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 蟑螂屋粘捕法,跟踪观察蟑螂活动情况.结果 动车组列车蟑螂种类主要为德国小蠊,蟑螂密度指数:废物箱后>饮水机后>配电室>吧台下>备品间>卫生间>储藏间;施药90 cm以下高度盗食率为81.11%.结论 动车组列车蟑螂主要分布于废物箱后、饮水机后、配电室等部位,90 cm以下高度是蟑螂主要栖息及活动场所;其活动规律与其他场所蟑螂基本相同.蟑螂主要是餐车出售食品上货时带入,旅客行包带入,列车整备人员带入,乘务人员带人4种途径.

  11. 郑州市蟑螂种群密度及侵害情况的调查研究%Investigation on cockroach density and infestation in Zhengzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁中良; 王广州; 王志刚; 韩曲波

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解郑州市蟑螂种群密度和侵害情况,为蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法对郑州市三区监测点进行蟑螂侵害、密度情况调查.结果 在各类环境共捕获蟑螂3 843只,平均侵害率为16.66%,密度为2.33只/张.德国小蠊占98.41%,为优势种群.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮业、宾馆、农贸市场、浴池密度较高.应采取综合防治措施,有效降低蟑螂侵害率,控制蟑螂密度.%Objective To understand the infestation and density of cockroach, and provide scientific basis for killing cockroach in Zhengzhou city. Methods Using sticky traps to investigate cockroach infestation and density situation at three test points. Results Totally 3 843 cockroaches were caught in different environments in Zhengzhou city in 2010. The average infestation rate reached 16. 66%. The average index of density was 2. 33 pieces. Blattella germanica(9&. 41% ) was the dominant species in various environments. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species in various environment. There are high density of cockroaches in catering trades, hotel, agricultural market and public baths. It is necessary to take comprehensive control measures and strengthen the technical training to prevent and control cockroaches. Using drugs rationally so as to reduce the infestation rate of cockroaches and control the density of cockroaches effectively.

  12. Strategic 3-hydroxy-2-butanone release in the dominant male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Chun; Yang, Rou-Ling; Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Chou, Szu-Ying; Kou, Rong

    2007-11-01

    In the lobster cockroach Nauphoete cinerea, the dominant subordinate hierarchy formed via the agonistic interactions is unstable, and changes in rank order are common. Our previous results showed that in the first encounter fight during initial rank formation, microgram levels of 3H-2B are released by the aggressive posture (AP)-adopting dominant male. In the present study, the pattern of daily pheromone (3H-2B) release during the domination period and on the day of rank switch, rank duration, and rank switch frequency were investigated in three-male groups and six-male groups to examine the effect of higher frequency of agonistic encounters. The results showed that, in the three-male groups (50-day observation period), daily 3H-2B release rate was not constant, but fluctuated, the average duration of dominant rank was 16.6 ± 2.0 days, rank switch occurred in 58.8% of groups, and the frequency of rank switching (average number of rank switches/group/50 days) was 1.4 ± 0.2. For the six-male groups (30-day observation period), the daily 3H-2B release rate also fluctuated, but the duration of dominant rank was significantly shorter at 4.2 ± 0.6 days, rank switch occurred in 100% of groups, and the frequency of rank switching (average number of rank switches/group/30 days) was significantly higher at 6.9 ± 0.6. The results for both sets of male groups showed that as a new rank formed (either on the first encounter day or on the day of rank switching), the dominant status was significantly associated with a higher 3H-2B release rate. In the animal kingdom, fighting usually involves communication or the exchange of signals, and the results of this study indicated that the fluctuating daily 3H-2B release rate adopted by the dominants is a kind of strategic release and the 3H-2B release rate is a signal used to determine dominance.

  13. Laboratory efficacy test methods and criterions of cockroach baits%蜚蠊毒饵室内药效评估方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任东升; 刘京利; 宁俊艳; 刘起勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 11 kinds of cockroach baits. Methods Ten adults of Btauella germanica (half male and half female) with feed, water and cockroach baits were put into a beaker. Three replications were made for each bait with blank control. Twenty-four hours later, the cockroach baits were taken out and the LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount were calculated. Results All of the eleven kinds of cockroach baits can kill B. germanica within 96 hours, meeting grade A of national standards (GB/T 13917.7-2009), but their LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount are quite different. Conclusion Eleven kinds of cockroach baits can effectively kill B, germanica. Comprehensive evaluation based on the needs and site conditions should be done to select the most suitable cockroach bait.%目的 探讨11种蜚蠊毒饵对德国小蠊室内药效评估方法.方法 每个烧杯放10只德国小蠊成虫,雌雄各半,放置饲料、水和灭蟑毒饵,每种毒饵重复3次,同时设空白对照;24h后取出毒饵,计算毒饵的失水率、取食量和毒饵对蜚蠊的致死中时间(LT50).结果 11种蜚蠊毒饵在96h内都可杀死德国小蠊,达到了国标A级(GB/T 13917.7-2009),但其LT50、失水率和取食量有很大差异.结论 11种蜚蠊毒饵均可有效杀灭德国小蠊,具体使用可根据需要和现场情况,综合评价选择最适合的蜚蠊毒饵.

  14. Excystation signals do not isolate gregarine gene pools: experimental excystation of Blabericola migrator among 11 species of cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Shelby M; Clopton, Debra T; Clopton, Richard E

    2012-10-01

    An experimental excystation assay was used to test the potential species isolating effects of excystation signaling among gregarines. Oocysts of a single gregarine species, Blabericola migrator , were tested for activation, excystation, and sporozoite motility by using intestinal extracts from 11 species of cockroaches representing a cohesive phylogeny of 7 genera, 3 subfamilies, and 2 families of Blattodea. Sporozoite activation, excystation, and motility were observed for all excystation assay replications using intestinal fluid from blaberid hosts, but delayed activation or excystation was observed for all assay replications using intestinal fluid from hosts in the family Blattidae. The results illustrate a trend toward a generalized excystation signal among gregarines that is conserved across the host clade at a subfamily or family level but that is unlikely to play a significant role as a species-isolating mechanism among sibling gregarine species.

  15. On cockroaches of the subfamily Epilamprinae (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae) from South India and Sri Lanka, with descriptions of new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisyutkin, Leonid N

    2014-08-08

    The new genus Indoapterolampra, gen. nov. and two new species (I. rugosiuscula sp. nov. and Morphna lucida sp. nov.) are described. Rhabdoblatta praecipua (Walker, 1868) is removed from the synonymy with 'Polyzosteria' terranea Walker, 1868. The latter species is considered Epilamprinae gen. sp. The lectotype of Phoraspis (Thorax) porcellana Saussure, 1862 is designated. A key for the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka is provided. Detailed morphological descriptions of the studied taxa are given. The structure of the male genitalia of I. rugosiuscula sp. nov., M. lucida sp. nov., M. plana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), M. decolyi (Bolivar, 1897) and R. praecipua and that of the female genital complex of M. decolyi, P. (T.) porcellana and Phlebonotus anomalus (Saussure, 1863) are described for the first time. Some aspects of the cockroach evolution are briefly discussed. 

  16. Olfactory receptor cells on the cockroach antennae: responses to the direction and rate of change in food odour concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterwirth, Armin; Zeiner, Reinhard; Tichy, Harald

    2004-06-01

    In insects, information about food odour is encoded by olfactory receptor cells with characteristic response spectra, located in several types of cuticular sensilla. Within short, hair-like sensilla on the cockroach's antenna, antagonistic pairs of olfactory receptor cells shape information inflow to the CNS by providing excitatory responses for both increases and decreases in food odour concentration. The segregation of food odour information into parallel ON and OFF responses suggests that temporal concentration changes become enhanced in the sensory output. When food odour concentration changes slowly and continuously up and down with smooth transition from one direction to another, the ON and OFF olfactory cells not only signal a succession of odour concentrations but also the rate with which odour concentration happens to be changing. Access to the values of such cues is of great use to an insect orientating to an odour source. With them they may extract concentration gradients from odour plumes.

  17. Alveolar macrophages play a key role in cockroach-induced allergic inflammation via TNF-α pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Young Kim

    Full Text Available The activity of the serine protease in the German cockroach allergen is important to the development of allergic disease. The protease-activated receptor (PAR-2, which is expressed in numerous cell types in lung tissue, is known to mediate the cellular events caused by inhaled serine protease. Alveolar macrophages express PAR-2 and produce considerable amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We determined whether the serine protease in German cockroach extract (GCE enhances TNF-α production by alveolar macrophages through the PAR-2 pathway and whether the TNF-α production affects GCE-induced pulmonary inflammation. Effects of GCE on alveolar macrophages and TNF-α production were evaluated using in vitro MH-S and RAW264.6 cells and in vivo GCE-induced asthma models of BALB/c mice. GCE contained a large amount of serine protease. In the MH-S and RAW264.7 cells, GCE activated PAR-2 and thereby produced TNF-α. In the GCE-induced asthma model, intranasal administration of GCE increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, productions of serum immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α production in alveolar macrophages. Blockade of serine proteases prevented the development of GCE induced allergic pathologies. TNF-α blockade also prevented the development of such asthma-like lesions. Depletion of alveolar macrophages reduced AHR and intracellular TNF-α level in pulmonary cell populations in the GCE-induced asthma model. These results suggest that serine protease from GCE affects asthma through an alveolar macrophage and TNF-α dependent manner, reflecting the close relation of innate and adaptive immune response in allergic asthma model.

  18. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mikó

    Full Text Available We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea. It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  19. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, István; Copeland, Robert S; Balhoff, James P; Yoder, Matthew J; Deans, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  20. Development of Diagnostic Insecticide Concentrations and Assessment of Insecticide Susceptibility in German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) Field Strains Collected From Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardisi, Mahsa; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Insecticide resistance in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica (L.)) has been a barrier to effective control since its first documentation in the 1950s. A necessary first step toward managing resistance is to understand insecticide susceptibility profiles in field-collected strains so that active ingredients (AIs) with lowest resistance levels can be identified. As a first step in this study, diagnostic concentrations (DCs) were determined for 14 insecticide AIs based on lethal concentrations that killed 99% or 90% of the individuals from a susceptible lab strain (JWax-S). Next, cockroaches were collected from two low-income multifamily housing complexes in Danville, IL, and Indianapolis, IN, and used to establish laboratory strains. These strains were screened against the 14 AI-DCs in vial bioassays, and susceptibility profiles were determined by comparing percent mortalities between the field strains relative to the JWax-S strain. Results revealed lowest resistance of field strains to boric acid, abamectin, dinotefuran, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and chlorfenapyr. For the AIs hydramethylnon and imidacloprid, field strains did not display survivorship different than the lab strain, but >90% mortality was never achieved. Lastly, both field strains displayed resistance to indoxacarb, fipronil, acetamiprid, beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, but at varying levels. These results satisfy two objectives. First, baseline monitoring DCs were established for 14 insecticides presently registered for use against cockroaches, which represents a useful resource. Second, our findings reveal insecticide AIs with lowest resistance levels for use in forthcoming field studies that will investigate impacts of different insecticide deployment strategies on resistance management and evolution in cockroach field populations. PMID:28334270

  1. Effects of Two Temperature Storage Regimes on the Efficacy of 3 Commercial Gel Baits against the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Oz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To compare the effectiveness of 3 commercial gel bait formulations containing fipronil (Goliathã Cockroach Gel 0.05% AI, chlorpyrifos-A (Clean Baitã Gel, 2% AI, and chloropyrifos-B (Serpaã Gel 2% AI against German cock­roaches (Blattella germanica when stored at 23°C and 30° C after treatment."nMethods: Laboratory bioassays consisted of placing groups of fifteen cockroaches (a random combination of adult, mixed sex and large nymphs-stage 6 into a 5 L cylindrical plastic container with one drop of product (avg 0.10 g ± 0.01 g applied to a 76 mm x 26 mm glass microscope slide affixed to the bottom of each container (one product tested per container. Cumula­tive mortality was assessed at 6 h, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after application. To determine the further effects of storage tempera­ture after treatment on residual activity of the gels, a drop of each product was applied to separate glass microscope slides and stored at either 23º C (warm or 30º C (hot under dark conditions for 0, 1, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60 and 90 d after applica­tion."nResults: Freshly applied baits (day 0 containing fipronil provided complete cockroach mortality (100% within 5 d whereas chloryrifos-A and chlorpyrifos-B provided »72% and 88% mortality, respectively. Generally, cockroach mortality was greater when gels were stored at 30°C compared with 23º C."nConclusion: The fipronil gel formulation proved to be as efficacious as the chlorpyrifos gels and in some instances sur­pased the latter formulations depending on storage time and temperature by providing »90% mortality at 90 d post treat­ment.

  2. Cockroaches control(1)%蟑螂防治(一)──蟑螂的危害、形态特征与生活史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志宽; 吴光华

    2009-01-01

    @@ 蟑螂(cockroaches)学名蜚蠊,属于昆虫纲(Insecta)蜚蠊目(Blattaria),俗称茶婆子、偷油婆、香娘子、灶蚂子等.在昆虫中,蟑螂是最古老的种类之一,远在3.5亿年前,就已经在地球上生活了.

  3. 几种剂型对蟑螂的药效研究%Effect of several kinds of formulation against cockroaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩招久; 陈超; 姜志宽; 钱万红

    2011-01-01

    目的 测试毒饵、喷射剂和杀虫气雾剂对蟑螂的杀灭效果.方法 室内药效试验和模拟现场试验.结果 测试的2个毒饵、2个喷射剂和11个杀虫气雾剂对德国小蠊室内药效和现场模拟防治均有优良的效果,达到了国标A级(GBT 13917.10-2009).喷射剂和杀虫气雾剂杀灭蟑螂的速度比毒饵快,毒饵对环境和人体影响较小.结论 目前市场上防治蟑螂的毒饵、喷射剂、杀虫气雾剂对德国小蠊均有优良的药效,可根据防治需要进行选择.%Objective To evaluate the control effect of baits, sprayers and aerosols against cockroaches.Methods Laboratory bioassay and simulated field test. Results Two baits, two sprayers and eleven aerosols tested in this study showed excellent control effect against Blattella germanica, reaching grade A of national standards (GBT 13917.10 -2009). Sprayers and aerosols killed cockroaches more quickly than baits, while baits were more compatible. Conclusion Most of the baits, sprayers and aerosols in the market can control cockroaches well, and publics can make choice based on their needs indoors cockroach control.

  4. [Effect of population density on enzymatic activity of antioxidative and phenol oxidase systems of imagoes and nymphs of the marble cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzagulov, G S; Saltykova, E S; Gaĭfullina, L R; Nikolenko, A G

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with effect of density of population on functional activity of components pf protective system of adult individuals and nymphs of the marble cockroach. The resistance of individuals has been noted to decrease both at individual maintenance and under conditions of overpopulation. Changes in activities of enzymes of antioxidative and phenoloxidase systems are studied ion the insect hemolymph and intestine. Possible consequences of isolation and overpopulation are discussed both for stability and for individual development.

  5. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin and cockroach-induced asthma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Hyunil; Moon, Junghee; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3 is a master regulator of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and is also a suppressor of SKP2 and HER2/ErbB2. There are an increasing number of reports describing the functions of Foxp3 in cell types other than Tregs. In this context, we evaluated the functions of Foxp3 in ovalbumin- and cockroach-induced asthma models. Foxp3-EGFP-expressing adenovirus or EGFP control adenovirus was administered intratracheally (i.t.), followed by challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) or cockroach extract to induce asthma. Th2 cytokine and immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as serum IgE levels, were analyzed. Histological analyses were also conducted to demonstrate the effects of Foxp3 expression on airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adenoviral Foxp3 was expressed only in lung epithelial cells, and not in CD4+ or CD8+ cells. BALF from Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significantly reduced numbers of total immune cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in response to cockroach allergen or OVA. In addition, Foxp3 expression in the lung reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE in BALF and serum, respectively. Moreover, histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 expression substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airways, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, when Tregs were depleted by diphtheria toxin in Foxp3DTR mice, the anti-asthmatic functions of Foxp3 were not altered in OVA-challenged asthma models. In this study, our results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells, and not in Tregs, inhibited OVA- and cockroach extract-induced asthma. PMID:27633092

  6. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Birkneh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  8. Anatomy of the lobula complex in the brain of the praying mantis compared to the lobula complexes of the locust and cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Ronny; von Hadeln, Joss; Salden, Tobias; Homberg, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    The praying mantis is an insect which relies on vision for capturing prey, avoiding being eaten and for spatial orientation. It is well known for its ability to use stereopsis for estimating the distance of objects. The neuronal substrate mediating visually driven behaviors, however, is not very well investigated. To provide a basis for future functional studies, we analyzed the anatomical organization of visual neuropils in the brain of the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea and provide supporting evidence from a second species, Rhombodera basalis, with particular focus on the lobula complex (LOX). Neuropils were three-dimensionally reconstructed from synapsin-immunostained whole mount brains. The neuropil organization and the pattern of γ-aminobutyric acid immunostaining of the medulla and LOX were compared between the praying mantis and two related polyneopteran species, the Madeira cockroach and the desert locust. The investigated visual neuropils of the praying mantis are highly structured. Unlike in most insects the LOX of the praying mantis consists of five nested neuropils with at least one neuropil not present in the cockroach or locust. Overall, the mantis LOX is more similar to the LOX of the locust than the more closely related cockroach suggesting that the sensory ecology plays a stronger role than the phylogenetic distance of the three species in structuring this center of visual information processing. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Anemia. Bleeding disorders. Digestive disorders. Dizziness. Fever. Fibromyalgia. Gastritis. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. HIV/AIDS. Impotence. Insomnia. Memory ...

  10. 天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况调查%Survey of infestation of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彤宇; 郝连义; 王伟; 张静; 秦娜; 李培羽; 李今越

    2011-01-01

    Objective To survey the infestation of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin. Methods The infestation status of cockroaches was surveyed by choosing 10 eating houses selected from each district and counties of Tianjin in April,august and October,respectived. Results Totally 180 eating houses were surveyed and the average density of cockroasch was 3.57% ,The infestation rates of cockroach surveyed in April, August and October were 46.1% , 45.0% and 40.56% without significant difference (P>0.05). Blattella germanica was the predominat species. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin is serious and effective measures be adopted to control the infestation of cockroach in Tianjin..%目的 调查天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况,为餐饮业蟑螂防治提供依据.方法 分别于2009年4,8,10月三次在全市每区县随机抽取的10家餐馆采用粘捕法进行蟑螂侵害调查.结果 全市18区县共调查180家餐饮业,平均密度为3.57,三次调查的侵害分别为46.1%,45.0%,40.56%,统计学无显著意义(P=0.526);监测中捕获均为德国小蠊,为餐饮业的优势种群;农村与城市侵害比较无显著性差异(P=0.466);餐馆不同部位的侵害不同,操作间侵害最严重.结论 天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况较严重,应采取有效的防治措施,防治中应注重重点部位的防治,以提高防治效果.

  11. Cockroaches Allergens Trigger Asthma Prevention Study%蟑螂过敏原引发哮喘的防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金; 张锡平; 赵庆武

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解蟑螂过敏原引发哮喘的作用机制,探寻蟑螂引发哮喘的防治方法.方法:对全市8家医院的呼吸科,儿科的哮喘病例80例进行问卷调奁和蟑螂抗原皮肤点刺试验.结果:哮喘患者对蟑螂抗原的反应性的相关性是显著的,其与阳性也是显著相关的(P<0.001),其阳性比率为40.0%,成人阳性比率为45.0%,儿童阳性比率为35.0%.男性阳性比率为56.25%,女性阳性比率为47.5%.结论:蟑螂是哮喘患者主要变应原之一,一般成人的阳性比率比儿童高,男性比女性高.免疫治疗和灭蟑是蟑螂过敏原引发哮喘主要有效的防治方法.%Objective:Understand cockroach allergens trigger asthma mechanism of action,and explore cockeroach trigger astma and the control.Metheods:the 83 armour hospital,pediatrics and an allergy clinic asthma cases 80 cases of questionnaire and cockroach antigen skin prick test.Results:Asthma patients to cockroach antigen reactive correlation is remarkable, its and positive is also significant(P<0.001),its positive 40.0%,adult positive ratio fot ratio for accounting for 36.0%,children positive 35.0%,male ratio fot positive ratio for 56.25%,women postive ratio for 47.5%.Concusion:Cockroaches are asthma patients main allergens,one of the positive ratio than the average adult children high,high males than females.Immune therapy and destroy Zhang is a cockroach allergens trigger asthma main effective prevention methods.

  12. Efficacy of killing cockroaches and rodents in Hejing county of Xinjiang%新疆和静县蟑螂和鼠类杀灭效果调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓兵; 陈春燕; 黄志光; 田念隆

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific evidence for establishing national health city and developing the work of killing cockroaches and rodents efficiently. Methods Killing rodents using baits and monitoring using powder block. Killing cockroach using residual spray and gel bait, and monitoring using glue bait. Results The killing rate of rodents and cockroaches were 94. 93% and 94. 41% respectively. Conclusion The basic situation of rodents and cockroaches are found out. Rodents density and cockroaches damage rate before and after killing them are mastered in different region of Hejing county in Xinjiang.%目的 为创国家卫生县城、有效开展灭蟑和灭鼠工作提供科学依据.方法 灭鼠采用毒饵进行杀灭,粉块法监测;灭蟑螂采用滞留喷洒与胶饵进行杀灭,粘捕法监测.结果 鼠类杀灭率为94.93%,蟑螂杀灭率为94.41%.结论 基本摸清了新疆和静县鼠类和蟑螂的基本情况,掌握了其不同地区灭前、灭后的鼠密度和蟑螂侵害率.

  13. Domestic allergens in public places. II: Dog (Can f1) and cockroach (Bla g 2) allergens in dust and mite, cat, dog and cockroach allergens in the air in public buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custovic, A; Green, R; Taggart, S C; Smith, A; Pickering, C A; Chapman, M D; Woodcock, A

    1996-11-01

    , albeit in low concentrations. Upholstered seats from public places constitute a reservoir for the accumulation of dog allergen, and a source of exposure to Can f 1 inside public buildings or on public transport. Exposure to cockroach allergens in schools may be important for cockroach sensitized asthmatic children.

  14. Common cold among pre-school children in China - associations with ambient PM10 and dampness, mould, cats, dogs, rats and cockroaches in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Lu, Chan; Zhang, Yinping; Li, Baizhan; Zhao, Zhuohui; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Xin; Qian, Hua; Sundell, Jan; Deng, Qihong

    2017-06-01

    There is some evidence that dampness, mould and cockroaches can increase the risk of respiratory infections in children but few studies exist from China on this topic. Aim To study associations between domestic early life exposure to biological indoor factors (dampness, mould, cats, dogs, rats, cockroaches), cleaning habits and common cold among pre-school children across China. Children aged 3-6years (n=39,782) were recruited from randomly selected day care centres in seven cities in China. Data on common cold and prenatal and postnatal exposure to dampness, mould, windowpane condensation in wintertime (WPC), cats, dogs, cockroaches and rats were assessed by a parentally administered questionnaire. Data on annual ambient temperature and PM10 was assessed on city level. Associations between high frequency (>5 colds per year) and long duration (≥2weeks) of common colds in the past year and exposure were calculated by multilevel logistic regression. A total of 9.2% had a high frequency and 11.9% had long duration of common cold. Exposure to mould (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.24-1.53) and WPC (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.13-1.33) at birth was associated with frequent common cold. Exposure to dogs at birth was associated with long duration of common cold. (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41). Exposure to mould (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.22-1.54), WPC (OR=1.27, 95%CI 1.17-1.39) and water leakage (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.49) in the current home was associated with frequent common cold. Presence of cockroaches were positively (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.24) and presence of rats (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.96) negatively associated with high frequency of common cold. Daily cleaning was negatively associated with frequent common cold (OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97). Similar associations for mould, WPC, cockroaches and rats were found for long duration. Ambient PM10 (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.21-1.35 per 10μg/m(3)) and temperature (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.35 °C) on city level were associated with high frequency of common cold

  15. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  16. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  17. 远洋船蟑螂密度调查及其杀灭效果观察%The density monitor and efficacy of controlling cockroaches on ocean-going ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育兵; 严峥; 夏本立; 尹莉; 王武芳; 郭鹏; 石静; 巩立; 许晓华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To monitor the density, discriminate the species and observe efficacy of controlling cockroaches using a set of insecticides on two ocean-going ships. Methods Observing the density by the method of adhibiting ,then making a discriminationg for its pecies. Using a set of insecticides which were composed of granular bait and gel bait to decrease the density of cockroaches. Results The density of cockroaches were 1.06 and 2.39 pieces per piece per night respectively, all the cockroaches adhibited were Blattella germanica. After using insecticides for seven days,the average density of cockroaches declined by 87.03%. The density declined by 94.14% after three months. Conclusion The methed of using a set of insecticides could get an ideal effect against cockroaches,which is worth popularizing on ships.%目的 了解远洋船上嶂螂种群、密度,观察套餐法在远洋船上杀灭嶂螂的效果.方法 用粘捕法进行蟑螂密度调查,对粘捕到的嶂螂进行种类鉴定,采用套餐法对远洋船上蟑螂进行现场杀灭试验.结果 甲、乙两船饮食场所的蟑螂密度分别为1.06和2.39只/(张·夜);嶂螂的优势种群为德国小蠊;投药后1周嶂螂密度下降率为87.03%,3个月后嶂螂密度下降率达94.14%.结论 远洋船上采用套餐法灭蟑值得推广.

  18. Standard metabolic rate is associated with gestation duration, but not clutch size, in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie G. Schimpf

    2012-09-01

    Metabolic rate varies significantly between individuals, and these differences persist even when the wide range of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metabolism are accounted for. It is important to understand the life history implications of variation in metabolic rate, but they remain poorly characterised despite a growing body of work examining relationships between metabolism and a range of traits. In the present study we used laboratory-bred families (one sire to three dams of Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier (speckled cockroaches to examine the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR and reproductive performance (number of offspring and gestation duration. We show that SMR is negatively associated with female gestation duration. Age at mating is negatively associated with gestation duration for females, and mass is negatively associated with the average gestation duration of the females a male was mated with. In addition to the results in the current literature, the results from the present study suggest that the association between metabolism and life history is more complex than simple relationships between metabolism and various fitness traits. Future work should consider longitudinal, ontogenetic as well as selective and quantitative genetic breeding approaches to fully examine the associations between metabolism and fitness.

  19. Differences in susceptibility to German cockroach frass and its associated proteases in induced allergic inflammation in mice

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    Herman Nancy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. Inhalation of fecal remnants (frass is the likely sensitizing agent; however isolated frass has not been tested for its ability to induce experimental asthma in mice. Methods Mice (Balb/c or C57Bl/6 were sensitized and challenged with GC frass or GC frass devoid of proteases and measurements of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were performed (interleukin (IL-5, -13, and interferon gamma (IFNγ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum IgE levels, airway hyperresponsiveness, cellular infiltration, and mucin production. Results Sensitization and challenge of Balb/c mice with GC frass resulted in increased airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. C57Bl/6 mice were not susceptible to this model of sensitization; however they were sensitized to GC frass using a more aggressive sensitization and challenge protocol. In mice that were sensitized by inhalation, the active serine proteases in GC frass played a role in airway hyperresponsiveness as these mice had less airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine and less mucin production. Proteases did not play a role in mediating the allergic inflammation in mice sensitized via intraperitoneal injection. Conclusion While both strains of mice were able to induce experimental asthma following GC frass sensitization and challenge, the active serine proteases in GC frass only play a role in airway hyperresponsiveness in Balb/c mice that were susceptible to sensitization via inhalation. The differences in the method of sensitization suggest genetic differences between strains of mice.

  20. Completely preserved cockroaches of the family Mesoblattinidae from the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Liaoning Province, NE China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dandan; Ren, Dong

    2013-08-01

    Although cockroaches were the dominant insects in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic insect assemblages, their general morphology was extremely conservative. One of the most common of them, the Jurassic-Cretaceous family Mesoblattinidae, is described here for the first time on the basis of completely preserved specimens. Ninety-two specimens of Perlucipecta aurea gen. et sp. n. reveal details of head, mandible, male tergal glands and terminal hook; cercal, leg and antennal sensilla. Its congener, P. vrsanskyi is described from the same sediments of the Yixian Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). The forewing venation variability of P. aurea, analysed for the first time in this family is nearly identical (CV = 6.23 %) with variability of two species of family Blattulidae that occur at the same locality (CV = 6.22 %; 5.72 %). The transitional nature of morphological characters represented by asymmetry between left and right wings (simple/branched forewing SC and hind wing M) in P. aurea documents the phylogenetic relation between the families Mesoblattinidae and Ectobiidae

  1. Group Living Enhances Individual Resources Discrimination: The Use of Public Information by Cockroaches to Assess Shelter Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonge, Stéphane; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Sempo, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    In group-living organisms, consensual decision of site selection results from the interplay between individual responses to site characteristics and to group-members. Individuals independently gather personal information by exploring their environment. Through social interaction, the presence of others provides public information that could be used by individuals and modulates the individual probability of joining/leaving a site. The way that individual's information processing and the network of interactions influence the dynamics of public information (depending on population size) that in turn affect discrimination in site quality is a central question. Using binary choice between sheltering sites of different quality, we demonstrate that cockroaches in group dramatically outperform the problem-solving ability of single individual. Such use of public information allows animals to discriminate between alternatives whereas isolated individuals are ineffective (i.e. the personal discrimination efficiency is weak). Our theoretical results, obtained from a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments, highlight that the collective discrimination emerges from competing amplification processes relying on the modulation of the individual sheltering time without shelters comparison and communication modulation. Finally, we well demonstrated here the adaptive value of such decision algorithm. Without any behavioral change, the system is able to shift to a more effective strategy when alternatives are present: the modification of the spatio-temporal distributions of individuals leading to the collective selection of the best resource. This collective discrimination implying such parsimonious and widespread mechanism must be shared by many group living-species. PMID:21701692

  2. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowański, Szymon; Lubawy, Jan; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Spochacz, Marta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Słocińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  3. Tuning posture to body load: decreases in load produce discrete sensory signals in the legs of freely standing cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bridget R; Duke, Elizabeth R; Amer, Ayman S; Zill, Sasha N

    2007-08-01

    Decreases in load are important cues in the control of posture and walking. We recorded activities of the tibial campaniform sensilla, receptors that monitor forces as strains in the exoskeleton, in the middle legs of freely moving cockroaches. Small magnets were attached to the thorax and body load was changed by applying currents to a coil below the substrate. Body position was monitored by video recording. The tibial sensilla are organized into proximal and distal subgroups that have different response properties and reflex effects: proximal sensilla excite extensor motoneurons while distal receptors inhibit extensor firing. Sudden load decreases elicited bursts from distal sensilla, while increased load excited proximal receptors. The onset of sensory discharges closely approximated the time of peak velocity of body movement in both load decreases and increases. Firing of distal sensilla rapidly adapted to sustained unloading, while proximal sensilla discharged tonically to load increases. Load decreases of small amplitude or at low rates produced only inhibition of proximal activity while decrements of larger size or rate elicited distal firing. These response properties may provide discrete signals that either modulate excitatory extensor drive during small load variations or inhibit support prior to compensatory stepping or initiation of swing.

  4. Group living enhances individual resources discrimination: the use of public information by cockroaches to assess shelter quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonge, Stéphane; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Sempo, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    In group-living organisms, consensual decision of site selection results from the interplay between individual responses to site characteristics and to group-members. Individuals independently gather personal information by exploring their environment. Through social interaction, the presence of others provides public information that could be used by individuals and modulates the individual probability of joining/leaving a site. The way that individual's information processing and the network of interactions influence the dynamics of public information (depending on population size) that in turn affect discrimination in site quality is a central question. Using binary choice between sheltering sites of different quality, we demonstrate that cockroaches in group dramatically outperform the problem-solving ability of single individual. Such use of public information allows animals to discriminate between alternatives whereas isolated individuals are ineffective (i.e. the personal discrimination efficiency is weak). Our theoretical results, obtained from a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments, highlight that the collective discrimination emerges from competing amplification processes relying on the modulation of the individual sheltering time without shelters comparison and communication modulation. Finally, we well demonstrated here the adaptive value of such decision algorithm. Without any behavioral change, the system is able to shift to a more effective strategy when alternatives are present: the modification of the spatio-temporal distributions of individuals leading to the collective selection of the best resource. This collective discrimination implying such parsimonious and widespread mechanism must be shared by many group living-species.

  5. Group living enhances individual resources discrimination: the use of public information by cockroaches to assess shelter quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Canonge

    Full Text Available In group-living organisms, consensual decision of site selection results from the interplay between individual responses to site characteristics and to group-members. Individuals independently gather personal information by exploring their environment. Through social interaction, the presence of others provides public information that could be used by individuals and modulates the individual probability of joining/leaving a site. The way that individual's information processing and the network of interactions influence the dynamics of public information (depending on population size that in turn affect discrimination in site quality is a central question. Using binary choice between sheltering sites of different quality, we demonstrate that cockroaches in group dramatically outperform the problem-solving ability of single individual. Such use of public information allows animals to discriminate between alternatives whereas isolated individuals are ineffective (i.e. the personal discrimination efficiency is weak. Our theoretical results, obtained from a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments, highlight that the collective discrimination emerges from competing amplification processes relying on the modulation of the individual sheltering time without shelters comparison and communication modulation. Finally, we well demonstrated here the adaptive value of such decision algorithm. Without any behavioral change, the system is able to shift to a more effective strategy when alternatives are present: the modification of the spatio-temporal distributions of individuals leading to the collective selection of the best resource. This collective discrimination implying such parsimonious and widespread mechanism must be shared by many group living-species.

  6. 美洲大蠊醇提取物的木瓜蛋白酶酶解工艺%Enzymatic Process of Ethanol Extract from Periplaneta americana by Papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗廷顺; 马芳芳; 高孟婷; 吴少辉; 刘光明; 赵昱; 张成桂

    2012-01-01

    目的:优选木瓜蛋白酶对美洲大蠊醇提取物的酶解工艺.方法:以水解度为指标,通过单因素和正交试验,分别考察酶解温度、酶解时间、pH、加酶量、底物浓度对木瓜蛋白酶酶解美洲大蠊醇提取物的影响.结果:木瓜蛋白酶酶解美洲大蠊醇提取物的最佳工艺条件为酶解温度55℃,时间3h,pH 7.0,加酶量8400 U·mg-1,底物浓度0.5%.在此条件下,水解度可达9.87%.酶解后的样品相对分子质量变小,相对分子质量分布变宽.结论:优选方法稳定,操作简便,为进一步研究美洲大蠊提供依据和基础.%Objective: To study on enzymatic technology of ethanol extract from Periplaneta americana by papain and screen out optimum enzymatic technology. Method: Taking degree of hydrolysis as index, effect of enzymatic temperature, enzymatic time, pH, the amount of papain and substrate concentration on papain were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal test Result; Optimum enzymatic technology conditions of papain was determined as follows: enzymatic temperature 55 X, , enzymatic time 3 h, pH 7. 0, the amount of papain 8 400 U ?mg ', substrate concentration 0. 5%. Under these conditions, degree of hydrolysis could reach to 9. 87%. Molecular weight of sample were smaller and molecular weight distribution were wider after enzymolysis. Conclusion: This optimized method was stable, easy to operate, and provided basis and foundation to further study of P. americana.

  7. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  8. First Report of German Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as Reservoirs of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Batna University Hospital, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Lotfi; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Cherak, Zineb; Chamlal, Naima; Grainat, Nadia; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    Here we report the isolation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from German cockroaches caught in the burn unit of Batna University Hospital in Algeria. Nine of 12 isolates harbored the blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene. One Enterobacter cloacae isolate belonging to sequence type 528 coexpressed the blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM genes. Our findings indicate that cockroaches may be one of the most dangerous reservoirs for ESBL and carbapenemase producers in hospitals.

  9. Surveillance and control of cockroach populations from 2010 to 2012 in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China%常州市2010-2012年蜚蠊密度监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淦; 张建陶; 王鹂

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握常州市蜚蠊种群、分布、密度及季节消长等动态变化,为常州市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据。方法采用粘捕法调查,捕获蜚蠊进行种群鉴定及分类计数。结果全市共有3种蜚蠊分布,分类鉴定为2科2属3种,德国小蠊为优势种,占捕获总数的92.16%。6-10月为蜚蠊活动高峰期,各行业中农贸市场密度及侵害率最严重,其他较严重行业有餐饮店、宾馆等。结论常州市农贸市场、餐饮店、宾馆等重点行业蜚蠊侵害严重,应采取有针对性的措施进行综合防制。%Objective To determine the species and density of cockroaches and their seasonality in the urban areas so as to provide evidence for scientific control of cockroaches in Changzhou. Methods The density of cockroaches was monitored by sticky⁃trap method and were then identified and counted. Results There were 3 species of cockroaches distributing and testing for 3 species under 2 genera, 2 families, and Blattella germanica was the predominant species, accounting for 92.16%. The active peak of cockroaches was between June and October. Infestation situation of cockroaches in farm produce trade market was the most serious, the others were restaurants, hotels, and so on. Conclusion The infestation of cockroaches was serious in farm produce trade market, restaurants, and hotels. The effective measures should be taken to prevent and control the cockroaches targeted.

  10. New data on cockroaches of the subfamily Epilamprinae (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae) from India and Sri Lanka, with descriptions of new species and the genital complex of Aptera fusca (Thunberg, 1784).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Yushkova, Olga V

    2017-02-21

    New cockroach species from South India (Aptera brindlei sp.nov., Rhabdoblattella alexeevi sp.nov., R. euptera sp.nov., Morphna indica sp.nov.) and Sri Lanka (Placoblatta beybienkoi sp.nov., Morphna srilankensis sp.nov.) are described. The genus Rhabdoblattella Anisyutkin, 2000 is re-diagnosed. A revised key to the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka and detailed morphological descriptions of new species are provided. The structure of the female genital complex of Aptera fusca (Thunberg, 1784) is described for the first time. Possible biogeographical connections of the cockroach fauna of Indian subcontinent and the phylogenetic significance of the right phallomere are briefly discussed.

  11. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  12. Epidemiological investigation on invasion situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft%民航客机蜚蠊侵害状况的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁朝晖; 王锦平; 冯显炘; 彭伟年; 卢江民; 王晓雨; 林国川

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific evidence for studying biological characteristic of cockroaches and control countermeasures by investigating the species distribution and inroads situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft.Methods In August 2015,the onsite investigations were done for 19 A320 and A321 aircrafts harbored at Sanya airport and Haikou airport for getting the cockroach density.The difference of cockroache density was compared by aircraft type,aircraft age and the 4 areas of the aircraft.Results The total invasion rate was 84.21% on 19 aircrafts.Blauella germanica is the dominant specie.The invasion rates of cockroaches was not statistically significant neither by the comparison of aircraft type (x2 =1.362,P>0.05) nor by the comparison of aircraft age (x2=0.281,P > 0.05).But statistical significance on cockroaches density was found in the comparison of 4 areas of aircrafts (x2=14.629,P<0.01).Conclusions The comprehensive countermeasures,including environmental,physical and chemical controls,should be adopted according to the aircraft structure,operation and safety requirements.%目的 通过对民航客机蜚蠊种群分布及侵害情况的调查,为研究客机蜚蠊的生态特性及防治对策提供依据. 方法 2015年8月,采用现况调查的方法对三亚及海口机场的19架A320及A321客机进行蜚蠊密度监测;比较两种不同机型、不同机龄以及客机4个不同部位蜚蠊侵害情况. 结果 共调查19架客机,蜚蠊总侵害率为84.21%;客机蜚蠊以德国小蠊为优势种群.不同机型客机的蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2=1.362,P>0.05);不同机龄客机蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2 =0.281,P>0.05);客机不同部位蜚蠊密度差异有统计学意义(x2=14.629,P<0.01). 结论 应根据客机特殊的结构、运行特点、安全要求,并结合德国小蠊在客机上的分布特点,采取环境治理、物理防治、化学防治等综合防治措施.

  13. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species.

  14. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO.Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR and synergism ratio (SR were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo.Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respec­tively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11- fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance.Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance.

  15. Antagonistic effects of hypertrehalosemic neuropeptide on the activities of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cockroach fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A; Liewald, J F; Stypa, H; Wegener, G

    2001-03-15

    Hypertrehalosemic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca such as the decapeptide Bld HrTH bring about a profound switch in the metabolic activity of cockroach fat body during which production of the blood sugar trehalose is stimulated while the catabolism of carbohydrate (glycolysis) is inhibited. The mechanisms of the metabolic switch are not fully understood. Incubation of isolated fat body from the cockroach Blaptica dubia with 10(-8) M Bld HrTH, for 10-60 min, stimulated glycogen breakdown and increased the content of the substrates of both the glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK, EC 2.7.1.11) and the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, EC 3.1.3.11) in the tissue. The glycolytic signal fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was markedly decreased in fat body on incubation with Bld HrTH. The content of ATP was slightly reduced, while the contents of ADP and AMP were increased after incubation with the hormone. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is a potent activator of PFK and a strong inhibitor of FBPase purified from fat body. The activity of PFK was decreased by about 90% when the hormone-dependent changes in effectors and substrates in fat body were simulated in vitro. FBPase, in contrast, was activated about 25-fold under these conditions, suggesting the hormone to stimulate gluconeogenesis in fat body. The data support the view that fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is a pivotal intracellular messenger in the hormone-induced metabolic switch from carbohydrate degradation to trehalose production in cockroach fat body.

  16. Mechanisms of allergen-antibody interaction of cockroach allergen Bla g 2 with monoclonal antibodies that inhibit IgE antibody binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Glesner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cockroach allergy is strongly associated with asthma, and involves the production of IgE antibodies against inhaled allergens. Reports of conformational epitopes on inhaled allergens are limited. The conformational epitopes for two specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb that interfere with IgE antibody binding were identified by X-ray crystallography on opposite sites of the quasi-symmetrical cockroach allergen Bla g 2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mutational analysis of selected residues in both epitopes was performed based on the X-ray crystal structures of the allergen with mAb Fab/Fab' fragments, to investigate the structural basis of allergen-antibody interactions. The epitopes of Bla g 2 for the mAb 7C11 or 4C3 were mutated, and the mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, circular dichroism, and/or mass spectrometry. Mutants were tested for mAb and IgE antibody binding by ELISA and fluorescent multiplex array. Single or multiple mutations of five residues from both epitopes resulted in almost complete loss of mAb binding, without affecting the overall folding of the allergen. Preventing glycosylation by mutation N268Q reduced IgE binding, indicating a role of carbohydrates in the interaction. Cation-π interactions, as well as electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, were important for mAb and IgE antibody binding. Quantitative differences in the effects of mutations on IgE antibody binding were observed, suggesting heterogeneity in epitope recognition among cockroach allergic patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis by site-directed mutagenesis of epitopes identified by X-ray crystallography revealed an overlap between monoclonal and IgE antibody binding sites and provided insight into the B cell repertoire to Bla g 2 and the mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition, including involvement of carbohydrates.

  17. 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害和抗药性调查及综合防制研究%Infestation and pesticide resistance of cockroaches in market and relevant comprehensive control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽娟; 刘迪; 刘小泉; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in the market and the pesticide resistance of Blattella germanica to provide a basis for comprehensive control measures. Methods The infestation of cockroaches was investigated by visual inspection; the density of cockroaches was measured by cockroach glue board; the pesticide resistance of B. Germanica was determined by residual film method. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive were used for comprehensive control. Results The infestation rate of cockroaches in the market was 86.67%, and the density was 4.19 cockroaches/board/night. The levels of resistance (folds) of 6. Germanica to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate (DDVP), cypermethrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, and azamethiphos were 2.65, 3.82, 1.77, 3.51, 11.19, 5.21, 6.51, 12.00, and 2.11, respectively. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive and developed low resistance achieved a killing rate of 96.19%. Conclusion There is a high infestation rate of cockroaches in the market of Wuhan city, China. B. Germanica is the dominant species of the cockroaches and has developed high resistance to DDVP and tetramethrin. Comprehensive control measures, including environmental treatment and pesticide use, should be taken to control the density of cockroaches below a harmless level.%目的 了解集贸市场蜚蠊侵害情况、种群分布及德国小蠊的抗药性,为制定防制对策提供依据.方法 采用目测法调查蜚蠊侵害情况,用粘蟑板测定其密度,用药膜接触法测定抗药性,采用敏感和低抗的药物进行综合防制.结果 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害率为86.67%,密度为4.19只/(张·夜);德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、残杀威、毒死蜱、敌敌畏、氯氰菊酯、氯菊酯、胺菊酯、甲基吡(嗯)磷9种杀虫剂的抗药性分别为2.65、3.82、1.77、3.51、11.19、5.21、6.51

  18. A Novel Neurotoxin from Venom of the Spider, Brachypelma albopilosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingwei; Li, Hongli; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Minglong; Lu, Qiumin

    2014-01-01

    Spiders have evolved highly selective toxins for insects. There are many insecticidal neurotoxins in spider venoms. Although a large amount of work has been done to focus on neurotoxicity of spider components, little information, which is related with effects of spider toxins on tumor cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, is available for Brachypelma albopilosum venom. In this work, a novel spider neurotoxin (brachyin) was identified and characterized from venoms of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum. Brachyin is composed of 41 amino acid residues with the sequence of CLGENVPCDKDRPNCCSRYECLEPTGYGWWYASYYCYKKRS. There are six cysteines in this sequence, which form three disulfided bridges. The serine residue at the C-terminus is amidated. Brachyin showed strong lethal effects on American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). This neurotoxin also showed significant analgesic effects in mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and formalin-induced paw licking tests. It was interesting that brachyin exerted marked inhibition on tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25329070

  19. A novel neurotoxin from venom of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yunhua; Song, Bo; Mo, Guoxiang; Yuan, Mingwei; Li, Hongli; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Minglong; Lu, Qiumin

    2014-01-01

    Spiders have evolved highly selective toxins for insects. There are many insecticidal neurotoxins in spider venoms. Although a large amount of work has been done to focus on neurotoxicity of spider components, little information, which is related with effects of spider toxins on tumor cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, is available for Brachypelma albopilosum venom. In this work, a novel spider neurotoxin (brachyin) was identified and characterized from venoms of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum. Brachyin is composed of 41 amino acid residues with the sequence of CLGENVPCDKDRPNCCSRYECLEPTGYGWWYASYYCYKKRS. There are six cysteines in this sequence, which form three disulfided bridges. The serine residue at the C-terminus is amidated. Brachyin showed strong lethal effects on American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). This neurotoxin also showed significant analgesic effects in mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and formalin-induced paw licking tests. It was interesting that brachyin exerted marked inhibition on tumor cell proliferation.

  20. Locust corpora cardiaca contain an inactive adipokinetic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, K J

    1999-03-26

    A neuropeptide from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has been identified as a novel member of the family of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The peptide is probably synthesised in the brain because it is the first AKH found in the storage lobe, whilst the three 'classic' Locusta AKHs are present in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In locusts, the peptide has no biological activity usually associated with AKHs. There is only 36-56% sequence identity with the three Lom-AKHs, but 78% identity with the Drosophila melanogaster AKH, Drm-HrTH. The new peptide is active in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and was provisionally named 'L. migratoria hypertrehalosaemic hormone', Lom-HrTH; its biological role in locusts remains to be established. The high degree of identity with Drm-HrTH suggests that Lom-HrTH is an ancient molecule.

  1. A novel neurotoxin from venom of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua Zhong

    Full Text Available Spiders have evolved highly selective toxins for insects. There are many insecticidal neurotoxins in spider venoms. Although a large amount of work has been done to focus on neurotoxicity of spider components, little information, which is related with effects of spider toxins on tumor cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, is available for Brachypelma albopilosum venom. In this work, a novel spider neurotoxin (brachyin was identified and characterized from venoms of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum. Brachyin is composed of 41 amino acid residues with the sequence of CLGENVPCDKDRPNCCSRYECLEPTGYGWWYASYYCYKKRS. There are six cysteines in this sequence, which form three disulfided bridges. The serine residue at the C-terminus is amidated. Brachyin showed strong lethal effects on American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle. This neurotoxin also showed significant analgesic effects in mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and formalin-induced paw licking tests. It was interesting that brachyin exerted marked inhibition on tumor cell proliferation.

  2. A taxonomic study of the beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure) from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Diplopterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Zongqing

    2015-09-14

    Four taxa of beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure, 1864) from South China are described and illustrated, viz., two new species D. elliptica sp. n. and D. naevus sp. n., one new subspecies D. nigrescens guani subsp. n. and one widespread known species D. punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822). The genus and known species from around the world are discussed based on types and other specimens. D. pulchra Anisyutkin, 2007 is now regarded as a junior synonym of D. bicolor Hanitsch, 1925. Whether the populations of D. punctata represent or not different species needs to be studied in the future. A key, a distribution map, and photos of species are provided.

  3. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... forward to Bang's later works produced after his return to Denmark, the article also demonstrates how the sculptural syntax and working principles developed in the early works still underlie and structure the artist's more allegorical sculptures and installations from the 2000s, thus testifying...

  4. 美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸对肝纤维化模型大鼠的影响及机制%Effects and mechanisms of Periplaneta americana extract sticky sugar amino acid on a rat model of hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一晖; 马得宏; 李武; 刘丽辉; 王宏图; 张禄; 徐雪美; 冉慧粉; 钱忠义

    2016-01-01

    背景:慢性肝病肝纤维化是可逆转的。有研究表明,美洲大蠊提取物具有一定的抗纤维化作用,其对实验性肝纤维化大鼠起保护作用。  目的:观察美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸治疗大鼠肝纤维化效果,初步探讨黏糖氨酸抗肝纤维化的作用机制。方法:采用猪血清诱导免疫性肝纤维化模型大鼠,同时采用0.5,0.25,0.10 g/kg的黏糖氨酸灌胃治疗,放射免疫法检测肝纤4项;免疫组织化学检测肝组织转化生长因子β1、组织金属蛋白酶抑制物蛋白表达强度和阳性细胞率;检测不同浓度的黏糖氨酸与转化生长因子β1、组织金属蛋白酶抑制物相关性。结果与结论:①美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸能降低层粘连蛋白、Ⅲ型前胶原、Ⅳ型胶原和透明质酸酶水平(P0.9);③结果证实,美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸可逆转肝纤维化的改变,其作用机制与黏糖氨酸抑制转化生长因子β1和组织金属蛋白酶抑制物1的表达有关。%BACKGROUND:Hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease can be reversed. Studies have shown that Periplaneta americana extract has anti-fibrosis effect, and has protective effect on the experimental hepatic fibrosis rats. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of Periplaneta americana extract sticky sugar amino acid on hepatic fibrosis, and to primarily explore the mechanism of sticky sugar amino acid against hepatic fibrosis. METHODS:Rat models of immune hepatic fibrosis were induced by pig serum and intragastricaly administered 0.5, 0.25, 0.10 g/kg sticky sugar amino acid. Four indexes of hepatic fibrosis were detected by radioimmunoassay. Immunohistochemical staining wasused to measure transforming growth factor beta 1, tissue inhibitor of metaloproteinase protein expression intensity and positive cel rate, to determine the correlation of different concentrations of sticky sugar amino acid, transformation growth factorbeta 1 and tissue

  5. Reducing LPS content in cockroach allergens increases pulmonary cytokine production without increasing inflammation: A randomized laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruikshank William

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endotoxins are ubiquitously present in the environment and constitute a significant component of ambient air. These substances have been shown to modulate the allergic response, however a consensus has yet to be reached whether they attenuate or exacerbate asthmatic responses. The current investigation examined whether reducing the concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in a house dust extract (HDE containing high concentrations of both cockroach allergens 1 and LPS would attenuate asthma-like pulmonary inflammation. Methods Mice were sensitized with CRA and challenged with the intact HDE, containing 182 ng of LPS, or an LPS-reduced HDE containing 3 ng LPS, but an equivalent amount of CRA. Multiple parameters of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation were measured. Results Compared to HDE challenged mice, the LPS-reduced HDE challenged mice had significantly reduced TNFα levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Plasma levels of IgE and IgG1 were significantly reduced, however no change in CRA-specific IgE was detected. In HDE mice, plasma IgG2a levels were similar to naïve mice, while LPS-reduced HDE mice had significantly greater concentrations. Reduced levels of LPS in the HDE did not decrease eosinophil or neutrophil recruitment into the alveolar space. Equivalent inflammatory cell recruitment occurred despite having generally higher pulmonary concentrations of eotaxins and CXC chemokines in the LPS-reduced HDE group. LPS-reduced HDE challenge induced significantly higher concentrations of IFNγ, and IL-5 and IL-13 in the BAL fluid, but did not decrease airways hyperresponsiveness or airway resistance to methacholine challenge. Conclusion: These data show that reduction of LPS levels in the HDE does not significantly protect against the severity of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation.

  6. Identification and characterization of the NMDA receptor and its role in regulating reproduction in the cockroach Diploptera punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Hult, Ekaterina F; Marchal, Elisabeth; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-04-01

    The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays important roles in excitatory neurotransmission and in the regulation of reproduction in mammals. NMDAR in insects comprises two subunits, NR1 and NR2. In this study, we identified two NR1 paralogs and eleven NR2 alternatively spliced variants in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. This is the first report of NR1 paralogs in insects. The tissue distributions and expression profiles of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 in different tissues were also investigated. Previous studies have demonstrated NMDA-stimulated biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata through the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) in Diploptera punctata. However, our data show that the transcript levels of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 were low in the corpora allata. MK-801, a high-affinity antagonist of NMDAR, did not show any effect on JH biosynthesis in vitro. In addition, neither partial knockdown of DpNR2 nor in vivo treatment with a physiologically relevant dose of MK-801 resulted in any significant change in JH biosynthesis or basal oocyte growth. Injection of animals with a high dose of MK-801 (30 µg per animal per injection), which paralyzed the animals for 4-5 h, resulted in a significant decrease in JH biosynthesis on days 4 and 5. However, the reproductive events during the first gonadotrophic cycle in female D. punctata were unaffected. Thus, NMDAR does not appear to play important roles in the regulation of JH biosynthesis or mediate reproduction of female D. punctata.

  7. 2007-2009年武汉市江夏区蟑螂密度调查%A survey on density of cockroach in Jiangxia district in Wuhan from 2007 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余前峰; 刘智; 彭建军; 吴太平; 田俊华

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握江夏区2007-2009年蟑螂的种群变化和季节消长,为开展蟑螂防治工作提供科学依据.方法 粘捕法.结果 3年共捕获德国小蠊和黑胸大蠊2种计3050只,德国小蠊为优势种,占总数的93.5%;蟑螂全年活动,4-10月密度均较高,密度最高峰期在6-8月.结论 基本摸清全区不同生境蟑螂的种群构成和活动情况.%Objective To provide scientific basis for cockroach control by grasping of community structure and the seasonal fluctuation in 2007 -2009. Methods Cockroach traps. Results Totally 3 050 were captured and two species were found in this survey. Blattella germanica was predominant species, accouted for 93.5%. Cockroach were active throughout the year, the density of which were higher between April and October, and the highest density generally appeared from June to August. Conclusion The community structure and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach were preliminary known.

  8. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    during sample hydrolysis. Mono- and dichlorotyrosine are also present in cuticular samples from other insect species, such as the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, the moth Hyalophora cecropia, the cockroach Blaberus craniifer, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus, but not in the sclerotized puparial cuticle...... of the blowfly, Calliphora vicina, or in sclerotized ootheca from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Cuticular sclerotization and formation of chlorotyrosines occur simultaneously in locust legs; sclerotized cuticles tend to have a higher content of chlorotyrosines than unsclerotized cuticles...

  9. Structures of Two Major Allergens, Bla g 4 and Per a 4, From Cockroaches and Their IgE Binding Epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.; Chan, S; Ong, T; Yit, L; Tiong, Y; Chew, F; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Y

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant allergens from cockroaches are an important cause of asthma to millions of individuals worldwide. Here we report for the first time the structures of two major cockroach allergens, Bla g 4 and Per a 4, that adopt a typical lipocalin fold but with distinct structural features as compared with other known lipocalin allergens. Both Bla g 4 and Per a 4 contain two long-range disulfide bonds linking the N and C termini to a beta-barrel. The C-terminal helix of Bla g 4 is bent and greatly extended toward the N terminus. Bla g 4 is found to be a monomer, whereas Per a 4 exists as a dimer in solution with a novel dimeric interface involving residues from loops at the top and bottom of the beta-barrel. Putative ligand binding sites of both allergens are determined by docking of the juvenile hormone III inside the beta-barrel and found to interact with the ligand using non-conserved residues. Bla g 4 and Per a 4 are found to be cross-reactive in sera IgE binding, at least in the Singaporean Chinese population tested. A major IgE binding epitope unique to Per a 4 is found on the loops at the bottom of the beta-barrel that may aid the development of hypoallergens for immunotherapy.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Attractant Compounds from Chinese Cockroach (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker by Combination of HSCCC, NMR and CD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hextane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1:1.5:1, v/v/v/v was applied to the isolation and purification of attractants from Chinese cockroach, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. Two new attractants with attractant activity towards the male insects were obtained from the extract sample in a one-step separation. Their purities were determined by HPLC. Subsequent MS, NMR and CD analyses have led to the characterization of (R-3-ethyl-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (1 and (R-6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (2, two novel isocumarin type attractants. Based on these results, it is concluded that HSCCC is a viable separation method option for purifying insect attractants, while effectively maintaining the attracting activity of the isolates. This is the first attempt to apply counter-current chromatography technique to separate attractants from Chinese cockroach.

  11. A sodium channel mutation identified in Aedes aegypti selectively reduces cockroach sodium channel sensitivity to type I, but not type II pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaonong; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. Numerous point mutations in sodium channel genes have been identified in pyrethroid-resistant insect species, and many have been confirmed to reduce or abolish sensitivity of channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to pyrethroids. Recently, several novel mutations were reported in sodium channel genes of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes mosquito populations. One of the mutations is a phenylalanine (F) to cysteine (C) change in segment 6 of domain III (IIIS6) of the Aedes mosquito sodium channel. Curiously, a previous study showed that alanine substitution of this F did not alter the action of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid, on a cockroach sodium channel. In this study, we changed this F to C in a pyrethroid-sensitive cockroach sodium channel and examined mutant channel sensitivity to permethrin as well as five other type I or type II pyrethroids in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, the F to C mutation drastically reduced channel sensitivity to three type I pyrethroids, permethrin, NRDC 157 (a deltamethrin analogue lacking the α-cyano group) and bioresemthrin, but not to three type II pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin. These results confirm the involvement of the F to C mutation in permethrin resistance, and raise the possibility that rotation of type I and type II pyrethroids might be considered in the control of insect pest populations where this particular mutation is present.

  12. Structure of a heterogeneous, glycosylated, lipid-bound, in vivo-grown protein crystal at atomic resolution from the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Banerjee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Macromolecular crystals for X-ray diffraction studies are typically grown in vitro from pure and homogeneous samples; however, there are examples of protein crystals that have been identified in vivo. Recent developments in micro-crystallography techniques and the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers have allowed the determination of several protein structures from crystals grown in cellulo. Here, an atomic resolution (1.2 Å crystal structure is reported of heterogeneous milk proteins grown inside a living organism in their functional niche. These in vivo-grown crystals were isolated from the midgut of an embryo within the only known viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata. The milk proteins crystallized in space group P1, and a structure was determined by anomalous dispersion from the native S atoms. The data revealed glycosylated proteins that adopt a lipocalin fold, bind lipids and organize to form a tightly packed crystalline lattice. A single crystal is estimated to contain more than three times the energy of an equivalent mass of dairy milk. This unique storage form of nourishment for developing embryos allows access to a constant supply of complete nutrients. Notably, the crystalline cockroach-milk proteins are highly heterogeneous with respect to amino-acid sequence, glycosylation and bound fatty-acid composition. These data present a unique example of protein heterogeneity within a single in vivo-grown crystal of a natural protein in its native environment at atomic resolution.

  13. Structure of a heterogeneous, glycosylated, lipid-bound, in vivo-grown protein crystal at atomic resolution from the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sanchari; Coussens, Nathan P; Gallat, François-Xavier; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Srikanth, Jandhyam; Yagi, Koichiro J; Gray, James S S; Tobe, Stephen S; Stay, Barbara; Chavas, Leonard M G; Ramaswamy, Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Macromolecular crystals for X-ray diffraction studies are typically grown in vitro from pure and homogeneous samples; however, there are examples of protein crystals that have been identified in vivo. Recent developments in micro-crystallography techniques and the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers have allowed the determination of several protein structures from crystals grown in cellulo. Here, an atomic resolution (1.2 Å) crystal structure is reported of heterogeneous milk proteins grown inside a living organism in their functional niche. These in vivo-grown crystals were isolated from the midgut of an embryo within the only known viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata. The milk proteins crystallized in space group P1, and a structure was determined by anomalous dispersion from the native S atoms. The data revealed glycosylated proteins that adopt a lipocalin fold, bind lipids and organize to form a tightly packed crystalline lattice. A single crystal is estimated to contain more than three times the energy of an equivalent mass of dairy milk. This unique storage form of nourishment for developing embryos allows access to a constant supply of complete nutrients. Notably, the crystalline cockroach-milk proteins are highly heterogeneous with respect to amino-acid sequence, glycosylation and bound fatty-acid composition. These data present a unique example of protein heterogeneity within a single in vivo-grown crystal of a natural protein in its native environment at atomic resolution.

  14. Cockroach, tick, storage mite and other arthropod allergies: Where do we stand with molecular allergy diagnostics?: Part 15 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Christiane; Kuehn, Annette; Raulf, Monika; Jakob, Thilo

    Arthropods form a broad phylum within the animal kingdom, comprising widely varying members such as insects, arachnids, crabs and centipedes. In addition to common allergies to house dust mites or hymenoptera venom, there are also rarer allergies that can be attributed to three major sources of allergens: cockroaches, ticks and storage mites. Other less known allergen sources include spiders, mosquitos, horseflies, red chironomid larvae, silverfish and ladybugs, as well as a variety of storage pests. At present, only extract-based test systems are available for the majority of allergens in IgE-based diagnostics. Molecular characterisation of numerous individual allergens has already been carried out. However, these individual allergens are only available for a small number of allergen sources (e. g. cockroaches and storage mites) in routine diagnostics. Particularly in the case of allergen sources with known high cross-reactivity, the use of marker allergens is believed to improve diagnostics. The currently known individual allergens of the above-mentioned allergy triggers from the arthropod realm are summarized and their potential use in allergy diagnostics discussed.

  15. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  16. Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms, and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared across species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide

    2015-08-01

    Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e., hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 8269-8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e., the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) that lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e., hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g., insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g., roundworms and humans), the findings of Russell et al. highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection that could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    missions, and of military operations spanning administrations. In conclusion, an apologist posture to defend American foreign policies is not called...military operations spanning administrations. In conclusion, an apologist posture to defend American foreign policies is not called for. However, a deep...and brings to light the tension between American ideals and American practices and policies. V/ hen exposed, this tension opens the door for American

  18. Prokaryotic Expression of i-type Lysozyme from Periplaneta americana and Preparation of Its Polyclonal Antibodies%美洲大蠊i型溶菌酶的原核表达及多克隆抗体制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赟; 翟素珍; 张春林; 王吉平

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to express i-type lysozyme(PaI)from Periplaneta americana in Escherichia coli and prepare its polyclonal antibodies of anti-PaI in mice. The coding gene of mature peptide region was amplified by PCR and prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-PaI was constructed. PaI-His fusion protein was expressed with IPTG induction and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Then, Balb/c mice were immunized with the purified recombinant protein, and the titers of antiserum and the specificity of polyclonal antibodies were detected by indirect ELISA and Western blotting respectively. Results were as below. The length of nucleotide sequence encoding the mature peptide was 414 bp that encoded a putative protein with 137 amino acids. The constructed prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-PaI was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE detection indicated that the PaI-His fusion protein was about 18 kD. Indirect ELISA and Western blotting analysis showed that the antiserum from immunized mice had high titer and specificity. In conclusion, the prokaryotic expression of PaI protein was successfully realized, and the anti-PaI polyclonal antibody with high efficiency and specificity were prepared, which laid the foundation for the further researches on the biological function of PaI protein.%旨在获得美洲大蠊 i 型溶菌酶 PaI 的原核表达蛋白,并制备鼠抗 PaI 多克隆抗体。PCR 扩增 PaI 成熟肽编码序列,构建原核表达载体 pET28a-PaI,诱导表达、纯化 PaI-His 融合蛋白,免疫 Balb/c 小鼠,间接 ELISA 法检测抗血清效价,Western blotting 检测多克隆抗体的特异性。结果显示,PaI 成熟肽部分的编码序列长414 bp,由137个氨基酸组成。构建的原核表达载体pET28a-PaI 在大肠杆菌 Rosetta(DE3)中成功表达,SDS-PAGE 检测显示纯化的 PaI-His 融合蛋白的大小约为18 kD,间接 ELISA和 Western blotting 分析表明免疫小鼠产生的抗

  19. 不同车型旅客列车蜚蠊分布及密度调查%Cockroach distribution and density on different types of passenger trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 贺毅宏

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解新形势下不同车型旅客列车蜚蠊的生活习性及分布特点,为旅客列车更有效地进行蜚蠊综合防治提供依据.方法 采用药激法喷洒,10 min后检查爬出或击倒的蜚蠊数,计算蜚蠊侵害率及平均密度.结果 旅客列车蜚蠊侵害率平均为27.7%,其中22系列(45.5%)>25B(37.7%)>25G(24.2%)>SYZ25B(16.7%)>25K(7.4%),CA(90.0%)>YZ(32.3%)>YW(17.1%)>RW(5.0%).蜚蠊平均密度为2.51只/辆,其中22系列(4.58只/辆)>25B(3.75只/辆)>25G(2.01只/辆)>SYZ25B(1.17只/辆)>25K(0.43只/辆),CA(6.35只/辆)>YZ(3.51只/辆)>YW(1.30只/辆)>RW(0.15只/辆).蜚蠊栖息部位主要在车厢的四个角落、乘务室、储藏间、冰箱电机旁及灶底通风口和配电室等处,洗脸间灯箱、厢顶通气口出现蜚蠊并呈聚集状态.结论 旅客列车蜚蠊侵害严重,蜚蠊分布发生改变,洗脸间灯箱、厢顶通气口、中铺等高部位出现蜚蠊,不同车型有差别.灭蠊时需注意这些部位及配电室等隐蔽处,可采取喷雾、胶饵等方式.%Objective To determine the habits and distribution patterns of cockroaches on different types of passenger trains for effective cockroach prevention and control life in these environments. Methods The number of cockroaches crawling out or knocked off in 10 minutes after pesticide spray was recorded to calculate the infestation rate and average density. Results The average infestation rate was 27.7%, as shown in descending order as follows: Series 22 (45.5%)>25B (37.7%)>25G (24.2%) >SYZ25B (16.7%)>25K (7.4%) and CA (90.0%)>YZ (32.3%)>YW (17.1%)>RW (5.0%). The average density was 2.51 roach per compartment, as shown in descending order as follows: Series 22 (4.58)>25B (3.75)>25G (2.01)>SYZ25B (1.17)>25K (0.43) and CA (6.35)>YZ (3.51)>YW (1.30)>RW (0.15). The perching positions were mainly the four corners of a compartment,the crew room, the storage room, the electric motor of refrigerator

  20. Are eavesdroppers multimodal?Sensory exploitation of floral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo C.VERGARA; Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA; Diego A.VILLAGRA; Robert A.RAGUSO; Mary T.K.ARROYO; Cristian A.BILLAGRA

    2011-01-01

    The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors,and usually only to pollinators.Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming,putatively hawkmoth-poilinated plant Oenothera acaulis(Onagraceae)in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis(Blattodea:Blattldae),which function as facultative floral lajrcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile.We experimentally decoupled visual(corolla)and olfactory(fragrance)stimuli by presentlng paper corollas and green mesh bags,with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside.We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments,measuring the roaches'frequency of first visits,mean and total residence time spent in each treatment.The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O.acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scaies.In addition,the presence of conspecific roaches bad a strong influence on recruitment to the expenrnental arena,increasing the statlstical differences among treatments.Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B.orientalis.Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches,and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus.The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artlficial flowers,suggesting the need for addltional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper.Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O.acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers,the attractiveness of these compounds to a non-native,facultative flower-visiting insect indicates that they

  1. Oral tolerance inhibits pulmonary eosinophilia in a cockroach allergen induced model of asthma: a randomized laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Sudha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen desensitization through oral tolerance is becoming an increasingly attractive treatment option for allergic diseases. However, the mechanism(s by which tolerization is achieved remain poorly defined. In this study we endeavored to induce oral tolerance to cockroach allergen (CRA: a complex mixture of insect components in order to ameliorate asthma-like, allergic pulmonary inflammation. Methods We compared the pulmonary inflammation of mice which had received four CRA feedings prior to intratracheal allergen sensitization and challenge to mice fed PBS on the same time course. Respiratory parameters were assessed by whole body unrestrained plethysmography and mechanical ventilation with forced oscillation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL and lung homogenate (LH were assessed for cytokines and chemokines by ELISA. BAL inflammatory cells were also collected and examined by light microscopy. Results CRA feeding prior to allergen sensitization and challenge led to a significant improvement in respiratory health. Airways hyperreactivity measured indirectly via enhanced pause (Penh was meaningfully reduced in the CRA-fed mice compared to the PBS fed mice (2.3 ± 0.4 vs 3.9 ± 0.6; p = 0.03. Directly measured airways resistance confirmed this trend when comparing the CRA-fed to the PBS-fed animals (2.97 ± 0.98 vs 4.95 ± 1.41. This effect was not due to reduced traditional inflammatory cell chemotactic factors, Th2 or other cytokines and chemokines. The mechanism of improved respiratory health in the tolerized mice was due to significantly reduced eosinophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (43300 ± 11445 vs 158786 ± 38908; p = 0.007 and eosinophil specific peroxidase activity in the lung homogenate (0.59 ± 0.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.19; p = 0.017. The decreased eosinophilia was likely the result of increased IL-10 in the lung homogenate of the tolerized mice (6320 ± 354 ng/mL vs 5190 ± 404 ng/mL, p = 0

  2. Study on the Cockroach Control Strategy at Top-Grade Railway Pass enger Station%铁路特等客运站蜚蠊防制对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁义; 王秀花; 张雨淼; 张锦海; 胡美娟; 陈文生; 周宏

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the cockroach control strategy at top-grade rail way passenger station by observing the species, habitats of the cockroach and st udying the effects of varied cockroach-killing methods at different sites. Methods: The integrated procedures included principal environme ntal improvement toget her with intensifying survey, appropriate cockroach-killing ways in different si tes and focusing on the key places. Result: The cockroach density reduced by 77.99%~90.26% and 77.48%-98.24% at different surroundings, respe ctively in 1998 and 1999 in comparison with that of 1997's, before applying the integrated procedures, and the ovum density dropped to 0-0.03 and 0 respect ively. The cockroach de nsity of some sites cut down on 66.67%-88.89%, 74.11%-88.00%, 70.00%-79.07%  and 70.59%-75.71%, respectively at 3, 7, 15 an d 30 days after spraying pesticide as c omparing with that of when cockroach-proof steps hasn't been taken. The pivots c ockroach density was 1.16-1.30 and 0.38-1.18 times the average while strengthening the cockroach killing of pivots in comparison with 2.38 -2.93 times of the contrast. At the same time the amount of insecticide dec reased and the fund was saved. Conclusion: Promising effic iency on cockroach con trol was gained at top-grade railway passenger station, some social and economic benefits were obtained.%目的:通过对蜚 蠊种群、栖息生境和不同场所不同灭蟑方法灭效的调查研究,探讨 铁路特等客运站的蜚蠊防制对策。方法:采用以环境防制为主,加 强监测、分类实施、重点 防制等综合防制措施。结果:措施实施后2年各场所与实施前相比, 蜚蠊成、若虫密度分别 降低77.99%~90.26%和77.48%~98.24%,卵鞘密度分别降低85.00%~ 100%和100%;不同场所一次用药后3、7、15、30d蜚蠊成、若虫密度分别降低66.67%~ 88.89%、74.11%~88.00%、70.00%~79.07%和70.59%~75.71 %;重点部位蜚蠊成、若虫密

  3. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  4. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. 引入大变异策略的蟑螂算法研究%A Study of Cockroach Swarm Optimization with Big Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程乐

    2009-01-01

    通过模拟蟑螂的觅食行为,提出蟑螂算法(Cockroach SwarmOptimization,CSO),并用于求解组合优化问题.算法充分利用了蟑螂社会的平等特性和群体智慧.大变异策略提高了算法全局搜索和避免陷入局部最优的能力.仿真实验表明CSO算法在求解TSP问题方面优于存在的离散粒子群算法(Discrete Particle Swarm Optimiza-tion.PSO).

  6. A new species of Protrellus Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) parasite of the field cockroach Blatella vaga Hebard, 1919 (Blattodea, Blattidae) from Catamarca, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, Nora B; de Villalobos, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    A new species of the genus Protrellus, P. blatta sp. nov. parasitizing a field cockroach Blatella vaga Hebard, 1919, from El Tala river, Catamarca, Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by having the mouth opening circular, the buccal capsule with eight very small teeth, the nerve ring around oesophageal corpus, the excretory pore anterior to vulva, the vulva anterior to base of oesophagus, didelphic, the posterior ovary reflexed anterior to rectum, about one third of a body length from posterior end, the egg ellipsoidal, colourless, bearing a lateral cuticular crest, tail conical, with long filiform projection, the male with testis single, outstretched, one spicule, very small, short and straight, gubernaculums absent, the genital papillae arranged in three pairs of ventrolateral papillae, of which the first pair are close together and preanal position, two pairs postanal, tail conical and short, less than one twentieth of total body. A taxonomic key of Protrellus species is given.

  7. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the giant soil-burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros saussure (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Geoscapheinae): analysis with respect to age, sex and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W V; Rose, H A; Lacey, M J; Wright, K

    2000-11-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of a widespread species of soil-burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros, have been sampled from most of its known geographical locations. Analysis of extracts from individual insects has enabled a study of differences within a population as well as among geographical locations. In the case of M. rhinoceros, except for newly hatched first-instar nymphs, variations in hydrocarbon composition among individuals of different cohorts of M. rhinoceros, based on age and sex, are no greater than those among individuals of a single cohort. Geographical populations of this species are variable in hydrocarbon composition unless they occur within a few kilometres of each other. A few populations showed very different hydrocarbon patterns but, in the absence of any correlating biological differences, it is uncertain whether this signifies the presence of otherwise unrecognizable sibling species or just extreme examples of the geographical variation characteristic of this group of insects.

  8. Evaluation of Some Plant Essential Oils against the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Ectobiidae): A Mechanical Vector of Human Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharififard, Mona; Safdari, Farhad; Siahpoush, Amir; Kassiri, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa. Methods: Evaluation was done against the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The study was done in the laboratory of medical entomology, during April 2012 to September 2013. Results: Mortality rates by the lowest concentration (2.5%) of rosemary, oregano, yarrow, eucalyptus and mint oils were 100%, 62.2%, 45 %, 36.2% and 5.2% at 24 h after exposure respectively. Rosemary oil was determined as the most toxic oil because of 100 % mortality rate at the concentration range of 2.5% to 30%. The lowest fumigation effect using 50 μl/L air was recorded from mint oil with 97.2 % mortality after 24 h, while the other oils caused 100% mortality. The most repel activity was related to oregano oil which showed 96.5–99.1% repellency at the concentration range of 2.5–30% with a residual effect lasting at least a week after treatment. Conclusion: Oregano oil could be used as a potential repellent against S. longipalpa. Also, all five essential oils could be used as the safe compounds for surface treating or fumigation in cockroach control programs while rosmary and oregano oils exhibited the most toxicity. PMID:28032105

  9. Evaluation of Some Plant Essential Oils against the Brown-banded Cock-roach, Supella longipalpa (Blattaria: Ectobiidae, A Mechanical Vector of Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sharififard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa.Methods: Evaluation was done against the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous con­tact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The study was done in the laboratory of medical entomology, during April 2012 to September 2013.Results: Mortality rates by the lowest concentration (2.5% of rosemary, oregano, yarrow, eucalyptus and mint oils were 100%, 62.2%, 45 %, 36.2% and 5.2% at 24 h after exposure respectively. Rosemary oil was determined as the most toxic oil because of 100 % mortality rate at the concentration range of 2.5% to 30%. The lowest fumigation effect using 50 µl /L air was recorded from mint oil with 97.2 % mortality after 24 h, while the other oils caused 100% mortality. The most repel activity was related to oregano oil which showed 96.5–99.1% repellency at the con­centration range of 2.5–30% with a residual effect lasting at least a week after treatment.Conclusion: Oregano oil could be used as a potential repellent against S. longipalpa. Also, all five essential oils could be used as the safe compounds for surface treating or fumigation in cockroach control programs while rosmary and oregano oils exhibited the most toxicity.

  10. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  11. 某部蟑螂种群密度与侵害状况调查分析%Investigation of the density and infestation of the cockroach in one certain troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝海水; 第五进学; 唐裕杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某部蟑螂侵害率和密度水平,为蟑螂防治提供依据.方法 采用粘蟑纸粘捕法调查餐饮区、疗养区、体检中心、居住区、附属医院蟑螂侵害率和密度水平.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1173只,均为德国小蠊,平均侵害率为13.33%,密度为1.96只/张.侵害率及密度:餐饮区>疗养区>体检中心>居住区>附属医院.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮区、疗养区密度较高,应加强该区域蟑螂监测和防治工作.%Objective To investigate the density and infestation rate of cockroach and provide evidence for preventing and controlling cockroach in one certain troops. Methods The density and infestation rate, of dinning area, sanitarium area,physical examination center, residential area and affiliated hospital were monitored by sticky traps. Results All traped 1 173 cockroaches were Blattella germanica. The average infestation rate was 13. 33 % and the average index of density was 1. 96 pieces. The infestation rate and density was as follows: dinning area > sanitarium area > physical examination center > residential area > affiliated hospital. Conclusion Blallella germanica is the dominant species in this troops. The density and infestation rate of dining area and sanitarium area is higher and the investigation,prevention and control of regional cockroach should be improved.

  12. 曲阜市蜚蠊种群密度调查及综合防制方法的研究%Survey of population density of cockroach and its integrated control strategies in Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥力; 宋华; 孔凡吉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution and density of cockroach in Qufu, and provide the scientific evidence for its control. Methods Sticky traps method and insecticide stimulating method were used in this study. Results There were 388 rooms investigated, and a total of 497 cockroaches were caught, which were all Blattella germanica. It included 312 adult cockroach (62.78%) and 185 nymphae (37.22%), respectively. The average infestation rate reached 17.27%. The average density index was 0.62 pieces/box · night. Conclusion It should strengthen the management for key trade and take integrated measure to control the expansion of cockroaches in Qufu.%目的 掌握曲阜市蜚蠊种群分布和密度情况,为制定防制对策提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法、药激法进行调查.结果 本次共调查房间388间,捕获蜚蠊497只,均为德国小蠊.其中成虫312只,占62.78%,若虫185只,占37.22%,药激法蜚蠊平均侵害率为17.27%,粘捕法平均密度指数为0.62只/(盒·夜).结论 曲阜市蜚蠊在不同行业和场所的分布及侵害情况有所不同,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合性防制措施,控制蜚蠊在全市扩散和蔓延.

  13. 引入Logistic混沌映射的连续蟑螂算法应用于函数优化问题%Continuous Cockroach Swarm Optimization with Logistic Chaotic Map for Solving Function Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程乐; 杨晔; 钱兆楼; 韩锐; 潘永安

    2011-01-01

    For solving function optimization problems ,a new continuous cockroach swarm optimization(CCSO)is put forward in this paper. Some biological characteristics of cockroach has been simulated ,such as gregarious colony, non-fixing nest , disorderly craw-ling path and so on. The argorithm have truck throwing food in solution space. The cockroaches could crawl to these food and search for optimal solutions. Logistic chaotic map is used in nest distribution and throwing food. The experimental results show that CCSO is surpior to API and PPBO in Solving Precision,convergent rates and optimization rate.%通过模拟蟑螂的觅食行为,提出用于解决函数优化问题的连续蟑螂算法(continuous cockroach swarm optimization,CC-SO).算法模拟了蟑螂的群居、巢穴不固定、爬行轨迹杂乱无章等生物特性.通过食物车在解空间内抛洒食物,吸引蟑螂向食物爬行完成搜索.在巢穴分配和食物抛洒环节引入了Logistic混沌映射,增强了巢穴和食物在解空间内分布的随机性和遍历性.仿真实验显示,与API和PPBO算法相比,CCSO算法在求解精度、收敛速度、寻优率等方面均提高显著.

  14. 城区居民家庭蟑螂侵害现状及防治对策%Invasion situation of cockroach and its control strategies in urban area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶慧; 崔华; 宋华

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握曲阜市蟑螂种群分布和密度情况,为制定蟑螂防治对策提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法、药激法2种调查方法.结果 本次共调查房间388间,捕获蟑螂497只,均为德国小蠊,其中成虫312只、占62.78%,若虫185只、占37.22%,蟑螂平均侵害率为37.27%,蟑螂粘捕盒法平均密度指数为0.52只/(盒·夜).结论 曲阜市蟑螂在不同行业和场所的分布及侵害情况比较严重,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合防治措施.%Objective In order to understand and grasp species and density of cockroach in urban area of Qufu city and provide scientific data for cotrolling. Methods Sticky traps nightly and insecticide stimulating method. Results Of the investigated rooms,497 cockroaches were caught. They were all Blattella germanica. The adult and nymph were 312 and 185 pieces,occupied 62.78% and 37.22% respectively. The average invasion rate reached 37.27%. The average index denisty was 0. 52 pieces per box for every night. Conclusion The distribution and invasion of cockroaches are severe in different place. It is necessary to strengthen the management for important place and cotrol the expandsion of cockroaches with integrated management in Qufu city.

  15. Observation the preventive and control effect of optigard adhesive bait on kill cockroaches%欧扑得灭蟑胶饵防治蜚蠊效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊锋; 孟刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in dining - room of an guesthouse, and observe the preventive and control effect of Optigard cockroach bait. Method Adhesive catch method was used for density investigation,and Optigard cockroacb bait for chemical control. Results The density index was 11. 14 pieces per box per night before control, and BlatteUa germanica was the dominant species, which accounted for 99. 46%. One month after using the bait.the density was 0.1 per box per night with the mortality rate of 99. 10% . Conclusions The Optigard cockroach bait has good efficacy against Blattella germanica in the guesthouse dining - room with invaded badly, it can control the Cockroaches effectively.%目的 调查某宾馆餐饮部蟑螂侵害情况和采用欧扑得灭蟑胶饵防治的效果.方法 密度调查采用粘捕法,化学防治采用欧扑得灭蟑胶饵.结果 防治前密度指数为11.14只/盒·夜,德国小蠊为绝对优势种,占总捕获数的99.46%.施药后1个月密度指数为0.1只/盒·夜,杀灭率为99.10%.结论 该宾馆餐饮部德国小蠊侵害严重,欧扑得灭蟑胶饵能有效控制其密度.

  16. Molecular basis of the remarkable species selectivity of an insecticidal sodium channel toxin from the African spider Augacephalus ezendami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.

    2016-01-01

    The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1–S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species. PMID:27383378

  17. Insect-Active Toxins with Promiscuous Pharmacology from the African Theraphosid Spider Monocentropus balfouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer J; Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Bosmans, Frank; Nicholson, Graham M; King, Glenn F

    2017-05-05

    Many chemical insecticides are becoming less efficacious due to rising resistance in pest species, which has created much interest in the development of new, eco-friendly bioinsecticides. Since insects are the primary prey of most spiders, their venoms are a rich source of insect-active peptides that can be used as leads for new bioinsecticides or as tools to study molecular receptors that are insecticidal targets. In the present study, we isolated two insecticidal peptides, µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b, from venom of the African tarantula Monocentropus balfouri. Recombinant µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b paralyzed both Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly) and Musca domestica (housefly), but neither peptide affected larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworms). Both peptides inhibited currents mediated by voltage-gated sodium (NaV) and calcium channels in Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) dorsal unpaired median neurons, and they also inhibited the cloned Blattella germanica (German cockroach) NaV channel (BgNaV1). An additional effect seen only with Mb1a on BgNaV1 was a delay in fast inactivation. Comparison of the NaV channel sequences of the tested insect species revealed that